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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 369-376, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001452

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to inventory the herbivore insects associated with Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong (Fabaceae) fruits and seeds and their primary and secondary parasitoids. Six samples collected between May and October 2013 yielded 210 fruits, from which 326 insects of six orders emerged: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera and Psocoptera. Coleoptera (five families) was represented by the seed consumers Merobruchus bicoloripes Pic, Stator sp. Bridwell (Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae), two species of Silvanidae, one species of Scolytinae (Curculionidae), one species of Nitidulidae and one species of Cerambycidae. The cerambycid was also observed forming galleries on fruit mesocarp. Immature individuals of Lepidoptera were observed consuming the fruits and seeds. From the seven Hymenoptera families, only two species were associated with Coleoptera, being Horismenus Walker sp. (Eulophidae) as parasitoid of M. bicoloripes, and Neoheterospilus falcatus (Marsh) (Braconidae) as parasitoid of Scolytinae. The Lepidoptera parasitoids represented four genera: Pseudophanerotoma Zetel, Chelonus Panzer (Braconidae), Orgilus Nees (Braconidae) and Goniozus Forster (Bethylidae). The host associations for the reared parasitoids Bracon Fabricius (Braconidae), Pimplinae sp. (Ichneumonidae) and Perilampus Forster (Perilampidae) were not confirmed. We obtained a single representative of Diptera (Tachinidae) associated with Lepidoptera hosts in this food web.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo inventariar os insetos herbívoros associados a frutos e sementes de Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong (Fabaceae) e seus parasitoides primários e secundários. De seis amostras coletadas entre maio e outubro de 2013, obteve-se 210 frutos, dos quais emergiram 326 insetos pertencentes a seis ordens: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera e Psocoptera. Coleoptera (cinco famílias) foi representada pelos consumidores de sementes: Merobruchus bicoloripes Pic, Stator sp. Bridwell (Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae), Silvanidae sp. 1 e sp. 2, Scolytinae sp. (Curculionidae), Nitidulidae sp. e Cerambycidae sp. A última espécie também foi observada formando galerias no mesocarpo do fruto. Indivíduos imaturos de Lepidoptera também foram observados consumindo os frutos e sementes. Dos Hymenoptera (sete famílias), duas espécies foram associadas a Coleoptera, sendo Horismenus Walker sp. (Eulophidae) parasitoide de M. bicoloripes e Neoheterospilus falcatus (Marsh) (Braconidae) parasitoide de Scolytinae. Os parasitoides de Lepidoptera foram totalizados em quatro gêneros: Pseudophanerotoma Zetel e Chelonus Panzer (Braconidae), Orgilus Nees (Braconidae) e Goniozus Forster (Bethylidae). As interações para os parasitoides Bracon Fabricius (Braconidae), Pimplinae sp. (Ichneumonidae) e Perilampus Forster (Perilampidae) não foram confirmadas. Nós encontramos apenas um único representante de Diptera (Tachinidae) como parasitoide de Lepidoptera nesta rede trófica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Food Chain , Herbivory , Host-Parasite Interactions , Insecta/physiology , Insecta/parasitology , Fabaceae/growth & development , Coleoptera/growth & development , Coleoptera/physiology , Coleoptera/parasitology , Brazil , Diptera/physiology , Fruit/physiology , Insecta/growth & development , Larva/growth & development
2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(3): 1135-1148, jul.-sep. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977372

ABSTRACT

Abstract Galls are structures produced by plants in response to the activity of several types of organisms. Gall-inducing species have a close relationship with their host plant, as their habitat is largely restricted to the gall and the plant organ in which it develops. All plant organs are susceptible to gall induction by insects, the leaves being the most vulnerable. Knowledge about interactions between gall-inducing insects and plants is fragmented and incomplete in Argentina. In this study, we completed an inventory of galls induced by insects on plants in Córdoba (central Argentina) using information from field surveys and a review of the literature. We also focused on the frequency of plant-insect taxonomic associations and plant organs most commonly attacked by gall-inducing insects. Field surveys were performed systematically in 26 sites of Chaco Serrano, which were visited five times in two consecutive years, and in 17 sites of the province, which were sampled one or two times each. A comprehensive literature search of electronic and conventional databases was also conducted to complete the inventory. A total of 99 gall morphospecies on 58 plant species (21 families and 44 genera) were recorded through both field surveys and a literature review, enlarging the list of species available for the region by almost 50 %. Asteraceae and Fabaceae were the plant families most attacked by galling insects, in partial concordance with the most species-rich plant families in the region. Diptera, particularly the family Cecidomyiidae, was the most species-rich group in the community of galling insects, which is in agreement with different studies across the globe. Baccharis was the genus displaying the highest number of gall morphotypes, followed by Acacia, Condalia, Geoffroea, Prosopis and Schinus. Almost 60 % of the morphotypes were stem galls, a pattern uncommon in the literature. Fusiform and globoid-shaped galls were predominant. Our study highlights the scarce knowledge there is about the interactions between plants and gall-inducing insects in Argentina, particularly those involving species of Cecidomyiidae, with more than 30 undescribed species. Possible mechanisms involved in the predominance of stem galls in central Argentina are discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(3): 1135-1148. Epub 2018 September 01.


Resumen Las agallas son estructuras producidas por las plantas en respuesta a la actividad de diversos tipos de organismos, los cuales establecen una estrecha relación con sus especies hospedantes, ya que su hábitat está restringido en gran medida a la agalla y al órgano vegetal donde la agalla se desarrolla. Todos los órganos vegetales son susceptibles a la inducción de agallas por insectos, siendo las hojas los más frecuentemente atacados. En Argentina, el conocimiento de estas interacciones es fragmentando e incompleto. En el presente estudio, se realizó un inventario de agallas inducidas por insectos utilizando información obtenida de muestreos a campo y revisión bibliográfica. También nos enfocamos en las asociaciones taxonómicas insecto-planta más frecuentes y en los órganos vegetales más atacados por los insectos cecidógenos. Se realizaron muestreos a campo en 26 sitios localizados en el Chaco Serrano, que fueron visitados cinco veces en dos años consecutivos y en otros 17 sitios, distribuidos en la provincia de Córdoba, que fueron visitados una o dos veces. Además se realizó una exhaustiva revisión bibliográfica en bases de datos electrónicas (disponibles en internet) y convencionales. Un total de 99 agallas en 58 especies vegetales (21 familias y 44 géneros) fueron registradas a través de los muestreos en el campo y la revisión bibliográfica, ampliando el número de interacciones previamente conocidas en al menos un 50 %. Las familias vegetales más atacadas fueron Asteraceae y Fabaceae, coincidiendo con las familias vegetales más diversas de la región. La familia Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) presentó el mayor número de especies, en concordancia con diversos estudios alrededor del mundo. Baccharis fue el género vegetal que mayor número de morfotipos de agallas albergó, seguido por Acacia, Condalia, Geoffroea, Prosopis y Schinus. Al menos el 60 % de morfotipos registrados se presentaron en tallos, un patrón poco común en la bibliografía. Las formas predominantes fueron fusiforme y globoide. Nuestra investigación revela el escaso conocimiento sobre la comunidad de insectos cecidógenos y sus agallas en Argentina, particularmente de las inducidas por especies de la familia Cecidomyiidae, con más de 30 especies aún no descritas. Se discuten posibles mecanismos involucrados en la predominancia de agallas caulinares en el centro de Argentina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Tumors/statistics & numerical data , Asteraceae/growth & development , Diptera/anatomy & histology , Diptera/growth & development , Insecta , Fabaceae/growth & development , Argentina
3.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(3): 969-983, jul.-sep. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977359

