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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879008

ABSTRACT

In order to enrich the transcriptome data of Fagopyrum dibotrys plants, analyze the genes encoding key enzyme involved in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, and mine their functional genes, in this study, we performed RNA sequencing analysis for the rhizomes, roots, flowers, leaves and stems of F. dibotrys on the BGISEQ-500 sequencing platform. After de novo assembly of transcripts, a total of 205 619 unigenes were generated and 132 372 unigenes were obtained and annotated into seven public databases, of which, 81 327 unigenes were mapped to the GO database and most of the unigenes were annotated in cellular process, biological regulation, binding and catalytic activity. Besides, 86 922 unigenes were enriched in 136 pathways using KEGG database' and we identified 82 unigenes that encodes key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. Comparing rhizome with root, flower, leaf or stem in F. dibotrys, 27 962 co-expressed differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were obtained. Among them, 23 515 DEGs of rhizome tissue-specific were enriched into 132 pathways and 13 unigenes were significantly enriched in biosynthesis of flavone and flavonol. In addition, we also identified 3 427 unigenes encoding 60 transcription factor(TFs) families as well as four unigenes encoding bHLH TFs were enriched in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results greatly enriched the transcriptome database of plants, provided a reference for the analysis of key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in plants, and will facilitate the study of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in F. dibotrys at the genetic level.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics , Fagopyrum , Flavonoids , Flowers , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Humans , Transcriptome/genetics
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 39: 42-51, may. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is an important staple food crop in southwest China, where drought stress is one of the largest limiting factors that lead to decreased crop production. To reveal the molecular mechanism of common buckwheat in response to drought stress, we performed a comprehensive transcriptomics study to evaluate gene expression profiles of common buckwheat during PEG-mediated drought treatment. RESULTS: In total, 45 million clean reads were assembled into 53,404 unigenes with an average length of 749 bp and N50 length of 1296 bp. A total of 1329 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by comparing wellwatered and drought-treated plants, out of which 666 were upregulated and 663 were downregulated. Furthermore, we defined the functional characteristics of DEGs using GO and KEGG classifications. GO enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were significantly overrepresented in four categories, namely, "oxidoreductase activity," "oxidation­reduction process," "xyloglucan:xyloglucosyl transferase activity," and "apoplast." Using KEGG pathway analysis, a large number of annotated genes were overrepresented in terms such as "plant hormone signal transduction," "phenylpropanoid biosynthesis," "photosynthesis," and "carbon metabolism." Conclusions: These results can be further exploited to investigate the molecular mechanism of common buckwheat in response to drought treatment and could supply with valuable molecular sources for abiotic-tolerant elite breeding programs in the future.


Subject(s)
Stress, Physiological/genetics , Fagopyrum/genetics , Transcription Factors , Transferases , Signal Transduction , Gene Expression , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Droughts , Chlorophyll Binding Proteins , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcriptome
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762151

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the causative allergens and clinical characteristics of Korean adult patients with food allergy (FA). METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional single-institutional study enrolled Korean adult patients (n = 812) suspected of having FA. For diagnosis, causality assessment history taking, ImmunoCAP specific immunoglobulin E measurement and/or skin prick test were performed. RESULTS: Among 812 patients, 415 were diagnosed as having FA. The most common causative allergen was fruit, with a diagnosis of pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS: 155, 37.3%), followed by crustaceans (111, 26.7%), wheat (63, 15.1%), fruits in patients without PFAS(43, 10.3%), buckwheat (31, 7.4%), peanut (31, 7.4%), walnut (25, 6.0%), red meat due to reaction to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) (8, 1.9%), and silkworm pupa (13, 3.1%). Allergy to egg, milk, fish, or shellfish was rare in Korean adults. One-third of patients with FA exhibited multiple FAs (238/415, 57.3%); the average number of causative allergens was 2.39. About 129 patients (31.0%) were diagnosed as having anaphylaxis; in these patients, wheat was the most frequent causative food. Twenty patients were further diagnosed with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA); all were due to wheat. In particular, crustaceans, wheat, PFAS, buckwheat, and red meat (α-Gal) were also frequent causes of anaphylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: Wheat, fruits with or without PFAS, and crustaceans are important and frequent causative allergens in Korean adult FA; these allergens differ from those found in childhood FA. It is notable that non-classic allergies, such as PFAS, FDEIA, and α-Gal allergy, are the important causes of anaphylaxis in Korean adult FA.


