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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22076, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439496


Abstract Bauhinia forficata Link aqueous extract is usually recommended as a phytomedicine to reduce blood glucose levels and its biological activity has been linked to the presence of phenolic compounds from B. forficata preparations. Several drying processes are used in the production of dry herbal extracts, which may influence the chemical composition and efficacy of final herbal medicines. Due to significant chemical changes, defining appropriate drying processes is essential for phytopharmaceutical drug development. In view of this, we analyzed dried B. forficata leaf infusion (BFLI) extracts by HPLC-UV-MSn, followed by molecular networking analysis to evaluate the chemical profiles from dried extracts yielded by freeze-and spray-drying processes. The main metabolites detected included 11 ferulic/isoferulic acid derivatives and 13 glycosylated flavonoids. The qualitative chemical profiles were alike for both drying processes, whereas the relative abundance of some flavonoids was higher using spray-drying. Taken together, our results showed that freeze-and spray-drying preserved the phenolic profile of BFLI and suggested that spray-drying may be the most suitable to obtain its dried products. Along with studying the chemical profiles of dried herbal extracts, evaluating the influence of drying processes on the quality and chemical profiles of final products is pivotal and may benefit future research.

Plant Leaves/classification , Bauhinia/adverse effects , Phenolic Compounds , Fabaceae/classification , Flavonoids/agonists , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Total Quality Management/organization & administration , Herbal Medicine/trends , Drug Development/instrumentation
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20577, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403738


Abstract Lysiphyllum strychnifolium (Craib) A. Schmitz. (in Thai name, Ya nang daeng) has been traditionally used to treat fever, alcohol intoxication, cancer, allergies, and blood toxins. It can be used as a health-promoting herbal tea and contains hydroalcoholic extracts. The purpose of the present study was to develop a microwave-assisted extraction method for astilbin in L. strychnifolium stems. HPLC was used to determine astilbin content. Three extraction conditions were optimized: types of solvent, microwave power levels, and the number of extraction cycles. Water:methanol (40:60) was the best solvent for astilbin extraction from L. strychnifolium stems using 450 watts and six microwave-assisted extraction cycles. This technique offers important advantages over conventional methods, such as shorter extraction times, substantial energy savings, and a reduced environmental burden.

Plant Stems/classification , Fabaceae/classification , Microwaves/adverse effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 3039-3050, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886844


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate gas exchange, efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus, and antioxidant activity in Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. The seedlings were cultivated under different conditions of water availability, in order to improve the utilization efficiency of available water resources. The seedlings were cultivated in four different water retention capacities (WRC- 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%), and evaluated at four different time (T- 30, 60, 90, and 120 days). During the experimental period, seedlings presented the highest values for carboxylation efficiency of Rubisco (A/Ci), intrinsic water use efficiency (IWUE = A/gs), chlorophyll index, and stomatal opening, when grown in the substrate with 75% WRC, but the stomatal index (SI) was less the 25% WRC. The efficiency of photosystem II was not significantly altered by the treatments. Comparison between the extreme treatments in terms of water availability, represented by 25% and 100% WRC, represent stress conditions for the species. Water availability causes a high activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase) in the plant.

Water/metabolism , Seedlings/metabolism , Fabaceae/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Time Factors , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Random Allocation , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Plant Stomata/metabolism , Fabaceae/classification , Fabaceae/physiology
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1369-1379, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886755


ABSTRACT Natural steroids and triterpenes such as b-sitosterol, stigmasterol, lupeol, ursolic and betulinic acids were transformed into its hexanoic and oleic esters, to evaluate the influence of chemical modification towards the cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. The derivatives were evaluated against five tumor cell lines [OVCAR-8 (ovarian carcinoma); SF-295 (glioblastoma); HCT-116 (colon adenocarcinoma); HL-60 (leukemia); and PC-3 (prostate carcinoma)] and the results showed only betulinic acid hexyl ester exhibits cytotoxic potential activity.

Humans , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Triterpenes/chemistry , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Lamiaceae/classification , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Cell Line, Tumor , Esters , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry , Fabaceae/classification , Antineoplastic Agents/isolation & purification , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1761-1771, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886729


ABSTRACT Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata) subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization) in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees) represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Carbon/analysis , Forests , Conservation of Natural Resources , Fabaceae/classification , Fabaceae/drug effects , Soil , Brazil , Biomass , Fabaceae/chemistry
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(2): 135-138, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838830


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Given the increase of people with gastrointestinal disorders, the search for alternative treatments with fewer side effects is vital, as well as the demand for food or plants that can help protect the stomach. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective action of the extracts of wild fruit trees of Myrcianthes pungens (guabiju); Inga vera Willd. (ingá-banana) and Marlierea tomentosa Cambess. (guarapuruna) in in vivo pharmacological models. METHODS The different parts of the fruits were separately subjected to a process of extraction by methanol. Two experimental pharmacological models were conducted in mice; the gastric ulcer model induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (indomethacin), and the gastric ulcer model induced by ethanol/HCl, which allowed us to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of the extracts at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Subsequently, the total lesion area (mm2) and relative lesion area (%) were determined. RESULTS The results showed significant gastroprotective activity against the aggressive agents used - ethanol and indomethacin - for all the extracts tested. CONCLUSION It is assumed that the fruits have bioactive compounds such as antioxidant substances that act on the prostaglandin levels, protecting them from the damage caused by ethanol and indomethacin. These results prompt further studies to isolate and identify the active properties.

RESUMO CONTEXTO Devido ao aumento de pessoas com distúrbios gastrointestinais, a busca de tratamentos alternativos com menos efeitos cola­terais é fundamental, assim como a demanda por alimentos ou plantas que possam ajudar a proteger o estômago. OBJETIVO O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ação gastroprotetora dos extratos plantas frutíferas silvestres Myrcianthes pungens (guabiju); Inga vera Willd. (ingá-banana) e Marlierea tomentosa Cambess. (guarapuruna) em modelos farmacológicos in vivo. MÉTODOS As diferentes partes do fruto foram submetidas se­paradamente a um processo de maceração em solução metanólica a frio. Foram realizados dois modelos experimentais em camundongos, modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por anti-inflamatório não-esteroidal (indometacina) e modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por etanol/HCl, que permitiram avaliar a atividade gastroprotetora dos extratos na dose de 250 mg/kg. Posteriormente, foram determinadas a área total de lesão (mm2) e a área relativa lesada (%). RESULTADOS Os resultados apresentaram atividade gastroprotetora significativa para todos os extratos estudados frente aos agentes agressores utilizados, etanol e indometacina. CONCLUSÃO Supõe-se que os frutos apresentam compostos bioativos, como as substancias antioxidantes, que atuam sobre os níveis de prostaglandinas, protegendo dos danos causados pelo etanol e indometacina. Os resultados encorajam futuros estudos para isolamento e identificação dos princípios ativos dos frutos.

