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Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 535-539, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985804


Understanding of a variety of membranous structures throughout the body,such as the fascia,the serous membrane,is of great importance to surgeons. This is especially valuable in abdominal surgery. With the rise of membrane theory in recent years,membrane anatomy has been widely recognized in the treatment of abdominal tumors,especially of gastrointestinal tumors. In clinical practice. The appropriate choice of intramembranous or extramembranous anatomy is appropriate to achieve precision surgery. Based on the current research results,this article described the application of membrane anatomy in the field of hepatobiliary surgery,pancreatic surgery,and splenic surgery,with the aim of blazed the path from modest beginnings.

Humans , Mesentery/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Fascia/anatomy & histology
Mastology (Online) ; 332023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442407


Using the serratus anterior fascia may be a safe and effective option to recreate the lateral breast profile during subpectoral breast reconstruction, with minimal functional impact on the donor site. However, the literature is scarce when it comes to studies on this fascia flap in implant-based reconstruction. This article aimed to review the use of the serratus anterior fascia in immediate implant-based breast reconstruction, searching the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, and SciELO. The search was carried out by combining the following keywords: 'breast reconstruction' and 'serratus anterior fascia'. In the Pubmed and Embase databases, the search yielded a total of 12 and 15 articles, respectively, of which seven were selected according to the scope of this article. We found no studies on serratus anterior fascia and breast reconstruction in the Lilacs and SciELO databases. All works have results favorable for the use of the serratus anterior fascia flap and agree that this technique can be considered in the algorithm for the coverage of the inferolateral portion during subpectoral breast reconstruction

Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Fascia/transplantation , Intermediate Back Muscles/transplantation , Mastectomy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986829


The successful report of total mesorectal excision (TME)/complete mesocolic excision (CME) has encouraged people to apply this concept beyond colorectal surgery. However, the negative results of the JCOG1001 trial denied the effect of complete resection of the "mesogastrium" including the greater omentum on the oncological survival of gastric cancer patients. People even believe that the mesentery is unique in the intestine, because they have a vague understanding of the structure of the mesentery. The discovery of proximal segment of the dorsal mesogastrium (PSDM) proved that the greater omentum is not the mesogastrium, and further revised the structure (definition) of the mesentery and revealed its container characteristics, i.e. the mesentery is an envelope-like structure, which is formed by the primary fascia (and serosa) that enclose the tissue/organ/system and its feeding structures, leading to and suspended on the posterior wall of the body. Breakdown of this structure leads to the simultaneous reduction of surgical and oncological effects of surgery. People quickly realized the universality of this structure and causality which cannot be matched by the existing theories of organ anatomy and vascular anatomy, so a new theory and surgical map- membrane anatomy began to form, which led to radical surgery upgraded from histological en bloc resection to anatomic en bloc resection.

Humans , Fascia/anatomy & histology , Laparoscopy , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Mesentery/surgery , Mesocolon/surgery , Omentum , Serous Membrane , Clinical Trials as Topic
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982184


Anatomy is the foundation of surgery. However, traditional anatomical concepts based on autopsy are no longer sufficient to guide the development of modern surgery. With the advancement of histology and embryology and application of high-resolution laparoscopic technology, surgical anatomy has gradually developed. Meanwhile, some important concepts and terms used to guide surgery have emerged, including: mesentery, fascia, and space. The confusing, controversial, and even inaccurate definitions and anatomical terms related to colorectal surgery seriously affect academic communication and the training of young surgeons. Therefore, the Chinese Society of Colorectal Surgeons, the Chinese Society of Colorectal Surgery, National Health Commission Capacity Building and Continuing Education Center, and China Sexology Association of Colorectal Functional Surgery organized colorectal surgeons to make consensus on the definition and terminology of mesentery, fascia, and space related to colon and rectum, to promote surgeons' understanding of modern anatomy related to colorectal surgery and promote academic communication.

