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1.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 453-458, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350808

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by congenital malformations and bone marrow failure. One of the most common oral diseases in individuals with FA is periodontitis and adequate self-perception of periodontal status could contribute to its prevention and early detection. Aim: To compare oral health self-perception, measured by a questionnaire, with the clinical oral condition of patients with FA. Methods and Results: Fifty-six patients with FA, over 11 years of age, answered a questionnaire about dental history and self-reported oral health. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), Visible Plaque Index (VPI) and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) were measured. The median age of participants was 21 years (min 11, max 44), 31 (55%) were females and 25 (45%) males. Thirty-five (62.5%) participants rated their oral condition as satisfactory and 7 (12.5%) participants reported tooth mobility, 10 (17.9%) exposed roots and 21 (37.5%) gingival bleeding. Clinical examination detected average DMFT = 5.23, VPI = 31.36% and GBI = 33.77%. The gingival bleeding report was more frequent among individuals with higher GBI (p = 0.014). The DMFT was higher in those who had already undergone dental treatments (p = 0.031). There was an association between participants who presented dental caries and who rated their oral health as poor (p = 0.03). The question "Do your gums bleed easily?" had good accuracy in the evaluation of periodontal disease (p = 0.68). Conclusion: Oral health self-perception of individuals with FA about gingival inflammation was associated with their gingival bleeding index.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Fanconi Anemia , Periodontal Diseases , Self Report
2.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(1): e1260, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251714

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La anemia de Fanconi es una enfermedad genética rara, de herencia autosómica o ligada al X, caracterizada por inestabilidad genómica e hipersensibilidad a los agentes de entrecruzamiento del ADN, como el diepoxibutano y la mitomicina C (MMC). La respuesta anormal a estas sustancias, que constituye un marcador celular único y se manifiesta como un incremento de la frecuencia de roturas cromosómicas, es la base de su diagnóstico. Objetivo: Realizar el análisis de roturas cromosómicas inducidas por la mitomicina C en linfocitos de sangre periférica de pacientes cubanos con sospecha de anemia de Fanconi. Métodos: Se realizó estudio de roturas cromosómicas inducidas por la mitomicina C a diferentes concentraciones en cultivos de linfocitos T provenientes de sangre venosa periférica en 32 pacientes con sospecha clínica de anemia de Fanconi e igual cantidad de sujetos controles. Resultados: Al finalizar el análisis seis pacientes (20 por ciento) fueron diagnosticados con anemia de Fanconi. De ellos, cuatro presentaron alto porcentaje de rupturas y dos un mosaicismo somático. Desde el punto de vista clínico, cuatro mostraban anemia aplásica y dos exhibían únicamente rasgos dismórficos típicos de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: El ensayo de roturas cromosómicas inducidas por la mitomicina C permitió el diagnóstico definitivo de anemia de Fanconi en pacientes con antecedentes de anemia aplásica, aún sin anomalías congénitas. Este constituye el primer estudio de este tipo en un grupo de pacientes cubanos(AU)


Introduction: Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic disease of autosomal inheritance or X-linked, characterized by genomic instability and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents like diepoxybutane and mitomycin C (MMC). The basis for its diagnosis is an abnormal response to these substances, which constitutes a unique cell marker and manifests as an increased chromosomal breakage rate. Objective: To perform the analysis of the chromosomal breakages induced by mitomycin C in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Cuban patients with suspicion of Fanconi anemia. Methods: A study was conducted of chromosomal breakages induced by mitomycin C at various concentrations in cultures of T lymphocytes from venous peripheral blood of 32 patients with clinical suspicion of Fanconi anemia and an equal number of control subjects. Results: At the end of the analysis, six patients (20 percent) were diagnosed with Fanconi anemia. Of these, four showed a high percentage of breakages and two had somatic mosaicism. From a clinical point of view, four had aplastic anemia and two only presented dysmorphic features typical of the disease. Conclusions: Evaluation of the chromosomal breakages induced by mitomycin C led to the definitive diagnosis of Fanconi anemia in patients with a history of aplastic anemia, even in the absence of congenital anomalies. This is the first study of its type in a group of Cuban patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Congenital Abnormalities , Lymphocytes , Genomic Instability , Fanconi Anemia , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Hypersensitivity , Cuba/epidemiology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785828

