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1.
Medwave ; 20(10): e8053, 18 nov. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145818

ABSTRACT

La alopecia areata es un tipo común de alopecia no cicatricial. Aunque la patogénesis exacta permanece sin dilucidar, se piensa que la alopecia areata tiene una etiología multifactorial en donde se interrelacionan predisposición genética y factores ambientales. En pacientes susceptibles, se han documentado que el estrés, infecciones y microtraumas disminuyen las citoquinas inmunosupresoras que normalmente mantienen el privilegio inmune del folículo piloso. Actualmente no hay terapia curativa para la alopecia areata, aunque ciertos tratamientos pueden inducir el crecimiento del cabello en un porcentaje de pacientes. Se postula que la simvastatina restablece el privilegio inmune y ezetimibe aportaría un efecto inmunomodulador y antiinflamatorio. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 23 años con alopecia areata, exitosamente tratada con simvastatina y ezetimibe.


Alopecia areata is a common type of non-scarring alo¬pecia. Although the exact pathogenesis remains elusive, alopecia areata is thought to have a multifactorial etiology described as an interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures. In patients with genetic susceptibility, stress, infection, and microtrauma have been documented to decrease immunosuppressive cytokines that generally maintain the hair follicle's immune privilege. There is currently no curative therapy for alopecia areata, although some treatments can induce hair growth in a percentage of patients. It has been postulated that simvastatin reestablishes the immune privilege, and ezetimibe would provide an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effect. We report a case of a 23 years-old woman with alopecia areata successfully treated with simvastatin/ezetimibe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Simvastatin/therapeutic use , Alopecia Areata/genetics , Alopecia Areata/drug therapy , Ezetimibe/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
2.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 593-599, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941145