Animals , Male , Mice , Stomach Ulcer/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Fabaceae/chemistry , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Indomethacin , Myrtaceae/classification , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol , Fruit/classification , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Fabaceae/classification
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 483-492, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843292


AbstractHeterogeneity in seeds mostly occurs due to physiological, environmental and genetic factors, and these could affect seed dormancy and germination. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of seed colour on germination behavior. For this, both light and temperature requirements were assessed in Lotus glinoides and Lotus halophilus (Fabaceae) from the hyper-arid deserts of the United Arab Emirates. Germination was assessed in terms of both final germination level (percentage) and germination rate, as expressed by Timson’s germination velocity index. Lotus glinoides produces black and yellow-colored seeds, and L. halophilus produces green and yellow seeds. Different seed lots were germinated in both light and darkness at different temperatures. Yellow seeds of the two species attained significantly lower germination, compared to black and green seeds. There was no specific light or temperature requirements for the germination of the two coloured seeds of L. glinoides; the effect of interactions between seed colour and both light and incubation temperature, were not significant on the final germination percentage. in L. halophilus, green seeds germinated significantly more in both light and darkness at lower temperatures (15/25 °C) and in light at higher temperatures (25/35 °C), compared to yellow seeds. Yellow seeds germinated faster, compared to black at 15/25 °C in L. glinoides and compared to green seeds at 15/25 °C and 25/35 °C in L. halophilus. Seed colour variation, at least in L. halophilus, could be a survival strategy that would determine the time of germination throughout the year in the unpredictable desert environment. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 483-492. Epub 2016 June 01.

ResumenLa heterogeneidad en las semillas se produce principalmente debido a factores fisiológicos, genéticos y ambientales, y esto podría afectar latencia de las semillas y la germinación. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar el efecto del color de la semilla en el comportamiento de la germinación. Para ello, tanto los requisitos de luz y temperatura fueron evaluados en Lotus glinoides y Lotus halophilus (Fabaceae) desde los desiertos hiper-árida de los Emiratos Árabes Unidos. La germinación se evaluó en términos de nivel final de germinación (porcentaje) y la tasa de germinación, expresado por el índice de velocidad de germinación de Timson. L. glinoides produce semillas negro y de color amarillo, y L. halophilus produce semillas verdes y amarillas. Los diferentes lotes de semillas fueron germinadas en luz y oscuridad a diferentes temperaturas. Semillas amarillas de las dos especies alcanzaron significativamente menor germinación, en comparación con las semillas negras y verdes. No había requisitos específicos de luz o temperatura para la germinación de las semillas de dos colores de L. glinoides; el efecto de las interacciones entre color de la semilla y la luz y la temperatura de incubación, no fueron significativas en el porcentaje final de germinación. En L. halophilus, semillas verdes germinados significativamente más en la luz y la oscuridad a temperaturas más bajas (15/25 °C) ya la luz a temperaturas más altas (25/35 °C), en comparación con semillas amarillas. Semillas amarillas germinaron más rápido, en comparación con el negro a 15/25 °C en L. glinoides y en comparación con semillas verdes a 15/25 °C y 25/35 °C en L. halophilus. La variación del color de la semilla, al menos en L. halophilus, podría ser una estrategia de supervivencia que determinaría el momento de la germinación durante todo el año en el entorno del desierto impredecible.

Seeds/anatomy & histology , Seeds/growth & development , Fabaceae/growth & development , Temperature , Color , Germination/physiology , Desert Climate , Plant Dormancy , Fabaceae/classification
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1,supl.1): 279-287, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782988


RESUMO A espécie Phaseolus lunatus L., conhecida popularmente como feijão-fava constitui uma das alternativas de renda e alimentação para a população da região Nordeste do Brasil. Um dos problemas enfrentados são as doenças que provocam grandes perdas na produção de sementes. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência dos óleos essenciais de copaíba, cravo-da-índia e manjericão na redução da incidência de fungos associados às sementes de feijão-fava, e sua interferência na qualidade fisiológica. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por óleos essenciais de copaíba, cravo-da-índia e manjericão nas concentrações de 0; 1; 1,5 e 2 mL. L-1 e fungicida (Captan®). Foram utilizadas 200 sementes por tratamento. Para análise da qualidade sanitária das sementes foi adotado o método de incubação em placas de Petri contendo dupla camada de papel-filtro umedecida com ADE, sob temperatura de 20 ±2 ºC, por 7 dias. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada com base nos testes de germinação, emergência e vigor das sementes. Para o teste germinação foi empregado método de rolo de papel germitest e na emergência osemeio foi realizado em bandejas plásticas contendo areia lavada esterilizada, em condição de casa de vegetação, e após 9 dias da instalação foi determinado o vigor com base nos resultados de índice de velocidade de germinação e emergência; comprimento da parte aérea, raiz primária e plântula; e teor de massa seca da partes aérea, raízes e plântulas de feijão-fava. O delineamento experimental foi interiamente casualizados, em esquama de fatorial simples (3x4)+1 (óleos essenciais x concentrações + fungicida), com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Os óleos essenciais de copaíba e manjericão reduziram consideravelmente o percentual de incidência dos fungos associados as sementes de feijão-fava. O óleo essencial de cravo-da-índia na concetração de 2 mL. L-1, reduziu a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de feijão-fava.