ABSTRACT

Resumen La productividad de las plantaciones forestales con especies nativas se puede incrementar si se conocen bien los requerimientos nutricionales de cada una de las especies. Estos requerimientos pueden variar de acuerdo a las estrategias ecológicas de las especies y a las adaptaciones que tienen, como por ejemplo la capacidad de fijar nitrógeno. En el presente trabajo se presentan los "rangos satisfactorios" de concentración foliar de macronutrimentos y micronutrimentos para cuatro leguminosas del trópico estacionalmente seco de Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Se analizó la concentración foliar de N, P, Ca, Mg, K, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn y B, Na en las especies Dalbergia retusa (cocobolo), Enterolobium cyclocarpum (guanacaste), Hymenaea courbaril (guapinol) y Schizolobium parahyba (gallinazo). La concentración de nutrimentos varió con las especies y según la capacidad de fijar nitrógeno o no y dentro de cada una de esas categorías de acuerdo a la tasa de crecimiento. La concentración total de nutrimentos fue mayor para las especies fijadoras de N que para las no fijadoras y dentro de cada uno de esos grupos la concentración total de nutrimentos fue mayor para las especies de crecimiento rápido comparado con aquellas de crecimiento más lento. De acuerdo a la cantidad de nutrimentos observados en las hojas, se recomienda que H. courbaril y D. retusa deberían ser sembradas en suelos relativamente pobres de nutrimentos, mientras que E. cyclocarpum y S. parahyba en suelos más fértiles. Para D. retusa e H. courbaril se presenta información nueva sobre concentraciones y se mejora la misma para algunos elementos no mencionados en la literatura para E. cyclocarpum y S. parahyba.


Abstract The information about nutritional aspects of trees in the tropical dry forest is scarce. This investigation aims to establish a normal range of foliar nutrient concentration to four forestry species as related to their growth rates and biological nitrogen fixation capacity in the seasonally dry ecosystem at Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Foliar samples for four species: Dalbergia retusa (cocobolo), Enterolobium cyclocarpum (guanacaste), Hymenaea courbaril (guapinol or jatobá) and Schizolobium parahyba (gallinazo or pachaco), all belonging to the Fabaceae family, were analyzed for N, P, Ca, Mg, K, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B and Na. Nutrient concentration varied with species according to their ability to fix nitrogen and their rate of growth. The overall concentration of macronutrients was higher in nitrogen-fixing species compared with non-fixing species, and within each one of those groups, the species with higher growth rate presented more macronutrients than species with low growth rate. According to the concentration of foliar nutrients accumulated in the foliage, we recommend that H. courbaril and D. retusacould be grown in the region soils with medium fertility and E. cyclocarpum and S. parahyba in the more fertile soils. Values ranges of foliar concentrations considered as satisfactory presented in this work are new for D. retusa and H. courbaril and improve the scarce information available for E. cyclocarpum and S. parahyba. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(3): 969-983. Epub 2018 September 01.


Subject(s)
Trees/growth & development , Wood , Nutrients/deficiency , Fabaceae , Nutritive Value , Technology, Industry, and Agriculture , Fabaceae/growth & development
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 774-780, Nov. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888804

ABSTRACT

Abstract During germination, orthodox seeds become gradually intolerant to desiccation, and for this reason, they are a good model for recalcitrance studies. In the present work, physiological, biochemical, and ultrastructural aspects of the desiccation tolerance were characterized during the germination process of Anadenanthera colubrina seeds. The seeds were imbibed during zero (control), 2, 8, 12 (no germinated seeds), and 18 hours (germinated seeds with 1 mm protruded radicle); then they were dried for 72 hours, rehydrated and evaluated for survivorship. Along the imbibition, cytometric and ultrastructural analysis were performed, besides the extraction of the heat-stable proteins. Posteriorly to imbibition and drying, the evaluation of ultrastructural damages was performed. Desiccation tolerance was fully lost after root protrusion. There was no increase in 4C DNA content after the loss of desiccation tolerance. Ultrastructural characteristics of cells from 1mm roots resembled those found in the recalcitrant seeds, in both hydrated and dehydrated states. The loss of desiccation tolerance coincided with the reduction of heat-stable proteins.


Resumo Durante a germinação, sementes ortodoxas tornam-se gradualmente intolerantes à dessecação, e por isso podem ser utilizadas como modelo para o estudo da recalcitrância. No presente trabalho realizou-se uma caracterização dos aspectos fisiológicos, bioquímicos e ultraestruturais da perda da tolerância à dessecação de sementes de Anadenanthera colubrina em processo germinativo. Para isso as sementes foram embebidas durante 0 (controle), 2,8,12 e aproximadamente 18 horas (sementes germinadas com 1 mm de radícula), secas por 72 horas, reidratadas e a sobrevivência avaliada. Ao longo da embebição foram realizadas análises citométricas, ultraestruturais e extração de proteínas resistentes ao calor e após embebição e secagem foram avaliados danos ultraestruturais. A tolerância à dessecação foi totalmente perdida após a protrusão radicular. Não houve aumento do conteúdo de DNA 4C quando a tolerância à dessecação foi perdida. Características ultraestruturais de células de radículas de 1 mm assemelharam-se às encontradas em sementes recalcitrantes tanto no estado hidratado quanto desidratado. A perda da tolerância à dessecação coincidiu com a redução do conteúdo de proteínas resistentes ao calor.


Subject(s)
Germination , Desiccation , Fabaceae/physiology , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/physiology , Seeds/genetics , Seeds/ultrastructure , Trees/growth & development , Trees/physiology , Trees/genetics , Trees/ultrastructure , Fabaceae/growth & development , Fabaceae/genetics , Fabaceae/ultrastructure
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(2): 260-266, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888733

ABSTRACT

Abstract Flood events in riparian forests of southern Brazil, can be characterized as unpredictable and of low magnitude with an average duration of less than 15 days. Inga marginata is an evergreen tree which grows in Southeast South America on a wide range of environments, including riparian forests. In this paper, the interactive effects of the light environment and soil flooding on morphological parameters of I. marginata were examined. Seedlings were acclimated in two contrasting light conditions: sun or shade for 30 days. Sun and shade plants were subjected to soil flooding for two periods; five or 15 days. After 5 days, the interaction between flooding and light did not affect growth, chlorophyll content and dry mass or the root-shoot ratio. After 15 days, flooded plants from the sunny treatment had a lower shoot dry mass compared to control sun plants and flooded plants from the shaded treatment. Moreover, the higher dry mass observed for shade plants compared to sun plants, following flooding, can also be directly associated with a higher content of soluble sugars. Shade plants of I. marginata showed a greater acclimation to soil waterlogging. This acclimation appears to be associated with a larger accumulation of soluble sugars compared to non-flooded plants. The responses observed on the shade plants appear to be decisive to indicate the use of I. marginata in degraded areas.


