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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 315-319, set.-out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137981

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To report etiological diagnosis, predisposing risk factors, therapeutic strategies and visual outcome of patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology of Federal University of São Paulo. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, and observational study from medical and laboratory records of the Department of Ophthalmology of Federal University of São Paulo, including all patients with culture proven fungal keratitis in 5 years, from October 2012 through October 2017. Results: There were 2260 fungi microbiologic test requests. Of these, 140 samples had positive cultures for fungi and sixty-six patients were followed at our clinic. Forty-five patients (68.2%) were men, and the mean age was 48.06 (±17.39) years. Fusarium spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus (32 cases; 48.5%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (12 cases; 18.2%). Thirty-four patients (51.5%) underwent intracameral injection of amphotericin B (5 µg per 0.1 ml). In 11 patients (32.3%), infection was eradicated after intracameral amphotericin B associated to topical antifungal treatment and, in 23 patients (67.7%), therapeutic keratoplasty was needed. No complication related to intracameral amphotericin B injection was observed in this series. Forty-three patients (65.1%) ended up with therapeutic keratoplasty. Three patients (4.5%) evolved to evisceration or enucleation. At the last follow-up visit, 53 patients (80.3%) had visual acuity worse than 20/200. Conclusion: Despite current antifungals drugs and distinct administration strategies, fungal keratitis remains challenging. Delayed antifungal therapy may explain poor clinical outcomes. Intracameral amphotericin B associated to topical antfungal treatment seems to be a safe and helpful alternative for non-responsive fungal keratitis. But it is important to formulate other treatment strategies, hence to improve patients' outcomes, since most patients ended-up with significant visual impairment even after current treatment.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever diagnósticos etiológicos, fatores de risco, estratégias terapêuticas e resultados visuais de pacientes com ceratite fúngica tratados no Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo e observacional, a partir da análise de prontuários médicos e laboratoriais do Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, incluindo todos os pacientes com ceratite fúngica comprovada por cultura no período de outubro de 2012 a outubro de 2017. Resultados: Foram realizadas 2260 solicitações de testes microbiológicos. Destas, 140 amostras apresentaram culturas positivas para fungos, e 66 pacientes foram acompanhados em nosso serviço. Quarenta e cinco pacientes (68,2%) eram do sexo masculino, e a média de idade foi de 48,06 (± 17,39) anos. Fusarium spp. foi o fungo mais freqüentemente isolado (32 casos; 48,5%), seguido por Candida parapsilosis (12 casos; 18,2%). Trinta e quatro pacientes (51,5%) foram submetidos à injeção intracameral de anfotericina B (5 µg por 0,1 ml). Destes, 11 pacientes (32,3%) tiveram a infecção erradicada. Nos outros 23 pacientes (67,7%), o transplante terapêutico foi necessário. Nenhuma complicação relacionada à injeção intracameral de anfotericina B foi observada neste estudo. No total, 43 pacientes (65,1%) evoluíram para transplante terapêutico, e 3 pacientes (4,5%) foram submetidos à evisceração ou enucleação. Cinquenta e três pacientes (80,3%) apresentaram acuidade visual final pior que 20/200. Conclusões: Apesar dos diversos medicamentos antifúngicos atuais e vias de administração, o tratamento das ceratites fúngicas permanece desafiador. O atraso no início do tratamento adequado pode justificar o desfecho clínico desfavorável de grande parte dos pacientes. A injeção intracameral de anfotericina B mostrou-se uma alternativa terapêutica segura para ceratites fúngicas refratárias. Mas outras estratégias de tratamento devem ser formuladas, visando melhorar os resultados visuais dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Corneal Transplantation , Candida parapsilosis/isolation & purification , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Keratitis/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 266-269, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137972

ABSTRACT

Resumo É apresentado o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 77 anos, internada por pielonefrite e tratada com antibóticos de amplo espectro, tendo desenvolvido endoftalmite endógena bilateral presumida por Candida. Foi submetida à vitrectomia via pars plana e injeção intravítrea de anfotericina B, além de voriconazol oral. São abordados, ainda, os aspectos clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por meio de revisão da literatura.