ABSTRACT The Phaseolus lunatus L. species, popularly known as lima bean, is one of the alternative sources of income and food for the population of Northeast Brazil. One of the problems is the diseases that cause great losses in seed production. This study evaluated the effectiveness of essential oils of copaiba, clove, and basil in reducing the incidence of fungi associated with lima bean seeds, as well as the effect on their physiological quality. The treatments consisted of essential oils of copaiba, clove, and basil at concentrations of 0; 1; 1.5; and 2 mL. L-1 and fungicide (Captan®). A total of 200 seeds were used per treatment. To analyze the sanitary quality of the seeds, the method used was incubation in petri dishes containing a double layer of filter paper moistened with distilled sterilized water at a temperature of 20 ± 2°C, for seven days. The physiological quality of the seeds was determined by testing their germination, emergence, and vigor. For the germination test, the method used was a roll of Germitest paper. For the emergence, the seeds were sown in plastic trays containing washed sterilized sand in greenhouse conditions. After nine days, the vigor was determined based on the results of germination and emergence speed rates; length of the aerial part, primary root, and seedling; and dry matter content of the aerial part, roots, and seedlings of the lima beans. The experimental design was completely randomized in a simple factorial arrangement (3x4)+1 (essential oils x concentrations + fungicide) with four replications of 50 seeds. The essential oils of copaiba and basil considerably reduced the percentage of incidence of the fungi associated with lima bean seeds. The essential clove oil at 2 mL. L-1 reduced the physiological quality of the lima bean seeds.

Seeds/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Phaseolus/classification , Syzygium/classification , Fungi/classification , Fabaceae/classification
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 494-501, 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787935


ABSTRACT Recent research reports the importance of preserving plants in Brazilian semiarid regions, in this context, the scientific literature has reported different pharmacological studies from plant extracts with an antifungal potential, coming from forest species that can contribute as a control and management strategy in the transmission of phytopathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of biotech treatments in controlling the transmission of Colletotrichum sp. in seeds of S. obtusifolium. In this study, 100 seeds were subjected to the following preventive treatments: fungicide Captan®, extract of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul., and biological control with Trichoderma spp. The biological control with Trichoderma spp. and the alternative control using C. ferrea extract provided a greater protection to seeds and seedlings of S. obtusifolium facing the transmissibility of Colletotrichum sp.The treatment based on plant extract is more efficient for this purpose only in large seeds and does not interfere on the germination percentage and speed. Therefore it is necessary to perform other studies with Trichoderma spp. and C. ferrea extract to test different doses of these products.

RESUMO Recentes pesquisas relatam a importância da preservação de plantas do semiárido brasileiro. Neste contexto, a literatura científica tem relatado diferentes estudos farmacológicos com extratos vegetais com potencial antifúngico proveniente de espécies florestais que podem contribuir como estratégia de controle e gerenciamento na transmissão de fitopatógenos. No presente estudo o objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de tratamentos biotecnológicos no controle da transmissibilidade de Colletotrichum sp. em sementes de S. obtusifolium. Neste estudo foram utilizadas 100 sementes submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos preventivos: fungicida Captan®, extrato de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. e controle biológico com Trichoderma spp. O controle biológico com Trichoderma spp. e o alternativo com extrato de C. ferrea proporcionam maior proteção às sementes e plântulas S. obtusifolium quanto a transmissibilidade do Colletotrichum sp. O tratamento à base de extrato vegetal foi o mais eficiente para este fim, apenas em sementes de maior tamanho, por não interferir na porcentagem e velocidade de germinação. Portanto, faz-se necessário à realização de outros trabalhos com Trichoderma spp. e extrato de C. ferrea para testar doses diferentes desses produtos.

Trichoderma/classification , Plant Extracts/analysis , Colletotrichum/classification , Sapotaceae/classification , Fabaceae/classification , Seeds/classification
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(1): 249-261, Jan.-Mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753790


The ecological restoration strategies for highly threatened ecosystems such as the tropical dry forest, depend on the knowledge of limiting factors of biological processes for the different species. Some of these include aspects such as germination and seed longevity of typical species present in those forests. In this study, we evaluated the effect of light and temperature on seed germination of two Fabaceae (Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana) and two Bignoniaceae (Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea) species having potential use in restoration, and we analyzed the seed storage behavior of these species for a three months period. To study the light effect, four levels of light quality on seeds were used (photoperiod of 12 hours of white light, darkness and light enriched in red and far-red, both for an hour each day), and we combined them with three levels of alternated temperatures (20/25, 20/30 and 25/30°C-16/8h). For the storage behavior, two levels of seed moisture content particular for each species were used (low: 3.5-6.1% and high: 8.3-13.8%), with three storage temperatures (20, 5 and -20°C) and two storage times (one and three months). The criterion for germination was radicle emergence which was measured in four replicates per treatment, and was expressed as percentage of germination (PG). There were significant differences in germination of Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana among light and temperature treatments, with the lowest value in darkness treatments, whereas germination of Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea did not differ between treatments (PG>90%). The most suitable temperature regime to promote germination in all species was 25/30°C. These four species showed an orthodox seed storage behavior. We concluded that seeds of P. dulce, J. caucana and T. rosea did not have an apparent influence of all light conditions tested in their germination response, which might confer advantages in colonization and establishment processes, while S. saman did not germinate well in darkness. We suggest the use of seeds of P. dulce, J. caucana and T. rosea in ecological restoration processes, due to their tolerance and germination under a wide range of temperature and light conditions. Futhermore, seeds of S. saman might be used in open areas such as forest gaps.

Las estrategias de restauración ecológica en ecosistemas altamente amenazados como el bosque seco tropical, dependen del conocimiento de factores limitantes de procesos biológicos, como la germinación y la longevidad de semillas de especies típicas de los mismos. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la luz y la temperatura en la germinación de semillas de dos especies de Fabaceae y dos de Bignoniaceae potencialmente útiles para restauración, y se determinó su comportamiento en el almacenamiento. Para el primer objetivo, se utilizaron cuatro niveles de calidad lumínica (fotoperiodo con 12 horas de luz, oscuridad y estímulos de luz enriquecida en rojo y luz enriquecida en rojo lejano, ambas por una hora), combinados con tres niveles de temperaturas alternadas (20/25, 20/30 y 25/30°C - 16/8h). Para el segundo objetivo, se utilizaron dos niveles de contenido de humedad de las semillas, con tres niveles de temperatura de almacenamiento (20, 5 y -20°C) y dos tiempos de almacenamiento (1 y 3 meses). La variable de respuesta para ambos experimentos fue el número de semillas germinadas, expresado en porcentaje (PG). Samanea saman y Jacaranda caucana presentaron un PG significativamente diferente entre los tratamientos lumínicos, con el valor menor en la oscuridad, mientras Pithecellobium dulce y Tabebuia rosea no presentaron diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (PG>90%). La respuesta a la temperatura mostró que 25/30°C es el régimen más adecuado para promover la germinación de la mayoría de las especies. Las semillas de las cuatro especies evaluadas presentaron un comportamiento ortodoxo en el almacenamiento. Se concluye que las semillas de P. dulce, J. caucana y T. rosea son indiferentes a las condiciones de luz y temperatura probadas, confiriéndoles ciertas ventajas en procesos de colonización y establecimiento frente a S. saman, cuya germinación no se ve favorecida en la oscuridad. Se sugiere el uso de semillas de P. dulce, J. caucana y T. rosea en proyectos de restauración ecológica del bosque seco Tropical, debido a su tolerancia y germinación en condiciones ambientales con intervalos amplios de temperatura y luminosidad. Mientras que, semillas de S. saman podrían ser usadas en sitios abiertos como claros de bosques.