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety profile of alirocumab (PCSK9 inhibitor) versus ezetimibe on top of maximally tolerated statin dose in high cardiovascular risk Chinese patients with hyperlipidemia. Methods: The ODYSSEY EAST study was a randomized, double-blinded, double dummy, active-control, parallel group, multi-centers clinical trial, the Chinese sub-population included 456 patients with hyperlipidemia and high cardiovascular risk on maximally tolerated statin dose. Patients were randomized (2∶1) to receive the subcutaneous injection of alirocumab (75 mg Q2W; with dose up titration to 150 mg Q2W at week 12 if low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was ≥1.81 mmol/L at week 8) or the oral administration of ezetimibe (10 mg daily) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was percentage change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24. Key secondary efficacy endpoints included percentage change from baseline to week 12 or 24 in LDL-C (week 12) and other lipid parameters, including apolipoprotein (Apo) B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), TC, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), HDL-C, fasting triglycerides (TG), and Apo A1, and the proportion of patients reaching LDL-C<1.81 mmol/L at week 24. Safety profile of therapeutic drugs was also assessed during the treatment period. Results: The mean age of 456 Chinese patients was (59.5±10.9) years, 341(74.8%) patients were male, 303 patients (66.4%) in alirocumab group and 153 patients (33.5%) in ezetimibe group. Demographic characteristics, disease characteristics, and lipid parameters at baseline were similar between the two groups. LDL-C was reduced more from baseline to week 12 and 24 in alirocumab group versus ezetimibe group, the difference of their least-squares mean (standard error) percent change were(-35.2±2.2)% and (-36.9±2.5)% (both P<0.001). At 12 weeks, alirocumab had significant reduction on Lp(a), Apo B, total cholesterol and non HDL-C, the difference of their least-squares mean (standard error) percent change were (-40.3±2.8)%, (-27.7±1.8)%, (-19.6±1.5)% and (-27.7±1.9)%, respectively (all P<0.001). At 24 weeks, the percent of patients who reached LDL-C<1.81 mmol/L and LDL-C<1.42 mmol/L was significantly higher in alirocumab group (85.3% and 70.5%) than in ezetimibe group (42.2% and 17.0%, both P<0.001), and alirocumab use was also associated with significant reduction on Lp(a), Apo B, total cholesterol and non HDL-C, the difference of their least-squares mean (standard error) percent change were (-37.2±2.8)%, (-29.1±2.0)%, (-21.6±1.6)% and (-29.6±2.2)%, respectively (all P<0.001). The incidence of treatment related adverse events was similar between the two treatment groups (223/302 patients (73.8%) in alirocumab group and 109/153 patients (71.2%) in ezetimibe group). Respiratory infection, urinary infection, dizziness and local injection-site reactions were the most frequently reported adverse events. Conclusions: In high cardiovascular risk patients with hyperlipidemia from China on maximally tolerated statin dose, the reduction of LDL-C induced by alirocumab is more significant than that induced by ezetimibe. Both treatments were generally safe during the observation period of study.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , China , Double-Blind Method , Ezetimibe/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia , Hyperlipidemias , Male , Middle Aged , Proprotein Convertase 9 , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2415-2421, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Acute coronary syndromes mainly result from abrupt thrombotic occlusion caused by atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques (VPs) that suddenly rupture or erosion. Fibrous cap thickness (FCT) is a major determinant of the propensity of a VP to rupture and is recognized as a key factor. The intensive use of statins is known to have the ability to increase FCT; however, there is a risk of additional adverse effects. However, lower dose statin with ezetimibe is known to be tolerable by patients. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of intensive statin vs. low-dose stain + ezetimibe therapy on FCT, as evaluated using optical coherence tomography.@*METHOD@#Patients who had VPs (minimum FCT 90°) and deferred from intervention in our single center from January 2014 to December 2018 were included in the trial. They were divided into the following two groups: intensive statin group (rosuvastatin 15-20 mg or atorvastatin 30-40 mg) and combination therapy group (rosuvastatin 5-10 mg or atorvastatin 10-20 mg + ezetimibe 10 mg). At the 12-month follow-up, we compared the change in the FCT (ΔFCT%) between the two groups and analyzed the association of ΔFCT% with risk factors. Fisher exact test was used for all categorical variables. Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U-test was used for analyzing the continuous data. The relationship between ΔFCT% and risk factors was analyzed using linear regression analysis.@*RESULT@#Total 53 patients were finally enrolled, including 26 patients who were in the intensive statin group and 27 who were in the combination therapy group. At the 12-month follow-up, the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) levels were reduced in both the groups. The ΔTC%, ΔLDL-C%, and ΔLp-PLA2% were decreased further in the combination therapy group. FCT was increased in both the groups (combination treatment group vs. intensive statin group: 128.89 ± 7.64 vs. 110.19 ± 7.00 μm, t = -9.282, P < 0.001) at the 12-month follow-up. The increase in ΔFCT% was more in the combination therapy group (123.46% ± 14.05% vs. 91.14% ± 11.68%, t = -9.085, P < 0.001). Based on the multivariate linear regression analysis, only the serum Lp-PLA2 at the 12-month follow-up (B = -0.203, t = -2.701, P = 0.010), ΔTC% (B = -0.573, t = -2.048, P = 0.046), and Δhs-CRP% (B = -0.302, t = -2.963, P = 0.005) showed an independent association with ΔFCT%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Low-dose statin combined with ezetimibe therapy maybe provide a profound and significant increase in FCT as compared to intensive statin monotherapy. The reductions in Lp-PLA2, ΔTC%, and Δhs-CRP% are independently associated with an increase in FCT.