Abstract A 77 year-old female patient suffering from pyelonephritis developed bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis presumed by Candida after have been treated with global spectrum antibiotics. Early vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection were performed, in addition to oral voriconazole. Clinical aspects of endogenous endophthalmitis are also pointed out by a literature review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Vitrectomy , Candida albicans , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Endophthalmitis/surgery , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Intravitreal Injections , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 65-68, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088960

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We describe a case of keratomycosis caused by Arthographis kalrae after excimer laser keratomileusis. A 38-year-old female developed stromal keratitis eight weeks after refractive surgery. She developed severe corneal stromal infiltration and mild anterior segment inflammation, which could not be treated with topical voriconazole 1%, but topical natamycin 5% ameliorated her condition. A reactivation of keratomycosis symptoms was observed; therefore, longer treatment was administered to the patient. It has been reported that A. kalrae keratomycosis is associated with exposure to soil and contact lens usage. However, the patient, who lived in a rural location, was neither involved in gardening activities nor had a history of wearing contact lenses. This is the first case of post-refractive A. kalrae keratomycosis.


RESUMO Descrevemos um caso de ceratomicose por Arthographis kalrae após ceratomileusis por excimer laser. Uma mulher de 38 anos desenvolveu ceratite estromal oito semanas após a cirurgia refrativa. Ela desenvolveu infiltração estromal grave da córnea e uma leve inflamação do segmento anterior, que não pode ser tratada com voriconazol tópico a 1%, mas a natamicina tópica a 5% melhorou sua condição. Uma reativação dos síntomas de ceratomicose foi observada; portanto, tratamento mais prolongado foi administrado a paciente. Tem sido relatado que a ceratomicose por A. kalrae está associada à exposição ao solo e ao uso de lentes de contato. No entanto, a paciente, que vivía em um local rural, não estava envolvida em atividades de jardinagem e nem tinha histórico de uso de lentes de contato. Este é o primeiro caso de ceratomicose pós-refrativa por A. kalrae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Keratitis/microbiology , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Natamycin/therapeutic use , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ/adverse effects , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Keratitis/drug therapy
4.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(2): 152-154, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989405

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT - We describe here a case of a 21-year-old woman who presented with low visual acuity, pain, and hyperemia in the left eye for 45 days. Her eye had extensive corneal infiltrate, with melting and a central perforation that was glued with cyanoacrylate, but with Seidel (+). She underwent tectonic corneal transplantation, and anterior chamber lavage with subconjunctival infiltration with voriconazole, as well as intracameral injections of amphotericin B. Laboratory tests revealed Paecilomyces lilacinus as the infectious agent. The patient was then maintained with oral voriconazole and eye drops for three months, after which the infection was considered cured. However, in the sixth postoperative month she presented with endothelial rejection, and two weeks later signs of recurrence of the fungal infection. She was treated with two further washes of the anterior chamber and subconjunctival injection of voriconazole, followed by intravenous voriconazole that was replaced with drops after ten days. The infection initially worsened, but then regressed, and at last follow-up, the patient was still infection-free.


RESUMO - Descrevemos aqui um caso de uma mulher de 21 anos que apresentou baixa acuidade visual, dor e hiperemia no olho esquerdo por 45 dias. O olho apresentava infiltrado corneano extenso, com fusão e perfuração central colada com cianoacrilato, mas com Seidel (+). Ela foi submetida a transplante de córnea tectônica e lavagem de câmara anterior com infiltração subconjuntival com voriconazol, além de injeções intracamerais de anfoterecina B. Testes laboratoriais revelaram Paecilomyces lilacinus como agente infeccioso. A paciente foi então mantida com voriconazol oral e colírio por período de três meses, após o qual a infecção foi considerada curada. No entanto, no sexto mês de pós-operatório, ela apresentou rejeição endotelial e, duas semanas após, sinais de recidiva de infecção fúngica. Ela foi tratada com mais duas lavagens de câmara anterior e injeção subconjuntival de voriconazol, seguida por voriconazol intravenoso que foi substituído por gotas após 10 dias. A infecção piorou inicialmente, mas depois regrediu e, no último seguimento, o paciente ainda estava livre de infecção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Paecilomyces/isolation & purification , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Keratitis/microbiology , Keratitis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Fungal/surgery , Corneal Transplantation/methods , Treatment Outcome , Injections, Intraocular , Keratitis/surgery
5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(1): 2-5, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973875

