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Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 35-39, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528824


SUMMARY: We aimed to determine the width of the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle (LLSAN) at the level of the nasal ala through cadaveric dissections and ultrasonography (US), to provide essential anatomical information for use during both invasive and noninvasive procedures in the nasal ala region. The LLSAN was investigated in the 40 hemifaces of 20 Korean cadavers, comprising 10 males and 10 females with a mean age of 73.6 years. The LLSAN width of the 40 specimens at the level of the midpoint of the nasal ala was 5.02±2.35 mm (mean±standard deviation), and ranged from 1.45 mm to 10.11 mm. The LLSAN widths were 5.96±2.36 mm and 3.93±1.89 mm in males and females, respectively, with ranges of 2.40-10.11 mm and 1.45-6.96 mm, respectively. The LLSAN widths on the left and right sides were 4.77±2.72 mm and 5.26±1.99 mm, respectively. The proportions of the LLSAN fibers inserting into the nasal ala and upper lip were similar in 13 specimens (32.5 %), while more fibers inserted into the nasal ala in 11 specimens (27.5 %) and more fibers inserted fibers of the LLSAN into the upper lip in 16 specimens (40 %). When clinicians need to target or avoid the LLSAN, the present width and range data can be helpful for ensuring the efficacy and safely of both invasive and noninvasive procedures. In addition, the possibility of asymmetry in the width of the LLSAN in the nasal ala region should be confirmed by US before performing such procedures.

Nuestro objetivo fue determinar el ancho del músculo elevador nasolabial (MENL) a nivel del ala nasal mediante disecciones cadavéricas y ecografía, para proporcionar información anatómica esencial, para su uso durante procedimientos invasivos y no invasivos, en la región del ala nasal. El MENL se estudió en 40 hemicaras de 20 cadáveres coreanos (10 hombres y 10 mujeres) con una edad media de 73,6 años. El ancho de MENL de las 40 muestras a nivel del punto medio del ala nasal fue de 5,02 ± 2,35 mm (media ± desviación estándar) y osciló entre 1,45 mm y 10,11 mm. Los anchos de MENL fueron 5,96 ± 2,36 mm y 3,93 ± 1,89 mm en hombres y mujeres, respectivamente, con rangos de 2,40 a 10,11 mm y 1,45 a 6,96 mm, respec- tivamente. Los anchos de MENL en los lados izquierdo y derecho fueron 4,77 ± 2,72 mm y 5,26 ± 1,99 mm, respectivamente. Las proporciones de fibras de MENL que se insertaban en el ala nasal y en el labio superior fueron similares en 13 muestras (32,5 %), mientras que se insertaron más fibras en el ala nasal en 11 muestras (27,5 %) y además, se insertaron fibras de MENL en el labio superior en 16 ejemplares (40 %). Cuando los médicos necesitan apuntar o evitar el MENL, los datos actuales de ancho y rango pueden ser útiles para garantizar la eficacia y seguridad de los procedimientos, tanto invasivos como no invasivos. Además, la ecografía puede ser utilizada para confirmar una posible asimetría en el ancho del MENL en la región del ala nasal antes de realizar los procedimientos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Nose/diagnostic imaging , Facial Muscles/diagnostic imaging , Cadaver , Nose/anatomy & histology , Ultrasonography , Facial Muscles/anatomy & histology
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 368-373, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986896


Objective: To investigate the characteristics of electromyography (EMG) signals and the starting threshold voltages of the orbicularis oris muscles (OOM) in healthy rhesus monkeys under different muscle movement conditions. Methods: The EMG signals and the starting threshold voltages at different time points in 4 healthy rhesus monkeys were acquired and recorded with EMG device and evoked potentiometer. The voltage amplitude variation of EMG signals was analyzed, and the voltage amplitude range of EMG signals at the beginning of OOM contraction was established. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: The EMG of OOM in healthy monkeys in the quiet, natural and continuous mouth-closed state was linear and relatively stable, and the absolute value fluctuated between 15 and 50 μV. The EMG waveform increased rapidly during the natural lip contraction movement, and its amplitude fluctuated greatly, with the highest absolute value of the peak value reaching hundreds of microvolts. The amplitude of EMG induced by continuous mouth closure was more than thousands of microvolts. There was no significant difference in EMG amplitudes of OOM in the healthy rhesus monkey under quiet and continuous lip closure at different time points (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in threshold voltages in the state of natural lip contraction of bilateral OOM at different time points (average range: 57.17-57.47 μV) in the healthy rhesus monkeys (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in threshold voltages of OOM induced by bilateral OOM at different time points(average range: 55.38-55.99 μV) in the healthy rhesus monkeys(P>0.05). There were significant differences in the absolute values of EMG amplitudes of OOM between the three lip movement modes: (30.67±8.72) μV in quiet and natural continuous lip closure (475.12±54.72) μV in natural lip contraction, and (921.22±312.79) μV in the induced persistent lip closure, with t values of -8.48, -9.35 and -5.01 respectively, all P<0.001. Conclusions: The EMG signals of OOM show different characteristics under different muscle movement conditions, which can be used as a basis for computer to judge and recognize the movement conditions of OOM. The upper limits of the EMG threshold voltage values of OOM under different motion states are 55-60 μV.