Subject(s)
Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Ezetimibe/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/drug therapy , Rosuvastatin Calcium/therapeutic use , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(2): 104-110, abr. 2019. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002615

ABSTRACT

La reducción del colesterol-LDL (C-LDL) es un objetivo primordial en prevención cardiovascular. Estudios recientes demostraron beneficio clínico al administrar inhibidores de la proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-9 (iPCSK9) a pacientes que no habían logrado la meta de C-LDL con estatinas de alta intensidad y ezetimibe, sin embargo el uso de estos fármacos está limitado por su costo. El American College of Cardiology, la Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología y la European Society of Cardiology recomiendan una meta de C-LDL menor a 70 mg/dl en prevención secundaria, determinando umbrales de C-LDL de 70, 100 o 140 mg/dl respectivamente, para iniciar el tratamiento con iPCSK9. Con el objetivo de evaluar el esquema hipolipemiante prescripto en internados por síndrome coronario agudo o revascularización coronaria y analizar la proporción de elegibles para ser tratados con iPCSK9 en un escenario real y simulado, realizamos un estudio que incluyó 351 pacientes con enfermedad coronaria, tomados de una base de datos electrónica de un hospital universitario. El 48.4% recibió estatinas de elevada intensidad, 11.4% ezetimibe y 54.7% no logró la meta de C-LDL menor a 70 mg/dl. Utilizando un modelo de simulación en el que todos serían medicados con estatinas de elevada intensidad y ezetimibe, la elegibilidad para prescribir iPCSK9 fue de 31.1%, 12.8% y 9.1% según los umbrales de C-LDL determinados por las tres sociedades científicas. Nuestro estudio demostró una brecha entre las recomendaciones de los consensos para reducir el colesterol y la práctica habitual que debería ser minimizada para optimizar la relación costo/efectividad en prevención secundaria.


LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering is a primary objective in cardiovascular prevention. Recent studies demonstrated clinical benefit when proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) were added to the treatment in patients who had not achieved the LDL-C goal despite being treated with high intensity statins and ezetimibe, however the use of these drugs is limited by their cost. The American College of Cardiology, the Argentine Society of Cardiology and the European Society of Cardiology recommend an LDL-C goal less than 70 mg/dl in secondary prevention, determining thresholds of LDL-C to start treatment with PCSK9i of 70, 100 or 140 mg/dl respectively. In order to evaluate the lipid-lowering regimen prescribed in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome or coronary revascularization and analyze the proportion of eligible to be treated with PCSK9i in a real and simulated scenario, we conducted a study that included 351 patients with coronary disease collected from an electronic database of a university hospital. The 48.4% received high intensity statins, 11.4% ezetimibe and 54.7% did not achieve the LDL-C goal of less than 70 mg/dL. Using a simulation model in which all would be treated with high intensity statins and ezetimibe, the eligibility to prescribe PCSK9i was 31.1%, 12.8% and 9.1% according to the C- LDL thresholds determined by the three scientific societies. Our study demonstrated a gap between the consensus recommendations for LDL-C lowering and the current practice that should be minimized to optimize the cost/effectiveness ratio in secondary prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Proprotein Convertase 9/antagonists & inhibitors , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Argentina , Societies, Scientific , Time Factors , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ezetimibe/therapeutic use
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765667