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine whether a correlation exists between pathogenic species and clinical findings, disease severity, and visual outcome in patients with keratitis and fungal growth in microbiological culture. Methods: A retrospective study of patients with fungal growth in the microbiological culture of corneal scrapings. Patients were treated at an ophthalmologic reference center in Southeastern Brazil from January 1992 to October 2015. Results: Medical records of 181 patients (131 males and 50 females) with a mean age of 47 ± 18 years were analyzed. The three most common etiologies were Fusarium sp. (38.7%), Aspergillus sp. (15%), and Candida sp. (13.2%). Among these, Fusarium sp. was the most frequent in patients aged £50 years (p=0.002) and in those with a recent history of a foreign body and/or ocular trauma (p=0.01). Candida sp. was the most frequent etiology in patients aged >50 years (p=0.002), in those with postoperative ocular surgery (p=0.002); in those with a previous ocular pathology (p=0.0007); and in immunodepressed patients (p=0.0004). Conclusion: Fusarium sp. was predominant in patients aged £50 years and those with a recent history of foreign body and/or ocular trauma, whereas Candida sp. was predominant in older adults, in those with a postoperative ocular surgery, in those with a previous ocular pathology, and in immunodepressed patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar se existe uma correlação entre espécies patogênicas e achados clínicos, gravidade da doença e resultado visual em pacientes com ceratite e crescimento de fungos em cultura microbiológica. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes com crescimento de fungos na cultura microbiológica de raspado de córnea. Os pacientes foram tratados em um centro de referência oftalmológica no Sudeste do Brasil de janeiro de 1992 a outubro de 2015. Resultados: Foram analisados registros médicos de 181 pacientes (131 homens e 50 mulheres) com idade média de 47 ± 18 anos. As três etiologias mais comuns foram Fusarium sp. (38,7%), Aspergillus sp. (15%) e Candida sp. (13,2%). Entre estas, Fusarium sp. foi a mais frequente em pacientes com idade £50 anos (p=0,002) e naqueles com história recente de corpo estranho e/ou trauma ocular (p=0,01). Candida sp. foi a etiologia mais frequente em pacientes com idade >50 anos (p=0,002), naqueles com cirurgia ocular pós-operatória (p=0,002); naqueles com patologia ocular prévia (p=0,0007); e em pacientes imunodeprimidos (p=0,0004). Conclusão: Fusarium sp. foi predominante em pacientes com idade £50 anos e naqueles com história recente de corpo estranho e/ou trauma ocular; enquanto Candida sp. foi predominante em adultos mais velhos, naqueles com cirurgia ocular pós-operatória, naqueles com patologia ocular prévia e em pacientes imunodeprimidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/pathology , Corneal Ulcer/microbiology , Corneal Ulcer/pathology , Aspergillus/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Candida/pathogenicity , Visual Acuity , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Corneal Ulcer/drug therapy , Eye Foreign Bodies/microbiology , Eye Foreign Bodies/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Corneal Injuries/microbiology , Corneal Injuries/pathology , Fusarium/pathogenicity , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Medwave ; 18(8): e7387, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-969322

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La queratitis infecciosa de origen fúngico afecta principalmente a personas de países tropicales y subtropicales, y constituye una importante causa de ceguera prevenible. Los antifúngicos tópicos, en particular la natamicina y el voriconazol, se consideran efectivos, pero no está claro cuál de ellos constituye la mejor alternativa de tratamiento. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron tres estudios primarios, todos correspondientes a ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que natamicina probablemente se asocia a mejor agudeza visual tras la infección, y que previene la perforación corneal y/o la necesidad de realizar queratoplastia terapéutica en comparación a voriconazol en queratitis fúngica.