Animals , Lip , Macaca mulatta , Facial Muscles , Electromyography
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1043-1047, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405242


SUMMARY: This study aimed to determine the anatomical connections between the inferior fibers of M. orbicularis oculi (OOc inf.) and the M. levator labii superioris alaeque nasi (LLSAN), providing anatomical variations of the connecting fibers. This study examined the OOc and LLSAN of 44 specimens from 22 embalmed adult Korean cadavers. Connecting fibers between the OOc inf. and LLSAN were observed in 29.5 % of the specimens. Connecting patterns of the OOc inf. to the LLSAN were classified into three categories according to the directions of the connecting fibers; Type I (13.6 %), in which some of the OOc inf. coursed medially to blend with the lateral originating fibers of the LLSAN. Type II (11.4 %), in which some of the OOc inf. descended vertically to blend with the LLSAN. Type III (4.5 %), in which both types I and II were found simultaneously. Some of the OOc inf. coursed medially to blend with the lateral originating fibers of the LLSAN, and some of the OOc inf. descended vertically to blend with the LLSAN. These findings provide greater knowledge of the connecting fibers between the OOc inf. and LLSAN, thereby helping us understand complicated expressions, inject BoNT-A into related wrinkles, and analyze EMG activities.

RESUMEN: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar las conexiones anatómicas entre las fibras inferiores del músculo orbicular del ojo (MOO inf.) y el levantador nasolabial (Musculus levator nasiolabialis; M. levator labii superioris alaeque nasi) (LNL), proporcionando variaciones anatómicas de las fibras conectoras. Se examinó el orbicularis oculi (MOO) y LNL de 44 especímenes de 22 cadáveres coreanos adultos embalsamados. Se observaron fibras conectoras entre los MOO inf. y LNL en el 29,5 % de los especímenes. Patrones de conexión del OOc inf. a LNL se clasificaron en tres categorías según las direcciones de las fibras conectoras; Tipo I (13,6 %), en el que algunos de los MOO inf. cursaban medialmente para mezclarse con las fibras de origen lateral del LNL. Tipo II (11,4 %), en el que algunos de los MOO inf. descendían verticalmente para mezclarse con el LNL. Tipo III (4,5 %), en el que se encontraron simultáneamente los tipos I y II. Algunos de los MOO inf. cursaron medialmente para mezclarse con las fibras de origen lateral de la LNL y algunas de las MOO inf. descendían verticalmente para mezclarse con el LNL. Estos hallazgos aportan un mayor conocimiento de las fibras conectoras entre los MOO inf. y LNL, lo que nos ayuda a comprender expresiones complicadas, inyectar BoNT-A en las arrugas relacionadas y analizar las actividades de EMG.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Facial Muscles/anatomy & histology , Oculomotor Muscles/anatomy & histology , Cadaver
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0005, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360915


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the upper and lower blepharoplasty technique associated with canthopexy with double pre septal orbicularis muscle elevation with a single suture in order to evaluate the efficacy of the technique. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which the medical records of 5,882 patients who underwent this technique between January 1999 and July 2015 were evaluated. The frequency and main causes of clinical complications and surgical reoperation were analyzed. Results: The incidence of complications found was 12.7% (n=750), being 0.8% (n=47) due to persistent chemosis, 3% (n=176) due to poor lower eyelid positioning, 4.17% (n=245) due to mild eyelid retraction and 4.8% (n=282) because of mild to moderate chemosis. Conclusion: The technique appears to be effective as it is simple and practical, and capable of resulting in positive functional and aesthetic outcomes with low rates of complications.