Resumo As inundações em florestas ripárias do Sul do Brasil, podem ser caracterizadas como imprevisíveis e de baixa magnitude com uma duração média de menos de 15 dias. Inga marginata é uma árvore que cresce no sudeste da América do Sul em uma grande variedade de ambientes, incluindo matas ciliares. Neste trabalho, os efeitos combinados da luminosidade e do e alagamento do solo nos parâmetros morfológicos de I. marginata foram examinados. As plântulas foram aclimatadas em duas condições contrastantes de luminosidade: sol e sombra por 30 dias. Plantas de sol e sombra foram submetidas ao alagamento do solo por dois períodos; cinco ou 15 dias. Após 5 dias, a interação entre a inundação e luminosidade não afetou o crescimento, teor de clorofila e massa seca e a razão raiz-parte aérea. Após 15 dias, plantas de sol sob inundação apresentaram menor massa seca na parte aérea em relação as plantas controle de sol e as plantas alagadas de sombra. Além disso, a maior massa seca observada nas plantas de sombra em comparação com plantas de sol, sob inundação, pode ser diretamente associado com um maior teor de açúcares solúveis. Plantas de sombra de I. marginata mostraram uma maior aclimatação ao encharcamento do solo. Esta aclimatação parece estar associada com um maior acúmulo de açúcares solúveis em comparação com as plantas não-inundadas. As respostas observadas nas plantas de sombra parecem ser determinantes para a indicação do uso de I. marginata em áreas degradadas.


Subject(s)
Floods , Fabaceae/physiology , Light , Solubility , Seedlings/anatomy & histology , Seedlings/growth & development , Seedlings/physiology , Sugars/metabolism , Acclimatization , Fabaceae/anatomy & histology , Fabaceae/growth & development
6.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 507-520, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843294

ABSTRACT

AbstractPlants have limited resources to invest in reproduction, vegetative growth and defense against herbivorous. Trade-off in resources allocation promotes changes in plant traits that may affect higher trophic levels. In this study, we evaluated the trade-off effect between years of high and low fruiting on the investment of resources for growth and defense, and their indirect effects on herbivory in Copaifera langsdorffii. Our questions were: (i) does the resource investment on reproduction causes a depletion in vegetative growth as predicted by the Carbon/Nutrient Balance hypothesis (CNBH), resulting in more availability of resources to be allocated for defense?, (ii) does the variation in resource allocation for growth and defense between years of high and low fruiting leads to indirect changes in herbivory? Thirty-five trees located in a Cerrado area were monitored during 2008 (year of high fruiting) and 2009 (year of no fruiting) to evaluate the differential investment in vegetative traits (biomass, growth and number of ramifications), plant defense (tannin concentration and plant hypersensitivity) and herbivory (galling attack and folivory). According to our first question, we observed that in the fruiting year, woody biomass negatively affected tannin concentration, indicating that fruit production restricted the resources that could be invested both in growth as in defense. In the same way, we observed an inter-annual variation in herbivorous attack, and found that plants with higher leaf biomass and tannin concentration, experienced higher galling attack and hypersensitive reaction, regardless years. These findings suggested that plants’ resistance to herbivory is a good proxy of plant defense and an effective defense strategy for C. langsdorffii, besides the evidence of indirect responses of the third trophic level, as postulated by the second question. In summary, the supra-annual fruiting pattern promoted several changes on plant development, demonstrating the importance of evaluating different plant traits when characterizing the vegetative investment. As expected by theory, the trade-off in resource allocation favored changes in defense compounds production and patterns of herbivory. The understanding of this important element of insect-plant interactions will be fundamental to decipher coevolutionary life histories and interactions between plant species reproduction and herbivory. Besides that, only through long-term studies we will be able to build models and develop more accurate forecasts about the factors that trigger the bottom-up effect on herbivory performance, as well the top-down effect of herbivores on plant trait evolution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 507-520. Epub 2016 June 01.


ResumenLas plantas tienen recursos limitados para invertir en reproducción, crecimiento vegetativo y defensa contra herbívoros. El cambio en la distribución de recursos promueve variaciones en rasgos vegetales, que pueden afectar los niveles tróficos superiores. Durante dos años consecutivos de alta y baja inversión reproductiva se evaluó el cambio de recursos entre crecimiento vegetativo y defensa, y su efecto indirecto sobre la herbivoría en Copaifera langsdorffii. Nos preguntamos: i) ¿La inversión de recursos para la reproducción causa reducción del crecimiento vegetativo, como predice la hipótesis de equilibrio carbono/nutrientes, haciendo posible gastar más recursos en defensa? ii) ¿La variación en distribución de recursos para crecimiento y defensa entre años de alta y baja fructificación modifica indirectamente la herbivoría? Se monitorearon treinta y cinco árboles durante 2008 (gran fructificación) y 2009 (sin fructificación) en un área de vegetación de cerrado (Brasil), para evaluar la inversión diferencial en rasgos vegetativos (biomasa, crecimiento y No. de ramificaciones), defensa (concentración de taninos e hipersensibilidad vegetal) y herbivoría. De acuerdo a nuestra primera pregunta, se observó que en el año de fructificación la biomasa leñosa afectó negativamente la concentración de taninos, indicando que la producción de frutos redujo los recursos que podían invertirse en crecimiento y defensa. Además, la resistencia de las plantas y el ataque de agallas fueron influidos positivamente por la concentración de taninos y la biomasa foliar, lo que sugiere que la resistencia de los árboles a la herbivoría es un buen indicador de defensa vegetal y una estrategia efectiva de defensa de C. langsdorffii, además hay evidencia de respuesta trófica indirecta, como se postula en la segunda pregunta. En resumen, el patrón de fructificación supra-anual provoca varios efectos en el desarrollo de las plantas, mostrando la importancia de evaluar diversos rasgos vegetales al caracterizar la inversión de recursos de una especie. Como se esperaba, el cambio en la distribución de recursos modifica la producción de compuestos de defensa y los patrones de herbivoría. El entendimiento de este elemento importante de las interacciones insecto-planta será fundamental para descifrar la historia natural coevolutiva y las interacciones entre reproducción vegetal y ataque herbívoro. Además de eso, solo a través de estudios a largo plazo vamos a ser capaces de construir modelos y desarrollar pronósticos más precisos acerca de los factores que desencadenan el efecto de abajo hacia arriba en el rendimiento de la herbivoría, así el efecto de arriba hacia abajo de los herbívoros sobre la evolución de las plantas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Herbivory/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Fabaceae/physiology , Plant Tumors , Herbivory/classification , Insecta/classification , Fabaceae/growth & development , Fabaceae/parasitology
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 483-492, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843292