Bignoniaceae/growth & development , Fabaceae/growth & development , Germination , Light , Seeds/growth & development , Temperature , Bignoniaceae/classification , Colombia , Forests , Fabaceae/classification
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(1): 117-125, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751363


This article reports the development of a pharmaceutical product containing vegetable actives from a Brazilian medicinal plant. The possibility of forming a microemulsion using Pterodon emarginatus ("sucupira") oil was evaluated and the anti-inflammatory potential of this microemulsion was also examined. A formulation was developed using P. emarginatus oil, a mixture of ethoxylated Castor Oil (Ultramone(r) R-540/propylene glycol 2:1) (surfactant/cosurfactant) and distilled water at a ratio of 10:15:75, respectively. The microemulsion which was selected was then subjected to the preliminary stability test and analyzed in terms of average diameter of droplets, pH, zeta potential, and polydispersity index, on the 1st, 7th, 15th, and 30th days after preparation and stored at different temperatures (5 ± 2 °C, 25 ± 2 °C, and 40 ± 2 °C). The anti-inflammatory in vivo activity of both oil and formulation were evaluated, using the experimental model of croton oil-induced ear edema. The preliminary stability test showed that the microemulsion stored at 5 and 25 °C retained its original features throughout the 30-day period. The anti-inflammatory potential of both oil and formulation was shown to be statistically significant (p < 0.001), when compared to the control group, however, the microemulsion proved to be more effective (p < 0.05) than the oil when applied directly to the ear.

Descrevemos o desenvolvimento de um produto farmacêutico contendo ativo vegetal baseado em uma planta medicinal brasileira. Foi avaliada a habilidade de formação de uma microemulsão à base do óleo de Pterodon emarginatus (sucupira) e seu potential anti-inflamatório. Uma formulação foi desenvolvida utilizando o óleo de P. emarginatus, mistura de óleo de mamona etoxilado (Ultramona(r) R-540)/propilenoglicol (2:1) (tensoativo/cotensoativo) e água destilada, na proporção de 10:15:75, respectivamente. A microemulsão selecionada foi submetida ao teste preliminar de estabilidade e foi analisada quanto ao diâmetro médio das gotículas, pH, potential zeta e índice de polidispersão, no 1º, 7º, 15º e 30º dias após o preparo e foram estocadas em diferentes temperaturas (5±2 °C, 25±2 °C e 40±2 °C). Avaliaram-se a atividade anti-inflamatória in vivo do óleo de sucupira e da formulação, usando o modelo experimental do edema de orelha induzido pelo óleo de cróton. No teste preliminar de estabilidade observou-se que a formulação estocada a 5 °C e a 25 °C mantiveram suas características originais durante 30 dias. O potencial anti-inflamatório de ambos, óleo de sucupira e formulação foi estatisticamente significativo (p <0.001), quando comparado ao controle, porém a microemulsão foi mais eficiente (p <0.05) que o óleo aplicado diretamente nas orelhas dos animais.

Fabaceae/classification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/classification , Plants, Medicinal , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Technology, Pharmaceutical
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4): 599-603, out.-dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-763215


RESUMOO objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar possíveis efeitos do extrato das vargens de bordão-de-velho (Samanea tubulosa benth) sobre a reprodução em ratas Wistar. O extrato foi preparado a partir da secagem e trituração das vagens, seguida por maceração com etanol e, posteriormente, concentrado em rotavapor. Ratas Wistar gestantes foram tratadas com 75 mg.100 g-1 de peso corporal de extrato de S. tubulosa e o grupo controle recebeu 1ml/100 g-1 de peso corporal de solução salina por gavagem durante 19 dias. Após eutanásia no 20º dia, as seguintes variáveis foram analisadas: peso corporal fetal, peso dos fetos e placentas, número de corpos lúteos e de reabsorções, implantação, fetos vivos e mortos. O extrato de vagens de S. tubulosa apresenta toxicidade para o feto causando malformações, reabsorções fetais e diminuição pronunciada do peso ao nascer. Contudo, o extrato de vagens de S. tubulosanão influencia no número de corpos lúteos e número de implantações.

ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of pods from bordão-de-velho (Samanea tubulosa benth) extract on the reproduction of female rats.The extract was prepared by maceration wtith ethanol of dried and crushed pods, then it was concentrated in rotary evaporator. The pregnant Wistar rats were treated with a dose of 75 mg.100 g-1of body weight of Samanea tubulosa extract, by gavage , whereas the control group received 1ml.100g-1of saline by the same route for 19 days. After the euthanasia of the animals at day 20th,the following variables were analyzed: fetal body weight, weight of fetuses and placentas, number of corpora lutea, resorption points, live and dead fetuses and number of embryonic implantations. The extract from S. tubulosa pods, at the dose studied, showed toxicity causing fetal abnormalities, fetal resorption and pronounced decrease in the weight of offspring at birth. On the other hand, , the treatment with extract of S.tubulosa pods had no influence over corpora lutea and implantation numbers.