Humans , Rectum/surgery , Consensus , Mesentery/anatomy & histology , Fascia/anatomy & histology , Colorectal Neoplasms
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 627-631, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385652


SUMMARY: The goal of ultrasound-guided suprainguinal fascia iliaca block (USG-SFIB) is anesthetic spread to three nerves, which are lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN), femoral nerve (FN), and obturator nerve (ON). The 90 % minimum effective volume (MEV90) for USG-SFIB is each result of studied showed the successful block and effect in various volume for block. So, Thus, the study purposes to demonstrate the efficiency of the effective volume (MEV90,62.5 ml) for USG-SFIB and confirm the staining of dye in connective tissue of nerve (nerve layer) that focused on the obturator nerve by histological examination in cadavers. The histological result showed the dye staining on the nerve layer of the ON in epineurium (100 %) and un-staining perineurium & endoneurium. Therefore, the minimal effective volume (MEV) is effective for USG-SFIB. Moreover, dye stain at the epineurium of stained obturator nerve only.

RESUMEN: El objetivo del bloqueo de la fascia ilíaca suprainguinal guiado por ecografía (USG-SFIB) es la propagación anestésica a tres nervios, cutáneo femoral lateral, femoral y obturador. El volumen efectivo mínimo del 90 % (MEV90) para USG-SFIB en cada uno de los resultados mostró el bloqueo exitoso y el efecto en varios volúmenes por bloqueo. Por lo tanto, el estudio tuvo como objetivo demostrar la eficiencia del volumen efectivo (MEV90,62.5 ml) para USG-SFIB y confirmar la tinción de tinte en el tejido conectivo del nervio, el cual se centró en el nervio obturador a través del examen histológico en cadáveres. El resultado histológico mostró tinción de colorante en el epineuro (100 %) del nervio obturador, sin embargo no hubo tinción del perineuro y endoneuro. Por lo tanto, el volumen efectivo mínimo (MEV) es efectivo para USG-SFIB.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fascia/drug effects , Anesthetics/administration & dosage , Nerve Block , Cadaver
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 678-682, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385679


SUMMARY: The local anesthetic volume for a single-shot suprainguinal fascia iliaca block (SFIB) is a key factor of a block success because the courses of the three target nerves from the lumbar plexus (LP), the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN), femoral nerve (FN), and obturator nerve (ON), at the inguinal area are isolated and within striking distance. Thus, this cadaveric study aims to demonstrate the distribution of dye staining on the LFCN, FN, ON, and LP following the ultrasound-guided SFIB using 15-50 ml of methylene blue. A total of 40 USG-SFIBs were performed on 20 fresh adult cadavers using 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 ml of methylene blue. After the injections, the pelvic and inguinal regions were dissected to directly visualize the dye stained on the LFCN, FN, ON, and LP. All FN and LFCN were stained heavily when the 15-50 ml of dye was injected. Higher volumes of dye (40-50 ml) spread more medially and stained on the ON and LP in 60 % of cases. To increase the possibility of dye spreading to all three target nerves and LP of the SFIB, a high volume (≥40 ml) of anesthetic is recommended. If only a blockade of the FN and LFCN is required, a low volume (15-25 ml) of anesthetic is sufficient.

RESUMEN: El volumen de anestésico local para un bloqueo de la fascia ilíaca suprainguinal (FISI) de una sola inyección es un factor clave para el éxito del bloqueo, debido a que los cursos de los tres nervios objetivo del plexo lumbar (PL), el nervio cutáneo femoral lateral (NCFL), femoral (NF) y el nervio obturador (NO), en el área inguinal están aislados y dentro de la distancia de abordaje. Por lo tanto, este estudio cadavérico tiene como objetivo demostrar la distribución de la tinción de tinte en NCFL, NF, NO y PL siguiendo el FISI guiado por ultrasonido usando 15-50 ml de azul de metileno. Se realizaron un total de 40 USG-FISI en 20 cadáveres adultos frescos utilizando 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 y 50 ml de azul de metileno. Después de las inyecciones, se disecaron las regiones pélvica e inguinal para visualizar directamente el tinte teñido en NCFL, NF, NO y PL. Todos los NF y NCFL se tiñeron intensamente cuando se inyectaron los 15- 50 ml de colorante. Volúmenes mayores de colorante (40-50 ml) se esparcen más medialmente y tiñen el NO y la PL en el 60 % de los casos. Para aumentar la posibilidad de que el colorante se propague a los tres nervios objetivo y al PL del FISI, se recomienda un volumen elevado (≥40 ml) de anestésico. Si solo se requiere un bloqueo de NF y NCFL, un volumen bajo (15-25 ml) de anestésico es suficiente.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Fascia/anatomy & histology , Fascia/drug effects , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage , Nerve Block , Cadaver , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Injections , Methylene Blue/pharmacokinetics
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 880-882, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405257


