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1.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 3039-3050, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886844

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate gas exchange, efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus, and antioxidant activity in Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. The seedlings were cultivated under different conditions of water availability, in order to improve the utilization efficiency of available water resources. The seedlings were cultivated in four different water retention capacities (WRC- 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%), and evaluated at four different time (T- 30, 60, 90, and 120 days). During the experimental period, seedlings presented the highest values for carboxylation efficiency of Rubisco (A/Ci), intrinsic water use efficiency (IWUE = A/gs), chlorophyll index, and stomatal opening, when grown in the substrate with 75% WRC, but the stomatal index (SI) was less the 25% WRC. The efficiency of photosystem II was not significantly altered by the treatments. Comparison between the extreme treatments in terms of water availability, represented by 25% and 100% WRC, represent stress conditions for the species. Water availability causes a high activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase) in the plant.


Subject(s)
Water/metabolism , Seedlings/metabolism , Fabaceae/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Time Factors , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Random Allocation , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Plant Stomata/metabolism , Fabaceae/classification , Fabaceae/physiology
2.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1369-1379, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886755

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Natural steroids and triterpenes such as b-sitosterol, stigmasterol, lupeol, ursolic and betulinic acids were transformed into its hexanoic and oleic esters, to evaluate the influence of chemical modification towards the cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. The derivatives were evaluated against five tumor cell lines [OVCAR-8 (ovarian carcinoma); SF-295 (glioblastoma); HCT-116 (colon adenocarcinoma); HL-60 (leukemia); and PC-3 (prostate carcinoma)] and the results showed only betulinic acid hexyl ester exhibits cytotoxic potential activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Triterpenes/chemistry , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Lamiaceae/classification , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Cell Line, Tumor , Esters , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry , Fabaceae/classification , Antineoplastic Agents/isolation & purification , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
3.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1761-1771, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886729

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata) subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization) in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees) represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.


Subject(s)
Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Carbon/analysis , Forests , Conservation of Natural Resources , Fabaceae/classification , Fabaceae/drug effects , Soil , Brazil , Biomass , Fabaceae/chemistry
4.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(2): 135-138, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838830

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Given the increase of people with gastrointestinal disorders, the search for alternative treatments with fewer side effects is vital, as well as the demand for food or plants that can help protect the stomach. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective action of the extracts of wild fruit trees of Myrcianthes pungens (guabiju); Inga vera Willd. (ingá-banana) and Marlierea tomentosa Cambess. (guarapuruna) in in vivo pharmacological models. METHODS The different parts of the fruits were separately subjected to a process of extraction by methanol. Two experimental pharmacological models were conducted in mice; the gastric ulcer model induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (indomethacin), and the gastric ulcer model induced by ethanol/HCl, which allowed us to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of the extracts at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Subsequently, the total lesion area (mm2) and relative lesion area (%) were determined. RESULTS The results showed significant gastroprotective activity against the aggressive agents used - ethanol and indomethacin - for all the extracts tested. CONCLUSION It is assumed that the fruits have bioactive compounds such as antioxidant substances that act on the prostaglandin levels, protecting them from the damage caused by ethanol and indomethacin. These results prompt further studies to isolate and identify the active properties.


RESUMO CONTEXTO Devido ao aumento de pessoas com distúrbios gastrointestinais, a busca de tratamentos alternativos com menos efeitos cola­terais é fundamental, assim como a demanda por alimentos ou plantas que possam ajudar a proteger o estômago. OBJETIVO O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ação gastroprotetora dos extratos plantas frutíferas silvestres Myrcianthes pungens (guabiju); Inga vera Willd. (ingá-banana) e Marlierea tomentosa Cambess. (guarapuruna) em modelos farmacológicos in vivo. MÉTODOS As diferentes partes do fruto foram submetidas se­paradamente a um processo de maceração em solução metanólica a frio. Foram realizados dois modelos experimentais em camundongos, modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por anti-inflamatório não-esteroidal (indometacina) e modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por etanol/HCl, que permitiram avaliar a atividade gastroprotetora dos extratos na dose de 250 mg/kg. Posteriormente, foram determinadas a área total de lesão (mm2) e a área relativa lesada (%). RESULTADOS Os resultados apresentaram atividade gastroprotetora significativa para todos os extratos estudados frente aos agentes agressores utilizados, etanol e indometacina. CONCLUSÃO Supõe-se que os frutos apresentam compostos bioativos, como as substancias antioxidantes, que atuam sobre os níveis de prostaglandinas, protegendo dos danos causados pelo etanol e indometacina. Os resultados encorajam futuros estudos para isolamento e identificação dos princípios ativos dos frutos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Stomach Ulcer/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Fabaceae/chemistry , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Indomethacin , Myrtaceae/classification , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol , Fruit/classification , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Fabaceae/classification
5.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 483-492, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843292

ABSTRACT

AbstractHeterogeneity in seeds mostly occurs due to physiological, environmental and genetic factors, and these could affect seed dormancy and germination. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of seed colour on germination behavior. For this, both light and temperature requirements were assessed in Lotus glinoides and Lotus halophilus (Fabaceae) from the hyper-arid deserts of the United Arab Emirates. Germination was assessed in terms of both final germination level (percentage) and germination rate, as expressed by Timson’s germination velocity index. Lotus glinoides produces black and yellow-colored seeds, and L. halophilus produces green and yellow seeds. Different seed lots were germinated in both light and darkness at different temperatures. Yellow seeds of the two species attained significantly lower germination, compared to black and green seeds. There was no specific light or temperature requirements for the germination of the two coloured seeds of L. glinoides; the effect of interactions between seed colour and both light and incubation temperature, were not significant on the final germination percentage. in L. halophilus, green seeds germinated significantly more in both light and darkness at lower temperatures (15/25 °C) and in light at higher temperatures (25/35 °C), compared to yellow seeds. Yellow seeds germinated faster, compared to black at 15/25 °C in L. glinoides and compared to green seeds at 15/25 °C and 25/35 °C in L. halophilus. Seed colour variation, at least in L. halophilus, could be a survival strategy that would determine the time of germination throughout the year in the unpredictable desert environment. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 483-492. Epub 2016 June 01.