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a técnica de blefaroplastia superior e inferior associada à cantopexia associada à dupla elevação do músculo orbicular pré-septal em uma única sutura e avaliar sua eficácia. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo, no qual foram avaliados 5.882 prontuários de pacientes submetidos à blefaroplastia superior e inferior com a utilização da cantopexia, entre janeiro de 1999 e julho de 2015. Taxas e principais causas de complicações clínicas e reintervenção cirúrgica foram analisadas. Resultados: A incidência de complicações encontradas foi de 12,7% (n=750), sendo 0,8% (n=47) de caso de quemose persistente, 3% (n=176) de mau posicionamento palpebral inferior (ectrópio), 4,17% (n=245) de leve retração pálpebra e 4,8% (n=282) de quemose leve a moderada. Conclusão: A técnica mostra-se eficaz por ser simples e prática, podendo ter resultados funcionais e estéticos positivos e com baixo índice de complicações.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blepharoptosis/surgery , Suture Techniques , Blepharoplasty/adverse effects , Blepharoplasty/methods , Eyelid Diseases/surgery , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Skin Aging , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Conjunctival Diseases/etiology , Edema/etiology , Eyelids/surgery , Facial Muscles/surgery
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 755-759, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939528


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy between acupuncture combined with western medication and simple western medication for ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG), and to explore its possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients of ocular myasthenia gravis were randomized into an acupuncture combined with western medication group (30 cases, 1 case dropped off) and a western medication group (30 cases, 2 cases dropped off). Oral pyridostigmine bromide tablet and prednisone acetate tablet were given in the western medication group. On the basis of the treatment in the western medication group, Tongdu Tiaoqi acupuncture (acupuncture for unblocking the governor vessel and regulating qi ) was applied at Baihui (GV 20), Fengfu (GV 16), Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36), etc. in the acupuncture combined with western medication group, once a day, 6 days a week. The treatment was given 8 weeks in both groups. Before and after treatment, the OMG clinical absolute score was observed, electrophysiological indexes of orbicularis oculi (value of mean jitter, percentage of jitter >55 μs and percentage of blocks) were measured by single-fiber electromyography (SFEMG), serum levels of acetylcholine receptor antibody (AChR-Ab), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) were detected by ELISA method.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the OMG clinical absolute scores, values of mean jitter, percentages of jitter >55 μs, percentages of blocks and serum levels of AChR-Ab, IFN-γ and IL-4 were decreased compared before treatment in both groups (P<0.05), and those in the acupuncture combined with western medication group were lower than the western medication group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture combined with western medication can effectively improve ptosis, palpebra superior fatigability, eye movement disorder and neuromuscular junction dysfunction in patients with ocular myasthenia gravis, the therapeutic effect is superior to simple western medication. Its mechanism may be related to down-regulating serum levels of AChR-Ab, IFN-γ and IL-4 and promoting the recovery of orbicularis oculi function.

Humans , Acupuncture Therapy , Facial Muscles , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-4 , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(1): e3920, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155321


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze whether trombonists present orofacial myofunctional changes and compare the electrical activity of the orbicularis oris muscle before and after playing their instrument. Methods: an observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 20 university trombonists. Data collection involved three steps: application of a questionnaire investigating some peculiarities of trombonists (Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation with Expanded Scores - OMES-E), and electromyographic analysis of the orbicularis oris muscle before and after performing a piece with the trombone. The mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage were calculated, and the paired Student's t test was used to compare the means of the electromyographic records before and after playing the trombone, at a 5% significance. Results: seventy per cent of trombonists reported some symptom of orofacial myofunctional alteration, namely, muscle compensations, tension, and pain. The myofunctional evaluation showed a mild change in cheek volume (90%) and labial commissure asymmetry (60%). The electrical activity of the lower orbicularis oris muscle decreased significantly after the trombone practice (p = 0.04), while that of the superior orbicularis oris muscle remained unchanged. Conclusion:trombonists show clinical and self-reported oromyofunctional changes as well as decreased electrical activity of the lower orbicularis oris muscle, after playing the trombone.

RESUMO Objetivos: analisar se existem alterações miofuncionais orofaciais clínicas e autorreferidas em trombonistas, assim como comparar a atividade elétrica do músculo orbicular da boca antes e após o uso do trombone. Métodos: estudo transversal e observacional, cuja amostra foi composta por 20 universitários trombonistas. Foi utilizado um questionário que investiga algumas particularidades sobre o instrumentista, da Avaliação Miofuncional Orofacial Com Escores Ampliados - AMIOFE-A e análise eletromiográfica do músculo orbicular da boca antes e após execução de uma tarefa com o trombone. Foram calculadas: média, desvio padrão, frequência e porcentagem e utilizou-se o teste t-Student pareado na comparação das médias dos registros eletromiográficos pré e pós-execução do trombone, significância=5%. Resultados: setenta por centro dos trombonistas relataram algum sintoma de alteração miofuncional orofacial, sendo compensações musculares, tensão e dor. Na avaliação miofuncional encontrou-se alteração leve no volume de bochechas (90%) e comissuras labiais com assimetria (60%). Houve redução significante da atividade elétrica do músculo orbicular inferior após a execução de tarefa com trombone (p=0,04), enquanto a do superior permaneceu inalterada. Conclusão: trombonistas apresentam alterações oromiofuncionais clínicas e autorreferidas e diminuição da atividade elétrica do músculo orbicular inferior da boca após uso do trombone.

Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Stomatognathic System/physiopathology , Facial Muscles/physiopathology , Music , Students , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electromyography , Self Report , Nervous System Physiological Phenomena
Audiol., Commun. res ; 26: e2552, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355709


ABSTRACT Purpose To carry out an integrative review of the literature on the use of photobiomodulation (PBM) for the head and neck muscles. Research strategy The research took place between June/2019 and March/2021, in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, and SciELO. The MeSH used were Low-Level Light Therapy, Phototherapy, Masseter Muscle, Masticatory Muscles, Tongue, Palate, Mouth, Neck Muscles, and Facial Muscles in English and Portuguese. No limitation was imposed on the year and language of publication. Selection criteria studies that answered the guiding question: what is the use of photobiomodulation to the head and neck muscles?. Results 2857 articles were found, of which 102 were selected for full reading, 52 of those were excluded, giving a total of 50 articles included. The included publications date from 2003 to 2020. Brazil was the country that most published on the topic. With regard to the objectives, 82% of the studies aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of PBM, of these, 50% were related to articular or muscular temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The heterogeneity of the studies makes it impossible to define the dose protocols. Conclusion PBM has been applied to the head and neck muscles mainly for the treatment of pain caused by TMD. There is no treatment protocol to define the doses to be used, due the heterogeneity of the methodologies applied and results found.

RESUMO Objetivos realizar uma revisão integrativa da literatura sobre o uso da fotobiomodulação nos músculos de cabeça e pescoço. Estratégia de pesquisa As buscar foram realizadas nas bases de dados: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS e SciELO. A pesquisa ocorreu entre junho de 2019 e março de 2021. Os descritores utilizados foram Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade, Fototerapia, Músculo Masseter, Músculos Mastigatórios, Língua, Palato, Boca, Pescoço, Músculos do Pescoço, Músculos Faciais e seus respectivos termos em inglês. Não houve limitação de ano de publicação e idioma. Critérios de seleção estudos que respondessem a pergunta norteadora: qual o uso da fotobiomodulação na musculatura de cabeça e pescoço?. Resultados Foram encontrados 2857 artigos, sendo selecionados 102 para leitura completa, dos quais 52 foram excluídos, totalizando 50 artigos incluídos. As publicações incluídas datam de 2003 a 2020. O Brasil foi o país que mais publicou sobre o tema. Quanto aos objetivos, 82% dos estudos pesquisaram o efeito analgésico da fotobiomodulação, e desses, 50% eram relacionados à disfunção temporomandibular (DTM) articular ou muscular. A heterogeneidade dos estudos impossibilita a definição de protocolos dosimétricos. Conclusão A fotobiomodulação tem sido utilizada na musculatura de cabeça e pescoço principalmente para o tratamento da dor proveniente de DTM. Não existe um protocolo de aplicação que defina os parâmetros dosimétricos a serem utilizados, devido a heterogeneidade das metodologias e dos resultados encontrados.

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome/radiotherapy , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Facial Muscles , Neck Muscles , Masseter Muscle , Masticatory Muscles
Audiol., Commun. res ; 26: e2400, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350165


RESUMO Objetivo pesquisar a atividade elétrica do músculo orbicular da boca em quatro diferentes tarefas isométricas e indicar a mais apropriada para utilização como referência na normalização do sinal elétrico do músculo orbicular da boca pela contração voluntária máxima. Métodos participaram do estudo 22 indivíduos, sendo dez do sexo masculino e 12 do feminino, com idades entre 20 e 33 anos. A atividade elétrica das porções superior e inferior do músculo orbicular da boca foi registrada durante a realização das seguintes tarefas isométricas: protrusão labial com fechamento, protrusão labial sem fechamento, contrarresistência com a placa de resistência labial e preensão de lábios. A ordem de realização das tarefas foi randomizada entre os participantes. Os dados foram comparados entre as tarefas, para cada seguimento labial. Resultados no segmento marginal superior, a tarefa com maior média e mediana de amplitude foi preensão labial, embora sem diferença significativa entre tarefas. O menor coeficiente de variação foi obtido na tarefa de contrarresistência com a placa de resistência labial. No segmento marginal inferior, a tarefa com maior média e mediana de amplitude foi protrusão labial com fechamento, que também teve o menor coeficiente de variação e diferença significativa entre as tarefas protrusão labial com fechamento e preensão, sendo os maiores valores obtidos na primeira. Conclusão indica-se como referência para a normalização do sinal elétrico do músculo orbicular da boca, pela contração voluntária máxima, a tarefa de protrusão labial com fechamento.