ABSTRACT

Dyslipidemia, highly elevated, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, is a major cardiovascular risk factor. Statins have been proven to effectively reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and are recommended as a first-line therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD. However, statins may not be sufficient in decreasing LDL cholesterol levels and pose a significant on-treatment residual risk of major cardiovascular events (i.e., residual cholesterol risk) according to meta-analyses of statin trials. Current guidelines for cholesterol management to achieve additional LDL cholesterol reduction and reduce ASCVD risk recommend two hyperlipidemic agents besides statins. Use of ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor, leads to additional LCL cholesterol reduction and decreased ASCVD risk, when added to statin therapy, without raising significant safety concerns. Furthermore, in combination with a mild-to-moderate statin intensity, ezetimibe is used in situations of statin-associated adverse effects such as myalgia and the combination therapy is relatively safer. Monoclonal antibody of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), alirocumab, and evolocumab, have been approved to lower LDL cholesterol level. While there are drawbacks to the use of PCSK9 inhibitors, including high cost and adverse events such as injection site reaction, they significantly decreased serum LDL cholesterol levels and thereby ASCVD risks when added to maximally tolerated statin therapy.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Dyslipidemias , Ezetimibe , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Lipoproteins , Myalgia , Proprotein Convertases , Risk Factors , Secondary Prevention
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein B/A1 (apoB/A1) ratio is a stronger predictor of future cardiovascular disease than is the level of conventional lipids. Statin and ezetimibe combination therapy have shown additional cardioprotective effects over statin monotherapy. METHODS: This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, active-controlled study in Korea. A total of 36 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized to either rosuvastatin monotherapy (20 mg/day, n=20) or rosuvastatin/ezetimibe (5 mg/10 mg/day, n=16) combination therapy for 6 weeks. RESULTS: After the 6-week treatment, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apoB reduction were comparable between the two groups (−94.3±15.4 and −62.0±20.9 mg/dL in the rosuvastatin group, −89.9±22.7 and −66.8±21.6 mg/dL in the rosuvastatin/ezetimibe group, P=0.54 and P=0.86, respectively). In addition, change in apoB/A1 ratio (−0.44±0.16 in the rosuvastatin group and −0.47±0.25 in the rosuvastatin/ezetimibe group, P=0.58) did not differ between the two groups. On the other hand, triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA) reductions were greater in the rosuvastatin/ezetimibe group than in the rosuvastatin group (−10.5 mg/dL [interquartile range (IQR), −37.5 to 29.5] and 0.0 µEq/L [IQR, −136.8 to 146.0] in the rosuvastatin group, −49.5 mg/dL [IQR, −108.5 to −27.5] and −170.5 µEq/L [IQR, −353.0 to 0.8] in the rosuvastatin/ezetimibe group, P=0.010 and P=0.049, respectively). Both treatments were generally well tolerated, and there were no differences in muscle or liver enzyme elevation. CONCLUSION: A 6-week combination therapy of low-dose rosuvastatin and ezetimibe showed LDL-C, apoB, and apoB/A1 ratio reduction comparable to that of high-dose rosuvastatin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Triglyceride and FFA reductions were greater with the combination therapy than with rosuvastatin monotherapy.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein A-I , Apolipoproteins , Apolipoproteins B , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol, LDL , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Ezetimibe , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Hand , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Korea , Liver , Rosuvastatin Calcium , Triglycerides
9.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 396-402, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759963

ABSTRACT

The major guidelines for lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) have been revised recently. Although “higher cardiovascular risk-aggressive LLT with greater absolute clinical benefit” is the main idea underlying all guidelines, there are some differences in the details among them. The US guidelines recommend pharmacological LLT based on a patient's risk category, independently of their low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level. However, the European and Korean guidelines consider the patient's risk category and LDL-C at the same time. Lifestyle modifications are suggested in parallel in all guidelines. The newest US guidelines have characteristically revived target LDL-C values in some patient groups and indications for non-statin drugs (ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors), whereas the European and Korean guidelines have maintained target LDL-C values as usual. It is universally accepted that statins are the first-line agent. Adding ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants, or PCSK9 inhibitors is recommended as a second line treatment. Appreciating the trend and background of the newest LLT guidelines will be essential to maximize cardiovascular prevention in patients.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Bile , Cholesterol , Ezetimibe , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Life Style , Lipoproteins
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759613

ABSTRACT

Atorvastatin is one of the most widely prescribed medications for dyslipidemia treatment. In Korea, post combined therapy with ezetimibe, a 73-year-old woman was reported by a community pharmacy to have experienced visual field defect, which recovered after drug discontinuation. She had never experienced this symptom before, and several studies have reported an association between use of statins and visual disorders such as blurred vision, diplopia, and cataract. Blockage of cholesterol accumulation, oxidative stress, or myopathy is expected to be a cause of this symptom. Naranjo scale, Korean causality assessment algorithm (Ver.2), and World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Center (WHO-UMC) criteria were the three tools used to determine causality between the visual disorder and atorvastatin. The results represent ‘probable’, ‘certain’, and ‘probable/likely’ causality, respectively. Our results, in combination with a review of literature, indicate that ocular adverse effects are highly likely related to atorvastatin.