Subject(s)
Adult , Allergens , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Bombyx , Diagnosis , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Fruit , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Juglans , Korea , Milk , Ovum , Pollen , Pupa , Red Meat , Retrospective Studies , Shellfish , Skin , Triticum
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate differences in neck pain, shoulder pain, and comfort between buckwheat and latex pillows in elderly sanatorium residents. METHODS: The crossover experimental study was performed with 30 elderly patients in a convalescent hospital for seniors. The buckwheat and latex pillows were used for 2 weeks, the 7 day was assigned as the washout between each one week intervention, respectively. Pre- and posttest visual analog scale (VAS) scores for neck and shoulder pains and the neck disability index (NDI) were investigated. Data were analyzed using paired-samples t test, and their correlations were analyzed using SPSS/WIN 21.0 (IBM Corp., New York, NY, USA). RESULTS: After the 2-week intervention, results showed that the use of buckwheat pillows decreased the VAS scores for neck and shoulder pains and NDI. Further, the use of latex pillows decreased the VAS score for neck pain and NDI, but the VAS score for shoulder pain showed no statistically significant differences (t=1.887, P=0.069). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, using latex and buckwheat pillows is the best option for reducing neck pain. Between the buckwheat and latex pillows, the buckwheat pillow is a better option for decreasing neck and shoulder pains.


Subject(s)
Aged , Fagopyrum , Hospitals, Convalescent , Humans , Latex , Neck Pain , Neck , Shoulder Pain , Shoulder , Visual Analog Scale
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effects of the black buckwheat leaf (BBL) in type 2 diabetes mellitus mice and its effects on pancreas and spleen.@*METHODS@#Forty male C57 / B16 mice (SPF) were randomly divided into normal control (NC) group (n=10) and the experimental group (n=30), the experimental group were fed with high sugar and high fat, combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in small dose to establish the model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Those thirty model mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10), diabetes mellitus group (DM), low dose of BBL (DM+L) treated group, high dose of BBL (DM+H) treated group. The mice in the NC group and the DM group were given normal saline per day, and the DM+L group and DM+H group were treated with black tartary buckwheat at the doses of 0.21g/kg·d and 0.42g/kg·d respectively. After 14 days. All mice were executed by cervical dislocation, then blood samples were collected, pancreas and spleen were removed for subsequent experiments. The serum levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH) and insulin were detected. TNF-α protein in spleen tissue was detected by ELISA kit. The morphology of pancreas tissue was observed by HE staining, and the spleen coefficient was calculated. The expression levels of insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1) mRNA and IRS-1 protein in pancreatic tissue were detected.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the serum levels of FBG, TC and TCH in the model group were increased significantly, while the serum level of insulin was decreased significantly (P<0.05), the expression of TNF-α protein in spleen tissues was obviously raised, the expressions of IRS-1 mRNA and IRS-1 protein in pancreatic tissue in model group were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the serum levels of FBG, TC and TCH were decreased significantly in the BBL treated groups. The serum insulin level, spleen coefficient, TNF-α protein expression level in spleen tissue, IRS-1 mRNA expression and IRS-1 protein expression levels in pancreatic tissue in BBL treated group were increased significantly (P< 0.05). High-dose black tartary buckwheat leaves (0.42g/kg·d) exerted a more significant effect.@*CONCLUSION@#Stem and leaf of black bitter buckwheat has significant therapeutic effects on reducing blood sugar and blood fat in type 2 diabetic mice, and has certain protective effects on pancreas and spleen of diabetic mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Fagopyrum , Chemistry , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pancreas , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Random Allocation , Spleen , Streptozocin
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739517