INTRODUCTION: Infectious keratitis of fungal origin mainly affects people in tropical and subtropical countries, and is an important cause of preventable blindness. Topical antifungals, particularly natamycin and voriconazole, are considered effective, but it is not clear which one is the best treatment alternative. METHODS: We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified three systematic reviews including three studies overall,all of which were randomized trials. We concluded natamycin probably is associated with better visual acuity after infection, and it prevents corneal perforation and/or need to perform therapeutic keratoplasty compared to voriconazole in fungal keratitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Natamycin/administration & dosage , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Keratitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Databases, Factual , Keratitis/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(3): 196-198, May-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888105

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare condition often associated with poor prognosis. We present a case of postoperative acute fungal endophthalmitis caused by the yeast-like fungus Stephanoascus ciferrii (Candida ciferrii). The fungus was resistant to fluconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B but susceptible to caspofungin. Because the degree of vitreal penetration of caspofungin after its intravenous administration is unclear, we performed multiple intravitreal injections, first with 50 µg/0.1 ml and then with 250 µg/0.1 ml caspofungin. Despite the recurrence of symptoms, intravitreal injection of caspofungin finally abolished the inflammation and achieved ambulatory vision that persisted until 1 year of follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. ciferrii endophthalmitis and its successful treatment with intravitreal caspofungin.


RESUMO Endoftalmite fúngica é uma ocorrência rara, muitas vezes associada com mau prog nóstico. Apresentamos um caso de endoftalmite fúngica aguda pós-operatória causada por fungo de levedura incomum, Stephanoascus ciferrii (Candida ciferrii). O fungo foi resistente ao fluconazol, ao voriconazol e à anfotericina B e susceptível à caspofun gina. Dado que a penetração vítrea da caspofungina após administração intravenosa não é clara, optou-se por realizar múltiplas injecções intravítreas, primeiro de 50 µg e depois de 250 µg de caspofungina, e finalmente obteve-se a resolução da inflamação e a visão recuperada foi mantida por pelo menos um ano após o ocorrido. No nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro relato de endoftalmite por Stephanoascus ciferrii e o primeiro relato de endoftalmite fúngica tratada com sucesso com caspofungina intravítrea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Echinocandins/administration & dosage , Intravitreal Injections , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Vitrectomy , Visual Acuity , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Saccharomycetales , Lipopeptides/administration & dosage , Caspofungin
8.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(4): 252-254, July-Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759251

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTPostoperative fungal endophthalmitis is a rare but devastating complication of cataract surgery. Vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection as well as administration of systemic antifungal agents have been suggested as optimal treatments for fungal endophthalmitis. However, this therapy may fail to eliminate fungal species resistant to current antifungal agents. The saprophytic fungus Trichosporon asahii is frequently observed as a cause of endogenous endophthalmitis in immunosuppressed patients. We report a case of postoperative endophthalmitis caused by T. asahii, resistant to amphotericin B. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. asahii endophthalmitis successfully treated with intravitreal and systemic voriconazole, pars plana vitrectomy, and removal of the intraocular lens and entire lens capsule.


RESUMOEndoftalmite fúngica pós-operatória é uma complicação rara mas devastadora da cirurgia de catarata. A vitrectomia e injeção intravítrea de anfotericina B, bem como agentes fungicidas sistêmicos, têm sido sugeridos como tratamentos ideais para endoftalmite fúngica. No entanto, esta terapia pode falhar em erradicar as espécies de fungos resistentes aos agentes antifúngicos atuais. Uma dessas espécies de fungos é o fungo saprófita,Trichosporon asahii, que é frequentemente observada, como causa de endoftalmite endógena, em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Relatamos um caso de endoftalmite pós-operatória causada porT. asahii que é resistente a anfotericina B. Ao nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro relato de endoftalmite porT. asahii tratado com sucesso com voriconazol intravítreo e sistêmico, vitrectomia viapars plana, e remoção da lente intraocular e saco capsular.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Trichosporonosis/drug therapy , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Intravitreal Injections , Trichosporon/classification , Trichosporon/isolation & purification
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(6): 750-754, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734770

ABSTRACT

We report a case of mycotic keratitis caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae in a 60-year-old man with a history of ocular trauma with vegetable matter. Ophthalmological assessment with slit-lamp and microbiological evaluation of the corneal ulcer by conventional microbiological techniques were performed. Mycology study of the corneal scraping showed the presence of fungal filaments and the isolate was identified as Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Patient was treated with natamycin 5% and fluconazole 0.2% for 37 days. The infection was controlled but the corneal scars required a cornea transplant. This is the first case of keratitis by Lasiodiplodia theobromae in Paraguay. Difficulties in the management of these cases, which often requires surgical procedures, are discussed.