ABSTRACT

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and high risk of cancer particularly leukemia. Here we show that inactivation of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) activity of DNA-PKcs prevented DNA damage-induced expansion of FA pre-leukemic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Furthermore, we performed serial BM transplantation to demonstrate that the DNA damage-induced expanded FA HSC compartment contained pre-leukemic stem cells that required the NHEJ activity of DNA-PKcs to induce leukemia in the secondary recipients. These results suggest that NHEJ may collaborate with FA deficiency to promote DNA damage-induced expansion of pre-leukemic HSCs.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , DNA , DNA Damage , Fanconi Anemia , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Leukemia , Stem Cells
4.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 20(3): 25-31, Sep.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091456

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fanconi Anemia (FA) is an autosomal-recessive genetic disease that is linked to Chromosome X, which is reported in studies with pancytopenia, congenital malformations, and a predisposition to develop cancer. FA 1,360,000 births, and is a condition that occurs in heterozygous subjects in 0.5% of the population. In Mexico, there are, to our knowledge, no epidemiological data on FA, and it is thought that many cases are underdiagnosed. This document reports the clinical case of a patient diagnosed with FA who the cardinal signs of this rare pathology. The pediatric approach involved was performed with a preventive and restorative approach, in addition to the design and placement of a palatal shutter. After a follow-up of more than 12 months, a significant reduction in the recurrence of infections, such as otitis, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis, was observed, suggesting a positive influence of the use of the obturator. In turn with the latter, there was a lower need for transfusions, which may also be related to control of the foci of the infection. The pediatric approach employed in to patients with FA may have significant repercussions on both quality of life and on their patients' general systemic condition, although this is scarcely verifiable due to the rarity of this pathology.


RESUMEN La anemia de Fanconi es una enfermedad genética, autosómica recesiva, ligada al cromosoma X, la cual cursa con pancitopenia, malformaciones congénitas y predisposición a desarrollar cáncer. Afecta a 1:360,000 nacimientos, es un padecimiento que se presenta en sujetos heterocigotos en el 0.5% de la población, en México no existen datos epidemiológicos y se cree que muchos casos se encuentran sub diagnosticados. En el presente documento se reporta el caso clínico de una paciente con diagnóstico de Anemia de Fanconi, que presenta los signos cardinales de esta rara patología. Se realizó el abordaje odontopediátrico con un enfoque preventivo y restaurador, además del diseño y colocación de un obturador palatino. Tras un seguimiento mayor a 12 meses se logró observar una reducción importante en la recurrencia de infecciones como otitis, amigdalitis y faringitis, lo que sugiere una influencia positiva del uso del obturador, y a su vez se pudo constatar una menor necesidad de transfusiones, lo cual puede también estar relacionado con el control de los focos de infección. El abordaje odontopediátrico dirigido a pacientes con Anemia de Fanconi puede tener repercusiones importantes tanto en la calidad de vida como en su condición sistémica general, aunque esto es difícilmente comprobable debido la rareza de dicha patología.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Palatal Obturators , Fanconi Anemia
6.
S. Afr. j. child health (Online) ; 11(3): 141-145, 2017.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1270310