ResumenLa heterogeneidad en las semillas se produce principalmente debido a factores fisiológicos, genéticos y ambientales, y esto podría afectar latencia de las semillas y la germinación. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar el efecto del color de la semilla en el comportamiento de la germinación. Para ello, tanto los requisitos de luz y temperatura fueron evaluados en Lotus glinoides y Lotus halophilus (Fabaceae) desde los desiertos hiper-árida de los Emiratos Árabes Unidos. La germinación se evaluó en términos de nivel final de germinación (porcentaje) y la tasa de germinación, expresado por el índice de velocidad de germinación de Timson. L. glinoides produce semillas negro y de color amarillo, y L. halophilus produce semillas verdes y amarillas. Los diferentes lotes de semillas fueron germinadas en luz y oscuridad a diferentes temperaturas. Semillas amarillas de las dos especies alcanzaron significativamente menor germinación, en comparación con las semillas negras y verdes. No había requisitos específicos de luz o temperatura para la germinación de las semillas de dos colores de L. glinoides; el efecto de las interacciones entre color de la semilla y la luz y la temperatura de incubación, no fueron significativas en el porcentaje final de germinación. En L. halophilus, semillas verdes germinados significativamente más en la luz y la oscuridad a temperaturas más bajas (15/25 °C) ya la luz a temperaturas más altas (25/35 °C), en comparación con semillas amarillas. Semillas amarillas germinaron más rápido, en comparación con el negro a 15/25 °C en L. glinoides y en comparación con semillas verdes a 15/25 °C y 25/35 °C en L. halophilus. La variación del color de la semilla, al menos en L. halophilus, podría ser una estrategia de supervivencia que determinaría el momento de la germinación durante todo el año en el entorno del desierto impredecible.


Subject(s)
Seeds/anatomy & histology , Seeds/growth & development , Fabaceae/growth & development , Temperature , Color , Germination/physiology , Desert Climate , Plant Dormancy , Fabaceae/classification
6.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 494-501, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787935

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Recent research reports the importance of preserving plants in Brazilian semiarid regions, in this context, the scientific literature has reported different pharmacological studies from plant extracts with an antifungal potential, coming from forest species that can contribute as a control and management strategy in the transmission of phytopathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of biotech treatments in controlling the transmission of Colletotrichum sp. in seeds of S. obtusifolium. In this study, 100 seeds were subjected to the following preventive treatments: fungicide Captan®, extract of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul., and biological control with Trichoderma spp. The biological control with Trichoderma spp. and the alternative control using C. ferrea extract provided a greater protection to seeds and seedlings of S. obtusifolium facing the transmissibility of Colletotrichum sp.The treatment based on plant extract is more efficient for this purpose only in large seeds and does not interfere on the germination percentage and speed. Therefore it is necessary to perform other studies with Trichoderma spp. and C. ferrea extract to test different doses of these products.


RESUMO Recentes pesquisas relatam a importância da preservação de plantas do semiárido brasileiro. Neste contexto, a literatura científica tem relatado diferentes estudos farmacológicos com extratos vegetais com potencial antifúngico proveniente de espécies florestais que podem contribuir como estratégia de controle e gerenciamento na transmissão de fitopatógenos. No presente estudo o objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de tratamentos biotecnológicos no controle da transmissibilidade de Colletotrichum sp. em sementes de S. obtusifolium. Neste estudo foram utilizadas 100 sementes submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos preventivos: fungicida Captan®, extrato de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. e controle biológico com Trichoderma spp. O controle biológico com Trichoderma spp. e o alternativo com extrato de C. ferrea proporcionam maior proteção às sementes e plântulas S. obtusifolium quanto a transmissibilidade do Colletotrichum sp. O tratamento à base de extrato vegetal foi o mais eficiente para este fim, apenas em sementes de maior tamanho, por não interferir na porcentagem e velocidade de germinação. Portanto, faz-se necessário à realização de outros trabalhos com Trichoderma spp. e extrato de C. ferrea para testar doses diferentes desses produtos.


Subject(s)
Colletotrichum/classification , Fabaceae/classification , Plant Extracts/analysis , Sapotaceae/classification , Trichoderma/classification , Seeds/classification
7.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1,supl.1): 279-287, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782988

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A espécie Phaseolus lunatus L., conhecida popularmente como feijão-fava constitui uma das alternativas de renda e alimentação para a população da região Nordeste do Brasil. Um dos problemas enfrentados são as doenças que provocam grandes perdas na produção de sementes. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência dos óleos essenciais de copaíba, cravo-da-índia e manjericão na redução da incidência de fungos associados às sementes de feijão-fava, e sua interferência na qualidade fisiológica. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por óleos essenciais de copaíba, cravo-da-índia e manjericão nas concentrações de 0; 1; 1,5 e 2 mL. L-1 e fungicida (Captan®). Foram utilizadas 200 sementes por tratamento. Para análise da qualidade sanitária das sementes foi adotado o método de incubação em placas de Petri contendo dupla camada de papel-filtro umedecida com ADE, sob temperatura de 20 ±2 ºC, por 7 dias. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada com base nos testes de germinação, emergência e vigor das sementes. Para o teste germinação foi empregado método de rolo de papel germitest e na emergência osemeio foi realizado em bandejas plásticas contendo areia lavada esterilizada, em condição de casa de vegetação, e após 9 dias da instalação foi determinado o vigor com base nos resultados de índice de velocidade de germinação e emergência; comprimento da parte aérea, raiz primária e plântula; e teor de massa seca da partes aérea, raízes e plântulas de feijão-fava. O delineamento experimental foi interiamente casualizados, em esquama de fatorial simples (3x4)+1 (óleos essenciais x concentrações + fungicida), com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Os óleos essenciais de copaíba e manjericão reduziram consideravelmente o percentual de incidência dos fungos associados as sementes de feijão-fava. O óleo essencial de cravo-da-índia na concetração de 2 mL. L-1, reduziu a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de feijão-fava.