ABSTRACT

With increasing need to prevent serious food allergy reactions, Korean food allergen labeling regulation has been revised repeatedly. This paper aims to summarize current statuses of food allergen labeling in Korea and foreign countries and to analyze the issue of food allergen labeling regulation. Korean food labeling regulation currently requires 19 items and 22 foods to be reported on labels (eggs, milk, buckwheat, peanut, soybean, wheat, mackerel, crab, shrimp, pork, peach, tomato, sulfite, walnut, chicken, beef, squid, shellfish, and pine nut). However, some common food triggers (for example, almond, cashew nut, and kiwi fruit) are not included in the current labeling regulation. Another issue is that the Korean labeling regulation has not yet been fully implemented for nonprepacked foods; thus, consumers still have difficulty in correctly identifying allergenic ingredients in food. It should be assessed whether warning statements for cross-contamination are reasonable. To prevent the occurrence of serious reactions from accidental ingestion, efforts must be made to solve recently raised issues including the items required to be listed on food labels, the system of standards for labeling and display methods.


Subject(s)
Anacardium , Arachis , Chickens , Decapodiformes , Eating , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Food Labeling , Hypersensitivity , Juglans , Korea , Lycopersicon esculentum , Milk , Nuts , Perciformes , Prunus dulcis , Prunus persica , Red Meat , Shellfish , Soybeans , Triticum
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771713

ABSTRACT

Tartary buckwheat Fagopyrum tataricum is an important medicinal and functional herb due to its rich content of flavonoids in the seeds. F.tataricum exhibited good functions for free radicals scavenging, anti-oxidation, anti-aging activities. Although much genetic knowledge of the synthesis, regulation, accumulation of rutin, the genetic basis of proanthocyanidins(PAs) in tartary buckwheat and their related gene expression changes under different lights(blue, red, far red, ultraviolet light) remain largely unexplored. In this study, we cloned one anthocyanidin reductase gene(ANR) and two leucocyanidin reductase gene(LAR) named FtANR,FtLAR1,FtLAR3 involved in formation of(+)-catechin and(-)-epicatechin precusor proanthocyanidin by digging out F. tataricum seed transcriptome data. The expression data showed that the opposite influence of red light on these gene transcript level compared to others lights. The expression levels of FtANR and FtLAR1 decreased and FtLAR3 appeared increment after exposed in the red light, while the expression levels of those genes appeared opposite result after exposed in the blue and far red light.


Subject(s)
Fagopyrum , Radiation Effects , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Radiation Effects , Light , NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases , Genetics , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Proanthocyanidins , Seeds , Radiation Effects
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209991

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of immediate-type food allergy (FA) among schoolchildren in Korea. METHODS: A nationwide, cross-sectional study was performed in September 2015. A stratified random sample of 50,000 participants was selected from children and adolescents aged 6-7 years (n=17,500), 9-10 years (n=17,500), 12-13 years (n=7,500), and 15-16 years (n=7,500). Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on the detailed history of immediate-type FA. RESULTS: A total of 32,001 (64.0%) responded to the questionnaire survey, and 29,842 children (59.7%) were analyzed after adjusting for missing data. The number of the cases in each age group was 9,671 (6-7 years), 9,756 (9-10 years), 5,169 (12-13 years), and 5,246 (15-16 years). The prevalence of lifetime perceived FA was 15.82%. The prevalence of current immediate-type FA was 4.06% in total, with 3.15% in 6- to 7-year-olds, 4.51% in 9- to 10-year-olds, 4.01% in 12- to 13-year-olds, and 4.49% in 15- to 16-year-olds. Among individual food items, peanut (0.22%) was the most frequent causative food, followed by hen's egg (0.21%), cow's milk (0.18%), and buckwheat (0.13%). Among the food groups, fruits (1.41%), crustaceans (0.84%), tree nuts (0.32%), and fish (0.32%) were the most common offending foods. The prevalence of food-induced anaphylaxis was 0.97%. The most frequent causative food of anaphylaxis was peanut (0.08%), followed by cow's milk (0.07%), buckwheat (0.06%), and hen's egg (0.06%), while fruits (0.28%), crustaceans (0.18%), tree nuts (0.12%), and fish (0.09%) were the most commonly responsible food groups. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of current immediate-type FA and food-induced anaphylaxis in Korean schoolchildren in 2015 was 4.06% and 0.97%, respectively. Peanuts, cow's milk, hen's egg, fruits, crustaceans, and tree nuts are common allergens.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Allergens , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Fruit , Humans , Korea , Milk , Nuts , Ovum , Parents , Prevalence , Trees
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209990