Se presenta un caso clínico de queratitis causada por Lasiodiplodia theobromae en un agricultor de 60 años de edad, con antecedentes de un trauma ocular con un vegetal. Se realizó un examen oftalmológico con lámpara de hendidura y estudio microbiológico de la úlcera corneal por técnicas microbiológicas convencionales. El examen micológico del raspado corneal reveló la presencia de hifas septadas y el cultivo fue identificado como Lasiodiplodia theobromae. El paciente fue tratado con natamicina al 5% y fluconazol al 0,2% durante 37 días. La infección fue controlada, sin embargo, el paciente quedó con cicatrices corneales y con necesidad de trasplante. Es el primer caso de queratitis por Lasiodiplodia theobromae en Paraguay. Se discute la dificultad de manejo de estos casos que a menudo requieren procedimientos quirúrgicos y trasplante de córnea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Keratitis/diagnosis , Ascomycota/classification , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Keratitis/drug therapy
10.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 72(6): 366-372, nov.-dez. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-704737

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do crosslinking (CXL) no tratamento de ceratite infecciosa, resistente ao tratamento clínico, e investigar a relação com o agente etiológico. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 11 pacientes com diagnóstico de ceratite infecciosa de etiologia bacteriana (sete olhos) e fúngica (quatro olhos) na Fundação Altino Ventura (FAV) no período de outubro de 2011 a maio de 2012. Os pacientes incluídos estavam em uso de colírios há pelo menos sete dias e não apresentavam melhora da infecção. Estes foram avaliados antes da realização do CXL e no período pós-operatório até cicatrização da úlcera. Para realização do CXL foram instiladas gotas de riboflavina a 0,1% e dextrano a 20%, a cada cinco minutos em um período de 30 minutos antes do procedimento, e durante a aplicação da luz ultravioleta A (UVA). A córnea foi exposta à UVA com comprimento de onda de 370ηm ± 5ηm e uma irradiância de 3mW/cm2. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes com infecção bacteriana obtiveram cura do processo infeccioso após o CXL e nenhum paciente com ceratite fúngica apresentou cicatrização. Observou-se associação significante (p = 0,003) entre o agente etiológico e a cicatrização. CONCLUSÃO: O CXL mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento da ceratite bacteriana resistente ao tratamento clínico, evitando a realização de transplante tectônico. Em relação à ceratite fúngica, este procedimento não influenciou na melhora do processo infeccioso.


PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of corneal crosslinking (CXL) in the treatment of infectious keratitis resistant to medical treatment, and investigate the relation with the CXL outcome to the etiologic agent. METHODS: The study included 11 patients who were diagnosed with bacterial (seven eyes) or fungal keratitis (four eyes) at Altino Ventura Foundation from october 2011 to may 2012. All patients were using antibiotic eye drops for at least 7 days and have had no infection improvement. Patients were evaluated prior to CXL and the postoperative period until healing of the keratitis. For CXL, eyes were first instilled with a solution containing 0.1% riboflavin and 20% dextran for 30 min at a 5-minutes interval. Riboflavin-soaked eyes were then irradiated with UVA light (370ηm ± 5ηm) at 3mW/cm2 for 30 minutes. RESULTS: Eyes with bacterial infection exhibited improvement of infectious symptoms after CXL whereas eyes with fungal keratitis showed no improvement. Thus, there was a statistically significant correlation (p = 0.003) between the etiologic agent and the effectiveness of healing. CONCLUSION: CXL was effective in the treatment of bacterial keratitis resistant to clinical treatment, eliminating the need for surgery. However, CXL was not effective in managing fungal keratitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Keratitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Cross-Linking Reagents/therapeutic use , Corneal Ulcer/diagnosis , Corneal Ulcer/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity
11.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 72(2): 132-141, mar.-abr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-678383

ABSTRACT

O tratamento das infecções oculares por fungos representa um desafio à prática oftalmológica. Para obtermos resposta terapêutica adequada, além do uso da droga correta, é necessária a administração desta de forma eficaz. Este manuscrito reúne informações a respeito das principais drogas antifúngicas utilizadas em infecções oculares, suas concentrações e principais vias de administração.