ABSTRACT The Phaseolus lunatus L. species, popularly known as lima bean, is one of the alternative sources of income and food for the population of Northeast Brazil. One of the problems is the diseases that cause great losses in seed production. This study evaluated the effectiveness of essential oils of copaiba, clove, and basil in reducing the incidence of fungi associated with lima bean seeds, as well as the effect on their physiological quality. The treatments consisted of essential oils of copaiba, clove, and basil at concentrations of 0; 1; 1.5; and 2 mL. L-1 and fungicide (Captan®). A total of 200 seeds were used per treatment. To analyze the sanitary quality of the seeds, the method used was incubation in petri dishes containing a double layer of filter paper moistened with distilled sterilized water at a temperature of 20 ± 2°C, for seven days. The physiological quality of the seeds was determined by testing their germination, emergence, and vigor. For the germination test, the method used was a roll of Germitest paper. For the emergence, the seeds were sown in plastic trays containing washed sterilized sand in greenhouse conditions. After nine days, the vigor was determined based on the results of germination and emergence speed rates; length of the aerial part, primary root, and seedling; and dry matter content of the aerial part, roots, and seedlings of the lima beans. The experimental design was completely randomized in a simple factorial arrangement (3x4)+1 (essential oils x concentrations + fungicide) with four replications of 50 seeds. The essential oils of copaiba and basil considerably reduced the percentage of incidence of the fungi associated with lima bean seeds. The essential clove oil at 2 mL. L-1 reduced the physiological quality of the lima bean seeds.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Phaseolus/classification , Seeds/classification , Fabaceae/classification , Fungi/classification , Syzygium/classification
8.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4): 599-603, out.-dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-763215

ABSTRACT

RESUMOO objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar possíveis efeitos do extrato das vargens de bordão-de-velho (Samanea tubulosa benth) sobre a reprodução em ratas Wistar. O extrato foi preparado a partir da secagem e trituração das vagens, seguida por maceração com etanol e, posteriormente, concentrado em rotavapor. Ratas Wistar gestantes foram tratadas com 75 mg.100 g-1 de peso corporal de extrato de S. tubulosa e o grupo controle recebeu 1ml/100 g-1 de peso corporal de solução salina por gavagem durante 19 dias. Após eutanásia no 20º dia, as seguintes variáveis foram analisadas: peso corporal fetal, peso dos fetos e placentas, número de corpos lúteos e de reabsorções, implantação, fetos vivos e mortos. O extrato de vagens de S. tubulosa apresenta toxicidade para o feto causando malformações, reabsorções fetais e diminuição pronunciada do peso ao nascer. Contudo, o extrato de vagens de S. tubulosanão influencia no número de corpos lúteos e número de implantações.


ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of pods from bordão-de-velho (Samanea tubulosa benth) extract on the reproduction of female rats.The extract was prepared by maceration wtith ethanol of dried and crushed pods, then it was concentrated in rotary evaporator. The pregnant Wistar rats were treated with a dose of 75 mg.100 g-1of body weight of Samanea tubulosa extract, by gavage , whereas the control group received 1ml.100g-1of saline by the same route for 19 days. After the euthanasia of the animals at day 20th,the following variables were analyzed: fetal body weight, weight of fetuses and placentas, number of corpora lutea, resorption points, live and dead fetuses and number of embryonic implantations. The extract from S. tubulosa pods, at the dose studied, showed toxicity causing fetal abnormalities, fetal resorption and pronounced decrease in the weight of offspring at birth. On the other hand, , the treatment with extract of S.tubulosa pods had no influence over corpora lutea and implantation numbers.


Subject(s)
Female , Rats , Fabaceae/classification , Rats, Wistar/classification , Toxicity/analysis , Congenital Abnormalities , Plants, Toxic/metabolism
9.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(1): 117-125, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751363

ABSTRACT

This article reports the development of a pharmaceutical product containing vegetable actives from a Brazilian medicinal plant. The possibility of forming a microemulsion using Pterodon emarginatus ("sucupira") oil was evaluated and the anti-inflammatory potential of this microemulsion was also examined. A formulation was developed using P. emarginatus oil, a mixture of ethoxylated Castor Oil (Ultramone(r) R-540/propylene glycol 2:1) (surfactant/cosurfactant) and distilled water at a ratio of 10:15:75, respectively. The microemulsion which was selected was then subjected to the preliminary stability test and analyzed in terms of average diameter of droplets, pH, zeta potential, and polydispersity index, on the 1st, 7th, 15th, and 30th days after preparation and stored at different temperatures (5 ± 2 °C, 25 ± 2 °C, and 40 ± 2 °C). The anti-inflammatory in vivo activity of both oil and formulation were evaluated, using the experimental model of croton oil-induced ear edema. The preliminary stability test showed that the microemulsion stored at 5 and 25 °C retained its original features throughout the 30-day period. The anti-inflammatory potential of both oil and formulation was shown to be statistically significant (p < 0.001), when compared to the control group, however, the microemulsion proved to be more effective (p < 0.05) than the oil when applied directly to the ear.


Descrevemos o desenvolvimento de um produto farmacêutico contendo ativo vegetal baseado em uma planta medicinal brasileira. Foi avaliada a habilidade de formação de uma microemulsão à base do óleo de Pterodon emarginatus (sucupira) e seu potential anti-inflamatório. Uma formulação foi desenvolvida utilizando o óleo de P. emarginatus, mistura de óleo de mamona etoxilado (Ultramona(r) R-540)/propilenoglicol (2:1) (tensoativo/cotensoativo) e água destilada, na proporção de 10:15:75, respectivamente. A microemulsão selecionada foi submetida ao teste preliminar de estabilidade e foi analisada quanto ao diâmetro médio das gotículas, pH, potential zeta e índice de polidispersão, no 1º, 7º, 15º e 30º dias após o preparo e foram estocadas em diferentes temperaturas (5±2 °C, 25±2 °C e 40±2 °C). Avaliaram-se a atividade anti-inflamatória in vivo do óleo de sucupira e da formulação, usando o modelo experimental do edema de orelha induzido pelo óleo de cróton. No teste preliminar de estabilidade observou-se que a formulação estocada a 5 °C e a 25 °C mantiveram suas características originais durante 30 dias. O potencial anti-inflamatório de ambos, óleo de sucupira e formulação foi estatisticamente significativo (p <0.001), quando comparado ao controle, porém a microemulsão foi mais eficiente (p <0.05) que o óleo aplicado diretamente nas orelhas dos animais.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/classification , Fabaceae/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Plants, Medicinal , Technology, Pharmaceutical
10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(1): 249-261, Jan.-Mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753790