SUMMARY: The variations in the serratus anterior (SA) muscle are common. Here, we report a rare variation of the muscle origin with a potentially great clinical implication. We found an aberrant SA variation in an 81-year-old Korean male cadaver during a routine dissection for medical students. Additional slip (AS) of the SA originated from the clavipectoral fascia and the pectoralis minor. It traveled inferiorly and merged to the typical SA part. Precise knowledge about SA variations is clinically valuable; therefore, clinicians should be aware of the possible variation.

RESUMEN: Las variaciones en el músculo serrato anterior (MSA) son comunes. En este trabajo informamos una variación rara del origen muscular con una implicación clínica potencialmente importante. Encontramos una variación aberrante del MSA en un cadáver masculino, coreano de 81 años, durante una disección de rutina para estudiantes de medicina, con un fascículo adicional del MSA originado en la fascia clavipectoral y el músculo pectoral menor. Este fascículo se dirigió inferiormente y se fu- sionó con la parte común de MSA. El conocimiento preciso sobre las variaciones de MSA es útil clínicamente; por lo tanto, los médicos deben ser conscientes de esta posible variación.

Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Cadaver , Fascia
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936082


As a treatment of rectal cancer, lateral lymph node dissection (LLND) is still a controversial issue. The argument against LLND is that the procedure is complicated, and consequently results in a high incidence of postoperative urogenital dysfunction. The surgical modality from fascia to space is adopted by lateral lymph node dissection in "two spaces". This operation has significant advantages of clear location of nerves and blood vessels and simplified surgical procedures, so the surgical procedure can be repeated and modulated. The fascia propria of the rectum, urogenital fascia, vesicohypogastric fascia and parietal fascia constitute the dissection plane for lateral lymph node dissection.Two spaces refer to Latzko's pararectal space and paravesical space. During the establishment of fascia plane, the dissection of external iliac lymph node (No.293), commoniliac lymph node (No.273) and abdominal aortic bifurcation lymph node (No.280) can be performed. While in the "space" dissection, internal iliac lymph node (No.263), obturator lymph node (No.283), lateral sacral lymph node (No.260) and median sacral lymph node (No.270) can be removed. LD2 or LD3 lateral lymph node dissection prescribed by the Japanese Society of Colorectal Cancer can be completed according to the needs of the disease. This article describes the anatomical basis and standardized surgical procedures.

Humans , Dissection , Fascia/pathology , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927407


In order to comprehensively stretch human fascia, adjust the biomechanical balance of fascia system and promote the recovery of physiological function of fascia, a new type of fascia stretching cup is designed. This design is composed of two or more silica gel cups and elastic stretching belts between cups. The bottom surface of the silica gel cup has an annular exhaust groove, which can increase the adsorption capacity of the cup to the skin. In the meanwhile, a removable magnet is placed in the groove at the top of each silica gel cup to assist analgesia. This design is suitable for the prevention and treatment of acute and chronic tendon and bone diseases with imbalance of meridians and tendons.

Humans , Fascia , Silica Gel , Skin
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 173-178, Dec. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352991


El colgajo de fascia temporal superficial es muy versátil para la reconstrucción de defectos tisulares localizados en los tercios superior y medio de la cara, en la región orbito-palpebral, en la cavidad oral, en la base del cráneo y a nivel mandibular. En nuestra experiencia, constituye una opción segura para reconstrucciones complejas de cavidades. En el presente artículo los autores exponen el caso de una paciente en quien se reconstruyó un defecto de órbita con un colgajo de fascia temporal superficial prelaminado

The superficial temporal fascia flap is versatile for the reconstruction of tissue defects located in the upper and middle thirds of the face, in the orbital-palpebral region, in the oral cavity, at the base of the skull and at the mandibular level. In our experience, it is a safe option for complex cavity reconstructions. In this article the authors present the case of a patient in whom an orbit defect was reconstructed with a pre-laminated superficial temporal fascia flap

Transplants , Orbit , Fascia
Rev. am. med. respir ; 21(4): 415-418, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1431467