ABSTRACT

AbstractHeterogeneity in seeds mostly occurs due to physiological, environmental and genetic factors, and these could affect seed dormancy and germination. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of seed colour on germination behavior. For this, both light and temperature requirements were assessed in Lotus glinoides and Lotus halophilus (Fabaceae) from the hyper-arid deserts of the United Arab Emirates. Germination was assessed in terms of both final germination level (percentage) and germination rate, as expressed by Timson’s germination velocity index. Lotus glinoides produces black and yellow-colored seeds, and L. halophilus produces green and yellow seeds. Different seed lots were germinated in both light and darkness at different temperatures. Yellow seeds of the two species attained significantly lower germination, compared to black and green seeds. There was no specific light or temperature requirements for the germination of the two coloured seeds of L. glinoides; the effect of interactions between seed colour and both light and incubation temperature, were not significant on the final germination percentage. in L. halophilus, green seeds germinated significantly more in both light and darkness at lower temperatures (15/25 °C) and in light at higher temperatures (25/35 °C), compared to yellow seeds. Yellow seeds germinated faster, compared to black at 15/25 °C in L. glinoides and compared to green seeds at 15/25 °C and 25/35 °C in L. halophilus. Seed colour variation, at least in L. halophilus, could be a survival strategy that would determine the time of germination throughout the year in the unpredictable desert environment. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 483-492. Epub 2016 June 01.


ResumenLa heterogeneidad en las semillas se produce principalmente debido a factores fisiológicos, genéticos y ambientales, y esto podría afectar latencia de las semillas y la germinación. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar el efecto del color de la semilla en el comportamiento de la germinación. Para ello, tanto los requisitos de luz y temperatura fueron evaluados en Lotus glinoides y Lotus halophilus (Fabaceae) desde los desiertos hiper-árida de los Emiratos Árabes Unidos. La germinación se evaluó en términos de nivel final de germinación (porcentaje) y la tasa de germinación, expresado por el índice de velocidad de germinación de Timson. L. glinoides produce semillas negro y de color amarillo, y L. halophilus produce semillas verdes y amarillas. Los diferentes lotes de semillas fueron germinadas en luz y oscuridad a diferentes temperaturas. Semillas amarillas de las dos especies alcanzaron significativamente menor germinación, en comparación con las semillas negras y verdes. No había requisitos específicos de luz o temperatura para la germinación de las semillas de dos colores de L. glinoides; el efecto de las interacciones entre color de la semilla y la luz y la temperatura de incubación, no fueron significativas en el porcentaje final de germinación. En L. halophilus, semillas verdes germinados significativamente más en la luz y la oscuridad a temperaturas más bajas (15/25 °C) ya la luz a temperaturas más altas (25/35 °C), en comparación con semillas amarillas. Semillas amarillas germinaron más rápido, en comparación con el negro a 15/25 °C en L. glinoides y en comparación con semillas verdes a 15/25 °C y 25/35 °C en L. halophilus. La variación del color de la semilla, al menos en L. halophilus, podría ser una estrategia de supervivencia que determinaría el momento de la germinación durante todo el año en el entorno del desierto impredecible.


Subject(s)
Seeds/anatomy & histology , Seeds/growth & development , Fabaceae/growth & development , Temperature , Color , Germination/physiology , Desert Climate , Plant Dormancy , Fabaceae/classification
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.1): 119-125, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768220

ABSTRACT

Abstract Reclamation of copper contaminated sites using forest species may be an efficient alternative to reduce the negative impact. The aim of this study was to quantify the growth and evaluate the quality of seedlings of native species at different doses of copper in the soil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with seven replications in a factorial arrangement (3×9), using three indigenous species of plants (Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa scabrella and Apuleia leiocarpa) and nine doses of copper in the soil (0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420 and 480 mg kg–1).The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse which the seedlings were grown for 180 days. The experimental units were plastic pots of 125 cm3 filled with Oxisol. The results indicated that the levels of copper applied to the soil decreased the quality of seedlings and growth of Apuleia leiocarpato a lesser extent compared with Mimosa scabrella and Anadenanthera macrocarpa. Anadenanthera macrocarpa was the forest species that resulted in the lowest copper translocation from roots to shoots. In addition, the Apuleia leiocarpa exhibited high resistance and tolerance for copper in the soil and also, it is highlighted an ability for copper phytoremediation.


Resumo A recuperação de áreas contaminadas com cobre utilizando espécies florestais pode ser uma alternativa eficiente para reduzir o impacto negativo deste elemento nestas áreas. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar o crescimento e avaliar a qualidade de mudas de espécies nativas em diferentes doses de cobre no solo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete repetições, em um esquema fatorial (3×9), utilizando-se três espécies nativas de plantas (Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa scabrella e Apuleia leiocarpa) e nove doses de cobre no solo (0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420 e 480 mg kg–1). O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, onde as plantas foram cultivadas por 180 dias. As unidades experimentais foram vasos de plástico de 125 cm3, preenchidos com Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Os resultados indicaram que o nível de cobre aplicado ao solo reduziu a qualidade de plântulas e crescimento de Apuleia leiocarpa para um menor grau comparado com bracatinga e angico. Anadenanthera macrocarpa foi a espécie florestal que apresentou menor translocação de cobre a parte aérea das mudas. Além disso, a Apuleia leiocarpa exibiu elevada tolerância para o cobre no solo e também destaca-se mostrando uma capacidade para fitoremediação de áreas contaminadas com cobre.


Subject(s)
Copper/metabolism , Fabaceae/growth & development , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Trees/growth & development , Biodegradation, Environmental , Brazil , Copper/toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fabaceae/drug effects , Random Allocation , Species Specificity , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Trees/drug effects
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(1): 249-261, Jan.-Mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753790

ABSTRACT

The ecological restoration strategies for highly threatened ecosystems such as the tropical dry forest, depend on the knowledge of limiting factors of biological processes for the different species. Some of these include aspects such as germination and seed longevity of typical species present in those forests. In this study, we evaluated the effect of light and temperature on seed germination of two Fabaceae (Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana) and two Bignoniaceae (Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea) species having potential use in restoration, and we analyzed the seed storage behavior of these species for a three months period. To study the light effect, four levels of light quality on seeds were used (photoperiod of 12 hours of white light, darkness and light enriched in red and far-red, both for an hour each day), and we combined them with three levels of alternated temperatures (20/25, 20/30 and 25/30°C-16/8h). For the storage behavior, two levels of seed moisture content particular for each species were used (low: 3.5-6.1% and high: 8.3-13.8%), with three storage temperatures (20, 5 and -20°C) and two storage times (one and three months). The criterion for germination was radicle emergence which was measured in four replicates per treatment, and was expressed as percentage of germination (PG). There were significant differences in germination of Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana among light and temperature treatments, with the lowest value in darkness treatments, whereas germination of Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea did not differ between treatments (PG>90%). The most suitable temperature regime to promote germination in all species was 25/30°C. These four species showed an orthodox seed storage behavior. We concluded that seeds of P. dulce, J. caucana and T. rosea did not have an apparent influence of all light conditions tested in their germination response, which might confer advantages in colonization and establishment processes, while S. saman did not germinate well in darkness. We suggest the use of seeds of P. dulce, J. caucana and T. rosea in ecological restoration processes, due to their tolerance and germination under a wide range of temperature and light conditions. Futhermore, seeds of S. saman might be used in open areas such as forest gaps.