ABSTRACT

The ecological restoration strategies for highly threatened ecosystems such as the tropical dry forest, depend on the knowledge of limiting factors of biological processes for the different species. Some of these include aspects such as germination and seed longevity of typical species present in those forests. In this study, we evaluated the effect of light and temperature on seed germination of two Fabaceae (Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana) and two Bignoniaceae (Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea) species having potential use in restoration, and we analyzed the seed storage behavior of these species for a three months period. To study the light effect, four levels of light quality on seeds were used (photoperiod of 12 hours of white light, darkness and light enriched in red and far-red, both for an hour each day), and we combined them with three levels of alternated temperatures (20/25, 20/30 and 25/30°C-16/8h). For the storage behavior, two levels of seed moisture content particular for each species were used (low: 3.5-6.1% and high: 8.3-13.8%), with three storage temperatures (20, 5 and -20°C) and two storage times (one and three months). The criterion for germination was radicle emergence which was measured in four replicates per treatment, and was expressed as percentage of germination (PG). There were significant differences in germination of Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana among light and temperature treatments, with the lowest value in darkness treatments, whereas germination of Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea did not differ between treatments (PG>90%). The most suitable temperature regime to promote germination in all species was 25/30°C. These four species showed an orthodox seed storage behavior. We concluded that seeds of P. dulce, J. caucana and T. rosea did not have an apparent influence of all light conditions tested in their germination response, which might confer advantages in colonization and establishment processes, while S. saman did not germinate well in darkness. We suggest the use of seeds of P. dulce, J. caucana and T. rosea in ecological restoration processes, due to their tolerance and germination under a wide range of temperature and light conditions. Futhermore, seeds of S. saman might be used in open areas such as forest gaps.


Las estrategias de restauración ecológica en ecosistemas altamente amenazados como el bosque seco tropical, dependen del conocimiento de factores limitantes de procesos biológicos, como la germinación y la longevidad de semillas de especies típicas de los mismos. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la luz y la temperatura en la germinación de semillas de dos especies de Fabaceae y dos de Bignoniaceae potencialmente útiles para restauración, y se determinó su comportamiento en el almacenamiento. Para el primer objetivo, se utilizaron cuatro niveles de calidad lumínica (fotoperiodo con 12 horas de luz, oscuridad y estímulos de luz enriquecida en rojo y luz enriquecida en rojo lejano, ambas por una hora), combinados con tres niveles de temperaturas alternadas (20/25, 20/30 y 25/30°C - 16/8h). Para el segundo objetivo, se utilizaron dos niveles de contenido de humedad de las semillas, con tres niveles de temperatura de almacenamiento (20, 5 y -20°C) y dos tiempos de almacenamiento (1 y 3 meses). La variable de respuesta para ambos experimentos fue el número de semillas germinadas, expresado en porcentaje (PG). Samanea saman y Jacaranda caucana presentaron un PG significativamente diferente entre los tratamientos lumínicos, con el valor menor en la oscuridad, mientras Pithecellobium dulce y Tabebuia rosea no presentaron diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (PG>90%). La respuesta a la temperatura mostró que 25/30°C es el régimen más adecuado para promover la germinación de la mayoría de las especies. Las semillas de las cuatro especies evaluadas presentaron un comportamiento ortodoxo en el almacenamiento. Se concluye que las semillas de P. dulce, J. caucana y T. rosea son indiferentes a las condiciones de luz y temperatura probadas, confiriéndoles ciertas ventajas en procesos de colonización y establecimiento frente a S. saman, cuya germinación no se ve favorecida en la oscuridad. Se sugiere el uso de semillas de P. dulce, J. caucana y T. rosea en proyectos de restauración ecológica del bosque seco Tropical, debido a su tolerancia y germinación en condiciones ambientales con intervalos amplios de temperatura y luminosidad. Mientras que, semillas de S. saman podrían ser usadas en sitios abiertos como claros de bosques.


Subject(s)
Bignoniaceae/growth & development , Fabaceae/growth & development , Germination , Light , Seeds/growth & development , Temperature , Bignoniaceae/classification , Colombia , Forests , Fabaceae/classification
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Dec; 52(12): 1195-1200
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153811

ABSTRACT

Arcelin, the antimetabolic protein from wild pulses is a known natural insecticidal molecule. Wild pulses with high arcelin content could serve as potential source to increase the levels of insect resistance in cultivated pulse crops. In this study, arcelin (Arl) gene expression was screened in seven stored product insect pest resistant wild pulse varieties using real time RT-qPCR. Arcelin gene specific real time PCR primers were synthesized from arcelin mRNA sequence of the wild pulse variety, Lablab purpureus. The results revealed different levels of arcelin gene expression in the tested varieties. Canavalia virosa registered significantly high content indicating its suitability for utilization of arcelin gene in developing stored product insect pest resistance with other cultivated pulses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coleoptera/physiology , Canavalia/genetics , Canavalia/parasitology , Disease Resistance/genetics , Fabaceae/classification , Fabaceae/genetics , Fabaceae/parasitology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Glycoproteins/genetics , Host-Parasite Interactions , Phaseolus/genetics , Phaseolus/parasitology , Plant Diseases/genetics , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Seeds/genetics , Seeds/parasitology , Species Specificity
12.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(4): 832-838, oct.-dic. 2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-729891