Treatment of fungal eye infections represents a challenge to the ophthalmology practice. For an adequate therapeutic response, besides correct drug choice, it is necessary an effectively administration. This script gathers information about the major antifungal drugs used in eye infections, their concentrations and main administration routes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Interactions , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Azoles/administration & dosage , Azoles/therapeutic use , Echinocandins/administration & dosage , Echinocandins/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Polyenes/administration & dosage , Polyenes/therapeutic use
12.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2012 Jul-Aug; 60(4): 328-330
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144866

ABSTRACT

The clinical features of interface Candida keratitis after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK), may imitate rejection or crystalline keratopathy. We report here an 18-year-old woman presented with red eye, 4 months after undergoing DALK. Slit lamp examination revealed keratic precipitates (KPs) and cojunctival injection. She was prescribed corticosteroid treatment for endothelial rejection by another ophthalmologist because of misdiagnosis, but suffered a recurrence of symptoms after reduction of the corticosteroid treatment. At that time, she was referred to our office. The recurrence persisted despite antibiotic and antifungal therapies. Ten days after treatment with interface irrigation with amphotericin, the infiltration and hypopyon were resolved. Topical steroid was added after 3 months of antifungal monotherapy. Irrigant cultures confirmed the presence of Candida albicans. The corneal graft appeared semi-clear with no signs of infection at 17-month follow-up. We recommend a close follow-up and a timely intervention to prevent the need for more invasive treatment such as penetrating keratoplasty.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Corneal Transplantation/complications , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/therapy , Female , Humans
13.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2012 Apr-Jun 55(2): 248-249
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142235

ABSTRACT

We report a case of keratomycosis caused by Exserohilum rostratum. A 46-year-old farmer presented with history of pain, watery discharge and redness of the right eye for the past 2 weeks following trauma with vegetable matter. On ocular examination, a central corneal ulcer of about 8 mm with a greyish-white slough, feathery edges and diffuse corneal edema was seen in the right eye. KOH examination of corneal scrapings revealed thick, brown, branched, septate hyphae. Culture of corneal scrapings on Sabouraud dextrose agar showed velvety greenish-black colony with a black pigment on the reverse. The culture was identified as E. rostratum on the basis of microscopic morphology. The patient responded well to treatment with topical natamycin and oral itraconazole.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Ascomycota/cytology , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Culture Media/chemistry , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/pathology , Humans , Itraconazole/administration & dosage , Keratitis/diagnosis , Keratitis/drug therapy , Keratitis/microbiology , Keratitis/pathology , Male , Microscopy , Middle Aged , Mycology/methods , Natamycin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Wounds and Injuries/complications
14.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 72(1): 23-27, feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-639647

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar la incidencia, frecuencia, características clínicas y evolución de los pacientes con mucormicosis atendidos en el Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín, Universidad de Buenos Aires, entre los años 1982 y 2010. Durante ese período se diagnosticaron 10 casos de mucormicosis. Los tres primeros entre 1982 y 2004 y los últimos 7 entre 2005 y 2010. La incidencia y frecuencia de esta enfermedad, para el período 1980-2004 fue 0.13 pacientes/año y 0.1 casos/10 000 egresos (IC 95%: 0.00 a 0.3) respectivamente. En el período 2005-2010 la incidencia fue 0.86 pacientes/año y la frecuencia de 1.1 casos/10 000 egresos (IC 95%: 0.5 a 2.4). Hubo nueve casos de mucormicosis rinosinuso-orbitaria, siete en pacientes con diabetes mellitus, uno en una paciente con una hemopatía maligna y neutropenia, y el restante en un paciente con HIV/sida que además estaba neutropénico y con un síndrome hemofagocítico. En una paciente se realizó el diagnóstico post mortem de mucormicosis pulmonar. El diagnóstico se efectuó por la observación de filamentos cenocíticos en los diez casos. Hubo desarrollo de mucorales en los cultivos de 8/9 pacientes; cinco Rhizopus spp y tres Mucor spp. Todos los pacientes recibieron un tratamiento inicial con anfotericina B deoxicolato, que en tres de ellos fue continuado con anfotericina B liposomal, y cirugía. Tres enfermos recibieron además un tratamiento adyuvante con oxigeno hiperbárico. La mortalidad fue 30%.