Las estrategias de restauración ecológica en ecosistemas altamente amenazados como el bosque seco tropical, dependen del conocimiento de factores limitantes de procesos biológicos, como la germinación y la longevidad de semillas de especies típicas de los mismos. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la luz y la temperatura en la germinación de semillas de dos especies de Fabaceae y dos de Bignoniaceae potencialmente útiles para restauración, y se determinó su comportamiento en el almacenamiento. Para el primer objetivo, se utilizaron cuatro niveles de calidad lumínica (fotoperiodo con 12 horas de luz, oscuridad y estímulos de luz enriquecida en rojo y luz enriquecida en rojo lejano, ambas por una hora), combinados con tres niveles de temperaturas alternadas (20/25, 20/30 y 25/30°C - 16/8h). Para el segundo objetivo, se utilizaron dos niveles de contenido de humedad de las semillas, con tres niveles de temperatura de almacenamiento (20, 5 y -20°C) y dos tiempos de almacenamiento (1 y 3 meses). La variable de respuesta para ambos experimentos fue el número de semillas germinadas, expresado en porcentaje (PG). Samanea saman y Jacaranda caucana presentaron un PG significativamente diferente entre los tratamientos lumínicos, con el valor menor en la oscuridad, mientras Pithecellobium dulce y Tabebuia rosea no presentaron diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (PG>90%). La respuesta a la temperatura mostró que 25/30°C es el régimen más adecuado para promover la germinación de la mayoría de las especies. Las semillas de las cuatro especies evaluadas presentaron un comportamiento ortodoxo en el almacenamiento. Se concluye que las semillas de P. dulce, J. caucana y T. rosea son indiferentes a las condiciones de luz y temperatura probadas, confiriéndoles ciertas ventajas en procesos de colonización y establecimiento frente a S. saman, cuya germinación no se ve favorecida en la oscuridad. Se sugiere el uso de semillas de P. dulce, J. caucana y T. rosea en proyectos de restauración ecológica del bosque seco Tropical, debido a su tolerancia y germinación en condiciones ambientales con intervalos amplios de temperatura y luminosidad. Mientras que, semillas de S. saman podrían ser usadas en sitios abiertos como claros de bosques.


Subject(s)
Bignoniaceae/growth & development , Fabaceae/growth & development , Germination , Light , Seeds/growth & development , Temperature , Bignoniaceae/classification , Colombia , Forests , Fabaceae/classification
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(2): 501-508, 5/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719270

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the loss of desiccation tolerance in C. langsdorffii seeds during the germination process. Seeds were imbibed for 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours and dried to the initial moisture content, kept in this state for 3 days after which they were submitted to pre-humidification and rehydration. Ultraestructural evaluations were done aiming to observe the cell damage caused by the dry process. Desiccation tolerance was evaluated in terms of the percentage of normal seedlings. Seeds not submitted to the drying process presented 61% of normal seedlings, and after 24 hours of imbibition, followed by drying, the seeds presented the same percentage of survival. However, after 48 hours of imbibition, seeds started to lose the desiccation tolerance. There was twenty six percent of normal seedlings formed from seeds imbibed for 96 hours and later dried and rehydrated. Only 5% of seeds imbibed for 144 hours, dried and rehydrated formed normal seedlings. At 144 hours of imbibition followed the dry process, there was damage into the cell structure, indicating that the seeds were unable to keep the cell structure during the drying process. Copaifera langsdorffii seeds loses the desiccation tolerance at the start of Phase 2 of imbibition.


Este estudo avaliou a perda da tolerância à dessecação em sementes de C. langsdorffii durante o processo germinativo. Sementes foram embebidas por 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 e 144 horas e depois secas até a umidade inicial, sendo mantidas neste estado durante 3 dias, quando então foram submetidas a pré-umidificação e reidratação. Avaliações ultraestruturais foram realizadas objetivando observar danos nas células causados pelo processo de secagem. A tolerância à dessecação foi avaliada pelo percentual de plântulas normais. Sementes não submetidas ao processo de secagem apresentaram 61% de plântulas normais, sendo que após 24 horas de embebição seguida de secagem, houve o mesmo percentual de sobrevivência. Contudo, após 48 horas de embebição, as sementes começaram a perder a tolerância à dessecação. Vinte e seis por cento de sementes formaram plântulas normais após embeberem por 96 horas e secas. Apenas 5% de sementes embebidas por 144 horas e secas formaram plântulas normais. Após 144 horas de embebição, seguida de secagem, verificou-se danos na estrutura celular, o que indica que as sementes não são capazes de manter a estrutura celular durante o processo de secagem. Verificou-se no presente estudo que sementes de C. langsdorffii perdem a tolerância à dessecação no inicio da fase 2 da embebição.


Subject(s)
Desiccation/methods , Fabaceae/growth & development , Germination/physiology , Seeds/growth & development , Adaptation, Physiological , Time Factors
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(5): 1527-1536, out. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-689773

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar três sistemas forrageiros (SF) com capim elefante (CE) + azevém (AZ) + espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE); CE + AZ + ECE + amendoim forrageiro (AM); e CE + AZ + ECE + trevo vermelho (TV), usando-se a mesma área, sob pastejo rotacionado, no decorrer do ano agrícola. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4m. No período hibernal, fez-se o estabelecimento do AZ entre as linhas do CE; o TV foi semeado e o AM foi preservado, considerando-se os respectivos SF. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com três tratamentos (SF), duas repetições (piquetes) e avaliações independentes (ciclos de pastejos). Para avaliação, foram utilizadas vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, que receberam suplementação alimentar com concentrado à razão de 1% do peso corporal/dia. Foram avaliados a massa de forragem, os componentes botânicos do pasto e estruturais do CE e a taxa de lotação. Durante o período experimental, foram efetuados oito ciclos de pastejo. Sistemas forrageiros que envolvem gramíneas e leguminosas de diferentes ciclos proporcionam a utilização da área durante todo o ano agrícola em pastejo rotativo com bovinos leiteiros. Considerando-se a predominância das avaliações em cada pastejo, os sistemas forrageiros consorciados apresentam melhor resultado tanto paras as variáveis de massa de forragem quanto para a taxa de lotação.