ABSTRACT Purpose To verify the electrical activity of the orbicularis oris in four different isometric tasks and to indicate the most appropriate task for use as a reference in the normalization of the electrical signal of the orbicularis oris muscle by maximum voluntary contraction. Methods Twenty-two individuals participated in the study, of which 10 were male and 12 were female, with ages ranging from 20 to 33 years. The electrical activity of the upper and lower parts of orbicularis oris muscle was recorded during the following isometric tasks: lip protrusion with bilabial closure; lip protrusion without bilabial closure; the counter resistance using the plate of labial resistance and lips prehension. The order of the tasks was randomized among participants. Data were compared between tasks for each lip part. Results in the upper marginal segment, the task with the highest mean and median amplitude was lip prehension, although there was no significant difference between tasks. The lowest coefficient of variation was obtained in the counter resistance task with the plate of labial resistance. In the lower marginal segment, the task with the highest mean and median amplitude was labial protrusion with lips closure, which also had the lowest coefficient of variation. In this segment, there was a significant difference between labial protrusion with lips closure and prehension, with the highest values obtained in the first task. Conclusion lip protrusion with bilabial closure is suggested as reference for the normalization of the electrical signal of the orbicularis oris muscle, by maximum voluntary contraction.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Electromyography , Facial Muscles , Isometric Contraction , Masticatory Muscles/physiopathology
CoDAS ; 33(2): e20190219, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249612


RESUMO Objetivo Adaptar e validar conteúdo e aparência do Protocolo de Avaliação Miofuncional Orofacial com Escores Expandido (AMIOFE-E) para lactentes de 6 a 24 meses de idade. Método Estudo de validação. Os parâmetros foram baseados em literatura sobre desenvolvimento motor orofacial, experiência dos autores e painel de 10 especialistas. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva, Índice de Validade de Conteúdo e concordância entre especialistas. Resultados O protocolo foi organizado em blocos funcionais após manutenção, exclusão, modificação e acréscimo de itens, adaptando-se à faixa etária. Obteve-se alto nível de concordância em 90% dos itens. Na versão final foram acrescidos: histórico de alimentação e hábitos parafuncionais orofaciais, mobilidade facial, dentição, modo oral de respiração, deglutição de pastoso e detalhamentos específicos para a faixa etária. Acrescentou-se um manual operacional e uma tabela para registro de escores. Conclusão O Protocolo AMIOFE-E Lactentes e respectivo manual operacional foram validados quanto ao conteúdo e aparência, e poderá contribuir no diagnóstico miofuncional orofacial na faixa etária de 6 a 24 meses de idade.

ABSTRACT Purpose Adapt and validate the content and appearance of the Expanded Protocol of Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation with Scores (OMES-E) for nursing infants aged 6 to 24 months. Methods This is a validation study. The parameters were based on the literature on orofacial motor development, the authors' experience, and on a committee of ten members. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, content validity index, and agreement among experts. Results The protocol was organized into functional blocks after maintenance, exclusion, modification, and addition of items, and was adapted according to the age group. A high level of agreement between experts was obtained for 90% of the items. The final version of the protocol includes new items such as history of feeding, orofacial parafunctional habits, facial mobility, dentition, oral breathing mode, swallowing of pasty food, and details specific for the age group. An operational manual and a table for recording the scores were also included. Conclusions The OMES-E Infants protocol was validated for its content and appearance, and may contribute to orofacial myofunctional diagnosis in the 6 to 24-month age group.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Facial Muscles , Reproducibility of Results , Deglutition
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 698-702, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921393


OBJECTIVES@#Short-term outcome evaluation for the correction of unilateral cleft lip deformity with a new technique.@*METHODS@#Forty-four patients with unilateral cleft lip deformity were included in the study and in which the orbicularis oris muscle was reconstructed to achieve the optimal force balance of reconstructed orbicularis oris. The photometric two-dimensional indexes, including the philtrum oblique angle and asymmetry ratios (lip height, lip width, vertical distance from the white roll to the vermilion bottom at the Cupid's bow point, and vertical distance from the Cupid 's bow points to facial midline), were employed to measure and evaluate the outcome.@*RESULTS@#Several indexes showed statistically significant difference, and they included the philtrum oblique angle, asymmetry ratio of the lip height, and asymmetry ratio of the vertical distance from the white roll to the vermilion bottom at Cupid ' s bow points (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results suggested that the new muscle reconstruction technique can significantly improve the short-term outcome of the correction of unilateral cleft lip deformity.