ABSTRACT

Background. Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder of impaired DNA repair that results in physical and haematological consequences in affected individuals. In South Africa (SA), individuals with Afrikaner ancestry are at an increased risk of inheriting disease-causing FA mutations, owing to the three common FANCA (FA, complementation group A) founder mutations present in this population subgroup.Objectives. To describe the physical phenotype of SA patients with FANCA mutations for the purpose of recommending appropriate care for affected individuals.Methods. A structured clinical examination and file-based review were used to evaluate the physical phenotype of 7 patients with compound heterozygous and homozygous FANCA founder mutations, and 1 patient with confirmed FANCA complementation analysis. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to determine the frequency of physical anomalies in Afrikaner patients and to compare the described phenotype to other FA cohorts, including a previously clinically characterised black SA FA cohort.Results. An earlier age of diagnosis of FA in Afrikaner patients, a high frequency of somatic anomalies and a higher-than-expected incidence of the VACTERL/H phenotype were noted.Conclusions. Based on our findings, recommendations for the care of FA patients with Afrikaner ancestry are made, including renal ultrasound evaluation at diagnosis and hearing screening


Subject(s)
African Continental Ancestry Group , DNA Repair , Fanconi Anemia , Phenotype , South Africa
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-657058

ABSTRACT

Fanconi's anemia is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by congenital abnormalities and anaplastic anemia. Patients with this disorder has predisposition for leukemia, specifically acute myeloid leukemia. Risk for head and neck solid tumors are also increased. Head and neck cancers in patients with Fanconi's anemia are significantly different from those in patients without Fanconi's anemia in frequency, distribution, clinical course, and treatment. Therefore, we report a case of 23-year-old male with Fanconi's anemia, who presented with an oral tongue cancer treated with radical excision, bilateral neck dissection and careful postoperative radiation therapy.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Congenital Abnormalities , Fanconi Anemia , Head , Hospital Distribution Systems , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Male , Neck , Neck Dissection , Tongue Neoplasms , Tongue , Young Adult
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been established as an important curative method in genetic rare diseases in children. However, adverse effects have been obstacles for successful outcomes. This study aims to review the transplant outcomes of genetic rare diseases over the last 2 decades, to analyze the prognostic factors that may affect outcome, and to suggest future perspective of HSCT in these diseases. METHODS: Seventeen patients younger than 18 years who were transplanted at Department of Pediatrics, Chonnam National University Hospital and Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital from 1996 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcomes were analyzed by donor source, intensity of conditioning [myeloablative conditioning (MAC) vs. reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC)], and disease type. RESULTS: The 5-year Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS), and event-free survival (EFS) was 64.7±14.3% and 52.9±12.9%, respectively. Among subgroups, the 5-year OS was 61.5±15.8% after RIC as compared to 28.6±17.1% after MAC (P=0.27). The 5-year EFS was 60.0±25.0% after matched sibling donor transplants, 62.5±20.4% after mismatched related/unrelated bone marrow/peripheral blood stem cell transplants, and 28.6±17.1% after unrelated umbilical cord blood transplants, respectively. The 5-year OS according to disease type was as follows: 60.0±21.9% for Fanconi anemia, 50.0±25.0% for familial hemophagocytic lymphohisticytosis. All patients with primary immunodeficiency survived, but none with adrenoleukodystrophy. CONCLUSION: Although definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the limited number of cases, RIC may be preferred in select, genetic rare diseases. Better strategies are required to improve outcomes after cord blood transplantation. Moreover, special attention should be given to minimize late complications in children.


Subject(s)
Adrenoleukodystrophy , Child , Disease-Free Survival , Fanconi Anemia , Fetal Blood , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Methods , Pediatrics , Rare Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Siblings , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been established as an important curative method in genetic rare diseases in children. However, adverse effects have been obstacles for successful outcomes. This study aims to review the transplant outcomes of genetic rare diseases over the last 2 decades, to analyze the prognostic factors that may affect outcome, and to suggest future perspective of HSCT in these diseases.METHODS: Seventeen patients younger than 18 years who were transplanted at Department of Pediatrics, Chonnam National University Hospital and Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital from 1996 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcomes were analyzed by donor source, intensity of conditioning [myeloablative conditioning (MAC) vs. reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC)], and disease type.RESULTS: The 5-year Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS), and event-free survival (EFS) was 64.7±14.3% and 52.9±12.9%, respectively. Among subgroups, the 5-year OS was 61.5±15.8% after RIC as compared to 28.6±17.1% after MAC (P=0.27). The 5-year EFS was 60.0±25.0% after matched sibling donor transplants, 62.5±20.4% after mismatched related/unrelated bone marrow/peripheral blood stem cell transplants, and 28.6±17.1% after unrelated umbilical cord blood transplants, respectively. The 5-year OS according to disease type was as follows: 60.0±21.9% for Fanconi anemia, 50.0±25.0% for familial hemophagocytic lymphohisticytosis. All patients with primary immunodeficiency survived, but none with adrenoleukodystrophy.CONCLUSION: Although definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the limited number of cases, RIC may be preferred in select, genetic rare diseases. Better strategies are required to improve outcomes after cord blood transplantation. Moreover, special attention should be given to minimize late complications in children.