Subject(s)
Aged , Atorvastatin , Cataract , Cholesterol , Diplopia , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Dyslipidemias , Ezetimibe , Female , Global Health , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Korea , Muscular Diseases , Oxidative Stress , Pharmacies , Vision Disorders , Visual Fields
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ezetimibe-statin combination therapy has been found to reduce low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in large trials. We sought to examine the differential effect of ezetimibe on MACEs when added to statins according to the presence of diabetes. METHODS: Randomized clinical trials with a sample size of at least 50 participants and at least 24 weeks of follow-up that compared ezetimibe-statin combination therapy with a statin- or placebo-controlled arm and reported at least one MACE, stratified by diabetes status, were included in the meta-analysis and meta-regression. RESULTS: A total of seven trials with 28,191 enrolled patients (mean age, 63.6 years; 75.1% men; 7,298 with diabetes [25.9%]; mean follow-up, 5 years) were analysed. MACEs stratified by diabetes were obtained from the published data (two trials) or through direct contact (five trials). No significant heterogeneity was observed among studies (I 2=14.7%, P=0.293). Ezetimibe was associated with a greater reduction of MACE risk in subjects with diabetes than in those without diabetes (pooled relative risk, 0.84 vs. 0.93; P heterogeneity=0.012). In the meta-regression analysis, the presence of diabetes was associated with a greater reduction of MACE risk when ezetimibe was added to statins (β=0.87, P=0.038). CONCLUSION: Ezetimibe-statin combination therapy was associated with greater cardiovascular benefits in patients with diabetes than in those without diabetes. Our findings suggest that ezetimibe-statin combination therapy might be a useful strategy in patients with diabetes at a residual risk of MACEs.


Subject(s)
Arm , Cholesterol, LDL , Diabetes Mellitus , Ezetimibe , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Male , Myocardial Infarction , Population Characteristics , Sample Size , Stroke
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714788

ABSTRACT

Recent clinical trials and meta-analyses have indicated that high-intensive statin treatment lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and reduces the risk of nonfatal cardiovascular (CV) events compared with moderate-intensity statin treatment. However, there are residual risks of CV events and safety concerns associated with high-intensity statin treatment. The Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) study showed that ezetimibe plus moderate-intensity statin therapy after acute coronary syndromes incrementally lowers LDL-C levels and improved CV outcomes compared with moderate-intensity statin therapy. However, despite the LDL-C-lowering effects, a substantial residual CV risk still remains, which includes other lipid abnormalities such as low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The most representative agents that primarily increase HDL-C are cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors. Until now, 4 CETP inhibitors, including torcetrapib, dalcetrapib, evacetrapib, and anacetrapib, have been introduced and all have significantly raised the HDL-C from 30% to 133%. However, the results for CV outcomes in clinical trials differed, based on the 4 agents. Torcetrapib increased the risk of CV events and total mortality in patients at high CV risk (ILLUMINATE trial). Dalcetrapib and evacetrapib did not result in lower rate of CV events in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and high risk vascular disease, respectively (dal-OUTCOMES and ACCELERATE trials). However, anacetrapib significantly decreased the incidence of major coronary events in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease (REVEAL trial). This topic summarizes the major results of recent statin and CETP inhibitor trials and provides framework to interpret and implement the trial results in real clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Cholesterol , Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins , Dyslipidemias , Ezetimibe , Ezetimibe, Simvastatin Drug Combination , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Incidence , Lipoproteins , Mortality , Vascular Diseases
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718929