Female , Rats , Rats, Wistar/classification , Toxicity/analysis , Fabaceae/classification , Plants, Toxic/metabolism , Congenital Abnormalities
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Dec; 52(12): 1195-1200
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153811


Arcelin, the antimetabolic protein from wild pulses is a known natural insecticidal molecule. Wild pulses with high arcelin content could serve as potential source to increase the levels of insect resistance in cultivated pulse crops. In this study, arcelin (Arl) gene expression was screened in seven stored product insect pest resistant wild pulse varieties using real time RT-qPCR. Arcelin gene specific real time PCR primers were synthesized from arcelin mRNA sequence of the wild pulse variety, Lablab purpureus. The results revealed different levels of arcelin gene expression in the tested varieties. Canavalia virosa registered significantly high content indicating its suitability for utilization of arcelin gene in developing stored product insect pest resistance with other cultivated pulses.

Animals , Coleoptera/physiology , Canavalia/genetics , Canavalia/parasitology , Disease Resistance/genetics , Fabaceae/classification , Fabaceae/genetics , Fabaceae/parasitology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Glycoproteins/genetics , Host-Parasite Interactions , Phaseolus/genetics , Phaseolus/parasitology , Plant Diseases/genetics , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Seeds/genetics , Seeds/parasitology , Species Specificity
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(4): 1597-1608, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753713


The genus Desmodium is represented in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, by 13 species, all with lomentaceous fruits. Shape, size and isthmus margin of loments vary, while the surface is glabrous, or covered by trichomes of different types. Morphological diversity of trichomes becomes particularly relevant to taxonomic description. The trichome types present on the surface of Desmodium fruits provide data for the identification and classification of species in the State. To assess this, three fruits of each species were collected and deposited at two herbaria, HBR and FLOR, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Some rehydrated samples were examined using light microscopy (LM); and some sections were exposed to the following histochemical reagents: Sudan III for oils and Thionine for mucilage. The structural aspects of trichomes can be classified into uni- or multicel- lular and may still be simple, i.e., nonglandular or glandular. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), five types of trichomes were identified and analyzed among the Desmodium species studied: uncinate, uniseriate, globose multicellular, globose unicellular and subulate. Characteristics, such as loment margin and article form, glabrescent or pillous indument, trichome type, with or without papillous epidermal cells and epicuticular striations, showed relevant diagnostic value. An identification key was developed for Desmodium species from Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on macro and micromorphological characters of the fruit.

Características morfológicas y micromorfológicos de frutos Desmodium (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae). El género Desmodium está representado en Santa Catarina, Brasil, por 13 especies, todas con frutos lomentaceos. Los lomentos han tenido variación en forma, tamaño y características del margen del istmo, y la superficie es glabra o cubierta por tricomas de diferentes tipos. La diversidad morfológica de los tricomas se vuelve particularmente relevante para la descripción taxonómica. Los tipos de tri- comas presentes en la superficie de los frutos Desmodium, proporcionan datos para la identificación y clasificación de las especies en el Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Tres frutos de cada especie fueron recogidos y depositados en el Herbario (HBR y FLOR, Santa Catarina, Brasil). Algu- nas muestras fueron rehidratadas y examinadas usando microscopía de luz (LM), las secciones fueron expuestas a los siguientes reactivos histoquímicos: Sudan III para los aceites y Tionina para mucílago. Los aspectos estructurales de los tricomas se pueden clasificar en uni o multicelulares y pueden todavía ser simples, es decir, no glandular o glandular. Por medio del uso de la microscopía elec- trónica de barrido (SEM), cinco tipos de tricomas se han identificado y analizado entre las especies de Desmodium estudiadas: uncinado, uniseriado, globoso multicelular, globoso unicelular y subulado. Características como el margen del lomento y la forma del artículo, indumento glabrescente o piloso, tipo de tricomas con o sin células epidérmicas papilosas, y estrías epicuticulares mostraron valor de diagnóstico relevante. La clave de identificación fue desarrollada para especies de Desmodium del Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, basado en caracteres macro y micromorfológicos del fruto.

Fabaceae/anatomy & histology , Fruit/anatomy & histology , Trichomes/anatomy & histology , Brazil , Fabaceae/classification , Fabaceae/ultrastructure , Fruit/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Trichomes/ultrastructure
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 443-454, Jun.-Aug. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715443


The existence of monodominant forests on well-drained soils in tropical regions has been widely reported. Such forests most likely result from a combination of both ecological and evolutionary factors. Under conditions of high seed and seedling mortality, vegetative reproduction could create a reproductive advantage leading to forest dominance, and profoundly affect the distribution of genetic variation in a clonal species. We investigated these effects in a low diversity forest site in Northeastern Costa Rica dominated by the species Pentaclethra macroloba, which sprouts from the root mass of fallen trees and from snapped trunks. We examined the population structure of juvenile P. macroloba growing in different soil types and across an elevational gradient. Using seven molecular markers, we genotyped 173 juvenile P. macroloba from 18 plots (six plots in seasonally inundated swamps, and 12 plots in upland non-swamp) spanning 50-300m in elevation at La Selva Biological Station and the adjacent Reserva Ecológica Bijagual in Northeastern Costa Rica. We answered two specific questions: (1) How extensive is clonal reproduction? and (2) what is the distribution of genetic diversity and structure?. We found that clonal reproduction occurred exclusively within inundated swamp areas. However, there was no significant difference between genetic diversity measures in swamp and non-swamp plots, which were both generally low when compared with other tropical forest species. Genetic structure was significant across all plots (F ST=0.109). However, genetic structure among swamp plots (F ST=0.128) was higher than among non-swamp upland plots (F ST=0.093). Additionally, spatial autocorrelation among individuals within non-swamp upland plots was significant from the 25 to 100m spatial scale, but not within swamp plots. The degree of overall genetic structure we found in P. macroloba is high for a tropical forest tree. The incidence of clonal reproduction is a contributing factor in genetic differentiation, but the high structure among plots without clonal reproduction indicates that other factors contribute as well.