Humans , Cleft Lip/surgery , Facial Muscles/surgery , Lip , Mouth Mucosa , Plastic Surgery Procedures
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1837-1841, Dec. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134517


RESUMEN: La disposición anatómica de los músculos faciales es de una notable complejidad y requiere de un estudio pormenorizado para lograr su reconomiento preciso. La comprensión de la disposición morfológica y la funcionalidad del modiolo del ángulo oral (Modiolus angulis oris) es de gran relevancia al momento de analizar la constitución muscular de la comisura labial, y para comprender clínicamente las lesiones del ángulo de la cavidad oral, lo que permitirá un abordaje terapéutico adecuado, crucial para la preservación y reconstitución de la armonía facial.

SUMMARY: The anatomical arrangement of the facial muscles is of considerable complexity and requires a detailed study to achieve its precise recognition. The understanding of the morphological disposition and the functionality of the angle of the mouth (Modiolus angulis oris) is of great relevance when analyzing the muscular constitution of the labial commissure, and to understand clinically the injuries of the angulus oris, what that will allow an adequate therapeutic approach, crucial for the preservation and reconstitution of facial harmony.

Facial Muscles/anatomy & histology , Mouth/anatomy & histology , Lip/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1208-1211, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134426


SUMMARY: Facial muscles are known to have a variable anatomy. Such anatomical variations can affect facial expressions. A natural smile is produced by contracting several muscles of facial expression, including the muscles invested in the superficial musculoaponeurotic system. Change in the width of the mouth on smiling is a known iatrogenic complication affecting the risorius muscle when using Botulinum Neurotoxin as a non-invasive treatment for masseteric hypertrophy. Also damage to the risorius muscle, with consequent clinical deficits, is a common surgical complication in facial aesthetic, oncologic and other head and neck procedures such as parotidectomy and rhytidectomy. Hence, a thorough knowledge of muscle anatomy, particularly its potential variations, is critical in reducing the associated operative morbidity. Accordingly, we report an unusual variation of the transversus nuchal muscle fused with the risorius muscle noted in an 83-year-old female body cadaver.

RESUMEN: Los músculos faciales tienen una anatomía variable. Tales variaciones anatómicas pueden afectar las expresiones faciales. Una sonrisa natural se produce al contraer varios músculos de la expresión facial, incluidos los músculos invertidos en el sistema musculoaponeurótico superficial. El cambio en el ancho de la boca al sonreír es una complicación iatrogénica conocida, que afecta el músculo risorio cuando se usa la neurotoxina botulínica como un tratamiento no invasivo para la hipertrofia masterérica. Además, el daño al músculo risorio, con los consecuentes déficits clínicos, es una complicación quirúrgica común en la estética facial, oncológica y otros procedimientos de cabeza y cuello, como la parotidectomía y la ritidectomía. Por lo tanto, un conocimiento profundo de la anatomía muscular, particularmente sus posibles variaciones, es crítico para reducir la morbilidad operativa asociada. En consecuencia, informamos una variación inusual del músculo transverso de la nuca fusionado con el músculo risorio, observado en un cadáver de cuerpo femenino de 83 años.

Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Facial Expression , Facial Muscles/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Cadaver
Distúrb. comun ; 32(1): 165-171, mar. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395535


Objetivo: apresentar um relato de experiência sobre o "Cantinho da Beleza" enquanto ação de promoção da saúde da mulher. Métodos: esta ação foi realizada em outubro de 2017, durante a Campanha Outubro Rosa, em uma Unidade de Saúde da Família de um município do interior paulista. Realizaram a ação 16 estagiárias de Fonoaudiologia Comunitária e a Supervisora responsável pelo Estágio. Participaram 14 funcionárias da respectiva Unidade e quatro mulheres do território de saúde. As estagiárias falaram sobre anatomia, fisiologia e estratégias para fortalecimento da musculatura facial e promoveram momento de embelezamento e de estética facial. Resultados: as ações realizadas na atenção primária permitiram a promoção da autoestima feminina e, consequentemente, da qualidade de vida das mulheres trabalhadoras da USF e usuárias da comunidade da área de abrangência. Sobretudo, permitiu que estagiárias de Fonoaudiologia realizassem durante a sua formação ações de promoção da saúde integradas às Redes de Atenção à Saúde, em consonância com as Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais de Graduação, com a Política Nacional de Atenção Básica, com a Política Nacional de Saúde do Trabalhador e demais políticas públicas de saúde. Conclusão: este relato permitiu apresentar uma experiência de promoção da saúde da mulher realizada por estagiários de Fonoaudiologia.