ABSTRACT

O uso popular, e mesmo o tradicional, não são suficientes para validar as plantas medicinais como medicamentos eficazes e seguros. Para melhor entendimento, é necessário avaliar a relação risco/benefício de seu uso, por meio de estudos toxicológicos. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estimar a toxicidade aguda do extrato etanólico das cascas secas de Pithecellobium cochliocarpum (Gomez) Macbr através da obtenção da dose letal (DL50) em roedores, e da Concentração letal (CL50) frente à Artemia salina Leach. Foram realizados experimentos por via oral e intraperitoneal utilizando camundongos fêmeas albinos Swiss (Mus musculus) (n=6). Por via oral foram administradas 3 doses (1.000, 3.000 e 5.000 mg Kg-1) e por via entraperitoneal, 5 doses (155, 160, 176, 345,6 e 414,72 Kg-1). Os sinais comportamentais foram avaliados durante uma hora após a administração do extrato, ficando em observação até 48 horas. O número de óbitos foi quantificado para posterior cálculo da DL50. A administração por via intraperitoneal foi realizada em intervalo de 5 minutos para cada animal. Nos ensaios de toxicidade por via oral a solução foi introduzida por via intragástrica através de cânula metálica acoplada a seringa (gavagem) no mesmo intervalo de tempo utilizado pela via intraperitoneal. Os animais do grupo de administração oral apresentaram algumas reações, porém não letais até a dose de 5.000 mg Kg-1. A DL50 para a via intraperitoneal foi 257, 49 mg Kg-1 (muito tóxico, grau 4) (Schuartsman, 1980). A CL50 (543,5 µg Kg-1) demonstrou ser tóxica frente à A. salina. Conclui-se que sob condições agudas de exposição, o extrato do Pithecellobium cochliocarpum é um agente tóxico, devendo ser considerado como tal, dependendo da dose administrada ou absorvida, do etempo e frequência de exposição e das vias de administração.


The popular use, and even the traditional one, is not enough to validate medicinal plants as effective and safe medicines. For a better understanding, it is necessary to assess the risk / benefit ratio of their use through toxicological studies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Pithecellobium cochliocarpum (Gomez) Macbr dried bark ethanolic extract through its lethal dose (LD50), in mice, and lethal concentration (LC50) in relation to Artemia salina Leach. Experiments were performed by oral and intraperitoneal route using female Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) (n = 6). The first three doses were given orally (1,000, 3,000 and 5,000 mg kg-1) and the last five doses were given intraperitoneally (155, 160, 176, 345.6 and 414.72 Kg-1). The behavioral signs were evaluated one hour after administration of the extract, being observed up to 48 hours. The number of deaths was quantified for subsequent calculation of LD50. The intraperitoneal administration was carried out at an interval of 5 minutes for each animal. For the oral toxicity test, the solution was introduced in the digestive system of the animals through a metal cannula coupled to a syringe (gavage) at the same time interval used for the intraperitoneal route. The animals from the oral group presented some reactions, but they were not lethal up to the dose of 5.000 mg kg-1. The LD50 for the intraperitoneal group was 257.49 mg kg-1 (very toxic, grade 4) (Schuartsman, 1980). The LC50 (543.5 mg kg-1) was toxic to A. salina. We can conclude that, under acute conditions of exposure, the Pithecellobium cochliocarpum extract is a poisonous agent and should be considered as such depending on the administered or absorbed dose, the time and frequency of exposure, and the administration routes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Toxicity , Fabaceae/classification , Plant Extracts/analysis , Phytotherapy/instrumentation , Plants, Medicinal/classification
13.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 50(4): 919-930, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741359

ABSTRACT

An oleaginous fraction obtained from an alcohol extract of the fruit of Pterodon pubescens Benth. (FHPp) was microencapsulated in polymeric systems. These systems were developed using a complex coacervation method and consisted of alginate/medium-molecular-weight chitosan (F1-MC), alginate/chitosan with greater than 75% deacetylation (F2-MC), and alginate/low-molecular-weight chitosan (F3-MC). These developed systems have the potential to both mask the taste of the extract, and to protect its constituents against possible chemical degradation. The influence of the formulation parameters and process were determined by chemical profiling and measurement of the microencapsulation efficiency of the oleaginous fraction, and by assessment of microcapsule morphology. The obtained formulations were slightly yellow, odorless, and had a pleasant taste. The average diameters of the microcapsules were 0.4679 µm (F2-MC), 0.5885 µm (F3-MC), and 0.9033 µm (F1-MC). The best formulation was F3-MC, with FHPp microencapsulation efficiency of 61.01 ± 2.00% and an in vitro release profile of 75.88 ± 0.45%; the content of vouacapans 3-4 was 99.49 ± 2.80%. The best model to describe the release kinetics for F1-MC and F3-MC was that proposed by Higuchi; however, F2-MC release displayed first-order kinetics; the release mechanism was of the supercase II type for all formulations.


Uma fração oleaginosa obtida do extrato etanólico de frutos de Pterodon pubescens Benth (FHPp) foi microencapsulada em um sistema polimérico. Estes sistemas foram desenvolvidos utilizando o método de coacervação complexa, constituído de alginato/quitosana massa molecular média (F1-MC), alginato/quitosana com desacetilação superior a 75% (F2-MC) e alginato/quitosana de massa molecular baixa (F3-MC). Estes sistemas desenvolvidos têm o potencial tanto de mascarar o sabor do extrato, quanto de protegê-lo de possível degradação química. A influência dos parâmetros de formulação e processo foram determinadas por caracterização química, determinação da eficiência de microencapsulação da fração oleaginosa e por avaliação morfológica da microcápsula. As formulações mostraram-se ligeiramente amareladas, inodoras e com sabor agradável. Os diâmetros médios das microcápsulas foram de 0,4679 µm (F2-MC), 0,5885 µm (F3-MC) e 0,9033 µm (F1-MC). A melhor formulação foi F3-MC, considerando-se que apresentou eficiência de encapsulação de 61,01 ± 2,00%, e perfil de liberação in vitro de 75,88 ± 0,45%; o conteúdo dos vouacapanos 3-4 foi 99,49 ± 2,80%. O melhor modelo para descrever a cinética de liberação foi o modelo proposto por Higuchi para F1-MC e F3-MC, entretanto, para F2-MC foi o modelo de primeira ordem, e o mecanismo de liberação foi do tipo super caso II para todas as formulações.


Subject(s)
Alginates/analysis , Biological Products/analysis , Fabaceae/classification , Chitosan/analysis , Drug Compounding/statistics & numerical data
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(4): 1597-1608, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753713

ABSTRACT

The genus Desmodium is represented in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, by 13 species, all with lomentaceous fruits. Shape, size and isthmus margin of loments vary, while the surface is glabrous, or covered by trichomes of different types. Morphological diversity of trichomes becomes particularly relevant to taxonomic description. The trichome types present on the surface of Desmodium fruits provide data for the identification and classification of species in the State. To assess this, three fruits of each species were collected and deposited at two herbaria, HBR and FLOR, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Some rehydrated samples were examined using light microscopy (LM); and some sections were exposed to the following histochemical reagents: Sudan III for oils and Thionine for mucilage. The structural aspects of trichomes can be classified into uni- or multicel- lular and may still be simple, i.e., nonglandular or glandular. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), five types of trichomes were identified and analyzed among the Desmodium species studied: uncinate, uniseriate, globose multicellular, globose unicellular and subulate. Characteristics, such as loment margin and article form, glabrescent or pillous indument, trichome type, with or without papillous epidermal cells and epicuticular striations, showed relevant diagnostic value. An identification key was developed for Desmodium species from Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on macro and micromorphological characters of the fruit.