La existencia de bosques monodominantes sobre suelos bien drenados en regiones tropicales ha sido ampliamente reportada. Investigaciones recientes han sugerido que tales bosques son probablemente resultado de una combinación de factores ecológicos y evolutivos. Bajo condiciones de alta mortalidad de semillas y plántulas, la reproducción vegetativa podría crear una ventaja reproductiva llevando a la dominancia del bosque, pero también podría afectar profundamente la distribución de la variación genética en especies clonales. Investigamos estos efectos en un sitio de bosque con baja diversidad de especies en el Noreste de Costa Rica que es ampliamente dominado por la especie Pentaclethra macroloba, la cual retoña de la masa de raíces de árboles caídos y de troncos partidos. Examinamos la estructura poblacional de individuos juveniles de P. macroloba creciendo en diferentes tipos de suelo y a través de un gradiente de altitud. Utilizamos siete marcadores moleculares, genotipamos 173 Pentaclethra macroloba de 18 parcelas (seis en ciénagas y 12 en ambientes no cenagosos) ubicados en un gradiente de elevación entre 50-300m en las reservas adyacentes: Reserva Biológica Bijagual y Estación Biológica La Selva, en el centro de Costa Rica. Abordamos dos preguntas específicas: (1) ¿Qué tan extensa es la reproducción clonal? y (2) ¿Cuál es la distribución de diversidad y estructura genética? Encontramos que la reproducción clonal ocurrió exclusivamente dentro de áreas cenagosas inundadas. La estructura genética fue significativa en todas las parcelas (F ST=0.109). Observamos una estructura genética más alta entre poblaciones juveniles dentro de las ciénagas (F ST=0.128) comparada con poblaciones no cenagosas en parcelas a mayor altura (F ST=0.093), con mayor autocorrelación espacial en sitios no cenagosos en el intervalo entre 25 y 100m. La presencia de reproducción clonal no afectó significativamente las medidas de diversidad entre las dos áreas, que fueron generalmente bajas comparadas con otras especies de bosque tropical. El alto grado de estructura genética en general es novedoso para un árbol de bosque tropical. La incidencia de reproducción clonal es un factor que contribuye en la diferenciación genética, pero la alta estructura en parcelas sin reproducción clonal indica que otros factores están contribuyendo también.

Fabaceae/genetics , Genetic Structures/genetics , Costa Rica , Fabaceae/classification , Fabaceae/physiology , Reproduction/genetics , Reproduction/physiology
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 757-767, Jun.-Aug. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715469


Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil is an important tree species for its cultural, economic, and medicinal uses in South America. In order to characterize A. colubrina populations, we collected fruits from four different sites (San Bernardo, El Cebilar, Metán and El Gallinato) within the species distribution area in Salta Province, Northwestern Argentina. For this, a total of 75 fruits and seeds per site were collected and described using morphological (fruits size and weight; seed weight and number per fruit) and genetic descriptors (ribo-somic DNA extraction and PCR; nucleotide alignment and phylogenetic analysis) with standard protocols. Our results showed that the San Bernardo population had the heaviest fruits and seeds (7.89±0.2g and 0.19±0.002, respectively), and the Cebilar population the lightest (6.25±0.18g and 0.15±0.002g, respectively). Fruits and seeds from Metán and El Gallinato showed similar and intermediate values. The proportion viable (39 to 55%) and aborted (43 to 57%) seeds was different, while the proportion of predated (1.7 to 4.2%) seeds was similar among populations. The genetic analysis showed variability of ITS sequences within the especies, and also when compared with the same Brazilian species. Both, morphologic and genetic descriptors showed a high level of similarity between San Bernardo and Metán, and between El Cebilar and El Gallinato populations. Further studies are needed to assess levels of phenotypic and genetic variability within and between populations of different plant species, since this information is crucial for biodiversity and germplasm long-term conservation.

Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil es una especie arbórea de importancia cultural, económica y medicinal en Sur América. Para estudiar las poblaciones de A. colubrina, recolectamos frutos de cuatro sitios diferentes dentro del área de distribución de la especie en la provincia de Salta (Noroeste de Argentina) y se caracterizaron con base en descriptores morfológicos (tamaño de frutos, semillas y peso y número de semillas por fruto) y genéticos (ADN ribosómico). La población de San Bernardo presentó los frutos y semillas más pesados y la de El Cebilar los más livianos. Los frutos y semillas de Metán y El Gallinato fueron similares e intermedios. La proporción de semillas viables y abortadas fue similar en todas las poblaciones, mientras que la de semillas depredadas fue diferente. El análisis genético mostró variabilidad de las secuencias ITS dentro de la especie y también en comparación con la misma especie de Brasil. Los descriptores morfológicos y genéticos mostraron un mayor nivel de similitud entre las poblaciones de San Bernardo y Metán y entre El Cebilar y El Gallinato. Se necesitan más estudios para evaluar los niveles de variabilidad fenotípica y genética dentro y entre poblaciones de diferentes especies de plantas, ya que esta información es fundamental para la conservación de la biodiversidad y del germoplasma a largo plazo.

Biodiversity , Fabaceae/genetics , Fruit/genetics , Seeds/genetics , Argentina , Base Sequence , DNA, Plant , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Fabaceae/anatomy & histology , Fabaceae/classification , Fruit/anatomy & histology , Fruit/classification , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Seeds/anatomy & histology , Seeds/classification
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(1): 308-318, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715431


The factors that determine the existence of tropical forests dominated by a single species (monodominated forests) have been the subject of debate for a long time. It has been hypothesized that the low frequency of disturbances in monodominated forests and the tolerance to shade of the monodominant species are two important factors explaining the prolonged dominance of a single species. We determined the role of these two factors by examining the effects of logging activities on the floristic composition and seedling dynamics in a Prioria copaifera dominated forest in Southeastern Costa Rica. We determined the floristic composition for trees ≥2.5cm DBH and the associated recruitment, survival and mortality of tree canopy seedlings in two sites logged two (L-02) and 12 years (L-12) prior to sampling and an unlogged forest (ULF). Our results showed that L-02 stands had lower species richness (25 species) than the L-12 and ULF stands (49 and 46 species, respectively). As expected, we found significant logging effects on the canopy structure of the altered forests, particularly when comparing the L-02 and the ULF stands. Seedling density was higher in ULF (0.96 seedlings/m²) than in the L-02and L-12 stands (0.322 and 0.466 seedlings/m², respectively). However, seedling mortality was higher in the ULF stands (54%) than in the L-02 (26%) and L-12 (15%) stands. P. macroloba in L-02 was the only species with abundant regeneration under P. copaifera in L-02 stand, where it accounted for 35% of the seedlings. Despite the reduction in seedling abundance observed after logging, P. copaifera seems to maintain large seedling populations in these forests, suggesting that this species maintains its dominance after logging disturbances. Our findings challenge the hypothesis that the regeneration of monodominant species is not likely to occur under heavily disturbed canopy conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (1): 347-357. Epub 2014 March 01.