Subject(s)
Adrenoleukodystrophy , Child , Disease-Free Survival , Fanconi Anemia , Fetal Blood , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Methods , Pediatrics , Rare Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Siblings , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261155

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the association between clinical outcome and gene mutations in children with Fanconi anemia (FA).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of six children with the same severity of FA and receiving the same treatment. At first, single cell gel electrophoresis and chromosome breakage induced by mitomycin C were performed for diagnosis. Then the gene detection kit for congenital bone marrow failure diseases or complementation test was used for genotyping of FA. Finally the association between the clinical outcome at 3, 6, 9, or 12 months after treatment and gene mutation was analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of all the six FA children, five had FANCA type disease, and one had FANCM type disease; four children carried two or more FA gene mutations. Among the children with the same severity of FA, those with more FA mutations had a younger age of onset and poorer response to medication, and tended to progress to a severe type.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Children carrying more than two FA mutations have a poor clinical outcome, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be performed as soon as possible.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Fanconi Anemia , Genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Mutation , Retrospective Studies
11.
Odontol. pediatr. (Lima) ; 14(2): 158-163, jul.-dic.2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-790540

ABSTRACT

La anemia de Fanconi (FA) es una enfermedad autos6mica recesiva que se caracteriza por presentar anemia aplasica, además de malformaciones congénitas renales, cardiacas, esqueléticas, dermatológicas, y aumento en la incidencia de neoplasias malignas. Los pacientes con FA son más susceptibles de presentar sangrado e infecciones, síntomas relacionados con trombocitopenia y neutropenia. El prop6sito del presente reporte es describir el manejo estomato16gico proporcionado a un niño de 9 años y 9 meses de edad con diagn6stico de Anemia de Fanconi, en la Clínica del Posgrado en Estomatología Pediátrica...


Fanconi Anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by aplastic anemia, congenital malformations in kidney, heart, skeletal and skin structures, and with increased incidence to malignancies. FA patients are likely to have bleeding and infections, which are associated with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to report the stomatological management delivered to a child of 9 years and 9 months of age, diagnosed with Fanconi Anemia, in the clinic of Pediatric Dentistry...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Fanconi Anemia , Pediatric Dentistry , Orthodontics
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(3): 320-328, mar. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-745629

ABSTRACT

Background: Suicide mortality rates are increasing among teenagers. Aim: To study the prevalence and predictive factors of suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents. Material and Methods: A random sample of 195 teenagers aged 16 ± 1 years (53% males) answered an anonymous survey about their demographic features, substance abuse, the Osaka suicidal ideation questionnaire, Smilksten familial Apgar. Beck hopelessness scale, Beck depression scale and Coppersmith self-esteem inventory. Results: Twenty five percent of respondents had attempted suicide at least in one occasion during their lives. These attempts were significantly associated with female gender, absent parents, family dysfunction, drug abuse, smoking, low self-esteem, hopelessness, depression and recent suicidal ideation. A logistic regression analysis accepted female gender, smoking and recent suicidal ideation as significant independent predictors of suicide attempt. Conclusions: Suicide attempted is common among teenagers and its predictors are female sex, smoking and previous suicidal ideation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Pregnancy , Acetaldehyde/metabolism , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase/genetics , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Embryo, Mammalian/metabolism , Ethanol/toxicity , Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group A Protein/genetics , Fanconi Anemia/pathology , Animals, Newborn , Acetaldehyde/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , DNA Damage , Embryo, Mammalian/embryology , Genome , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/metabolism , Isoenzymes/genetics , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Retinal Dehydrogenase/genetics , Retinal Dehydrogenase/metabolism
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788543