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Buckwheat is a major cause of anaphylaxis, and Fag e 3 is the key major allergen in buckwheat. However, an immunoassay system for the quantification of Fag e 3 has yet to be developed. METHODS: We developed a 2-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) produced against recombinant Fag e 3. We applied this ELISA to quantify native Fag e 3 in total buckwheat extract. RESULTS: Four clones of mAbs were produced, and all recognized vicilin allergens not only from buckwheat, but also from peanut and walnut. However, the ELISA using these antibodies was only able to quantify Fag e 3 in the total extract after addition of 1% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and heating, which facilitated dissociation of the allergen. The detection limit of the developed 2-site ELISA was 0.8 µg/mL. The measurement of Fag e 3 in the total extract of buckwheat showed that approximately 12% of protein in total buckwheat extract was Fag e 3. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed an ELISA system for the quantification of the group 3 buckwheat allergen, Fag e 3, specifically. This assay will be useful for standardization of buckwheat allergens and monitoring of buckwheat contamination in foods.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Anaphylaxis , Antibodies , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Arachis , Clone Cells , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fagopyrum , Heating , Hot Temperature , Immunoassay , Juglans , Limit of Detection , Sodium
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209989

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Age-based causes and clinical characteristics of immediate-type food allergy (FA) have not been sufficiently studied. Therefore, we investigated age-dependent clinical profiles of FA in Korean children through an extensive multicenter investigation. METHODS: Using a case report form developed by the authors, a retrospective medical record review was performed of patients (0-18 years old) diagnosed with immediate-type FA between September 2014 and August 2015 in 14 tertiary hospitals in Korea. RESULTS: A total of 1,353 children and adolescents, 93% younger than 7 years, were enrolled in the present study, and 1,661 cases of immediate-type FA were recorded in these patients. The 7 major causative foods were cow's milk (28.1%), hen's eggs (27.6%), wheat (7.9%), walnuts (7.3%), peanuts (5.3%), buckwheat (1.9%), and shrimps (1.9%). Categorizing the patients into 4 age groups revealed that the most common causative food was different for each age group: cow's milk (<2 years), walnuts (2–6 years), walnuts (7–12 years), and buckwheat (13-18 years). The onset time of symptoms was less than 10 minutes in 49%, between 10 and 30 minutes in 17%, and between 30 minutes and 2 hours in 34% of cases. Food-induced anaphylaxis was reported in 506 (30.5%) out of 1,661 cases, and the 7 major causes of food-induced anaphylaxis was cow's milk (27.5%), hen's eggs (21.9%), wheat (11.3%), walnuts (10.5%), peanuts (5.9%), buckwheat (4.2%), and pine nuts (3.0%). The proportion of anaphylaxis was highest in the patients allergic to buckwheat (67.7%), followed by those allergic to pine nuts (57.7%), walnuts (43.8%), wheat (43.5%), and peanuts (34.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The 5 major causative foods of immediate-type FA in Korean children were cow's milk, hen's eggs, wheat, walnuts, and peanuts. The distribution of causative foods was considerably distinctive according to different age groups. Anaphylaxis was reported in 30.5% of immediate-type FA cases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Child , Eggs , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Juglans , Korea , Medical Records , Milk , Nuts , Ovum , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Triticum
11.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 222-226, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83901