La determinación de los factores responsables de la existencia de bosques tropicales dominados por una sola especie (bosques monodominados) ha sido motivo de debate por largo tiempo. Se ha propuesto que la baja frecuencia de alteraciones en esos bosques y la tolerancia a la sombra de las plántulas de la especie monodominante son dos de los factores que contribuyen a explicar la prolongada dominancia de una sola especie en estos bosques. Se estudió el rol de estos dos factores evaluando el efecto de la extracción de madera sobre la composición florística y la supervivencia y crecimiento de plántulas en un bosque dominado por Prioria copaifera en la región sureste de Costa Rica. Para ello se determinó la composición florística de los árboles con un diámetro a la altura de pecho (DAP) ≥2.5cm y el reclutamiento, supervivencia y mortalidad de las plántulas de especies arbóreas en sitios donde se extrajo madera dos (L-02) y doce años (L-12) antes de este estudio y un sitio del que nunca se ha extraído madera (ULF). Nuestros resultados muestran que los bosques L-02 tienen una riqueza de especies menor (25 especies) que los bosques L-12 y ULF (49 y 46 especies, respectivamente). Como era de esperar, la extracción de madera tuvo efectos significativos en la estructura del dosel del bosque, particularmente al comparar los bosques L-02 y ULF. La densidad de plántulas fue mayor en bosques ULF (0.96 plántulas/m²) que en L-02 y L-12 (0.322 and 0.466 plántulas/m², respectivamente). Sin embargo, la mortalidad de plántulas fue mayor en ULF (54%) que en L-02 (26%) y L-12 (15%). Pentachletra macroloba fue la única especie que mostró abundante regeneración bajo P. copaifera en parcelas L-02, representando el 35% las plántulas encontradas. A pesar de la reducción de la abundancia de plántulas observada después de la extracción de madera, P. copaifera parece capaz de mantener grandes poblaciones de plántulas en estos bosques. Estos resultados sugieren que P. copaifera puede mantener su dominancia después de las alteraciones causadas por la extracción de madera. Nuestros resultados no apoyan la hipótesis de que la regeneración de las especies monodominates es menos probable cuando el dosel del bosque sufre fuertes alteraciones.

Fabaceae/classification , Seedlings , Trees , Biodiversity , Costa Rica , Forestry , Tropical Climate , Trees/anatomy & histology
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(1): 349-358, ene.-mar. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715435


Adenocarpus complicatus is distributed throughout the Anatolian peninsula and is widely used for human and animal nutrition. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant properties and fatty acid composition of different parts of this plant (fruits and mixed materials). The species was collected from Golyuzu village of the Seydisehir district near Konya province, Turkey. Fruit and mixed parts obtained from this species were ground and a 15g sample was used to prepare methanolic extracts. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100mL methanol in a mechanical shaker. The obtained extracts were filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and were subsequently stored at -20°C. Antioxidant components, namely total phenolic and flavonoid content, were detected for each extract using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by various assays including phosphomolybdenum, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, metal chelating activity, and ferric and cupric ion reducing power. The fatty acid profiles of plant parts were also determined by using gas chromatography. The total phenolic content of fruit (36.21mgGAE/g) was higher than that of mixed materials (13.79mgGAE/g). The methanolic extract of mixed material had higher amounts of flavonoid than fruit extract. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 value (μg/mL) (amount required to inhibit DPPH radical formation by 50%). The lower IC50 value reflects better free radical scavenging action. The radical scavenging activity of the samples was compared with BHT, it showed the mixed material to be almost two times more potent than the fruit extract. However, BHT is an excellent free radical scavenger with an IC50 of 34.061μg/mL. The ferric and cupric reducing power potentials of the extracts were expressed as EC50 value (the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.5). Fruit extract exhibited strong ferric reducing power with an EC50 of 871.25μg/mL. The metal chelating activity of the extracts increased with concentration. Chelating effect was 83.60% for fruit extract at 1mg/mL concentration. Oil content of fruit and mixed parts were detected as 6.71 and 6.14%, respectively. A total of 32 fatty acids were found in the oil. Essential fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic acid) were identified as the most abundant fatty acids in the oil. These results demonstrated that this plant species can be considered as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants. Likewise, the oil obtained from the plant can be used as a source of essential fatty acids for food and pharmacological applications. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (1): 337-346. Epub 2014 March 01.

Adenocarpus complicatus se distribuye por toda la península de Anatolia y es ampliamente utilizado para la nutrición humana y animal. El propósito de este trabajo fue estudiar las propiedades antioxidantes y la composición de ácidos grasos de diferentes partes de la planta (frutos y partes mezcladas). Las especies fueron recolectadas en Golyuzu, Seydisehir, cerca de la provincia Konya en Turquía. Para preparar los extractos metanólicos se tomó una muestra de 15g de frutas y partes mezcladas de esta especie. Muestras de plantas en polvo se extrajeron con 100ml de metanol en un agitador mecánico. Los extractos obtenidos se filtraron y se concentraron a sequedad bajo presión reducida y posteriormente se almacenaron a -20°C. Para cada extracto, mediante métodos espectrofotométricos se detectaron los componentes antioxidantes, llamados contenido total de fenoles y flavonoides. La capacidad antioxidante se evaluó mediante diversos ensayos: fosfomolibdeno, capacidad de captación de radicales libres DPPH, actividad quelante de metales y poder reductor de iones férricos y cúpricos. También se determinaron los perfiles de ácidos grasos de partes de la planta mediante el uso de cromatografía de gases. El contenido fenólico total de la fruta (36.21mgGAE/g) fue mayor que la de los materiales mezclados (13.79mgGAE/g). El extracto metanólico de material mezclado tenía una mayor cantidad de flavonoides que el extracto de la fruta. La actividad captadora de radicales libres de los extractos se expresó como valor de IC50 (mg/ml) (cantidad necesaria para inhibir la formación de radicales DPPH en un 50%). El valor bajo de IC50 refleja mejor acción eliminadora de radicales libres. La actividad captadora de radicales de las muestras se comparó con BHT, se mostró que el material mezclado es casi dos veces más potente que el extracto de la fruta. Sin embargo, BHT es un excelente eliminador de radicales libres con una IC50 de 34.061μg/mL. El potencial de reducción férrico y cúprico de los extractos se expresó como valor de CE50 (la concentración efectiva a la que la absorbancia fue de 0.5). El extracto de la fruta exhibe fuerte poder reductor férrico con una EC50 de 871.25μg/mL. La actividad quelante de metales de los extractos aumentó con la concentración. El efecto quelante de extracto de fruta fue de 83.60% en una concentración de 1mg/ml. El contenido de aceite del fruto y partes mixtas fue 6.71 y 6.14%, respectivamente. Un total de 32 ácidos grasos fueron encontrados en el aceite. Los ácidos grasos esenciales (ácido linoleico y α-linolénico) fueron identificados como los ácidos grasos más abundantes en el aceite. Estos resultados demostraron que esta especie vegetal se puede considerar como una alternativa a los antioxidantes sintéticos. Del mismo modo, el aceite obtenido de la planta se puede utilizar como una fuente de ácidos grasos esenciales para alimentos y aplicaciones farmacológicas.