ABSTRACT

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous malignancy that comprises 25-30% of pediatric leukemias in Korea. Several inherited diseases, such as Down syndrome and Fanconi anemia, predispose towards AML leukemogenesis. Subgrouping of AML is a key diagnostic step, previously done with the French-American-British (FAB) classification and recently complemented by that of the World Health Organization (WHO). An important feature of AML is the possibility of chloroma at diagnosis, which, if detected, requires follow-up evaluation to determine treatment response. Numerous genetic abnormalities with prognostic relevance have recently been found, the most important of which include those of the core-binding factor (CBF) leukemias, and FLT3-ITD mutation. These genetic abnormalities, combined with patient response to initial treatment, allow for a scheme of risk stratification, and the current consensus is to treat low risk patients with chemotherapy only, whereas high risk patients may receive allogeneic transplant in first remission, although the benefits of transplant remain inconclusive. Overall, the outcome of children and adolescents with AML has improved significantly so that many clinical trials now report event-free survival of around 60%. However, much of this improvement stems from better supportive care and transplant methods, and the genetics-based diagnostic advances in AML have yet to result in enhanced treatment. New therapeutics, including possibly targeted therapy, are necessary to further improve the outcome of pediatric AML.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Classification , Complement System Proteins , Consensus , Core Binding Factors , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Down Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Fanconi Anemia , Humans , Korea , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Sarcoma, Myeloid , World Health Organization
14.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 817-823, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351471

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To enrich our national database with data of rare diseases by analyzing molecular diagnosis and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS).</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based genetic diagnosis panel was applied for the clinical diagnosis and management of IBMFS. Retrospective analysis was performed on clinical and genetic data of 17 consecutive children who received HSCT over a long time interval (November. 2005-June 2015).</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Three patients were diagnosed only by clinical manifestation before 2012. After that NGS-based genetic diagnosis panel was used to identify IBMFS-related genes in 12/14.IBMFS patients (except two Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) patients). Two Fanconi anemia (FA) patients were confirmed to be new variations through family-genotype-analysis and 3 families accepted prenatal diagnosis to avoid birth of affected fetuses. Seventeen IBMFS patients (10 FA,5 DBA and 2 dyskeratosis congenital (DKC)) were treated with HSCT from matched sibling donors (n=2), matched unrelated donors (n=8) or mismatched unrelated donors (n=7). The source of stem cells for transplantation included peripheral blood (n=12) and cord blood (n=5). With regard to the conditioning regimens, FA and DKC patients received fludarabine-based reduced intensity conditioning, while DBA patients received classical busulfan-based myeloablative conditioning. Median age at the time of HSCT was 36 months (7-156 months). The number of infused mononuclear cells and CD34⁺ cells was (10.6 ± 6.7) × 10⁸ and (5.9 ± 7.0) × 10⁶ per kilogram of recipient body weight, respectively. The median number of days to neutrophil recovery was 13 days after HSCT (range: 10-19 days). Platelet recovery was faster in the PBSCT group than in the CBT group ((16.3 ± 6.0) days vs. (30.0 ± 17.1) days,t=-2.487,P=0.026). During a median follow-up of 17 months (range: 2-114 months), except one FA patient who was transplanted with HLA-matched unrelated cord blood (CB) died from pneumonia and heart failure because of engraftment failure, other 16 children are alive after the successful HSCT. The failure-free survival rate of the patients three years after HSCT was 94%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>NGS-based molecular diagnosis technology and effective HSCT have significantly facilitated the treatment of children with IBMFS in our country, and our national database about this rare disease is to be further exploited.</p>