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids including quercetin and rutin are a group of naturally occurring compounds widely distributed in plants, especially in buckwheat. Thus, cereal and the leaf of the plant have increasingly used as a source of nutritional and functional foods such as noodle, cake or soup in Korea, Japan and other countries. This study investigated comparative effects of dietary rutin rich in buckwheat and its aglycone, quercetin, on serum biomarkers and antioxidant parameters in rats treated with chronic ethanol. Rats were fed with the liquid diets prepared by the method of Lieber Decarli. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities increased significantly by alcohol feeding. Dietary flavonoids including rutin, quercetin and their mixtures (1/1, v/v) decreased significantly the activities of serum ALT whereas the feeding of quercetin decreased only the activity of serum AST. The concentration of serum malondialdehydes elevated by chronic alcohol feeding decreased markedly in all the experimental groups that were fed with the flavonoids; however, the combined administration of quercetin or rutin, but not that of rutin or quercetin alone decreased significantly the concentration of liver malondialdehydes to the normal range in rats fed without ethanol. Our results suggested that dietary combined mixture of rutin and quercetin might be effective in ameliorating adverse responses seen in rats exposed to ethanol chronically.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Biomarkers , Diet , Edible Grain , Ethanol , Fagopyrum , Flavonoids , Functional Food , Japan , Korea , Liver , Methods , Plants , Quercetin , Rats , Reference Values , Rutin
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211710

ABSTRACT

The present study was performed to evaluate the hangover relieving effect of germinated buckwheat (GB) and Sanghwang mushroom mycelium cultured in GB (SGB). Both GB and SGB showed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and significantly increased (p < 0.001) aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities; up to 140% increase at concentrations of 16 µL/mL. Locomotor activity test results from alcohol-SGB and alcohol-GB groups showed improved motor activities over that of the alcohol-water group at 90 min post-administration. Both alcohol-GB and alcohol-SGB groups had significantly reduced (p < 0.001) alcohol (40.02 ± 33.38 µg/mL, 66.01 ± 22.04 µg/mL, respectively) and aldehyde (5.72 ± 0.47 µg/mL, 6.72 ± 1.70 µg/mL, respectively) concentrations in blood compared to those in the alcohol-water group (199.75 ± 33.83 µg/mL, 50.43 ± 13.88 µg/mL, respectively) at 90 min post-administration. Based on cDNA microarray analysis, expressions of ALDH genes ALDH1a7 and ALDH18a1 and cytochrome P450 (CY450) gene CYP4a30b were upregulated in the alcohol-GB and alcohol-SGB groups compared to levels in the control group. Overall, the results suggest that both GB and SGB have hangover relieving effects by reducing blood acetaldehyde levels. The molecular mechanisms may involve ALDH activation and upregulated expression of alcohol metabolism-related genes such as ALDH and CYP450.


Subject(s)
Acetaldehyde , Agaricales , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Fagopyrum , Motor Activity , Mycelium , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207503

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Buckwheat allergy is one of the most severe types of food allergy in some countries, especially among children. However, few studies have investigated this condition. The aim of this study was to report the clinical and laboratory findings in Korean children with buckwheat allergy. METHODS: Thirty-seven subjects, aged 1 to 14 years, were enrolled by retrospective medical record review from January 2000 through May 2015 at the Department of Pediatrics in Ajou University Hospital. The demographic profile, previous exposure to buckwheat pillows, clinical symptoms, and laboratory findings of each subject were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-six of the 37 children had immediate-type allergic symptoms to buckwheat, while 11 subjects were tolerant to buckwheat. Seventeen out of 26 buckwheat allergic children (65.4%) had anaphylaxis. The median buckwheat specific IgE level in the buckwheat allergic group (7.71 kU(A)/L) was significantly higher (P<0.001) than in the buckwheat tolerant group (0.08 kU(A)/L) with an optimal cutoff value of 1.27 kU(A)/L (sensitivity 84.6%, specificity 100%). When adjusted for age, the difference between the 2 groups showed no statistical significance (P=0.063). In subjects who had anaphylaxis, buckwheat-specific IgE levels ranged from 0.37 to 100 kUA/L. CONCLUSION: Almost two-thirds of buckwheat-allergic children had anaphylaxis, and a wide-range of buckwheat specific IgE levels were observed in these children. Anaphylaxis occurred in a subject with a remarkably low IgE level (0.37 kU(A)/L).