The objective of this research was to evaluate three grazing systems (GS) with elephant grass (EG) + ryegrass (RG) + spontaneous growing species (SGS); EG + RG + SGS + forage peanut (FP); and EG + RG + SGS + red clover (RC), in order to use the area in rotational grazing during the agricultural year. EG was planted in rows with a distance of 4m between each row. In the cool-season, RG was sowed between EG rows and FP was preserved on GS. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments (GS), two replicates (paddocks) and independent evaluations (grazing cycles). For the evaluation lactating Holstein cows receiving 1% of BW/day feed supplement concentrate were used. The herbage mass, botanical composition of pasture, structural component of EG and stocking rate were evaluated. Eight grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period. Grazing systems involving grass and legume forage in different cycles provided the use of the area during the agricultural year in rotational grazing with dairy cattle. Considering the predominance of the evaluations in each grazing, the mixed grazing systems have better results for both forage mass and stocking rate variables.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Fabaceae/growth & development , Fabaceae/chemistry , Poaceae/chemistry , Breast-Milk Substitutes , Pennisetum/chemistry
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(3): 1109-1118, sep. 2013. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688463

ABSTRACT

Seed biology is a relevant aspect of tropical forests because it is central to the understanding of processes of plant establishment, succession and natural regeneration. Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil is a timber tree from South America that produces large seeds with thin weak teguments, which is uncommon among legumes. This study describes the morphology and anatomy of the seed coat, the viability, imbibition, and germination in this species. Seeds used during the essays came from 10 trees that grow naturally in Horco Molle, province of Tucumán, Argentina. Seed morphology was described from a sample of 20 units. The seed coat surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope. Transverse sections of hydrated and non-hydrated seeds were employed to describe the histological structure of the seed coat. Hydration, viability and germination experiments were performed under laboratory controlled conditions; and the experimental design consisted of 10 replicas of 10 seeds each. Viability and germination tests were conducted using freshly fallen seeds and seeds stored for five months. Morphologically the seeds of A. colubrina var. cebil are circular to subcircular, laterally compressed, smooth, bright brown and have a horseshoe fissure line (=pleurogram) on both sides. The seed coat comprises five tissue layers and a double (external and internal) cuticle. The outer cuticle (on the epidermis) is smooth and interrupted by microcracks and pores of variable depth. The epidermis consists of macroesclereids with non-lignified secondary walls. This layer is separated from the underlying ones during seed hydration. The other layers of internal tissues are comprised of osteosclereids, parenchyma, osteosclereids, and macrosclereids. The percentage of viable seeds was 93%, decreasing to 75% in seeds with five months old. Seed mass increased 76% after the first eight hours of hydration. Germination percentage was 75% after 76 hours. Germination of seeds stored for five months decreased to 12%. The results showed that seeds of A. colubrina var. cebil are highly permeable and germinate directly without a dormant period.


El cebil, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Griseb.) Altschul, es un árbol forestal de América del Sur con grandes semillas de tegumentos delgados y débiles. Este estudio describe la morfología y anatomía de la cubierta seminal del cebil y evalúa la viabilidad, la imbibición y germinación de las semillas. Morfológicamente las semillas son circulares a subcirculares, comprimidas lateralmente, lisas, marrón lustrosas, con una línea fisural en forma de herradura en ambas caras. Histológicamente la cubierta seminal comprende cinco capas de células y una cutícula externa e interna. La cutícula externa es lisa y presenta microfisuras y poros de profundidad variable. La epidermis consiste de un estrato de macroesclereidas con paredes secundarias no lignificadas. Los siguientes tejidos internos incluyen, osteosclereidas, parénquima, osteoscleridas y macroesceleridas. El porcentaje de semillas viables fue del 93%, disminuyendo al 75% en semillas con cinco meses de almacenamiento. Las semillas incrementaron el 76% de su masa durante las primeras 8 horas de hidratación. El porcentaje de germinación en semillas nuevas fue del 75% al término de 76 horas y del 12% en semillas almacenadas por cinco meses. Los resultados confirman que las semillas de A. colubrina var. cebil son altamente permeables y germinan sin un período de reposo.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae/growth & development , Germination/physiology , Seeds/growth & development , Argentina , Fabaceae/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Seeds/ultrastructure , Time Factors
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Jul; 51(7): 548-555
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147626

ABSTRACT

Black gram plants subjected to varying levels of Zn supply (0.01 to 10 µM Zn) showed optimum growth and dry matter yield in plants receiving 1 µM Zn. The dry matter yield of plants decreased in plants receiving 0.01 and 0.1 µM Zn (deficient) and excess levels of Zn (2 and 10 µM Zn). The plants grown with Zn deficient supply showed delayed flowering, premature bud abscission, reduced size of anthers, pollen producing capacity, pollen viability and stigma receptivity resulting in poor pod formation and seed yield. Providing Zn as a foliar spray at pre-flowering stage minimized the severity of Zn deficiency on reproductive structure development and enhanced the seed nutritional status by enhancing seed Zn density, seed carbohydrate (sugar and starch content) and storage proteins (albumins, globulins, glutenins, and prolamines).


Subject(s)
Fabaceae/drug effects , Fabaceae/growth & development , Flowers/drug effects , Flowers/growth & development , Flowers/metabolism , Germination/drug effects , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Pollen/drug effects , Pollen/metabolism , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/growth & development , Zinc/administration & dosage , Zinc/pharmacology
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(4): 365-371, jul. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-724330

ABSTRACT

Different analyses were carried out on the following plant species: Adesmia boronioides Hook.F., Senecio patagonicus Hook. & Arn. and Lepidophyllum cupressiforme (Lam.) Cass. in order to compare the photosynthetic pigment, carotenoid and phenylpropanoid contents. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were measured by using common established reagents: Folin-Ciocalteau and ABTS respectively. Plant samples were collected from specimens growing inside the National Park Pali Aike and the Botanic Garden Carl Skottsberg in Punta Arenas city. The results showed no marked tendencies between photosynthetic pigments. Nevertheless, a good correlation was found among the antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds. Furthermore, species growing in the Pali Aike National Park seem to be more adapted to the environmental conditions.


Se realizaron diferentes análisis al contenido de pigmentos fotosintéticos, carotenoides y fenilpropanoides. El contenido de fenoles totales y la capacidad antioxidante se midieron usando reactivos ampliamente conocidos: Folin-Ciocalteau y ABTS respectivamente en las siguientes especies: Adesmia boronioides, Senecio patagonicus y Lepidophyllum cupressiforme. Estas plantas se encuentran en el Parque Nacional Pali Aike y en el Jardín Botánico Carl Skottsberg en la ciudad de Punta Arenas. Los resultados no muestran una tendencia clara entre las muestras de pigmentos fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, se pudo observar una buena correlación entre la capacidad antioxidante y el contenido de compuestos fenólicos. Además, aparentemente las especies que crecen en el Parque Nacional Pali Aike están más adaptadas a esas condiciones ambientales.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/chemistry , Asteraceae/chemistry , Fabaceae/chemistry , Senecio/chemistry , Adaptation, Physiological , Asteraceae/growth & development , Chile , Fabaceae/growth & development , Phenols/analysis , Stress, Physiological , Senecio/growth & development
15.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(1): 335-342, Mar. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-674085