Antioxidants/analysis , Fabaceae/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Phenols/analysis , Fabaceae/classification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Turkey
Arq. gastroenterol ; 51(1): 64-67, Jan-Mar/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-707004


Context Ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disturbance resulting from an inadequate gastric mucosal defense. Several drugs are available in the market to address the disease; however, these drugs are associated with unnecessary side effects. Objectives Previous research have confirmed the efficacy of plant extracts for possible treatment of the disease. This research aims to evaluate the anti-ulcer properties of medicinal plants. Methods Methanol extracts from the leaves of Intsia bijuga, Cynometra ramiflora, Tamarindus indica, Cassia javanica, Cassia fistula, Bauhini purpurea, Senna spectabilis, Senna siamea and Saraca thaipingensis were evaluated for their anti-ulcer activity using HCl-ethanol as ulcerogen. Results All extracts showed inhibitory activity with I. bijuga, T. indica, S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis exhibiting more than 50% inhibition. S. thaipingensis showed the highest activity at 80%. S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis were partitioned further into hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. The aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions of S. spectabilis showed significant increased in its activity while the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of S. thaipingensis gave higher activity than its aqueous portions. Conclusions We conclude that plant extracts are potential sources of new anti-ulcer agents. .

Contexto A úlcera é o distúrbio gastrointestinal mais comum que resulta de uma inadequada defesa da mucosa gástrica. Vários medicamentos estão disponíveis no mercado para tratar a doença, no entanto, estas drogas podem se associar a efeitos colaterais desnecessários. Objetivos Pesquisas anteriores confirmaram a eficácia de extratos de plantas como possível tratamento da doença. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades anti-úlcera de plantas medicinais. Métodos Extratos alcoólicos das folhas da Intsia bijuga, Cynometra ramiflora, Tamarindus indica, Cassia javanica, Cassia fistula, Bauhini purpurea, Senna spectabilis, Senna siamea e Saraca thaipingensis foram avaliados pela sua atividade anti-úlcera usando o HCl-etanol como ulcerogênico. Resultados Todos os extratos apresentaram atividade inibitória; I.bijuga, T. Índica, S. spectabilis e S. thaipingensis mostraram mais de 50% de inibição. A S. thaipingensis mostrou a maior atividade, atingindo 80%. S. spectabilis e S. thaipingensis foram divididos mais em hexano, acetato de etila e frações aquosas. As frações aquosas e acetato de etila de S. spectabilis mostraram aumento significativo em sua atividade, enquanto que as frações hexano e acetato de etila de S. thaipingensis resultaram em maior atividade do que em partes aquosas. Conclusões Pode-se concluir que os extratos vegetais são fontes potenciais de novos agentes anti-úlcera. .

Animals , Mice , Anti-Ulcer Agents/therapeutic use , Fabaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Fabaceae/classification
Braz. j. biol ; 74(1): 41-51, 2/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715593


We present the leaf anatomy of seven amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Papilionoideae, Leguminosae), interpreting their structures and ecological functions, and also, providing information on which their taxonomy can be based, especially of morphologically similar species. We evaluated Aeschynomene americana, A. ciliata, A. evenia, A. denticulata, A. fluminensis, A. rudis and A. sensitiva. The anatomy corroborates the separation of the series Americanae, Fluminenses, Indicae and Sensitivae, with the shape of the petiole, types of trichomes and quantity of vascular units in the petiole as main characteristics to delimit the species. The petiole shape varies from cylindric in A. americana, A. sensitiva and A. fluminensis, to triangular in A. evenia and quadrangular in A. rudis, A. denticulata and A. ciliata. We observed four types of trichomes: hydathode trichome, long conic trichome, short conic trichome and bulb-based trichome. The hydathode trichome was the most common, except for A. americana and A. fluminensis. Species with higher affinity with water share similar adaptive characteristics, including hydathode trichomes described for the first time for the genus. This article adds unseen descriptions for the genus and on the adaptation factors of the amphibious species.

Neste trabalho é apresentada a anatomia foliar de sete espécies anfíbias de Aeschynomene L., interpretando estruturas e suas funções ecológicas e fornecendo informações que subsidiam sua taxonomia, principalmente de espécies semelhantes morfologicamente. Foram avaliadas Aeschynomene americana, A. ciliata, A. evenia, A. denticulata, A. fluminensis, A. rudis e A. sensitiva, pertencentes ao grupo Papilionoideae - Leguminosae. A anatomia corrobora a separação das séries Americanae, Fluminenses, Indicae e Sensitivae, sendo o formato do pecíolo, tipos dos tricomas e quantidade de unidades vasculares no pecíolo as principais características para delimitação das espécies de Aeschynomene. O formato do pecíolo variou de cilíndrico para A. americana, A. sensitiva e A. fluminensis, triangular para A. evenia e quadrangular para A. rudis, A. denticulata e A. ciliata. Foram observados quatro tipos de tricomas, são eles: tricoma-hidatódio, tricoma cônico longo, tricoma de base bulbosa e cônico curto. O tricoma-hidatódio foi o mais comum, ausente somente em A. americana e A. fluminensis. Espécies com maior afinidade pela água compartilham características adaptativas similares, incluindo tricoma-hidatódio descrito pela primeira vez para o gênero. Este trabalho acrescenta descrições inéditas para o gênero e sobre fatores adaptativos das espécies anfíbias.

Ecology , Fabaceae/classification , Plant Leaves/classification , Fabaceae/anatomy & histology , Fabaceae/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Plant Leaves/ultrastructure