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Child , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90954

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although anaphylaxis is recognized as an important, life-threatening condition, data are limited regarding its triggers in different age groups. We aimed to identify anaphylaxis triggers by age in Korean children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of medical records for children diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2009 and 2013 in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in South Korea. RESULTS: A total of 991 cases (mean age=5.89±5.24) were reported, with 63.9% involving patients younger than 6 years of age and 66% involving male children. Food was the most common anaphylaxis trigger (74.7%), followed by drugs and radiocontrast media (10.7%), idiopathic factors (9.2%), and exercise (3.6%). The most common food allergen was milk (28.4%), followed by egg white (13.6%), walnut (8.0%), wheat (7.2%), buckwheat (6.5%), and peanut (6.2%). Milk and seafood were the most common anaphylaxis triggers in young and older children, respectively. Drug-triggered anaphylaxis was observed more frequently with increasing age, with antibiotics (34.9%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17.9%) being the most common causes. CONCLUSIONS: The most common anaphylaxis trigger in Korean children was food. Data on these triggers show that their relative frequency may vary by age.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Arachis , Child , Contrast Media , Egg White , Epidemiology , Fagopyrum , Humans , Juglans , Korea , Male , Medical Records , Milk , Retrospective Studies , Seafood , Tertiary Care Centers , Triticum
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49805

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There are few recent data regarding allergic sensitization of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of sensitization according to age and gender in children with AD. METHODS: This retrospective study included 4,661 children with AD from 1998 to 2014. The serum specific IgE (sIgE) levels to egg white (EW), cow's milk (CM), peanut, wheat, soybean, buckwheat, tree nuts, crustaceans, meat, and house dust mites (HDMs) were reviewed. AD was categorized into the extrinsic (ADe) and intrinsic type (ADi) according to the presence or absence of sensitization. The proportion of patients with sIgE to EW or CM greater than the previously reported diagnostic decision point (DDP) was determined. RESULTS: A total of 4,661 children (2,843 boys and 1,818 girls) were collected. We identified 1,857 of 2,663 children (69.7%) with the ADe type and 806 of 2,663 children (30.3%) with the ADi type. The sensitization rates increased with age (P<0.001). EW (59.3%) was the most commonly sensitized food, followed by CM (46.6%), peanut (32.2%), wheat (31.5%), soybean (28.1%), and buckwheat (23.7%). The most commonly sensitized food groups were tree nuts (56.7%) and crustaceans (28.3%). The rate of sensitization to HDMs was 40.1%. In addition, 11.1% and 7.5% of children had levels of sIgE to EW and CM, respectively, higher than the DDP. CONCLUSION: The incidence of ADe among children with AD was 69.7% and increased with age. The most commonly sensitized food allergen was EW, followed by CM and peanut.


Subject(s)
Arachis , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Egg White , Fagopyrum , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Incidence , Korea , Meat , Milk , Nuts , Pyroglyphidae , Retrospective Studies , Soybeans , Trees , Triticum
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99809