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan , Therapeutics , Bone Marrow Diseases , Child , Dyskeratosis Congenita , Therapeutics , Fanconi Anemia , Therapeutics , Fetal Blood , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal , Diagnosis , Genetics , Therapeutics , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Siblings , Survival Rate , Transplantation Conditioning , Unrelated Donors , Vidarabine , Therapeutic Uses
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239504

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To provide prenatal diagnosis for a pregnant woman who had given birth to a child with Fanconi anemia with combined next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>For the affected child, potential mutations of the FANCA gene were analyzed with NGS. Suspected mutation was verified with Sanger sequencing. For prenatal diagnosis, genomic DNA was extracted from cultured fetal amniotic fluid cells and subjected to analysis of the same mutations.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A low-frequency frameshifting mutation c.989_995del7 (p.H330LfsX2, inherited from his father) and a truncating mutation c.3971C>T (p.P1324L, inherited from his mother) have been identified in the affected child and considered to be pathogenic. The two mutations were subsequently verified by Sanger sequencing. Upon prenatal diagnosis, the fetus was found to carry two mutations.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The combined next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing can reduce the time for diagnosis and identify subtypes of Fanconi anemia and the mutational sites, which has enabled reliable prenatal diagnosis of this disease.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Base Sequence , Child, Preschool , DNA Mutational Analysis , Fanconi Anemia , Diagnosis , Genetics , Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group A Protein , Genetics , Female , Fetal Diseases , Diagnosis , Genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis
16.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 770-774, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296155

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the genetic instability in patients with Dyskeration congenita.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The spontaneous chromosome instability of lymphocytes from 4 DC patients, 29 FA patients and 24 healthy volunteers was assessed with comet assay. The percent of DNA in comet head (HeadDNA%), the percent of DNA in comet tail (TailDNA%), tail moment (TM), olive tail moment (OTM), the comet cell percentage (CCP) were compared between groups. And the results of MMC test, PNH clones and karotype were analysed additionally. The correlation between TM, OTM, CCP and the severity degree of bone marrow failure in DC group were evaluated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>①PNH clones and karotype abnormalities were not found in 4 DC patients. ②TM (6.77 ± 0.90), OTM(6.19 ± 0.80) and CCP [(46.00 ± 5.03) %] in DC were significantly higher than those in normal control group [0.61 ± 0.49, 0.66 ± 0.42, (5.91 ± 3.19)%, P<0.05], however, not distinguished from FA patients [7.81 ± 3.58, 6.65 ± 2.21, (56.03 ± 13.47) %, P ≥ 0.05]. The aberrant cell percent at the MMC concentration of 80 μg/L in DC group was significantly lower than that in FA group [(21.00 ± 3.16) % vs (31.97 ± 6.33)%, P=0.003]. ③The correlation between TM, OTM, CCP and the severity of bone marrow failure in DC group were not found (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>DC patients were of significantly increased genetic instability and normal DNA repair, which was different from that in FA patients. And there was no correlation between the degree of genetic instability and the severity of bone marrow failure in DC patients presenting as aplastic anemia.</p>


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Chromosomal Instability , Comet Assay , Dyskeratosis Congenita , Genetics , Fanconi Anemia , Genetics , Humans , Lymphocytes , Pancytopenia
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13549

ABSTRACT

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous malignancy that comprises 25-30% of pediatric leukemias in Korea. Several inherited diseases, such as Down syndrome and Fanconi anemia, predispose towards AML leukemogenesis. Subgrouping of AML is a key diagnostic step, previously done with the French-American-British (FAB) classification and recently complemented by that of the World Health Organization (WHO). An important feature of AML is the possibility of chloroma at diagnosis, which, if detected, requires follow-up evaluation to determine treatment response. Numerous genetic abnormalities with prognostic relevance have recently been found, the most important of which include those of the core-binding factor (CBF) leukemias, and FLT3-ITD mutation. These genetic abnormalities, combined with patient response to initial treatment, allow for a scheme of risk stratification, and the current consensus is to treat low risk patients with chemotherapy only, whereas high risk patients may receive allogeneic transplant in first remission, although the benefits of transplant remain inconclusive. Overall, the outcome of children and adolescents with AML has improved significantly so that many clinical trials now report event-free survival of around 60%. However, much of this improvement stems from better supportive care and transplant methods, and the genetics-based diagnostic advances in AML have yet to result in enhanced treatment. New therapeutics, including possibly targeted therapy, are necessary to further improve the outcome of pediatric AML.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Classification , Complement System Proteins , Consensus , Core Binding Factors , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Down Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Fanconi Anemia , Humans , Korea , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Sarcoma, Myeloid , World Health Organization
18.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 30(3): 273-279, jul.-set. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-723765