ABSTRACT

Lowering serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the mainstay for reduction of risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the second most common cause of death in Korea. The 2015 Korean guidelines for management of dyslipidemia strongly recommend the use of statins in patients at risk of CVD. Statin therapy, which is the gold standard for CVD, reduces LDL-C level by 40% to 60% and is generally well tolerated. However, many patients are intolerant to statins and discontinue therapy or become nonadherent to therapy because of actual/perceived side effects. The most common of these side effects is the statin-associated muscle symptom (SAMS). Discontinuation and repetitive re-challenge with statins can help identify SAMS. If serum creatinine kinase level is more than 10 times the upper limit of normal, statin therapy must be stopped immediately, and the physician should identify possible causes including rhabdomyolysis and treat appropriately. In other patients, it might help to switch to a less potent statin or to use statins at intermittent non-daily dosing. To achieve target LDL-C level, non-statin lipid-lowering therapies such as dietary modifications, ezetimibe, and bile acid sequestrants may be added. Several new drugs have recently been approved for lowering LDL-C level. Alirocumab and evolocumab are monoclonal antibodies that inhibit proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, and both drugs cause large reductions in LDL-C, similar to statins. Lomitapide and mipomersen are orphan drugs used as adjuncts to other lipid-lowering therapies in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Bile , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cause of Death , Cholesterol , Creatinine , Dyslipidemias , Ezetimibe , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II , Korea , Lipoproteins , Orphan Drug Production , Phosphotransferases , Proprotein Convertases , Rhabdomyolysis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742395

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet of rosuvastatin 20 mg/ezetimibe 10 mg with that of concurrent administration of individual rosuvastatin 20 mg tablet and ezetimibe 10 mg tablet in healthy subjects. A randomized, open label, single-dose, two-way crossover study was conducted. Subjects randomly received test formulation (FDC tablet of rosuvastatin 20 mg/ezetimibe 10 mg) or reference formulation (co-administration of rosuvastatin 20 mg tablet and ezetimibe 10 mg tablet). After 2 weeks of washout, subjects received the other treatment. Blood samples were collected up to 72 hours post-dose in each period. Plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin, ezetimibe and total ezetimibe (ezetimibe + ezetimibe glucuronide) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The geometric mean ratio (GMR) of Cmax and AUClast (90% confidence interval, CI) for rosuvastatin was 1.036 (0.979–1.096) and 1.024 (0.981–1.070), respectively. The corresponding values for ezetimibe were 0.963 (0.888–1.043) and 1.021 (0.969–1.074), respectively. The corresponding values for total ezetimibe were 0.886 (0.835–0.940) and 0.983 (0.946–1.022), respectively. FDC tablet containing rosuvastatin 20 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg is bioequivalent to the co-administration of commercially available individual tablets of rosuvastatin and ezetimibe as GMR with 90% CI of Cmax and AUClast of rosuvastatin, ezetimibe and total ezetimibe were contained within conventionally accepted bioequivalence criteria.


Subject(s)
Cross-Over Studies , Ezetimibe , Healthy Volunteers , Mass Spectrometry , Pharmacokinetics , Plasma , Rosuvastatin Calcium , Tablets , Therapeutic Equivalency
15.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 755-760, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Simvastatin belongs to the statin family, whose members have immunomodulatory activities. Ezetimibe have synergetic effects when co-administered with simvastatin. In several case reports, alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis were successfully treated with simvastatin/ezetimibe, suggesting that this combination could be a new efficient therapy for recalcitrant alopecia areata (AA). OBJECTIVE: To verify the efficacy of the simvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy for recalcitrant AA and investigate the relationship between various treatment responses and prognostic factors. METHODS: This prospective open study was performed in patients with recalcitrant AA with the bald surface exceeding 75%. All patients took simvastatin (40 mg) and ezetimibe (10 mg) daily. The extent of hair regrowth expressed as percentage of the bald area was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy. RESULTS: Of 14 enrolled patients, 4 patients (28.6%) were judged as responders showing regrowth of 30% to 80% after 3 months of treatment. The mean age of onset in non-responders was significantly lower than in responders. The total score of prognostic factors, calculated as a sum of factors related to poor prognosis, was much lower in responders than in non-responders. CONCLUSION: The remission rate in this study was unsatisfactory. However, since the recruited patients had not responded to any other treatments for AA, simvastatin/ezetimibe can still be considered as an alternative treatment for recalcitrant AA. The total scores of the prognostic factors were statistically different between responders and non-responders. These results can be used to predict the outcome of treatment with simvastatin/ezetimibe and anticipate prognosis.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Alopecia Areata , Alopecia , Ezetimibe , Hair , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Simvastatin
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(1): e16122, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839447