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between the allergen components and moderate-to-severe allergic reactions in patients with buckwheat allergy. METHODS: Fifteen patients with a history of buckwheat ingestion and a buckwheat specific IgE level> or =0.35 kU/L were enrolled. They were divided into 2 groups according to clinical severity scores, with 0-1 being asymptomatic-to-mild and 2-4 being moderate-to-severe symptoms. Immunoblotting was performed to investigate IgE reactivity toward buckwheat allergens and to measure intensity of each component by using a reflective densitometer. RESULTS: The proportions of positive band to the 16 kDa (62.5% vs 0%, P=0.026) and 40-50 kDa (87.5% vs 28.6%, P=0.041) buckwheat allergens in the grade 2-4 group were higher than those in grade 0-1 group. The level of buckwheat specific IgE of grade 2-4 group was higher than that of grade 0-1 group (41.3 kU/L vs 5.5 kU/L, P=0.037). The median optical densities (ODs) of IgE antibody binding to 40-50 kDa protein were higher in the grade 2-4 group, compared with those in the grade 0-1 group (130% OD vs 60.8% OD, P=0.037). CONCLUSIONS: The 40-50 kDa protein is implicated as an important allergen to predict moderate-to-severe clinical symptoms in Korean children with buckwheat allergy.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Child , Eating , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoblotting , Immunoglobulin E
17.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-7, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effect of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) on phenolic acids composition and polyphenols accumulation in various anatomical parts (stems, leaves and inflorescences) of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) in the early stages of vegetation period were surveyed. RESULTS: Treatment of buckwheat seeds with 2% of CCC has been increased content of total phenolics in the stems, leaves and inflorescences. On analyzing the different parts of buckwheat plants, 9 different phenolic acids - vanilic acid, ferulic acid, trans-ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, salycilic acid, cinamic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-anisic acid, methoxycinamic acid and catechins were identified. The levels of identified phenolic acids varied not only significantly among the plant organs but also between early stages of vegetation period. Same changes as in contents of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, trans-ferulic acid were found for content of salycilic acid. The content of these phenolic acids has been significant increased under effect of 2% CCC treatment at the phase I (formation of buds) in the stems and at the phase II (beginning of flowering) in the leaves and then inflorescences respectively. The content of catechins as potential buckwheat antioxidants has been increased at the early stages of vegetation period after treatment with 2% CCC. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results suggest that influence of CCC on the phenolics composition can be a result of various mechanisms of CCC uptake, transforming and/or its translocation in the buckwheat seedlings.


Subject(s)
Chlormequat/pharmacology , Fagopyrum/drug effects , Polyphenols/biosynthesis , Hydroxybenzoates/metabolism , Propionates , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/metabolism , Catechin/analysis , Chlorogenic Acid/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Tungsten Compounds , Plant Stems/drug effects , Plant Stems/metabolism , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Fagopyrum/growth & development , Fagopyrum/metabolism , Coumaric Acids/analysis , Inflorescence/drug effects , Inflorescence/metabolism , Hydroxybenzoate Ethers/analysis , Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry , Molybdenum , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/metabolism
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Due to its beneficial health effects, use of buckwheat has shown a continuous increase, and concerns regarding the allergic property of buckwheat have also increased. This study was conducted for evaluation of the hydrolytic effects of seven commercial proteases on buckwheat allergens and its allergenicity. MATERIALS/METHODS: Extracted buckwheat protein was hydrolyzed by seven proteolytic enzymes at individual optimum temperature and pH for four hours. Analysis was then performed using SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, and competitive inhibition ELISA (ciELISA) with rabbit antiserum to buckwheat protein, and direct ELISA with pooled serum of 21 buckwheat-sensitive patients. RESULTS: Alkaline protease, classified as serine peptidase, was most effective in reducing allergenicity of buckwheat protein. It caused decomposition of the whole buckwheat protein, as shown on SDS-PAGE, and results of immunoblotting showed that the rabbit antiserum to buckwheat protein no longer recognized it as an antigen. Allergenicity showed a decrease of more than 50% when pooled serum of patients was used in ELISA. Two proteolytic enzymes from Aspergillus sp. could not hydrolyze buckwheat allergens effectively, and the allergenicity even appeared to increase. CONCLUSIONS: Serine-type peptidases appeared to show a relatively effective reduction of buckwheat allergenicity. However, the antigenicity measured using rabbit antiserum did not correspond to the allergenicity measured using sera from human patients. Production of less allergenic buckwheat protein may be possible using enzymatic hydrolysis.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Aspergillus , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fagopyrum , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Hypersensitivity , Immunoblotting , Peptide Hydrolases , Serine
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312999