ABSTRACT

Desiccation tolerance in seeds of Prosopis ferox and Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae). The high number of endemisms and species diversity together with the accelerated biodiversity loss by deforestation, especially in North Western Argentina, points out the need to work on species conservation combining ex situ and in situ strategies. The aim of this work was to study the desiccation tolerance in seeds of P. ferox and P. nitens for long term ex situ conservation at the Germplasm Bank of Native Species (BGEN) of the National University of Salta (Argentina). The fruits were collected from ten individuals in P. ferox at the National Park Los Cardones and from two sites (Orán and Rivadavia) for P. nitens. Desiccation tolerance was assessed following previous established methodologies. The moisture content (MC) of the seeds was determined by keeping them in oven at 103°C and weighting the samples at different intervals till constant weight. Germination essays were carried out with two treatments (control and scarification), with different seed MC (fresh, 10-12%, 3-5%) and in desiccated seeds (3-5% MC) stored six months at -20ºC. The MC in P. ferox seeds was 14.2% and 10% in P. nitens, for both populations studied. Percentage germination in P. ferox was higher in the scarification treatments (<82%). The difference between treatments increased with the reduction in MC and the storage for six months at -20°C. Fresh seeds of P. nitens do not need scarification treatment, but it is required with the reduction in MC and storage. Mean germination percentage of desiccated seeds stored six months at -20°C was similar in both populations and greater than 82%.We concluded that both species are probably orthodox because seeds tolerated desiccation to 3-5% and storage for six months at -20°C.


La elevada diversidad de especies y endemismos, conjuntamente con la acelerada pérdida de biodiversidad por deforestaciones, destaca la importancia de emprender acciones combinadas de conservación in situ y ex situ. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la tolerancia a la desecación de las semillas de Prosopis ferox y Pterogyne nitens, para su conservación ex situ a largo plazo en el BGEN. El contenido de humedad (CH) se determinó colocando las semillas de cada población en estufa a 103°C y pesando las muestras a intervalos regulares hasta peso constante. Se realizaron ensayos de germinación en distintos CH: semillas frescas, 10-12%, 3-5%, y en semillas mantenidas seis meses a -20ºC y a 3-5% de CH. El CH de las semillas frescas de P. ferox fue de 14.2% y el de P. nitens de 10% para las dos poblaciones estudiadas. Las semillas de P. ferox llegaron a peso constante a las 17hr y las de P. nitens a las 3hr de secado. La germinación de las semillas de P. ferox fue mayor en los tratamientos con escarificación y la diferencia aumento con la reducción del CH y el almacenamiento. Las semillas de P. nitens con el CH reducido, requieren escarificación. Se concluye que las semillas de ambas especies son probablemente ortodoxas ya que la germinación superó el 80% en las semillas desecadas al 3-5% CH y almacenadas durante seis meses a -20°C.


Subject(s)
Desiccation/methods , Fabaceae/physiology , Germination/physiology , Seeds/physiology , Argentina , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Fabaceae/classification , Fabaceae/growth & development , Humidity , Seedlings/physiology , Seeds/growth & development , Temperature , Time Factors
16.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(4,supl.1): 655-663, 2013. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-700004

ABSTRACT

Devido à devastação de áreas do Cerrado, muitas espécies nativas encontram-se ameaçadas de extinção e devido à ampla utilização de Anadenanthera falcata, estudos sobre a ecofisiologia da germinação e do crescimento das mudas tornam-se necessários. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do condicionamento osmótico e do sombreamento na germinação e no crescimento inicial de mudas de angico. As sementes foram pré-embebidas em soluções de diferentes concentrações de PEG e KNO3 e incubadas em temperatura de 10°C e 20°C durante 12 e 24 horas. Após estes períodos as sementes foram secas até atingirem os teores iniciais de umidade, sendo posteriormente colocadas para germinar em BOD na temperatura de 20-30°C em regime fotoperiódico de 8h luz e 16h de escuro. O tratamento testemunha e os pré-condicionamentos com KNO3 (-1,0 MPa) e PEG (-1,0 MPa) proporcionaram os melhores resultados de germinação em BOD. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas e posteriormente transplantadas para embalagens plásticas, permanecendo sob telado coberto com sombrite de 50% e 70% de sombreamento e a pleno sol. Em BOD, os tratamentos de osmo-condicionamento, reduziram de forma negativa a germinação das sementes. Sob sombreamento, as doses avaliadas não influenciaram na emergência do angico, entretanto, sementes tratadas com KNO3 (-1,0 MPa) tiveram maior índice de velocidade de emergência sob pleno sol apresentando melhor desenvolvimento quando mantidas até os 145 dias de idade.


Due to the devastation of the Cerrado areas, many native species are threatened with extinction, and due to the widespread use of Anadenanthera falcata, studies on the ecophysiology of seed germination and seedling growth are necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the priming and shading effects on the germination and early growth of angico seedlings. The seeds were pre-soaked in solutions with different concentrations of PEG and KNO3 and incubated at 10°C and 20°C for 12 and 24 hours. After these periods the seeds were dried until reaching the initial moisture levels, and subsequently incubated in BOD at the temperature of 20-30°C under photoperiods of 8h of light and 16h of dark. The control treatment and pre-conditioning with KNO3 (-1.0 MPa) and PEG (-1.0 MPa) presented the best germination results in BOD. The seeds were sown in trays and then transplanted to plastic packages, remaining in a greenhouse covered with 50% and 70% shading, in full sun. In BOD, the priming treatments decreased the germination of seeds. Under shade, the doses evaluated did not affect the emergence of angico, however, seeds treated with KNO3 (-1.0 MPa) had a greater EVI, in full sun and showed a better development when maintained up to 145 days of age.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae/growth & development , Germination , Imbibition Methods , Seeds/growth & development
17.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 15(4): 7-7, July 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-646957

ABSTRACT

A callus induction and plant regeneration protocol was developed from leaf and thorn explants for the plant Ulex europaeus. Explants were incubated on 2 percent sucrose half-strength Murashige and Skoog Medium (MS) with various combinations of plant growth regulators and antioxidants. The best frequency of callus and shoot formation was obtained with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 1 mg/l x kinetin (Kin) 0.2 mg/l (DK Medium; callus induction) and zeatin (Z) 1 mg/l (DK medium; shoot induction). Both media were supplemented with ascorbic acid 200 mg/l to prevent browning and death of the explants. The regenerated shoots transferred to rooting medium (half-strength MS Medium, 2 percent sucrose) showed rapid growth and development of roots (100 percent). Rooted plantlets were successfully transferred to soil in pots containing a 3:1 mixture of soil and vermiculite.