Características morfológicas y micromorfológicos de frutos Desmodium (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae). El género Desmodium está representado en Santa Catarina, Brasil, por 13 especies, todas con frutos lomentaceos. Los lomentos han tenido variación en forma, tamaño y características del margen del istmo, y la superficie es glabra o cubierta por tricomas de diferentes tipos. La diversidad morfológica de los tricomas se vuelve particularmente relevante para la descripción taxonómica. Los tipos de tri- comas presentes en la superficie de los frutos Desmodium, proporcionan datos para la identificación y clasificación de las especies en el Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Tres frutos de cada especie fueron recogidos y depositados en el Herbario (HBR y FLOR, Santa Catarina, Brasil). Algu- nas muestras fueron rehidratadas y examinadas usando microscopía de luz (LM), las secciones fueron expuestas a los siguientes reactivos histoquímicos: Sudan III para los aceites y Tionina para mucílago. Los aspectos estructurales de los tricomas se pueden clasificar en uni o multicelulares y pueden todavía ser simples, es decir, no glandular o glandular. Por medio del uso de la microscopía elec- trónica de barrido (SEM), cinco tipos de tricomas se han identificado y analizado entre las especies de Desmodium estudiadas: uncinado, uniseriado, globoso multicelular, globoso unicelular y subulado. Características como el margen del lomento y la forma del artículo, indumento glabrescente o piloso, tipo de tricomas con o sin células epidérmicas papilosas, y estrías epicuticulares mostraron valor de diagnóstico relevante. La clave de identificación fue desarrollada para especies de Desmodium del Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, basado en caracteres macro y micromorfológicos del fruto.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae/anatomy & histology , Fruit/anatomy & histology , Trichomes/anatomy & histology , Brazil , Fabaceae/classification , Fabaceae/ultrastructure , Fruit/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Trichomes/ultrastructure
15.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(3): 561-565, jul.-set. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722277

ABSTRACT

Pentavalent antimonials are the first choice for the treatment of human leishmaniasis. However in rural areas the traditional plants may be preferred for the treatment of lesions. In recent years a number of papers are published related to the natural products especially plant derivative with infectious diseases. The present work was undertaken to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of Pterodon pubescens which is a native tree widely distributed over the central region of Brazil and used in folk medicine as wine infusions to treat inflammatory disease. The phytochemical screening and the biological essay of ethanolic extract of Pterodon pudescens (PPE) leaves at the concentrations of 150, 300, 450, 600 µg/ml were tested in vitro in Leishmania amazonensis-infected macrophages to support its traditional medicinal use as a leishmaniasis remedy. Phytochemical screening of PPE has shown the presence of catechemical tannins, steroids, triterpenoids and flavonoids. The biological test suggests that PPE were found to control parasite burden of cell cultures in dose-dependent manner. These findings highlight the fact that the apparent potency of Pterodon pudescens compounds, together with their widely distribution over Latin America and Brazil, may represent a promising antileishmanial agent.


Antimoniais pentavalentes são a primeira escolha para o tratamento das leishmanioses humanas. No entanto, no interior brasileiro plantas tradicionais são usadas para o tratamento dessas lesões. De fato, recentes trabalhos tem relatado o potencial terapêutico de produtos naturais, especialmente derivados de plantas. Neste estudo avaliamos a atividade leishmanicida de Pterodon pubescens, uma árvore nativa, distribuída pela região central brasileira e usada em infusões para tratamento de inflamações. Foi realizada a análise fitoquímica e o ensaio in vitro em macrófagos infectados com Leishmania amazonensis em concentrações de 150, 300, 450, 600 µg/ml do extrato etanólico de folhas de Pterodon pudescens (PPE) para comprovar o uso tradicional desta planta como terapia para as leishmanioses. Os testes fitoquímicos indicaram a presença de taninos catequímicos, flavonas, esteroides, triterpenoides, flavonoides e xantonas. Os ensaios biológicos revelaram que o PPE foi capaz de controlar a carga parasitária em macrófagos de maneira dose dependente. Estes resultados corroboram com o potencial terapêutico de compostos de Pterodon pudescens e, junto com sua ampla distribuição no Brasil, podem representar promissor agente leishmanicida.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae/classification , Leishmania mexicana , Plant Extracts/analysis , Biological Assay/methods , Phytochemicals/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/classification
16.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 50(3): 591-597, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728696

ABSTRACT

Mung bean seed coat (MBSC) is a healthcare product in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an MBSC ethanol extract on the bioavailability of cyclosporine A (CsA) in rats. Rats were orally dosed with CsA alone or in combination with MBSC ethanol extracts (500 mg/kg, p.o.). The blood levels of CsA were assayed by liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The everted rat intestinal sac technique was used to determine the influence of MBSC on the absorption of CsA. The results reveal that combined CsA intake with MBSC decreased the Cmax, AUC0-t, t1/2z and MRT0-t values of CsA by 24.96%, 47.28%, 34.73% and 23.58%, respectively (P<0.05), and significantly raised the CL/F by 51.97% (P<0.01). The in vitro results demonstrated that significantly less CsA was absorbed (P<0.05). The overall results indicate that after being concomitantly ingested, MBSC reduced the bioavailability of CsA, at least partially, in the absorption phase.