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the intervention of Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) Meisn alcohol extract (FAE) on defecation function and motor functions of isolated colons of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) rats and to study its underlying mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The D-IBS rat model was established by neonatal pups maternal separation (NMS) combined with intracolonic infusion of acetic acid (AA). Adult IBS rats were randomly divided into the pre-intervention control group (n = 10, with no gastrogavage), the normal saline control group (n = 10, administered with normal saline by gastrogavage), the pre-treatment model group (n = 8,with no gastrogavage),the normal saline model group (n = 8, administered with normal saline by gastrogavage), the low dose FAE group (n = 8, administered with 6 g/kg FAE by gastrogavage), the high dose FAE group (n = 8, administered with 24 g/kg FAE by gastrogavage), and the Pinaverium Bromide group (n = 8, administered with 0.02 g/kg Pinaverium Bromide by gastrogavage). All medication was performed once daily for 2 weeks. The abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) was employed to evaluate the visceral hypersensitivity; their loose and watery stool grade was assessed by Bristol scores for stool consistency; and their fresh feces weight was calculated. In vitro effect of different concentrations of FAE and Pinaverium Bromide (0.02 μg/mL) on spontaneous contraction and spasmodic contraction induced by acetylcholine (Ach) in rats' isolated colon were observed and the influence on the intestinal calcium channel was evaluated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the pre-intervention control group, the pain pressure threshold and the maximum tolerance pressure decreased significantly in the pre-intervention model group (P < 0.05), and the loose and watery stool grade and fresh feces weight increased drastically (P < 0.01). Compared with the normal saline control group, the pain pressure threshold and the maximum tolerance pressure decreased significantly in the normal saline model group (P < 0.05), and the loose and watery stool grade and fresh feces weight increased markedly (P < 0.01). Compared with the normal saline model group, the pain pressure threshold of 24 g/kg FAE and Pinaverium Bromide group significantly increased (P < 0.05). The loose and watery stool grade and fresh feces weight decreased obviously in the low dose FAE group, the high dose FAE group, and the Pinaverium Bromide group (P < 0.05). FAE (30, 100, 300, 1,000, and 3,000 μg/mL) and Pinaverium Bromide could significantly inhibit spontaneous contraction of isolated intestines (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and FAE (30, 100, and 300 x 10(-6) g/mL) could remarkably inhibit their spasmodic contraction and contractile tension induced by Ach and Ca2+ respectively (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) in a concentration-dependent manner. Pinaverium Bromide also could significantly inhibit Ach and Ca2+ induced contraction.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Effective components of FAE improved the defecation function and inhibited enterospasm induced intestinal hyperactivity in IBS model rats via antagonizing calcium channel competitively and inhibiting colonic motility dose-dependently.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Animals , Defecation , Diarrhea , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Fagopyrum , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Rats
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300222

ABSTRACT

Silver nanoparticles were synthesized from the extract of Fagopyri Dibotryis Rhizoma and the optimization of synthesis was studied. The absorbance of UV-visible spectroscopy was determined under the different influencing factors such as extracting time of Fagopyri Dibotryis Rhizoma powder, reation temperature of synthesis, volume of Fagopyri Dibotryis Rhizoma extract and concentration of AgNO3 to seek the optimization conditions. By means of FT-IR, TEM, DLS and XRD, the silver nanoparticles were characterized. The results showed that when the boiling time of Fagopyri Dibotryis Rhizoma powder was 5 min, resultant temperature was 25 degrees C, the volume ratio of 0.1 g x mL(-1) Fagopyri Dibotryis Rhizoma extract and 1 mmol x L(-1) AgNO3 was 1 to 10, and the reaction time was 3.5 h, the obtained silver nanoparticles had mean size about 27 nm and Zeta potential about -34.3 mV with good uniformity and dispersivity. Therefore, the green synthesis method of silver nanoparticles using extract of traditional Chinese medicine is stable and feasible.


Subject(s)
Fagopyrum , Chemistry , Light , Metal Nanoparticles , Chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Particle Size , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry , Scattering, Radiation , Silver , Chemistry , Silver Nitrate , Chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Temperature , X-Ray Diffraction
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