ABSTRACT

La anemia de Fanconi (AF) es un síndrome de inestabilidad cromosómica caracterizado por diversos rasgos dismórficos, pancitopenia progresiva y predisposición a neoplasias hematológicas. El ensayo de sensibilidad a la mitomicina C (MMC) proporciona un marcador celular único para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad. Con el objetivo de introducir este ensayo de roturas cromosómicas, se aplicó la técnica en dos muestras procedentes de un paciente con sospecha clínica de AF y un sujeto control. Las muestras de sangre periférica fueron cultivadas según los protocolos establecidos para los estudios citogenéticos. Se prepararon cuatro frascos de cultivo por cada muestra. A uno de ellos se le añadió solo cloruro de sodio (cultivo control) y a los restantes se les añadieron concentraciones crecientes de MMC (50, 150 y 300 nM). Fueron analizadas cincuenta metafases por cada frasco. La exposición de los linfocitos del paciente a todas las concentraciones de MMC provocó diferencias significativas en el número de células con roturas cromosómicas respecto a la misma exposición en el control (p <0.005). Se comprobó el éxito del ensayo teniendo en cuenta que a 300 nM en el control sano solo aparece el 32 por ciento de células con roturas. Es interesante resaltar que en la muestra del paciente a la concentración más elevada, se apreció la presencia de 2 líneas celulares, una con pocas o ninguna rotura (38 por ciento) similar a las que aparecen en las células no-AF; y otra con múltiples roturas (62 por ciento) típicas de las células AF. Esto indicó la presencia de mosaicismo somático en los linfocitos T del paciente. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos se confirmó la sospecha clínica de que se trata de un paciente AF, por la hipersensibilidad a la acción de la MMC que presenta mosaicismo somático en linfocitos T...


Fanconi anemia (FA) is a chromosomal instability syndrome characterized by various dysmorphic features, progressive pancytopenia and predisposition to hematological malignancies. The assay sensitivity to mitomycin C (MMC) provides a unique cell marker for the diagnosis of the disease. In order to introduce this chromosomal breakage test the technique was applied in two samples from a patient with clinical suspicion of AF and a control subject. Peripheral blood samples were cultured by protocols established for cytogenetic studies. Four flasks were prepared for each sample culture. Only sodium chloride was added to one of the flasks (control) and to the remaining flasks increasing concentrations of MMC (50, 150 and 300 nM) were added. Fifty metaphases were analyzed for each bottle. Exposure of lymphocytes from the patient at all concentrations of MMC caused significant differences in the number of cells with chromosome breaks with respect to the same exposure in the control (p <0.005). Assay success was proved considering that in 300 nM in healthy control only 32 percent shows cell breakage. It is interesting to remark that in the patient sample with highest concentration, the presence of two cell lines were observed, one with little or no breakage (38 percent) similar to those found in no-F cells and other with multiple breaks (62 percent), typical of AF cells. These results indicated the presence of somatic mosaicism in patient´s T lymphocytes. The results obtained confirmed the clinical suspicion that this is an AF patient, due to the hypersensitivity to the action of MMC and the presence of somatic mosaicism in T lymphocytes...