ABSTRACT

Abstract A rapid and sensitive micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method with UV photodiode-array detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of atorvastatin and ezetimibe in fixed dose drug combination. Experimental conditions such as buffer concentration and pH, surfactant concentration, system temperature, applied voltage, injection parameters were optimized in order to improve the efficiency of the separation. The best results were obtained when using fused silica capillary (48 cm length X 50 µm ID) and 25 mM borate buffer electrolyte at pH 9.3 containing 25 mM SDS, + 30 kV applied voltage, 20 ºC system temperature. The separation was achieved in approximately 2 minutes, with a resolution of 7.02, the order of migration being atorvastatin followed by ezetimibe. The analytical performance of the method was verified with regard to linearity, precision, robustness and the limit of detection and quantification were calculated.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary/methods , Ezetimibe/administration & dosage , Atorvastatin/administration & dosage , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Dose Fractionation, Radiation
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12118

ABSTRACT

Atorvastatin and ezetimibe are frequently co-administered to treat patients with dyslipidemia for the purpose of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control. However, pharmacokinetic (PK) drug interaction between atorvastatin and ezetimibe has not been evaluated in Korean population. The aim of this study was to investigate PK drug interaction between two drugs in healthy Korean volunteers. An open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, three-treatment, three-period, Williams design crossover study was conducted in 36 healthy male subjects. During each period, the subjects received one of the following three treatments for seven days: atorvastatin 40 mg, ezetimibe 10 mg, or a combination of both. Blood samples were collected up to 96 h after dosing, and PK parameters of atorvastatin, 2-hydroxyatorvastatin, total ezetimibe (free ezetimibe + ezetimibe-glucuronide), and free ezetimibe were estimated by non-compartmental analysis in 32 subjects who completed the study. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs) with 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the maximum plasma concentration (C(max,ss)) and the area under the curve within a dosing interval at steady state (AUC(τ,ss)) of atorvastatin when administered with and without ezetimibe were 1.1087 (0.9799–1.2544) and 1.1154 (1.0079–1.2344), respectively. The corresponding values for total ezetimibe were 1.0005 (0.9227–1.0849) and 1.0176 (0.9465–1.0941). There was no clinically significant change in safety assessment related to either atorvastatin or ezetimibe. Co-administration of atorvastatin and ezetimibe showed similar PK and safety profile compared with each drug alone. The PK interaction between two drugs was not clinically significant in healthy Korean volunteers.


Subject(s)
Atorvastatin , Cholesterol , Cross-Over Studies , Drug Interactions , Dyslipidemias , Ezetimibe , Humans , Lipoproteins , Male , Pharmacokinetics , Plasma , Volunteers
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(4): 279-288, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780798