La tuberculosis de la pared torácica es excepcional y puede presentarse en forma de un absceso frío o una masa seudo tumoral. En ausencia de lesiones pulmonares o extra pulmonares sugerentes de TB, es difícil diferenciar un absceso tuberculoso de un tumor de la pared torácica. Se debe evaluar el diagnóstico de TB de la pared torácica, ante signos clínicos y radiológicos, especialmente en regiones de alta incidencia y prevalencia de la enfermedad. El pronóstico es muy bueno con el tratamiento actual para la TB Si se asocia cirugía para efectuar la resección del absceso, se reducen las complicaciones y/o recurrencias. Si bien su presentación es muy poco frecuente, la Peripleuritis deberá tenerse en consideración Habitualmente se asocia a lesiones pulmonares, linfáticas o costales en actividad Siempre que se conozcan sus caracteres anatomoclínicos, la clínica y la radiología permiten sospechar su diagnóstico.

Tuberculosis of the chest wall is rare and can present in the form of a cold abscess or a pseudo-tumor mass. In the absence of pulmonary or extrapulmonary lesions suggestive of TB, it is difficult to differentiate a tuberculosis abscess from a chest wall tumor. The diagnosis of TB of the chest wall should be evaluated, given clinical and radiological signs, especially in regions of high incidence and prevalence of the disease. The prognosis is very good with the current treatment for TB. If surgery is associated to perform abscess resection, complications and / or recurrences are reduced. Although its presentation is very rare, Peripleuritis should be taken into consideration. Associated with active lung, lymphatic or rib lesions As long as its anatomical-clinical characteristics are known, the clinic and radiology allow suspecting its diagnosis.

Tuberculosis , Pulmonary Medicine , Fascia
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 29(2): [1-15], abr.-jun. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363827


O método Fascia Stretch Training 7 Sets (FST-7) ganhou popularidade nos últimos anos sendo disseminado por fisiculturistas norte-americanos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar os efeitos do protocolo de treinamento do método FST-7 com ou sem alongamento passivo entre as séries nas variáveis metabólicas (lactato [LAC] e creatinofosfoquinase [CPK]), desempenho (volume total de treinamento ­ VTT) e percepção subjetiva de esforço (PSE) em homens bem treinados. Nove homens (23, 2 ± 1,7 anos; 174,2 ± 6,2 cm; 84,6 ± 9,8 kg, 3,4 ± 1,0 anos de experiência em treinamento de força) foram submetidos ao teste e re-teste de 10 repetições máximas (10RM) nos exercícios supino reto livre e crucifixo horizontal com halteres em dias distintos, respeitando 48 horas de intervalo entre a s sessões de teste e re-teste. Decorridas 72 horas do último dia de teste, os participantes realizaram os protocolos experimentais de forma randomizada com 72 horas de intervalo entre as sessões. As coletas sanguíneas foram realizadas 10 minutos antes e imediatamente após os protocolos de treinamento. O protocolo sem alongamento aumentou significativamente a concentração de LAC (p = 0,029). No entanto, o mesmo não ocorreu para a concentração de CPK (p = 0,302). O VTT foi maior para o protocolo sem alongamento (p < 0,001) e a PSE foi maior para o protocolo com alongamento entre as séries (p = 0,003). Concluímos que o método FST-7 com alongamento resultou em uma maior PSE, o que pode estar relacionado com o declínio do desempenho, traduzido pelo menor VTT em relação à condição sem alongamento. Adicionalmente, o menor VTT pode ter afetado o menor acúmulo de LAC observado no método FST-7 com o alongamento. (AU)