Mucormycosis is an opportunistic infection caused by fungi of the order Mucorales. It is characterized by rapid progression and high morbidity and mortality in the absence of early diagnosis and prompt treatment. It was an infrequent disease, but in recent years, its incidence appears to have increased. The aim of this paper is to report the cases of mucormycosis diagnosed from 1982 to 2010 at the Hospital de Clinicas José de San Martín, University of Buenos Aires. We diagnosed 10 cases of mucormycosis; the first three between 1982 and 2004 and the last 7 between 2005 and 2010. The incidence from 1980 to 2004 was 0.13 patient-years and the frequency 0.1/10 000 discharges (95% CI 0.00- 0.3). In the period 2005 to 2010, the incidence was 0.86 patients per year with 1.1/10 000 discharges (95% CI 0.5-2.4). There was a pulmonary mucormycosis case (in a patient treated with corticosteroids) and nine rhinocerebral cases, two in neutropenic and seven in diabetic patients. The diagnosis was made by observation of cenocytic hyphae in 10/10 patients. Mucorales were recovered in 8/9 cultures (5 Rhizopus spp and 3 Mucor spp.). In one case diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis was made post-mortem. Nine patients were treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate (in 3 patients supplemented with liposomal amphotericin B) and surgery. Three patients underwent hyperbaric chamber. Seven patients had favorable outcome. In conclusion, mucormycosis is a rare disease, but its incidence has increased over the past five years. A good evolution of the patients is linked to early diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Nose Diseases/epidemiology , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Argentina/epidemiology , Drug Combinations , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Incidence , Lung Diseases, Fungal/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Fungal/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/pathology , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/pathology , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/drug therapy , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/epidemiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/microbiology
15.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2011 Nov; 59(6): 512-514
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136241

ABSTRACT

In this study, 60 fungal isolates from 60 patients with fungal keratitis were tested in vitro for their susceptibility to natamycin and the mean minimum inhibitory concentrations of natamycin (MICn) were correlated with clinical outcome. The mean MICn for various groups of fungi from patients with either early (<10 days) or late (≥10 days) presentation was correlated with the outcome. Aspergillus flavus showed resistance to natamycin with a high mean MICn (>16 μg/ml). While the clinical response in all patients with early A. flavus keratitis was good it was poor in late cases (5/8 patients, 62.5%). Fusarium species, Acremonium species and dematiaceous fungi were sensitive with low mean MICn (Fusarium: 5.7-7.2 μg/ml, Acremonium: 5.7-6.8 μg/ml, dematiaceous: (1.6-4 μg/ml). However, 46.6% (7/15) patients in Fusarium and 57.1% (4/7) in Acremonium group needed keratoplasty. We conclude that despite susceptibility of most fungal species causing keratitis to natamycin, the treatment outcome is poor in advanced fungal keratitis.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Keratitis/drug therapy , Keratitis/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Natamycin/administration & dosage , Ophthalmic Solutions , Prospective Studies
16.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2011 July; 59(4): 291-296
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136192

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine the incidence, outcomes and establish factors determining visual prognosis of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi in comparison with nonpigmented fungi. Materials and Methods: All culture-proven cases of fungal keratitis from January 2006 to August 2008 were drawn from a computerized database and cases with adequate documentation were analyzed for predisposing factors, clinical characteristics, microbiology and treatment methods. Outcomes of keratitis due to pigmented and nonpigmented fungi were compared using t-test and χ2 test. Results: Of 373 cases of keratomycosis during the study period, pigmented fungi were etiological agents in 117 eyes (31.3%) and nonpigmented fungi in 256 eyes (68.7%). Eyes with nonpigmented keratitis had significantly larger ulcers (14.96 mm2 ) and poorer vision (1.42 logMAR) at presentation compared to those with keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi (P=0.01). The characteristic macroscopic pigmentation was seen in only 14.5% in the pigmented keratitis group. Both groups responded favorably to medical therapy (78.1% vs. 69.1%) with scar formation (P=0.32) and showed a significant improvement in mean visual acuity compared with that at presentation (P<0.01). Visual improvement in terms of line gainers and losers in the subgroup of eyes that experienced healing was also similar. Location of the ulcer was the only factor that had significant predictive value for visual outcome (P=0.021). Conclusion: Incidence of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi may be increasing as compared to previous data. These eyes have similar response to medical therapy and similar visual outcome compared to nonpigmented keratitis. Central ulcers have a poor visual outcome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cicatrix/etiology , Corneal Ulcer/microbiology , Databases, Factual , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Female , Fungi/physiology , Humans , Incidence , Keratitis/complications , Keratitis/epidemiology , Keratitis/microbiology , Keratitis/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pigmentation , Prognosis , Visual Acuity/drug effects , Wound Healing
17.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2010 Sept; 58(5): 434-437
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136105