Purpose: to present an experience report about the "Beauty Corner" while promotion action of the women's health. Methods: this action was carried out in October 2017 during the Pink October Campaign, in a Family Health Unit of a municipality in the interior of São Paulo. 16 interns from Community Speech Language Pathology and Audiology and the Supervisor responsible for the Internship carried out the action. 14 employees of the respective Unit and four women from the health territory participated. The interns spoke about anatomy, physiology and strategies to strengthen the facial muscles and promoted the beautification moment and facial esthetics. Results: the actions carried out in primary care allowed the promotion of female self-esteem and, consequently, the quality of life of working women of the FHU and users of the community in the coverage area. Mainly, it allowed Speech Language Pathology and Audiology interns to carry out during their graduation health promotion actions integrated into the Health Care Networks, in accordance with the National Curricular Guidelines of Graduation, with the National Policy of Basic Attention, with the National Health Policy of the Worker and other public health policies. Conclusion: this report allowed us to present an experience of promoting the health of women performed by interns of Speech, Language Pathology and Audiology.

Objetivo: Presentar un informe de experiencia sobre el "Cantinho da Beleza" como una acción para promover la salud de la mujer. Métodos: Esta acción se llevó a cabo en octubre de 2017, durante la Campaña Rose October, en una Unidad de Salud Familiar en una ciudad del interior de São Paulo. La acción fue realizada por 16 pasantes de terapia del habla comunitaria y el supervisor responsable de la pasantía. Participaron catorce empleados de la unidad respectiva y cuatro mujeres del área de salud. Los alumnos hablaron sobre anatomía, fisiología y estrategias para fortalecer los músculos faciales y promovieron el momento de embellecimiento y la estética facial. Resultados: las acciones realizadas en atención primaria permitieron la promoción de la autoestima femenina y, en consecuencia, la calidad de vida de las trabajadoras de la USF y las usuarias de la comunidad en el área cubierta. Sobre todo, permitió a los aprendices de Patología del habla y lenguaje llevar a cabo acciones de promoción de la salud integradas en las Redes de atención médica durante su capacitación, en línea con las Pautas nacionales del plan de estudios de posgrado, la Política nacional de atención primaria y la Política nacional de salud de Trabajadores y otras políticas de salud pública. Conclusión: este informe nos permitió presentar una experiencia de promoción de la salud de la mujer realizada por pasantes de Fonoaudiología.

Humans , Male , Female , Students, Health Occupations , Women's Health , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences , Health Promotion , Primary Health Care , Cosmetic Techniques , Facial Muscles
CoDAS ; 32(4): e20190132, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101097


RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo visou validar o Protocolo de Avaliação Miofuncional Orofacial MBGR para adultos com DTM. Método Participaram 30 adultos, sendo 15 com DTM (deslocamento de disco com redução segundo o Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders) e 15 Controles. O processo de validação envolveu a validade de conteúdo, de critério e de construto, além da concordância inter e intra-avaliador, sensibilidade e especificidade. Considerou-se nível de significância de 5%. Resultados Foram confirmadas as validades de conteúdo, visto que o Protocolo MBGR abarca todas as questões funcionais presentes em indivíduos com DTM; de critério, com correlações significantes entre o MBGR e AMIOFE; e de construto, diferenciando indivíduos com e sem DMO quanto à dor à palpação e mobilidade mandibular, com correlação significante entre a avaliação clínica do MBGR e o uso do algômetro digital, bem como confirmação do exame instrumental para a classificação do modo respiratório. A força de concordância variou de pobre a muito boa para a análise interavaliador e de razoável a muito boa para intra-avaliador. Os valores de sensibilidade e especificidade foram elevados. Conclusão O Protocolo MBGR mostrou-se válido para aplicação em adultos com DTM com deslocamento de disco com redução e controles, contemplando todos os aspectos que possibilitam a análise das condições oromiofuncionais nesses indivíduos.

ABSTRACT Purpose This study aimed at validating the MBGR Orofacial Myofunctional Assessment Protocol (MBGR Protocol) for adults with Temporal Mandibular Disorders (TMD). Methods The study sample was composed of 30 adults: 15 with TMD (disc displacement with reduction according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders) and 15 control individuals. The validation process encompassed the content, criterion, and construct of the protocol, as well as its inter- and intra-rater agreement levels and sensitivity and specificity values, considering a 5% statistical significance level. Results The following validities were confirmed: of content, as the MBGR Protocol covers all functional issues present in patients with TMD; of criterion, with significant correlations between the MBGR and Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation with Scores (OMES) protocols; of construct, differentiating individuals with and without Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders (OMD) as for pain on palpation and mandible range of motion, with significant correlation between the MBGR clinical evaluation and that using a digital algometer, as well as confirmation of the instrumental assessment for the breathing mode classification. Agreement ranged from poor to very good and from reasonable to very good for the inter- and intra-rater power analyses, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity values were observed. Conclusion The MBGR Protocol proved to be valid for use in adults presented with TMD with disc displacement with reduction and controls, covering all aspects that enable the analysis of OMD in these individuals.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/diagnosis , Mass Screening/instrumentation , Facial Muscles/physiopathology , Mandible/physiopathology , Pain Measurement , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Sensitivity and Specificity , Movement Disorders/diagnosis , Movement Disorders/physiopathology
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 134-139, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762219