The Fascia Stretch Training 7 Sets (FST-7) method has gained popularity in the recent years being disseminated by American bodybuilders. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of the Fascia Stretch Training 7 Sets (FST-7) method with or without passive stretching between sets on metabolic variables (lactate [LAC] and creatine kinase [CK]), performance (total training volume - TTV) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in trained men. For this, nine recreationally trained men (23.2 ± 1.7 years; 174.2 ± 6.2 cm; 84.6 ± 9.8 kg, 3.4 ± 1.0 years of experience in strength training) were submitted to the test and re-test of 10 repetition maximum (10RM) in the barbell bench press and fly with dumbbells on different days, respecting a 48-hour interval between the test and re-test sessions. After 72 hours of the last test day, participants performed the experimental protocols in randomized order with a 72-hour interval between sessions. Blood samples were taken 10 minutes before and immediately after the training protocols. The protocol without stretching was significantly increased LAC concentrations (p = 0.029). However, the same did not occur for the concentration of CK (p = 0.302). The TTV was higher for the protocol without stretching (p < 0.001), and the RPE was significantly higher for the protocol with stretching between sets (p = 0.003). We concluded that the FST-7 method with stretching resulted in higher RPE, which may be related to the decline in performance, translated by the lower TTV in relation to the condition without stretching. This lower TTV may have affected the lower LAC accumulation observed in the FST-7 method with stretching. (AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Muscle Stretching Exercises , Fatigue , Endurance Training , Lactates , Men , Physical Education and Training , Creatine Kinase , Efficiency , Fascia , Resistance Training
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(2): 193-197, June 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286994


Abstract The postoperative outcome of rectal cancer has been improved after the introduction of the principles of total mesorectal excision (TME). Total mesorectal excision includes resection of the diseased rectum and mesorectum with non-violated mesorectal fascia (en bloc resection). Dissection along themesorectal fascia through the principle of the "holy plane" minimizes injury of the autonomic nerves and increases the chance of preserving them. It is important to stick to the TME principle to avoid perforating the tumor; violating the mesorectal fascia, thus resulting in positive circumferential resection margin (CRM); or causing injury to the autonomic nerves, especially if the tumor is located anteriorly. Therefore, identifying the anterior plane of dissection during TME is important because it is related with the autonomic nerves (Denonvilliers fascia). Although there are many articles about the Denonvilliers fascia (DVF) or the anterior dissection plane, unfortunately, there is no consensus on its embryological origin, histology, and gross anatomy. In the present review article, I aim to delineate and describe the anatomy of the DVF inmore details based on a review of the literature, in order to provide insight for colorectal surgeons to better understand this anatomical feature and to provide the best care to their patients.

Resumo O resultado pós-operatório do câncer retal foi melhorado após a introdução dos princípios da excisão total do mesorreto (TME, na sigla em inglês). A excisão total do mesorreto inclui a ressecção do reto e do mesorreto afetados com fáscia mesorretal não violada (ressecção em bloco). A dissecção ao longo da fáscia mesorretal pelo princípio do "plano sagrado" minimiza a lesão dos nervos autônomos e aumenta a chance de preservá-los. É importante seguir o princípio da TME para evitar: a perfuração do tumor; a violação da fáscia mesorretal, resultando em margem de ressecção circunferencial (CRM) positiva; ou a lesão aos nervos autônomos, especialmente se o tumor estiver localizado anteriormente. Portanto, a identificação do plano anterior de dissecção durante a TME é importante, pois está relacionada comos nervos autonômicos (fáscia de Denonvilliers). Embora existammuitos artigos sobre a fáscia de Denonvilliers (DVF, na sigla em inglês) ou o plano de dissecção anterior, infelizmente não há consenso sobre sua origem embriológica, histologia e anatomia macroscópica. No presente artigo de revisão, retendo delinear e descrever a anatomia da DVF em mais detalhes com base em uma revisão da literatura, a fim de fornecer subsídios para os cirurgiões colorretais entenderemmelhor esta característica anatômica e fornecer o melhor cuidado para seus pacientes.

Rectal Neoplasms , Fascia/anatomy & histology , Rectum/anatomy & histology , Rectum/surgery , Rectum/pathology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888619


In 1982, total mesorectal excision(TME) was proposed by Professor R. J. Heald, which was a milestone-style for rectal cancer surgery. The concept of TME has reduced the local recurrence rate of mid-low rectal cancer (MLRC) significantly, thus becomes the gold standard for MLRC surgery. However, the incidence of urogenital dysfunction after TME remains high, among which urinary dysfunction reaches 30%-60%, and sexual dysfunction reaches 50%-70%. In recent years, studies have shown that the removal of Denonvilliers' fascia (DVF) during TME is an important cause of postoperative urination and sexual dysfunction. Therefore, DVF preserving total mesorectal excision (iTME) has been recognized by more and more surgical experts. On the basis of existing literature and clinical practice, we organize experts to discuss and vote, put forward recommendations for several issues of iTME, and finally formulate this expert consensus. The formulation of this consensus aims to increase surgeons' awareness of the value and functional protection of DVF during TME surgery, clarify the indications and contraindications of iTME, and standardize the procedure of iTME, so as to reduce postoperative urination and sexual dysfunction and improve the quality of life of patients with MLRC. The level of evidence and recommendation of this consensus is determined by Grading Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE), and the consensus content is determined through expert voting and Delphi method.