Subject(s)
Regeneration , Ulex/growth & development , Acclimatization , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Fabaceae/growth & development , Germination
18.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 27(1): 8-17, jul. 2012. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-679648

ABSTRACT

Se condujo una investigación en el Trópico Húmedo Ecuatoriano (THE), dirigida a encontrar un método eficiente para evaluar la resistencia genética en árboles de Schizolobium parahybum (pachaco) frente al complejo Ceratocystis: C. paradoxa, C. moniliformis, y C. fimbriata. Se estudiaron dos métodos basados en el empleo de dos tipos de tejidos vegetales: a) tejidos de ramas laterales, y 2) tejidos de corteza fustal. Se emplearon cinco rodales de pachaco, tres de los cuales son considerados de introducción original de la especie forestal al THE desde la amazonía, y dos que son descendientes de los primeros. Los resultados permitieron definir que el método basado en tejidos de corteza fustal, fue el más eficiente y logísticamente viable. La metodología final aplicada, consistió en extraer corteza desde árboles adultos, reducirla a secciones pequeñas de 1,5 cm x 4 cm (6 cm2) y mantenerlas en una cámara húmeda durante 96 horas. Una vez distribuidas las secciones de corteza, se inocularon con 0,45mL-1 de una suspensión calibrada a razón de 30.000 unidades de infección (ascosporas, conidias y micelio). Para la evaluación, se empleó una escala arbitraria de 0 a 4 que permitió estimar el crecimiento de micelio y número de peritecios para cada uno de los hongos. Esta metodología permitió discriminar entre árboles: resistentes (0,0 a 1,0), moderadamente resistentes (1,1 a 2,0), susceptibles (2,1 a 3,0), y muy susceptibles (3,1 a 4,0), lo cual la hace viable para futuros trabajos de selección de individuos y mejoramiento genético de la especie.


A research was conducted in the Humid Tropics of Ecuador (THE), aimed at finding an efficient method to evaluate genetic resistance in Schizolobium parahybum (Pachaco) trees against Ceratocystis complex: C. paradoxa, C. moniliformis and C. fimbriata. We studied two methods based on the use of two types of plant tissues: a) tissue of lateral branches, and 2) stem bark tissues. Five forest of pachaco were used, three of which are considered original introduction of forestry specie to THE from the Amazon, and two who are descendants of the former. The results allowed to define the method based on stem bark tissue was the most efficient and logistically feasible. The final methodology applied, consisted in to remove bark from mature trees, reducing it to small sections of 1.5 cm x 4 cm (6cm2) and maintained in a moist chamber for 96 hours. Once distributed the sections of bark, were inoculated with 0.45mL-1 of a suspension calibrated at a rate of 30.000 units of infection (ascospores, conidia and mycelium). For evaluation, we used an arbitrary scale from 0 to 4, which allowed to estimate the growth of mycelium and perithecia number for each of the fungi. This methodology allows us to discriminate between trees: resistant (0.0 to 1.0), moderately resistant (1.1 to 2.0), susceptible (2.1 to 3.0), and very susceptible (3.1 to 4 , 0), which makes it viable for future selection of individuals and breeding of the forest species.


Subject(s)
Actinomycetales Infections , Trees/growth & development , Trees/genetics , Trees/microbiology , Fabaceae/growth & development , Fabaceae/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/pathogenicity , Mycelium , Spores, Fungal , Ecuador
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(2): 682-691, Apr.-June 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-644486

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Bradyrhizobium/growth & development , Bradyrhizobium/isolation & purification , Fabaceae/growth & development , Gene Amplification , In Vitro Techniques , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Rhizobium/growth & development , Rhizobium/isolation & purification , Methods
20.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 11(41): 237-246, 2012. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688233

ABSTRACT

Soil salinity severely affects crop yield all over the world. In a recent study we observed that Natrum mur 200cH, a homeopathic remedy, improved growth in germinating cowpea seeds. In the present study we have tested another remedy Sepia, which is complementary to Natrum mur, on cowpea seedlings under salt stress. Cowpea seedlings grown over moist filter paper in petridishes were divided into 4 groups: (1) control in sterile water, (2) in 50mM NaCl solution, (3) seeds pretreated with 90% ethanol diluted with water 1:100 and then transferred to 50mM NaCl solution, (4) seeds pretreated with Sepia 200cH diluted with water 1:100 and transferred to 50mM NaCl solution. In another experiment the groups were same, but the dilution of 90% ethanol and Sepia 200cH was 1:1000 instead of 1:100. The purpose was to further reduce the ethanol content in both the drug and its vehicle 90% ethanol, so that the alcohol effect is minimized or abolished. The data were analysed by ANOVA followed by t-test. Sepia 200cH at both 1:100 and 1:1000 dilutions significantly increased growth, sugar, chlorophyll, protein and water content in seedlings as compared to the untreated salt-stressed group. The effect with the1000th dilution of Sepia 200cH was more pronounced than with its 100th dilution. The vehicle 90% ethanol at 1:100 dilution produced some positive effect on the seedlings, but the 1000th dilution of the vehicle produced no such effect. It is, therefore, concluded that Sepia 200cH could ameliorate salt stress in cowpea seedlings and that the 1000th dilution is more effective than its 100th dilution. The alcohol effect is totally eliminated with the 1000th dilution of 90% ethanol. Thus the 1000th dilution could retain the drug effect and eliminate the vehicle effect.


Introdução: A salinidade do solo afeta seriamente a produtividade das culturas no mundo todo. Num estudo recente, observamos que o medicamento homeopático Natrum muriaticum 200 Ch melhorou o crescimento de sementes de feijão-fradinho Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] em germinação. Objetivo: Nesse trabalho, testamos o medicamento homeopático Sepia succus, complementar de Nat-m, em plântulas de feijão-fradinho submetidas a estresse salino. Métodos: Plântulas de feijão-fradinho desenvolvidas sobre papel de filtro umedecido em placas de Petri foram divididas em 4 grupos: (1) controle em água estéril, (2) em solução de NaCl 50 mM, (3) sementes pré-tratadas com etanol a 90% diluído 1:100 em água e após transferido a solução de NaCl 50mM, e (4) sementes pré-tratadas com Sep 200 cH diluídas 1:100 em água e após transferidas a solução de NaCl 50 mM. Num segundo experimento, os grupos foram os mesmos, mas a diluição do etanol a 90% e de Sep 200 cH foi 1:1.000 ao invés de 1:00 para reduzir ainda mais o teor de etanol em ambos, medicamento e veículo a fim de minimizar ou abolir o efeito do álcool. Os dados foram analisados através de ANOVA seguida de teste t de Student. Resultados: As duas diluições de Sep 200 cH, 1:100 e 1:1.000, aumentaram significativamente o crescimento, teor de açúcar, clorofila, proteína e água das plântulas por comparação ao grupo submetido a estresse salino não tratado. O efeito da 1.000ª diluição de Sep 200 cH foi mais pronunciado que o da 100ª diluição. O veículo etanol a 90% em diluição 1:100 induziu alguns efeitos positivos nas plântulas, mas a diluição 1:1.000 não apresentou esses efeitos. Conclusões: Sep 200 cH reverteu o efeito de estresse salino nas plântulas de feijão-fradinho, sendo que a 1.000ª diluição foi mais efetiva que a 100ª. O efeito do álcool foi totalmente eliminado com a 1.000ª diluição do etanol a 90%. Portanto, a 1.000ª conservou o efeito do medicamento e eliminou o efeito do veículo.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Fabaceae/growth & development , Seedlings/growth & development , Sepia succus , Saltpetre Soils
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