ABSTRACT

A 44-year-old man presented 28 days after cataract surgery (phacoemulsification) in right eye with multiple pinpoint infiltrates in posterior stroma at cataract surgery wound site. Visual acuity was 20/60. Corneal scraping from the floor of the corneal tunnel revealed fungus which was later identified to be Aspergillus flavus. The patient was started on oral voriconazole 200 mg twice daily and topical voriconazole 1% every hour. Two intracameral injections of voriconazole (50 micrograms/ 0.1 ml) were given 72 h apart, five days after starting initial therapy. Infiltrates increased in size and density in spite of 20 days of voriconazole therapy. Full-thickness patch graft was done to arrest progressive necrosis. Four months after surgery, patient had 20/60 best-corrected visual acuity. There was no recurrence in one-year follow-up. Present case illustrates the therapeutic challenge in fungal tunnel infections and possibility of voriconazole-resistant Aspergillus species.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillosis/etiology , Cataract Extraction/methods , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/etiology , Humans , Male , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Triazoles/therapeutic use
18.
Medical Journal of Mashad University of Medical Sciences. 2010; 53 (1): 16-25
in English, Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-98948

ABSTRACT

Mycotic Keratitis is a suppurative, usually ulcerative, and sight threatening infection of cornea that sometimes leads to loss of vision. The peak of incidence is observed in the tropical and subtropical regions. To investigate the etiological agent, predisposing factors and treatment follow up of mycotic keratitis; this study was undertaken over a period of 2 years in Mashhad. In this prospective, cross sectional study, among 466 individuals suffering from keratitis,65 patients, highly suspected to mycotic keratitis were examined by direct fresh smear [KOH 10%] and culture in Mycology Media. The results were analyzed by SPSS method. Among 65 clinically suspected individuals, the results of direct smear and culture of 44 patients were positive, of patients, 21 were male [47.1%] and 24 were female [52.3%]. The patients were between 8 to 84 years old. More than 40% of them were farmers. Trauma was the most common predisposing factor in more than 47% of cases due to vegetable materials. Molds and Yeasts were isolated from 86.4% and 13.6% of the samples respectively. Fusarium spp. were the most frequent isolates [44.4%].Others included Aspergillus spp. [21.8%], Acremonium spp. [8.3%], Penicillium spp. [5.6%] and Candida albicam [13.9%]. Tearing and redness were the most common symptoms observed [93.2%]. Amphotricin B was used in patients with Aspergillus and Candida Keratitis., but for Fusarium and other molds keratitis, Natamycin was used for 6 to 12 weeks. In one patient with Fusarium Keratitis, medical therapy was failed and therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Six months follow up showed that prognosis was good in all of the patients. In relation to the last decade, the incidence of Mycotic Keratitis is increased in Mashhad. Keratitis due to the molds is more prevalent than yeast keratitis. Entrance of foreign body [Plant particles] is the most common predisposing factor. However, it needs long term therapy but the prognosis is good


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Keratitis/microbiology , Keratitis/etiology , Prognosis , Keratitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Prospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171960

ABSTRACT

A 64-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for the treatment of chronic uveitis in her left eye, which had started two weeks after an uncomplicated cataract extraction. She was treated with topical steroids with an initially good response, yet she subsequently developed severe inflammation and plaque-like material around the intraocular lens, despite continuous steroid therapy. She underwent pars plana vitrectomy, smear and culture of the aqueous and vitreous fluids, and intravitreal antibiotic injection under the impression of Propionibacterium acne (P. acne) endophthalmitis. As a result of the smear and culture of the vitreous fluid identified as an Acremonium species, she was treated with intravenous amphotericin B injections for five days, followed by oral voriconazole administration. During the post-operative 18-month follow-up, she was stable without significant relapse of uveitis. In this case, the best correction of visual acuity was an improvement from 20/40 to 20/20.


Subject(s)
Acremonium/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cataract Extraction , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged
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