Humans , China , Consensus , Fascia , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Quality of Life , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942949


Colorectal surgery for malignancies has evolved into an era of careful and precise dissection along mesorectal or mesocolic fascia to achieve the so-called total mesorectal excision or complete mesocolic excision. The wide use of laparoscopic technique prompted more anatomical, histological, and embryological studies. This leads to a deeper and more precise understanding of fascial anatomy concerning colorectal surgery, though controversies exist. The complicated anatomy of multilayer parietal fasciae and dense adhesion between fasciae at specific sites still represent a major hindrance to perform a precise inter-fascial dissection. Colorectal surgeons should be familiar with the onion-like arrangement of the visceral and parietal fasciae. The dedicated assistants should provide three-directional traction and adjust the direction of forces timely in a manner that the resultant forces are always in a direction perpendicular to the fasciae that are to be dissected. The fixation of the mesorectum and the mesocolon to the pelvic and abdominal wall can also be exploited as a natural counter-retraction. To separate loosely attached visceral and parietal fasciae, the application of splitting forces on opposite fasciae or sliding the forceps along the interface will provide quick separation and maintenance of the integrity of the fasciae. In summary, careful attention to the direction and strength of three directional retractions on parietal and visceral fasciae will help stretch and open up the areolar surgical tissue plane, skillful maneuver in separation and dividing of the attachment of two fasciae will ensure a precise inter-fascial dissection and help achieve total mesorectal excision or complete mesocolic excision, reducing the risk of the residual of the mesentery and inadvertent injuries to adjacent tissues and autonomic nerves.

Humans , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Dissection , Fascia , Laparoscopy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942946


Objective: To investigate the anatomic characteristics of the right retroperitoneal fascia and its surgical implementation while performing complete mesocolic excision (CME) for right colon cancer. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out. (1) Clinicopathological data and surgical videos of 17 non-consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic right hemicolectomy (extended right hemicolectomy) with CME for right colon cancer at Department of Colorectal Surgery of Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University between January 2020 and October 2020 were retrospectively collected. The construction of right retroperitoneal fascia was observed from caudal dorsal direction and caudal ventral direction. (2) Three postoperative specimens from 3 cases undergoing laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with CME for right colon cancer in June 2020 were prospectively included to observe anatomy and examine histology. (3) Five abdominal cadaver specimens from the Department of Anatomy of Fujian Medical University were enrolled, including 3 males and 2 females. Anatomical observation and histological studies were performed from the cranial approach and the caudal dorsal approach. Masson staining was used to examine the histology. Results: (1) Surgical video observation: The typical structure of right retroperitoneal fascia could be observed in all the 17 patients. The fascia was a rigid barrier between the posterior space of the ascending colon and the anterior pancreaticoduodenal space behind the transverse colon. The right retroperitoneal fascia should be sharply cut to communicate between the two spaces to avoid entering the right mesocolon by mistake. The severed ventral stump of the right retroperitoneal fascia ran along the dorsal side of the right hemicolon to the lateral side, and the dorsal stump covered the level of the duodenum caudally, and continued to move downward, covering the surface of Gerota's fascia. (2) Observation of 3 surgical specimens: The dorsal side of the right mesocolon was smooth and intact, which could be anchored in the corresponding area of the lateral edge of the duodenum. The ventral stump of the right retroperitoneal fascia could be seen, which attached to the dorsal side of the right mesocolon semi-circularly. Masson staining observation: The ventral stump of the right retroperitoneal fascia ran cephalad, fused with the dorsal side of the right mesocolon tightly and curled. The caudal side of confluence and the dorsal side of the right mesocolon presented a bilobed structure. (3) Anatomy of 5 cadaveric specimens: The right retroperitoneal fascia was a thin fascia structure, which was a rigid barrier between the anterior pancreaticoduodenal space behind the transverse colon and the posterior space of the ascending colon. The ventral stump of the right retroperitoneal fascia (including the dorsal side of the right mesocolon), the dorsal stump of the right retroperitoneal fascia (including part of the duodenal wall) and the dorsal side of the right mesocolon were retrieved for histological examination. The ventral stump of the right retroperitoneal fascia fused with the dorsal side of the right mesocolon by the cephalic side, and the dorsal side of the right hemi-mesocolon on the fusion level by caudal side gradually separated into a double-layer loose fascial structure. The dorsal stump of the right retroperitoneal fascia covered the surface of the duodenum level, moved on from the ventral side to the surface of the prerenal fascia, and continued to the caudal side. Conclusions: The right retroperitoneal fascia is a rigid barrier between the anterior pancreaticoduodenal space behind the transverse colon and the posterior space of the ascending colon. The Toldt fascia formed by fusion with the dorsal lobe of the right colon travels to the edge of the descending and horizontal part of the duodenum and separates again. The right retroperitoneal fascia is attached to the edge of the duodenum, reversing and running on the surface of the prerenal fascia, while the dorsal lobe of the right colon runs in front of the pancreas and duodenum, and shifts to the pancreaticoduodenal fascia. During the operation, this fascia should be identified and cut to penetrate the anterior pancreaticoduodenal space behind the transverse colon and the posterior ascending colon space, which helps to ensure the integrity of the dorsal side of the right hemi-mesocolon.