The malaris muscle has long been described as one of the facial muscles. Numerous studies have attempted to define and examine the malaris muscle owing to its clinical implications related to the facial aesthetic concept. In the anatomical context, however, the concept of the malaris muscle remains ambiguous. This review article proposes a reconsideration of the malaris muscle. The article focuses on the anatomical concept of the malaris muscle from previous studies to the current studies as well as the conceptual changes in the malaris muscle. To improve understanding of the role of the malaris muscle in the facial aesthetic aspects, here the article reviews the role of the malaris muscle in facial aging appearance and discusses the practical clinical applications surrounding this aging gradation.

Aging , Facial Muscles
The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics ; : 467-474, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761444


Recently, many patients undergo anterior prosthetic treatment for esthetic reasons. In some patients complain about functional reasons such as inaccurate pronunciation and occlusal discomfort after the treatment. Anterior teeth are important esthetically but in the occlusal point of view, anterior guidance is the second most important factor in occlusion, next to centric relation. Failure to determine an appropriate anterior guidance might lead to posterior occlusal interference, which can highly affect the stability of the posterior teeth. Also, discomfort might occur if the customized interior guidance is not in harmony with the patient's envelope of function. The patient in this case complained of overall discomfort in the maxillary anterior area after prosthetic treatment. The expressed difficulty in pronunciation, unstable occlusion due to lack of stable holding contact and discomfort of the facial muscles. Maxillary anterior prostheses were refabricated through systematic diagnosis and treatment and thus, this case presents esthetical and functional satisfaction to both the patient and the dentist.

Humans , Centric Relation , Dentists , Diagnosis , Facial Muscles , Prostheses and Implants , Tooth
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 192-198, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766341


OBJECTIVES: Oral and maxillofacial surgeons must gain mastery of various approaches to the midface due to the increasing incidence, complexity, and severity of presenting midfacial fractures. Unlike in the case of other body parts, the need to preserve facial aesthetics makes it more difficult for the surgeon to select an approach for managing the facial injuries. The midfacial degloving (MFD) approach is a combination of intraoral and intranasal incisions made to access the midface without any external incision. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of MFD in maxillofacial surgery and to assess its advantages and complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MFD approach was used in five cases, with three cases treated with open reduction and internal fixation and two cases operated on for posttraumatic deformity. Nasal dorsum augmentation was completed in three cases and nasal osteotomy was performed in one case. The bicoronal flap technique was combined with MFD for frontal bone augmentation in one case. The intraoperative time required for flap completion and the ease of performing the planned procedures were noted. Postoperative evaluation was done for reduction, aesthetics, function, and complications. RESULTS: Access was excellent for performing all planned procedures. Average time spent for flap elevation and exposure of the midface was 63 minutes. Complications like postoperative swelling, infraorbital nerve paresthesia, and intranasal crusting were all transient. No long-term complications like stenosis of the nose, sneer deformity, or weakness of the facial muscles were noticed. Additionally, no complications were noted when MFD was combined with bicoronal flap. CONCLUSION: Though the MFD approach is technically demanding and takes more time than other facial approaches, it should be learned and applied by maxillofacial surgeons in selective cases, as it provides complete exposure of the midface without facial scarring.

Cicatrix , Congenital Abnormalities , Constriction, Pathologic , Esthetics , Facial Injuries , Facial Muscles , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Frontal Bone , Human Body , Incidence , Nose , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons , Osteotomy , Paresthesia , Rhinoplasty , Surgery, Oral
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 499-503, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819055


OBJECTIVE@#To improve the method of vermillion flap and orbicularis oris bundle anastomosis in repair of transverse facial cleft.@*METHODS@#Based on the precise fixed point, the modified vermillion flap was designed slender at the new corner of the upper lip, and was inserted into the lower lip after removing part tissue. The orbicularis oris was divided into two bands and cross-stitched.@*RESULTS@#Fifteen patients with unilateral transverse facial cleft form the Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University during September 2016 and December 2018 were operated, and the position and shape of the commissure were almost normal.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The cosmetic effect and oral function are satisfactory when the modified vermillion flap and bundle anastomosis of orbicularis oris is used to repair transverse facial cleft.

Child , Humans , Anastomosis, Surgical , Cleft Lip , General Surgery , Facial Muscles , General Surgery , Lip , General Surgery , Surgical Flaps , General Surgery , Treatment Outcome