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The effect of statins on the endothelial function in humans remains under discussion. Particularly, it is still unclear if the improvement in endothelial function is due to a reduction in LDL-cholesterol or to an arterial pleiotropic effect. Objective: To test the hypothesis that modulation of the endothelial function promoted by statins is primarily mediated by the degree of reduction in LDL-cholesterol, independent of the dose of statin administered. Methods: Randomized clinical trial with two groups of lipid-lowering treatment (16 patients/each) and one placebo group (14 patients). The two active groups were designed to promote a similar degree of reduction in LDL-cholesterol: the first used statin at a high dose (80 mg, simvastatin 80 group) and the second used statin at a low dose (10 mg) associated with ezetimibe (10 mg, simvastatin 10/ezetimibe group) to optimize the hypolipidemic effect. The endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMV) before and 8 weeks after treatment. Results: The decrease in LDL-cholesterol was similar between the groups simvastatin 80 and simvastatin 10/ezetimibe (27% ± 31% and 30% ± 29%, respectively, p = 0.75). The simvastatin 80 group presented an increase in FMV from 8.4% ± 4.3% at baseline to 11% ± 4.2% after 8 weeks (p = 0.02). Similarly, the group simvastatin 10/ezetimibe showed improvement in FMV from 7.3% ± 3.9% to 12% ± 4.4% (p = 0.001). The placebo group showed no variation in LDL-cholesterol level or endothelial function. Conclusion: The improvement in endothelial function with statin seems to depend more on a reduction in LDL-cholesterol levels, independent of the dose of statin administered, than on pleiotropic mechanisms.


Resumo Fundamento: O efeito das estatinas na função endotelial em seres humanos permanece em discussão. Particularmente, ainda carece resposta se a melhora na função endotelial deve-se à redução do LDL-colesterol ou a um efeito pleiotrópico arterial. Objetivo: Testar a hipótese de que a modulação da função endotelial promovida por estatinas é prioritariamente mediada pelo grau de redução do LDL-colesterol, independente da dose de estatina utilizada. Métodos: Ensaio clínico randomizado com dois grupos de tratamento hipolipemiante (16 pacientes/cada) e um grupo placebo (14 pacientes). Os dois grupos ativos foram desenhados para promover graus semelhantes de redução de LDL-colesterol: o primeiro utilizou estatina em alta dose (80 mg, grupo sinvastatina 80) e o segundo em baixa dose (10 mg) associada a ezetimiba (10 mg, grupo sinvastatina 10/ezetimiba) para otimizar o efeito hipolipemiante. A função endotelial foi analisada pela vasodilatação mediada por fluxo (VMF) antes e após 8 semanas de tratamento. Resultados: A redução no LDL-colesterol foi semelhante entre os grupos sinvastatina 80 e sinvastatina 10/ezetimiba (27% ± 31% e 30% ± 29%, respectivamente, p = 0,75). O grupo sinvastatina 80 apresentou incremento da VMF de 8,4% ± 4,3% no basal para 11% ± 4,2% após 8 semanas (p = 0,02). Da mesma forma, o grupo sinvastatina 10/ezetimiba apresentou melhora da VMF de 7,3% ± 3,9% para 12% ± 4,4% (p = 0,001). O grupo placebo não apresentou variação no nível de LDL-colesterol ou da função endotelial. Conclusão: A melhora da função endotelial com uso de estatina parece depender mais da redução do LDL-colesterol, independente da dose de estatina utilizada, do que de mecanismos pleiotrópicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Ezetimibe/administration & dosage , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage , Reference Values , Time Factors , Vasodilation/drug effects , Brachial Artery/drug effects , Brachial Artery/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Placebo Effect , Double-Blind Method , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hyperlipidemias/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/drug effects , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726748

ABSTRACT

The 2015 Treatment Guideline for Diabetes recommends statin therapy as the mainstay of management for dyslipidemia in order to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and thus prevent cardiovascular disease. It maintained the target LDL cholesterol level, in contrast to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline, which did not recommend specific treatment targets as there is no well-established cardiovascular risk calculation model for the Korean population, and controversies exist regarding statin intensity. Therefore, further extensive research is needed to provide evidence for a specific treatment policy. The desirable levels of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were suggested, but no specific drug treatment was recommended. Combination therapy with fibrate or niacin has been shown not to provide additional cardiovascular benefit above statin therapy alone and was not generally recommended. The addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy has been shown to provide additional cardiovascular benefit compared with statin therapy alone and so can be considered in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Dyslipidemias , Ezetimibe , Heart , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Lipoproteins , Niacin , Triglycerides
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