Female , Humans , Male , Abdominal Wall , Colectomy , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Fascia , Laparoscopy , Mesocolon/surgery , Retrospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942933


Objective: To compare the postoperative function, the short-term and long-term outcomes between fascia-oriented and vascular-oriented lateral lymph node dissection (LLND) in patients with rectal cancer. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Clinical data of patients who received total mesorectal excision (TME) with LLND at National Cancer Center, Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Science from January 2014 to December 2019 were retrospectively collected. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) rectal cancer was pathologically diagnosed, and the lower margin was below the peritoneal reflection. (2) resectable advanced rectal cancer with suspected lateral lymph node metastasis was evaluated based on rectal MRI assessment. (3) preoperative MRI showed lateral lymph node short diameter ≥5 mm and/or lymph node morphology (spike, blur, irregular) as well as heterogenous signal intensity. Lymph node shrinkage was less than 60% after receiving neoadjuvant therapy based on the reassessment of rectal MRI. (4) TME+LLND surgery was performed synchronously. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) previous history of pelvic surgery; (2) preoperative cystitis, urethritis, moderate and severe prostatic hyperplasia and other diseases resulting in abnormal urination function; (3) preoperative sexual dysfunction or loss of function; (4) patients receiving LLND due to lateral recurrence after TME; (5) distant metastasis of the tumor at initial diagnosis; (6) Incomplete collection of clinical data. A total of 73 consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. Based on the surgical approaches in performing LLND, patients were divided into fascia-oriented group (n=30) and vascular-oriented group (n=43). There were no significant differences in baseline data between the two groups (all P>0.05). The main outcome indicators of this study were the incidence of postoperative urinary and male sexual dysfunction, the efficacy, the number of lateral lymph nodes harvested and the detection rate of positive lymph nodes. Overall survival (OS) rates and progression free survival (PFS) rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test. Results: All patients in both groups completed surgery successfully. There were no significant differences in operation time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, and the length of hospital stay between the two groups (all P>0.05). In the whole group, the incidence of postoperative urinary dysfunction and male sexual dysfunction was 43.8% (32/73) and 62.5% (25/40), respectively. The median number of lateral lymph nodes harvested was 8.0(4.0,11.0) with a positive rate of 20.5%(15/73). Compared to the vascular-oriented group, the fascia-oriented group demonstrated a decreased rate of urinary dysfunction [26.7% (8/30) vs. 55.8% (24/43), χ(2)=6.098, P=0.014], lower rate of sexual dysfunction in males [6/15 vs. 76% (19/25), χ(2)=5.184, P=0.023], more harvested lateral lymph nodes [M (P25, P75): 9.5 (6.8, 15.3) vs. 6.0 (3.0, 9.0), Z=-2.849, P=0.004]. There was no significant difference in the positvie rate of lateral lymph nodes between the two groups [20% (6/30) versus 20.9% (9/43), χ(2)=0.009, P=0.923]. Three(4.1%) patients were lost during a median follow-up of 34 (1-66) months. The 3-year PFS and OS of the whole cohort were 69.5% and 88.3%, respectively. No significant difference in 3-year PFS rates (79.6% vs. 62.0%, P=0.172) and 3-year OS rates (91.2% vs. 85.9%, P=0.333) were observed between the fascia-oriented group and the vascular-oriented group (both P>0.05). Conclusion: Fascia-oriented LLND is associated with lower risk of postoperative urinary and male sexual dysfunction in patients with rectal carcinoma, and harvest of more lymph nodes, but no significant advantage in long-term survival.