Subject(s)
Humans , Fanconi Anemia/diagnosis , Mitomycin , Chromosome Breakage , Case-Control Studies
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 64(3): 201-204, May-Jun/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715656

ABSTRACT

Fanconi anemia is a rare autosomal recessive inherited bone marrow failure syndrome with congenital and hematological abnormalities. Literature regarding the anesthetic management in these patients is limited. A management of a developmental dislocation of the hip was described in a patient with fanconi anemia. Because of the heterogeneous nature, a patient with fanconi anemia should be established thorough preoperative evaluation in order to diagnose on clinical features. In conclusion, we preferred caudal anesthesia in this patient with fanconi anemia without thrombocytopenia, because of avoiding from N2O, reducing amount of anesthetic, existing microcephaly, hypothyroidism and elevated liver enzymes, providing postoperative analgesia, and reducing amount of analgesic used postoperatively.


A anemia de Fanconi é uma síndrome hereditária autossômica recessiva rara, caracterizada por deficiência da medula óssea e anomalias congênitas e hematológicas. A literatura sobre o manejo anestésico dos pacientes é limitada. O manejo de uma displasia do desenvolvimento do quadril foi descrito em um paciente com anemia de Fanconi. Por causa da natureza heterogênea, um paciente com anemia de Fanconi deve ser submetido à avaliação pré-operatória para diagnosticar as características clínicas. Em conclusão, o bloqueio caudal foi a nossa escolha para esse paciente com anemia de Fanconi, sem trombocitopenia, para evitar o N2O, reduzir a quantidade de anestésico, a microcefalia existente, o hipotireoidismo e o aumento das enzimas hepáticas, proporcionar analgesia pós-operatória e reduzir a quantidade de analgésico usada no pós-operatório.


La anemia de Fanconi es un síndrome hereditario autosómico recesivo raro, caracterizado por deficiencia de la médula ósea y por anomalías congénitas y hematológicas. La literatura sobre el manejo anestésico de esos pacientes es limitada. El manejo de una displasia del desarrollo de la cadera fue descrito en un paciente con anemia de Fanconi. Debido a la naturaleza heterogénea, un paciente con anemia de Fanconi debe ser sometido a la evaluación preoperatoria para diagnosticar las características clínicas. En conclusión, el bloqueo caudal fue nuestra elección para ese paciente con anemia de Fanconi sin trombocitopenia para evitar el N2O, reducir la cantidad de anestésico, microcefalia existente, hipotiroidismo y aumento de las enzimas hepáticas, proporcionar analgesia postoperatoria y reducir la cantidad de analgésico usado en el postoperatorio.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Anesthesia, Caudal/methods , Fanconi Anemia/surgery , Hip Dislocation, Congenital/surgery , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Fanconi Anemia/physiopathology , Hip Dislocation, Congenital/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120725

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize Korean patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), which is a rare but very challenging genetic disease. METHODS: The medical records of 12 FA patients diagnosed at Chonnam National University Hospital from 1991 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 6.2 years. All patients showed evidence of marrow failure and one or more physical stigmata. Chromosome breakage tests were positive in 9 out of 11 available patients. The median follow-up duration was 69.5 months. The Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival of all patients was 83.3% at 10 years and 34.7% at 20 years, respectively. Seven patients underwent 9 stem cell transplantations (SCTs). Among them, 5 were alive by the end of the study. Ten-year KM survival after SCT was 71.4% with a median follow-up of 3.4 years. All 5 patients treated with supportive treatment alone died of infection or progression at the median age of 13.5 years, except for one with short follow-up duration. Acute leukemia developed in 2 patients at 15.4 and 18.1 years of age. Among 6 patients who are still alive, 3 had short stature and 1 developed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION: We provide information on the long-term outcomes of FA patients in Korea. A nation-wide FA registry that includes information of the genotypes of Korean patients is required to further characterize ethnic differences and provide the best standard of care for FA patients.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Christianity , Chromosome Breakage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diagnosis , Fanconi Anemia , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Humans , Korea , Leukemia , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Standard of Care , Stem Cell Transplantation , Treatment Outcome
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