O tegumento da semente de feijão-mungo (MBSC) é um produto para tratamento de saúde em países asiáticos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito de extrato etanólico de MBSC na biodisponibilidade da ciclosporina A (CVsA) em ratos. Administrou-se aos ratos CsA sozinha ou em associação com extrato etanólico de MBSC (500 mg/kg, p.o.), por via oral. Os níveis sanguíneos de CSA foram determinados por cromatografia a líquido com ionização por electrospray, associada à espectrometria de massas (LC-MS/MS). Utilizou-se a técnica de inversão do saco intestinal de rato para determinar a influência do MBSC na absorção de CsA. Os resultados revelaram que a ingestão combinada de CsA e MBSC diminuiu os valores de Cmax, AUC0-t, t1/2z e MRT0-t de CsA em 24%, 47,28%, 34,73% e 23,58%, respectivamente (P<0.05), e aumentou, significativamente, CL/F em 51,79% (P<0.05). Os resultados in vitro demostraram que, significativamente, menos CsA foi absorvida (P<0.05). Os resultados totais indicaram que após ser concomitantemente ingerida, a MBSC reduziu, ao menos parcialmente, a biodisponibilidade de CsA, na fase de absorção.


Subject(s)
Rats , Biological Availability , Cyclosporine , Fabaceae/classification , Rats/classification , Biological Availability , Seeds/classification
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 443-454, Jun.-Aug. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715443

ABSTRACT

The existence of monodominant forests on well-drained soils in tropical regions has been widely reported. Such forests most likely result from a combination of both ecological and evolutionary factors. Under conditions of high seed and seedling mortality, vegetative reproduction could create a reproductive advantage leading to forest dominance, and profoundly affect the distribution of genetic variation in a clonal species. We investigated these effects in a low diversity forest site in Northeastern Costa Rica dominated by the species Pentaclethra macroloba, which sprouts from the root mass of fallen trees and from snapped trunks. We examined the population structure of juvenile P. macroloba growing in different soil types and across an elevational gradient. Using seven molecular markers, we genotyped 173 juvenile P. macroloba from 18 plots (six plots in seasonally inundated swamps, and 12 plots in upland non-swamp) spanning 50-300m in elevation at La Selva Biological Station and the adjacent Reserva Ecológica Bijagual in Northeastern Costa Rica. We answered two specific questions: (1) How extensive is clonal reproduction? and (2) what is the distribution of genetic diversity and structure?. We found that clonal reproduction occurred exclusively within inundated swamp areas. However, there was no significant difference between genetic diversity measures in swamp and non-swamp plots, which were both generally low when compared with other tropical forest species. Genetic structure was significant across all plots (F ST=0.109). However, genetic structure among swamp plots (F ST=0.128) was higher than among non-swamp upland plots (F ST=0.093). Additionally, spatial autocorrelation among individuals within non-swamp upland plots was significant from the 25 to 100m spatial scale, but not within swamp plots. The degree of overall genetic structure we found in P. macroloba is high for a tropical forest tree. The incidence of clonal reproduction is a contributing factor in genetic differentiation, but the high structure among plots without clonal reproduction indicates that other factors contribute as well.


La existencia de bosques monodominantes sobre suelos bien drenados en regiones tropicales ha sido ampliamente reportada. Investigaciones recientes han sugerido que tales bosques son probablemente resultado de una combinación de factores ecológicos y evolutivos. Bajo condiciones de alta mortalidad de semillas y plántulas, la reproducción vegetativa podría crear una ventaja reproductiva llevando a la dominancia del bosque, pero también podría afectar profundamente la distribución de la variación genética en especies clonales. Investigamos estos efectos en un sitio de bosque con baja diversidad de especies en el Noreste de Costa Rica que es ampliamente dominado por la especie Pentaclethra macroloba, la cual retoña de la masa de raíces de árboles caídos y de troncos partidos. Examinamos la estructura poblacional de individuos juveniles de P. macroloba creciendo en diferentes tipos de suelo y a través de un gradiente de altitud. Utilizamos siete marcadores moleculares, genotipamos 173 Pentaclethra macroloba de 18 parcelas (seis en ciénagas y 12 en ambientes no cenagosos) ubicados en un gradiente de elevación entre 50-300m en las reservas adyacentes: Reserva Biológica Bijagual y Estación Biológica La Selva, en el centro de Costa Rica. Abordamos dos preguntas específicas: (1) ¿Qué tan extensa es la reproducción clonal? y (2) ¿Cuál es la distribución de diversidad y estructura genética? Encontramos que la reproducción clonal ocurrió exclusivamente dentro de áreas cenagosas inundadas. La estructura genética fue significativa en todas las parcelas (F ST=0.109). Observamos una estructura genética más alta entre poblaciones juveniles dentro de las ciénagas (F ST=0.128) comparada con poblaciones no cenagosas en parcelas a mayor altura (F ST=0.093), con mayor autocorrelación espacial en sitios no cenagosos en el intervalo entre 25 y 100m. La presencia de reproducción clonal no afectó significativamente las medidas de diversidad entre las dos áreas, que fueron generalmente bajas comparadas con otras especies de bosque tropical. El alto grado de estructura genética en general es novedoso para un árbol de bosque tropical. La incidencia de reproducción clonal es un factor que contribuye en la diferenciación genética, pero la alta estructura en parcelas sin reproducción clonal indica que otros factores están contribuyendo también.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae/genetics , Genetic Structures/genetics , Costa Rica , Fabaceae/classification , Fabaceae/physiology , Reproduction/genetics , Reproduction/physiology
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 757-767, Jun.-Aug. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715469

ABSTRACT

Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil is an important tree species for its cultural, economic, and medicinal uses in South America. In order to characterize A. colubrina populations, we collected fruits from four different sites (San Bernardo, El Cebilar, Metán and El Gallinato) within the species distribution area in Salta Province, Northwestern Argentina. For this, a total of 75 fruits and seeds per site were collected and described using morphological (fruits size and weight; seed weight and number per fruit) and genetic descriptors (ribo-somic DNA extraction and PCR; nucleotide alignment and phylogenetic analysis) with standard protocols. Our results showed that the San Bernardo population had the heaviest fruits and seeds (7.89±0.2g and 0.19±0.002, respectively), and the Cebilar population the lightest (6.25±0.18g and 0.15±0.002g, respectively). Fruits and seeds from Metán and El Gallinato showed similar and intermediate values. The proportion viable (39 to 55%) and aborted (43 to 57%) seeds was different, while the proportion of predated (1.7 to 4.2%) seeds was similar among populations. The genetic analysis showed variability of ITS sequences within the especies, and also when compared with the same Brazilian species. Both, morphologic and genetic descriptors showed a high level of similarity between San Bernardo and Metán, and between El Cebilar and El Gallinato populations. Further studies are needed to assess levels of phenotypic and genetic variability within and between populations of different plant species, since this information is crucial for biodiversity and germplasm long-term conservation.


Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil es una especie arbórea de importancia cultural, económica y medicinal en Sur América. Para estudiar las poblaciones de A. colubrina, recolectamos frutos de cuatro sitios diferentes dentro del área de distribución de la especie en la provincia de Salta (Noroeste de Argentina) y se caracterizaron con base en descriptores morfológicos (tamaño de frutos, semillas y peso y número de semillas por fruto) y genéticos (ADN ribosómico). La población de San Bernardo presentó los frutos y semillas más pesados y la de El Cebilar los más livianos. Los frutos y semillas de Metán y El Gallinato fueron similares e intermedios. La proporción de semillas viables y abortadas fue similar en todas las poblaciones, mientras que la de semillas depredadas fue diferente. El análisis genético mostró variabilidad de las secuencias ITS dentro de la especie y también en comparación con la misma especie de Brasil. Los descriptores morfológicos y genéticos mostraron un mayor nivel de similitud entre las poblaciones de San Bernardo y Metán y entre El Cebilar y El Gallinato. Se necesitan más estudios para evaluar los niveles de variabilidad fenotípica y genética dentro y entre poblaciones de diferentes especies de plantas, ya que esta información es fundamental para la conservación de la biodiversidad y del germoplasma a largo plazo.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Fabaceae/genetics , Fruit/genetics , Seeds/genetics , Argentina , Base Sequence , DNA, Plant , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Fabaceae/anatomy & histology , Fabaceae/classification , Fruit/anatomy & histology , Fruit/classification , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Seeds/anatomy & histology , Seeds/classification
19.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(2): 225-230, jun. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-711780

ABSTRACT

A utilização de plantas com fins terapêuticos é uma das mais antigas formas de prática medicinal da humanidade. Isso tem despertado o interesse científico através de estudos sobre as atividades antimicrobianas de extratos e óleos essenciais de plantas com a finalidade de criar alternativas para o combate aos microrganismos resistentes aos antimicrobianos disponíveis atualmente. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a possível atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de Pterodon emarginatus Vogel frente às cepas bacterianas padrão de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 e Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. O óleo essencial de P. emarginatus foi extraído através do método de hidrodestilação por arraste a vapor utilizando aparelho de Clevenger modificado. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada utilizando o método de difusão em meio sólido, pela técnica de pour plate, usando o óleo essencial puro (100%) e nas seguintes diluições: 32%, 16%, 8%, 4%, 2%, 1% e 0,5%. Nenhuma das concentrações testadas do óleo essencial formou halo de inibição para as cepas de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 e Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Dessa forma, conclui-se que o óleo essencial de P. emarginatus não possui atividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus, P. aeruginosa e E. coli.


The use of plants for therapeutic purposes is one of the oldest forms of medical practice. This has aroused scientific interest through studies on the antimicrobial activity of extracts and essential oils from plants for the purpose of creating alternatives to combat microorganisms resistant to antibiotics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Pterodon emarginatus against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The essential oil of P. emarginatus was extracted by the method of hydrodistillation by steam distillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus. Antimicrobial activity was determined using the method of diffusion in solid medium by the pour plate technique using pure essential oil (100%) at the following concentrations: 32%, 16%, 8%, 4%, 2%, 1% and 0.5%. None of the concentrations formed zones of inhibition for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The present findings suggest that the essential oil of P. emarginatus has no antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. P. aeruginosa and E. coli.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae/classification , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification
20.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 51(1): 64-67, Jan-Mar/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-707004

ABSTRACT

Context Ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disturbance resulting from an inadequate gastric mucosal defense. Several drugs are available in the market to address the disease; however, these drugs are associated with unnecessary side effects. Objectives Previous research have confirmed the efficacy of plant extracts for possible treatment of the disease. This research aims to evaluate the anti-ulcer properties of medicinal plants. Methods Methanol extracts from the leaves of Intsia bijuga, Cynometra ramiflora, Tamarindus indica, Cassia javanica, Cassia fistula, Bauhini purpurea, Senna spectabilis, Senna siamea and Saraca thaipingensis were evaluated for their anti-ulcer activity using HCl-ethanol as ulcerogen. Results All extracts showed inhibitory activity with I. bijuga, T. indica, S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis exhibiting more than 50% inhibition. S. thaipingensis showed the highest activity at 80%. S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis were partitioned further into hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. The aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions of S. spectabilis showed significant increased in its activity while the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of S. thaipingensis gave higher activity than its aqueous portions. Conclusions We conclude that plant extracts are potential sources of new anti-ulcer agents. .


Contexto A úlcera é o distúrbio gastrointestinal mais comum que resulta de uma inadequada defesa da mucosa gástrica. Vários medicamentos estão disponíveis no mercado para tratar a doença, no entanto, estas drogas podem se associar a efeitos colaterais desnecessários. Objetivos Pesquisas anteriores confirmaram a eficácia de extratos de plantas como possível tratamento da doença. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades anti-úlcera de plantas medicinais. Métodos Extratos alcoólicos das folhas da Intsia bijuga, Cynometra ramiflora, Tamarindus indica, Cassia javanica, Cassia fistula, Bauhini purpurea, Senna spectabilis, Senna siamea e Saraca thaipingensis foram avaliados pela sua atividade anti-úlcera usando o HCl-etanol como ulcerogênico. Resultados Todos os extratos apresentaram atividade inibitória; I.bijuga, T. Índica, S. spectabilis e S. thaipingensis mostraram mais de 50% de inibição. A S. thaipingensis mostrou a maior atividade, atingindo 80%. S. spectabilis e S. thaipingensis foram divididos mais em hexano, acetato de etila e frações aquosas. As frações aquosas e acetato de etila de S. spectabilis mostraram aumento significativo em sua atividade, enquanto que as frações hexano e acetato de etila de S. thaipingensis resultaram em maior atividade do que em partes aquosas. Conclusões Pode-se concluir que os extratos vegetais são fontes potenciais de novos agentes anti-úlcera. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anti-Ulcer Agents/therapeutic use , Fabaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Fabaceae/classification
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