Humans , Male , Fascia , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942927


Despite the concept of membrane anatomy has been widely used in minimally invasive colorectal surgery, the definition of membrane anatomy and the establishment of membrane plane remain controversial. Therefore, it is difficult to establish a unified theoretical system of membrane anatomy. Through embryological studies and anatomical findings on the integrity and continuity of membranes, we try to discuss the theoretical system of membrane anatomy in colorectal surgery from three aspects: membrane anatomical system, membrane anatomical elements and membrane anatomical mechanism. The establishment of a unified theoretical system of membrane anatomy will not only contribute to the standardization operative procedures, but also to the establishment of uniform surgical standards for colorectal cancer.

Humans , Colorectal Surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Fascia , Mesentery , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942923


Anatomical plane and fascia have been described in medical behaviors for hundreds of years since the appearance of anatomy and operation. Generally, these descriptions can be sorted into three theories, i.e. plane surgery, fascia theory and mesentery anatomy. However, these theories are difficult to satisfy the scientific paradigm that includes consistency in description, independence in validation, potential to solve practical problems, and the interaction of the above-mentioned theries. Recently, membrane anatomy was proposed as the anatomy of mesentery and its beds in broad sense. Behind it lies fascia membrane/serous membrane structure, as well as inherent life events and general order. Mesentery in broad sense is described as the fascia membrane/serous membrane in serous cavity, which envelops and suspends the organ/tissue and its feeding structures to the posterior wall of the body. Anatomy is the setting/structure, in which life events/functions occur. In the research and discussion of membrane anatomy, abiding by the scientific paradigm and upholding the scientific spirit are the only way to obtain reliable knowledge and the criterion for in-depth scientific research.

Humans , Fascia , Mesentery , Serous Membrane
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942920


Objective: Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the gold standard for surgical treatment of mid-low rectal cancer, but the postoperative incidence of urination and sexual dysfunction is relatively high. Preserving the Denonvilliers fascia (DF) during TME can reduce the postoperative incidence of urination and sexual dysfunction. In this study, high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to observe the imaging performance and display of DF, so as to determine the value of this technique in preoperative evaluation of the preservation of DF. Methods: A descriptive cohort study was carried out. Clinical data of patients with rectal cancer who underwent TME and received preoperative high-resolution MRI at department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from August 2015 to June 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The characteristics of DF were examined, and the shortest distance (d) between the anterior edge of tumor and DF was measured on high-resolution MRI. The distance d was compared between patients with stage T1-T2 and those with stage T3. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the predictive value of d for stage T1-T2 disease. Results: Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the study, including 27 males and 5 females with mean age of (62.9±8.9) years. DF was visualized in 96.9% (31/32) of cases on the T2WI sequence. The mean distance d in patients with stage T1-T2 disease (n=23) was (6.73±2.65) mm, and in those with stage T3 disease (n=9) was (1.30±1.15) mm (t=5.893, P<0.001). A cutoff of d >3 mm yielded specificity and positive predictive value for diagnosing stage T1-T2 disease of both 100%, sensitivity of 95.7% and negative predictive value of 90%. The optimum threshold of d was >3.05 mm, and Youden index was 0.957. Conclusions: High-resolution MRI can show the DF and accurately evaluate the relationship of DF with tumor in rectal cancer patients. Analysis on d value can provide an objective basis for the safe preservation of DF.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cohort Studies , Fascia/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Staging , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies