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1.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 69(1): 19-32, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1389164

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN En muchos países la fasciolosis y la paramfistomosis representan un grave problema para la salud del sector pecuario. En Colombia hay registros de ambas distomatosis en bovinos, la mayoría en el trópico alto andino, las cuales generan pérdidas econômicas anuales cercanas a 40 000 000 000 COP. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la prevalencia de fasciolosis y paramfistomosis en vacunos de la hacienda La Candelaria, Caucasia (Colombia), y la presencia de caracoles hospederos intermediarios. Para cumplirlo, se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se recolectaron heces de los animales y se hizo el diagnóstico mediante la técnica modificada de Dennis. Se establecieron las prevalencias de los digeneos de acuerdo con el sexo, peso, edad y raza. Se recolectaron caracoles dulciacuícolas en la zona estudiada y se identificaron por morfologia. Se analizaron 466 muestras fecales de 178 bovinos, de las razas Cebú (Bos indicus), BON (blanco orejinegro) y del cruce entre ellas. Se diagnosticaron F. hepatica y Paramphistomidae con prevalencias del 2,2% y 30,9%, respectivamente. En el 1,1% de los vacunos se diagnosticó coinfección. Ambas trematodosis prevalecieron en las hembras (p = 0,03). Se identificaron moluscos dulciacuícolas Ampullariidae, Physidae y Planorbidae sin estadios larvarios de digeneos. Se concluyó que los bovinos de doble propósito de la hacienda La Candelaria están expuestos a F. hepatica y Paramphistomidae, y, probablemente, se infectan en los predios de la hacienda. Paramphistomidae es más prevalente que F. hepatica, lo cual concuerda con lo descrito en algunos estudios realizados en hatos del trópico alto andino colombiano. Paramphistomidae se encontró en todos los grupos etarios.


ABSTRACT Fasciolosis and paramphistomosis are a major health problem for the livestock economy worldwide. In Colombia, both distomatosis are reported in cattle, particularly in high Andean tropics, with annual economic losses close to COP 40 billion. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis and paramphistomosis in cattle from La Candelaria farm, Caucasia (Colombia), and the presence of intermediate host snails. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with non-probability convenience sampling. Stool samples were collected from the animals and the diagnosis was made using the modified Dennis technique. Digenea prevalence were determined according to sex, weight, age, and race. Freshwater snails were collected in the studied area and were identified by morphology. 400 and 66 fecal samples from 178 bovines of the Zebu (Bos indicus), BON (white-eared white) breeds and the cross between them were analyzed. Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomidae were diagnosed with a prevalence of 2,2% and 30,9%, respectively. Coinfection was diagnosed in 1,1% of the cattle. Both trematodosis were most frequent in females (p = 0,03). Freshwater molluscs Ampullariidae, Physidae and Planorbidae without digenea larval stages were identified. It was concluded that dual-purpose cattle from La Candelaria farm are exposed to F. hepatica and Paramphistomidae and are probably infected on the farm grounds. Paramphistomidae was more prevalent than F. hepatica, which agrees with other studies in herds from the Colombian high Andean tropics. Paramphistomidae was found in all age groups.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle , Tropical Ecosystem , Fasciola hepatica , Livestock , Coinfection , Fresh Water , Mollusca , Research , Snails , Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis
2.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 26(2)mayo-ago. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363078

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Determinar el porcentaje de fascioliasis y equinococosis quística; también, el impacto del comiso de vísceras en rumiantes faenados en el matadero municipal de Abancay, Perú. Materiales y métodos. El estudio fue básico, transversal y analítico. Se incluyeron todos los rumiantes faenados en el matadero, de septiembre a diciembre de 2012. Se determinó el peso vivo de los rumiantes, además del peso de sus vísceras sanas e infectadas. Se estimó la pérdida económica por la incautación de vísceras. El análisis de los datos se realizó con el programa Excel Windows 2010 y el paquete estadístico MINITAB versión 17. Se utilizó la prueba de Chi-cuadrado para determinar diferencias entre proporciones y la prueba t de igualdad de medias, utilizando un nivel de confianza del 95%. Resultados. El porcentaje de infección por fascioliasis fue 79.6% (IC 95% = 77.7-81.6) en bovinos, 53.2% (IC 95% = 48.9-57.4) en ovejas y 21% (IC 95% = 16.1-25.8) en cabras. El porcentaje de infección por equinococosis quística fue 5,4% (IC 95% = 4.3-6.6) en bovinos, 16.7% (IC 95% = 13.5-19.7) en ovejas y 12.4% (IC 95% = 8.4-16.3) en cabras. La pérdida económica en la temporada de estudio fue de USD 16.507,46. Conclusiones. La presencia de duela hepática afecta el peso de los hígados en bovinos y ovinos. El quiste hidatídico afecta el peso del hígado en todos los rumiantes estudiados y afecta el peso de los pulmones en ovejas y cabras. La mayor pérdida económica se debió al comiso de hígados debido a la fascioliasis.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis , Fasciola hepatica , Ruminants , Viscera , Cattle , Sheep
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e026320, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288694

ABSTRACT

Abstract Despite the epidemiological importance of the Lymnaeidae family regarding transmission of Fasciola hepatica, knowledge about the diversity and distribution of these molluscs and the role of each species in the expansion of fasciolosis remains sparse. Classical morphological (n=10) identification was performed in lymneids from Lagoa Santa, a municipality in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, along with molecular and phylogenetic analysis (n=05) based on the partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI mtDNA) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer II (ITS-2 rDNA). The shell morphology made it possible to distinguish the lymneids of Lagoa Santa from Pseudosuccinea columella. Differences found in the penile complex and prostate shape allowed this species to be distinguished from Galba truncatula. However, the homogeneity of reproductive tract characteristics among Lymnaea (Galba) cubensis, L. viator and L. neotropica confirmed that these characteristics show low taxonomic reliability for identifying cryptic species. Genetic divergence analysis for the COI mtDNA gene and ITS-2 region of rDNA revealed greater similarity to Lymnaea (Galba) cubensis. Thus, correct species differentiation is important for monitoring the epidemiological risk of fasciolosis in the state of Minas Gerais, where cases of the disease have increased over recent years.


Resumo Apesar da importância epidemiológica da família Lymnaeidae na transmissão de Fasciola hepatica, o conhecimento sobre a diversidade e a distribuição desses moluscos e o papel de cada espécie, na expansão da fasciolose, ainda é escasso. Realizou-se a identificação morfológica clássica (n=10) em limneídeos de Lagoa Santa, município do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, juntamente com a análise molecular e filogenética (n=05), baseada nas sequências parciais de nucleotídeos do gene mitocondrial da subunidade I do citocromo c oxidase (COI mtDNA) e espaçador interno, transcrito do DNA ribossomal II (ITS-2 rDNA). A morfologia da concha possibilitou distinguir os limneídeos de Lagoa Santa de Pseudosuccinea columella. As diferenças encontradas no complexo peniano e na forma da próstata permitiram que essa espécie fosse distinta de Galba truncatula. No entanto, a homogeneidade das características do trato reprodutivo entre Lymnaea (Galba) cubensis, L. viator e L. neotropica confirmou que essas características apresentam baixa confiabilidade taxonômica para a identificação de espécies crípticas. A análise da divergência genética para o gene COI mtDNA e região ITS-2 do rDNA revelou maior similaridade entre os limneídeos de Lagoa Santa com Lymnaea (Galba) cubensis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fasciola hepatica/genetics , Phylogeny , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Lymnaea/genetics
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e000221, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251375

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sixty-two fecal samples of capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) living in eight conservation units (CUs) across the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, were assessed for the presence of eggs of liver flukes via sedimentation. Fasciola hepatica eggs were found in 37.1% (23/62) of the samples. Positive samples were found in six CUs (75%), three CUs located in the southern region of the state and three others in the metropolitan region of the capital city of Vitória. Identification of Fasciola hepatica eggs collected from capybara fecal samples were based on morphology, and confirmed using molecular methods. Our results suggest that capybaras may serve as a wild reservoir host for F. hepatica, possibly contributing to the epidemiology and geographic range expansion of this zoonotic parasite across its vast range of distribution in South America.


Resumo Sessenta e duas amostras fecais de capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), coletadas em oito unidades de conservação (UCs) no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, foram avaliadas quanto à presença de ovos de Fasciola hepatica por método de sedimentação. Ovos foram encontrados em 37,1% (23/62) das amostras, abrangendo seis UCs (75%), três UCs, localizadas na região sul do Estado, e outras três na região metropolitana da capital Vitória. A identificação dos ovos de F. hepatica coletados nas amostras fecais foi baseada na morfologia e confirmada por métodos moleculares. Os resultados sugerem que as capivaras podem servir como hospedeiros reservatórios selvagens para F. hepatica, possivelmente contribuindo para a epidemiologia e a expansão geográfica deste parasito zoonótico em sua vasta distribuição na América do Sul.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodent Diseases , Fasciola hepatica , Fascioliasis/diagnosis , Fascioliasis/veterinary , Fascioliasis/epidemiology , Rodentia , Brazil , Feces
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e025620, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251370

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fascioliasis is a freshwater snail-borne zoonotic disease. The Northern Bolivian Altiplano is a very high altitude endemic area where the highest human prevalences and intensities have been reported. Preventive chemotherapy by treatment campaigns is yearly applied. However, liver fluke infection of cattle, sheep, pigs and donkeys assures endemicity and consequent human infection and re-infection risks. A One Health action has therefore been implemented. Activity concerns lymnaeid vectors and environment diversity. Studies included growth, egg-laying and life span in laboratory-reared lymnaeids. Different habitat types and influencing factors were assessed. All populations proved to belong to Galba truncatula by rDNA sequencing. Analyses comprised physico-chemical characteristics and monthly follow-up of water temperature, pH and quantity, and lymnaeid abundance and density. Population dynamics in the transmission foci differed. Mean environmental temperature was lower than fluke development minimum temperature threshold, but water temperature was higher, except during winter. A two generations/year pattern appeared in permanent water habitats, and one generation/year pattern in habitats drying out for months. The multidisciplinary control measures can be extended from one part of the endemic area to another. These studies, made for the first time at very high altitude, constitute a baseline useful for fascioliasis control in other countries.


Resumo A fasciolíase é uma doença zoonótica transmitida para os humanos por formas evolucionárias de Fasciola hepatica oriundas de limneídeos infectados. O Altiplano Boliviano Norte é uma área endêmica de altitude muito alta, onde foram relatadas as maiores prevalências e intensidades em infecções humanas. A quimioterapia preventiva por campanhas de tratamento é aplicada anualmente. No entanto, infecção por Fasciola hepatica em bovinos, ovelhas, suínos e asininos garante endemicidade e consequentes riscos de infecção e reinfecção humana. Portanto, ações norteadas no conceito "One Health" foram implementadas. As atividades envolveram os limneídeos e a avaliação da diversidade de ambientes. Os estudos incluíram o crescimento, postura de ovos e expectativa de vida de limneídeos criados em laboratório, bem como a avaliação da influência dos diferentes hábitats. Todas as populações foram identificadas como Galba truncatula por meio do sequenciamento de rDNA. As análises incluíram características físico-químicas e acompanhamento mensal da temperatura, pH, quantidade da água, abundância e densidade de limneídeos. A dinâmica populacional nos focos de transmissão diferiu. A temperatura ambiente média foi mais baixa do que o limite mínimo de temperatura do desenvolvimento do helminto, mas a temperatura da água foi mais alta, exceto durante o inverno. Um padrão de duas gerações/ano apareceu em hábitats com água permanente, enquanto um padrão de uma geração/ano foi observado em habitats que ficam secos durante meses. Os resultados permitem concluir que as medidas multidisciplinares de controle podem ser estendidas de uma parte da área endêmica para outra. Esses estudos, realizados pela primeira vez em altitudes muito elevadas, constituem uma base útil e extrapolável para o controle da fasciolíase.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep Diseases , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Fasciola hepatica , Fascioliasis/veterinary , Fascioliasis/epidemiology , One Health , Swine , Swine Diseases , Biology , Bolivia , Cattle , Sheep , Population Dynamics
6.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 67(3): 205-218, sep.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251916

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Este estudio se llevó a cabo para establecer la prevalencia e identificar los factores de riesgo asociados con las infestaciones por trematodos en ganado lechero Holstein en el valle de Paipa, Boyacá. Las muestras fecales recogidas de 100 bovinos seleccionados aleatoriamente se examinaron utilizando una técnica de sedimentación simple para el recuento diferencial de huevos de trematodos. Se buscaron huevos de tres grupos de trematodos: Fasciola hepatica, Paramphistomum spp., y Cotylophorum spp. La prevalencia específica de trematodos para cada grupo fue del 12, 9 y 4%, respectivamente. Se observó una superposición sustancial en el recuento de F. hepatica y Paramphistomum spp. La prevalencia de los tres trematodos identificados en este estudio se asoció significativamente (P < 0,05) con la condición corporal y la raza, mientras que la prevalencia de Fasciola hepatica y Paramphistomum spp., se asoció con la edad. La prevalencia de los tres principales trematodos de importancia para la salud animal con una alta tasa de infestación mixta junto con una mala condición corporal, sugiere una pérdida económica sustancial incurrida debido a la reducción de la productividad del ganado en el área de estudio.


ABSTRACT This study was carried out to establish the prevalence and identify the risk factors associated with trematode infestations in Holstein dairy cattle in the Paipa-Boyacá valley. Fecal samples collected from 100 randomly selected cattle were examined using a simple sedimentation technique for differential trematode egg count. Eggs were sought from three groups of trematodes: Fasciola hepatica, Paramphistomum spp., and Cotylophorum spp. The specific prevalence was 12, 9 and 4%, respectively. Substantial overlap was observed in the count of F. hepatica and Paramphistomum spp. The prevalence of the three flukes identified in this study was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with body condition and race, while the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomum spp., was associated with age. The prevalence of the three main trematodes of importance for animal health with a high rate of mixed infestation together with a poor body condition, suggests a substantial economic loss incurred due to the reduction of livestock productivity in the study area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Paramphistomatidae , Trematoda , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Livestock , Veterinary Medicine , Infections
7.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(1): 10-15, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279649

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar las pérdidas económicas producidas por el decomiso de hígados afectados y la prevalencia de Fasciola hepatica en bovinos sacrificados en las provincias de Holguín y Camagüey, Cuba. Materiales y m étodos. Fueron utilizados los resultados del diagnóstico anatomopatológico realizado en los mataderos Felipe Fuentes y César Escalante durante el periodo comprendido entre enero de 2012 y diciembre de 2018. A partir de la cantidad de animales sacrificados y los afectados se calcularon las pérdidas que alcanzaron un valor de $80.312 USD (Holguín) y $32.7152 USD (Camagüey) para todo el período. Se realizaron análisis de comparación de proporciones para los animales afectados por F. hepatica y las pérdidas económicas por decomiso de hígados, mediante una prueba Chi-cuadrado para determinar la existencia o no de diferencias significativas entre las proporciones y un análisis de medias (ANOM) para determinar cuáles proporciones son significativamente distintas del promedio general. Resultados. Se observó que en 11 meses los animales afectados difirieron significativamente (p<0.001) entre los mataderos excepto en el mes de julio, mientras que las pérdidas totales por decomisos de hígados afectados mostraron diferencias significativas (p<0.001) en todos los meses para el periodo evaluado. Conclusiones. Los mayores valores para las pérdidas económicas y prevalencia por el decomiso de hígados afectados por F. hepatica se presentaron en la provincia de Camagüey lo que pudiera estar relacionado con las condiciones climáticas diferentes, por lo que se recomienda evaluar la dinámica de los hospederos intermedios y las etapas larvarias de este trematodo en las dos provincias estudiadas.


ABSTRACT Objective. To determine the economic losses resulting from condemnation of affected livers and the presence of Fasciola hepatica in slaughtered cattle in the provinces of Camagüey and Holguín, Cuba. Materials and Methods. This study was based on the results from an anatomo-pathological examination performed at Felipe Fuentes and César Escalante slaughterhouses between January 2012 and December 2018. The losses, which totaled $ 80 312 USD (Holguín) and $ 327 152 USD (Camagüey), were estimated from the number of slaughtered and affected animals throughout the period. Analyses for the comparisons of proportions were made to animals affected by F.hepatica, whereas the economic losses due to liver condemnation were analyzed by Chi-square to determine the existence of significant differences among the proportions. Analysis of means (ANOM) was made to determine the significantly different proportions within the general average. Results. Significant differences (p<0.001) were observed in animals from different slaughterhouses in 11 months, excluding July. Meanwhile, the total losses due to condemnation of affected livers underwent significant differences (p<0.001) in all the months of the evaluation period. Conclusions. The highest values of economic losses and prevalence due to condemnation of livers affected by F.hepatica were observed in the province of Camagüey, which may have been linked to varying climatic conditions. Hence, evaluation of intermediary host dynamics and the larval stages of the trematode in the two provinces studied were recommended.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Trematoda , Fasciola hepatica
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e008520, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138097

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fascioliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease that affects a range of animals, including humans caused by Fasciola hepatica. The present study aimed to determine the spatial distribution of bovine fasciolosis and to assess the correlation between the high Positivity Index (PI) and climate data and land altitude, from 2004 to 2008 and 2010 in Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil. Condemned livers of slaughtered animals were obtained from 198 out of 293 municipalities and from 518.635 animals, exclusively from SC. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) between the prevalence of F. hepatica and land altitude ( ρ ^ s = -0.43). The highest PI (above 10.1%) was observed in cities at 500 to 600 m (P < 0.01; ρ ^ s = -0.47) of altitude. There was no correlation between fascioliasis and rainfall in SC. It was determined that weather conditions in the past decade did not impose any limitation to the occurrence of the parasite, making it a disease of permanent clinical importance. These findings are essential to regions with similar geographical and climate conditions (i.e. altitude), when considering long-term control measurements, where animals and humans can be infected.


Resumo A fasciolose é uma doença parasitária que afeta uma gama de animais, incluindo humanos, causada por Fasciola hepatica no Brasil. Este estudo teve o objetivo de determinar a distribuição espacial da fasciolose e conferir a correlação do alto índice de positividade (PI), com os dados de clima e altitude, entre 2004 a 2008 e 2010 em Santa Catarina (SC), Brasil. Foram obtidos fígados em frigoríficos de SC, de 518.635 animais de 198 municípios, de um total de 293. Houve diferença estatística significativa (P < 0,001) entre a prevalência de F. hepatica e a altitude ( ρ ^ s = -0,43). O maior PI (acima de 10,1%) foi observado em municípios de 500 a 600 m (P < 0,01; ρ ^ s = -0,47) de altitude. Não foi observada correlação entre fígados parasitados e pluviosidade em SC. Foi observado que os dados climáticos na ultima década não apresentaram limitação para a ocorrência do parasito, fazendo com que o desafio clinico da infecção tenha sido permanente. Os dados são importantes para locais com condições geográficas e climáticas semelhantes (ex. altitude), para considerar medidas de controle a longo prazo, nas quais animais e humanos poderão ser infectados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Climate , Altitude , Fascioliasis/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle , Risk Factors , Fasciola hepatica , Fascioliasis/parasitology , Fascioliasis/epidemiology
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e019019, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138072

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this research was to assess the copro-prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in owned Chilean breed horses (Equus caballus) residing in the province of Concepción, Chile. The study was carried out throughout October 2017. Samples were taken from all (100%) Chilean breed horse (124 specimens; 45 females and 79 males, aged between 7 months and 24 years old) from the Concepción province. A rectal stool sample was obtained from each animal. This was analyzed using the Army Medical School method (AMS III) technique to detect F. hepatica eggs. Information about the horse's age, sex, previous fasciolicide application, and an assessment of body condition was also obtained. Fisher tests were carried out to analyze the results. Ten horses (8.06%) were positive for the presence of F. hepatica eggs. No significant difference of copro-prevalence was found between age (young 8.47%, old 7.69%), sex (female 11.1%, male 6.33%), the previous application of fasciolicide (dewormed 10%, not dewormed 7.89%), or body condition (low condition 11.1%, high condition 0.7%) categories (Fisher tests: P>0.05 in all cases). The results of this study suggest that Chilean breed horses constitute part of the reservoir of F. hepatica for both ruminant populations and humans in the Concepción province.


Resumo O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a coproprevalência de Fasciola hepatica em equinos chilenos (Equus caballus), residentes na província de Concepción, região de Bío-Bío, Chile. O estudo foi realizado durante o mês de outubro de 2017. Foram coletadas amostras de todos os equinos estabulados (124 espécimes; 45 fêmeas e 79 machos, com idades entre 7 meses e 24 anos) da província de Concepción. Uma amostra de fezes transretal foi obtida de cada animal, analisada no Laboratório "Dr. Luis Rubilar", da Universidad de Concepción, usando-se a técnica AMS III, para detectar a presença de ovos de F. hepatica. O diagnóstico fecal foi complementado com informações sobre a idade do animal, sexo, aplicação prévia de fasciolicida e uma avaliação da condição corporal. Testes de Fisher foram realizados para analisar os resultados. Dos 124 equinos, 10 (8,06%) foram positivos para ovos de F. hepatica. Não foi encontrada associação significativa entre idade, sexo, aplicação prévia de fasciolicida ou condição corporal com a presença de ovos. Um cavalo tratado com triclabendazol foi positivo para ovos de F. hepatica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Fasciola hepatica/physiology , Fascioliasis/veterinary , Fascioliasis/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Horse Diseases/parasitology , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Horses
10.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 71(2): e382, mayo.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093566

ABSTRACT

El diagnóstico de fasciolosis humana, enfermedad zoonótica causada por el parásito Fasciola hepatica reúne los resultados de las técnicas: concentración por sedimentación (copa-cónica), FasciDIG en heces y FasciDIG en suero, además de los criterios clínico-epidemiológicos. FasciDIG constituye un ensayo inmunoenzimático que detecta antígenos de excreción-secreción de F. hepatica a partir de muestra de suero y heces. Permite diagnosticar la infección en cada una de las formas clínicas de la enfermedad y presenta una sensibilidad diagnóstica superior a las técnicas convencionales que detectan huevos del parásito (copa-cónica), por lo que se consideró oportuno abordar algunos conceptos relacionados con esta técnica inmunodiagnóstica y analizar su aplicabilidad para el diagnóstico oportuno y eficaz de esta parasitosis(AU)


Diagnosis of human fasciolosis, a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Fasciola hepatica, combines the results of the following techniques: conical cup, feces FasciDIG and serum FasciDIG, as well as clinical-epidemiological criteria. FasciDIG is an enzyme immunoassay that detects F. hepatica excretion / secretion antigens in serum and feces samples. It makes it possible to diagnose infection at each of the clinical stages of the disease with a higher diagnostic sensitivity than conical cup. Therefore, it was considered appropriate to address a number of concepts regarding this immunodiagnostic technique and analyze its applicability in the timely and effective diagnosis of this helminth infection(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Fasciola hepatica/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Communication
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 145-150, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042492

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fasciola hepatica is a parasite introduced in America from Europe, being considered of concern for public health and animal production, especially in countries with endemic areas as occur in Chile. In this country, the research has been focused mainly in domestic ruminants, with native and introduced wildlife being largely ignored. Thus, the aim of this study was to report the infection by Fasciola hepatica in an introduced mammal, the European hare, which is distributed along a vast area of the country. One in 42 hares hunted showed histological lesions compatible with F. hepatica, and harbored a parasitic load of 6 liver flukes. This is the first report of this lagomorph acting as host of this helminth in the country and the third in South America. Yet, we found no previous reports regard the pathology of this fluke in the species. Thus, we emphasize the importance of more studies regarding introduced mammals which could be acting as reservoirs for this important fluke.


Resumo Fasciola hepatica é um parasita de origem europeia introduzido na América, de importância em saúde pública e animais de produção, especialmente em países com áreas endêmicas, como ocorre no Chile. Neste país, a pesquisa foi focada principalmente em ruminantes domésticos, com a fauna nativa e introduzida sendo amplamente ignorada. O objetivo desse trabalho é relatar a infecção por Fasciola hepatica em lebre europeia, espécie distribuída em vasta extensão do país. Uma em 42 lebres caçadas, mostrou lesões histológicas compatíveis com infestação por F. hepatica, alojando 6 vermes hepáticos. Este é o primeiro relato deste lagomorfo apresentando este tipo de parasitismo no Chile, o terceiro na América do Sul. No entanto, não encontramos relatos anteriores sobre a patologia deste acaso na espécie. Este relato salienta a importância de mais estudos considerando espécies introduzidas, as quais podem ser reservatórios desse importante parasita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hares/parasitology , Fasciola hepatica , Fascioliasis/veterinary , Argentina , Chile , Fascioliasis/pathology , Animals, Wild
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 33-39, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990808

ABSTRACT

Abstract Currently, albendazole is one of the most commonly used drugs because of its affordability. The objective was to evaluate the histopathology of Fasciola hepatica specimens. For this, the efficacy test was performed on sheep treated with albendazole at the dose recommended for F. hepatica, in which the helminths recovered at necropsy were counted and separated for histology. Spermatogenic cells from parasites recovered from treated and control sheep were examined by microscopy. The fecal egg-count reduction test revealed 97.06% efficacy of albendazole in the treatment of F. hepatica. Changes in testicular tubule cells started 48 hours after treatment and became evident within 72 hours, at which point it became difficult to identify cell types. Primary and secondary spermatogonia became increasingly rare and intercellular vacuolization was more evident. Signs of apoptosis, with pycnotic nuclei and evidence of keriorrexia were observed at all times. Cell debris was identified 96 hours after treatment. The results indicated that parasitic spermatogenesis was severely affected by albendazole and demonstrated the importance of the use of histopathology for the diagnosis of therapeutic efficacy in field strains.


Resumo Na atualidade, o albendazol é uma das drogas mais usadas devido à sua acessibilidade econômica. O objetivo foi avaliar a histopatologia dos espécimes de Fasciola hepatica. Para isso, foi realizado o teste de eficácia em ovinos tratados com albendazol na dose recomendada para Fasciola hepatica, no qual os helmintos recuperados em necropsia foram contabilizados e separados para histologia. As células espermatogênicas de parasitas recuperados de ovinos tratados e controle foram examinadas por microscopia. O teste de redução de ovos por grama de fezes revelou 97,06% de eficácia do albendazol no tratamento de F. hepatica. As alterações nas células dos túbulos testiculares iniciaram-se 48 horas após o tratamento e tornaram-se evidentes em 72 horas, altura em que tornou-se difícil identificar os tipos de células. As espermatogônias primárias e secundárias tornaram-se cada vez mais raras e a vacuolização intercelular foi mais evidente. Sinais de apoptose, com núcleos picnóticos e evidência de cariorrexia foram observados em todos os momentos. Os detritos celulares foram identificados 96 horas após o tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a espermatogênese parasitária foi severamente afetada pelo albendazol e demonstrou a importância do uso da histopatologia para o diagnóstico de eficácia terapêutica em cepas de campo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Sheep/parasitology , Albendazole/administration & dosage , Fasciola hepatica/drug effects , Fascioliasis/veterinary , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Parasite Egg Count , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Fascioliasis/parasitology , Fascioliasis/drug therapy , Feces/parasitology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761761

ABSTRACT

Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke that promotes hepatic inflammatory environments via direct contact or through their excretory-secretory products (ESPs), subsequently leading to cholangitis, periductal fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and even cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This study was conducted to examine the host inflammatory responses to C. sinensis ESPs and their putative protein components selected from C. sinensis expressed sequenced tag (EST) pool databases, including TGF-β receptor interacting protein 1(CsTRIP1), legumain (CsLeg), and growth factor binding protein 2 (CsGrb2). Treatment of CCA cells (HuCCT1) with the ESPs or bacterial recombinant C. sinensis proteins differentially promoted the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β1, and TGF-β2) in a time-dependent manner. In particular, recombinant C. sinensis protein treatment resulted in increase (at maximum) of ~7-fold in TGF-β1, ~30-fold in TGF-β2, and ~3-fold in TNF-α compared with the increase produced by ESPs, indicating that CsTrip1, CsLeg, and CsGrb2 function as strong inducers for secretion of these cytokines in host cells. These results suggest that C. sinensis ESPs contribute to the immunopathological response in host cells, leading to clonorchiasis-associated hepatobiliary abnormalities of greater severity.


Subject(s)
Carrier Proteins , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cholangitis , Clonorchis sinensis , Cytokines , Fasciola hepatica , Fibrosis , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Liver Cirrhosis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761738

ABSTRACT

A clonorchiasis case in a captive leopard cat, Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, was confirmed by ultrasonographic findings and egg morphologies found in the bile juice sample in the Korea. The leopard cat was introduced from the wild habitat of Gyeongsangnam-do, to Cheongju Zoo in Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea in August 2014. Physical examinations were basically performed for quarantine and check-up health. The cat was comparatively good in health except anorexia. The cyst-like bile duct dilation and the increased echogenicity of gall bladder wall and hepatic parenchyma were observed by ultrasonography. Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy was conducted for collecting bile juice and the specimens were observed under light microscope. The numerous small trematode eggs were detected in the bile juice sample of the light microscopy. The eggs were 25–33 (28±3) μm by 18–22 (20±1) μm in size and showed typical characteristics of Clonorchis sinensis egg, i.e., a dominantly developed operculum, shoulder rim and dust-like wrinkles in surface. To treat the liver fluke infection, 20 mg/kg of praziquantel was orally administered only once to the case. Follow-up studies including fecal examinations were conducted during 2 years after treatment. But no more eggs were detected from the case. In the present study, we described the first clonorchiasis case of leopard cat, which was confirmed by ultrasonographic findings and egg morphologies from the bile juice sample in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anorexia , Bile , Bile Ducts , Biopsy, Needle , Cats , Clonorchiasis , Clonorchis sinensis , Ecosystem , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Microscopy , Ovum , Panthera , Physical Examination , Praziquantel , Quarantine , Republic of Korea , Shoulder , Ultrasonography , Urinary Bladder
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742305

ABSTRACT

Contaminated liver fluke egg in the environment has led to the high prevalence of human opisthorchiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma in Southeast Asia. To find the effective lessening methods of Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in the contaminated environment, we investigated the temperature conditions for killing of these trematode eggs in vitro. Numerous O. viverrini eggs were obtained in the proximal part of uteri of adult worms from experimental hamsters. Mature eggs with miracidium were allocated by experimental groups (2 control: positive and negative and 4 treatment: 50, 60, 70, and 80°C) with 0.85% saline, and treated by the experimental plan. Eggs in each experimental groups were observed under the confocal microscope after stain with Propidium Iodide (PI) to evaluate the effect of temperatures. Eggs in 70 and 80°C groups were all killed after over 10 min heated. Majority of eggs in 60°C (10, 15, and 30 min heated), 70 and 80°C (5 min heated) groups were inactivated. However in 50°C group, below half of eggs were to be killed in all time lapse (10, 15 and 30 min). In order to prevent O. viverrini infection and cholangiocarcinoma, direct treatment of sewage by heating at 70 or 80°C at least 10 min is essential. Therefore, treatment of O. viverrini eggs at a high temperature is a potential method for controlling egg contamination in sewage.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Asia, Southeastern , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cricetinae , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Heating , Homicide , Hot Temperature , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Opisthorchiasis , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Prevalence , Propidium , Sewage , Uterus
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786648

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to determine the species of parasites that affected the inhabitants of the city of Acre on the coast of the eastern Mediterranean during the Ottoman Period. This is the first archaeological study of parasites in the Ottoman Empire. We analysed sediment from a latrine dating to the early 1800s for the presence of helminth eggs and protozoan parasites which caused dysentery. The samples were examined using light microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. We found evidence for roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), fish tapeworm (Dibothriocephalus sp.), Taenia tapeworm (Taenia sp.), lancet liver fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum), and the protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica. The parasite taxa recovered demonstrate the breadth of species present in this coastal city. We consider the effect of Ottoman Period diet, culture, trade and sanitation upon risk of parasitism in this community living 200 years ago.


Subject(s)
Cestoda , Diet , Dysentery , Eggs , Entamoeba histolytica , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fasciola hepatica , Giardia lamblia , Helminths , Microscopy , Ottoman Empire , Ovum , Parasites , Sanitation , Taenia , Toilet Facilities
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786644

ABSTRACT

As we learn more about parasites in ancient civilizations, data becomes available that can be used to see how infection may change over time. The aim of this study is to assess how common certain intestinal parasites were in China and Korea in the past 2000 years, and make comparisons with prevalence data from the 20th century. This allows us to go on to investigate how and why changes in parasite prevalence may have occurred at different times. Here we show that Chinese liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis) dropped markedly in prevalence in both Korea and China earlier than did roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and whipworm (Trichuris trichiura). We use historical evidence to determine why this was the case, exploring the role of developing sanitation infrastructure, changing use of human feces as crop fertilizer, development of chemical fertilizers, snail control programs, changing dietary preferences, and governmental public health campaigns during the 20th century.


Subject(s)
Ascaris , Asians , China , Civilization , Fasciola hepatica , Feces , Fertilizers , Humans , Korea , Mummies , Parasites , Prevalence , Public Health , Sanitation , Snails , Trichuris
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190070, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013308

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fascioliasis is a food-borne anthropozoonotic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica that affects multiple hosts, including humans. We herein report the first case of human fascioliasis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. A 57-year-old female patient complaining of abdominal pain was admitted to the hospital for a clinical investigation. The diagnosis of F. hepatica was confirmed by ultrasound and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Authorities of the Northern coast of Santa Catarina were notified to investigate other cases and risk factors for contamination. The disease is also prevalent in cattle, which could pose as a potential route for infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Fasciola hepatica/immunology , Fascioliasis/diagnosis , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ultrasonography , Sensitivity and Specificity , Middle Aged
19.
Rev. patol. trop ; 47(2): 75-86, jun. 2018. tab, mapa
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-913767

ABSTRACT

Fascioliasis is an important anthropozoonotic disease caused by the ubiquitous trematode helminth, Fasciola spp. Here, as elsewhere, it is thought that the disease lacks proper reporting, and the available literature does not reflect unreported cases found in the Brazilian population, or new recently reported cases. The purpose of this work was to perform a recount of human fascioliasis (HF) cases in Brazil. For this, we considered all positive cases published in local and international official Journals, from 1950 to 2016. A theoretical-conceptual research method based on a systematic bibliographic review was applied to identify, select and index articles using the Endnote Basic Software. Here, only 48 cases of HF were found, of which 21 (43.7%) occurred in the South of the country. The small number of reported cases reflects the difficulty in diagnosing HF correctly (clinical and fecal tests). This work provides a real figure of HF reported cases in Brazil and has also corrected inaccurate information found in the literature by conducting a historical survey of the disease. Fasciola hepatica is highly endemic in ruminants and, hypothetically, the number of human cases should also be considerably higher than that reported in the literature. These findings call for more attention in regard to this neglected disease in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Trematode Infections , Fasciola hepatica , Fascioliasis , Helminths
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 231-233, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041452

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The etiology of several hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases remains largely unknown. Although Fasciola hepatica has been associated with liver fibrosis in Latin America, it has not yet been associated with HCC. This study aimed to determine the existence of specific IgG antibodies against F. hepatica in the serum samples of HCC patients. METHODS In total, 13 serum samples from 13 HCC patients were screened using Fas2-ELISA. RESULTS Fas2-ELISA demonstrated negative results in all HCC patients included in this study. CONCLUSIONS The pre-existence of F. hepatica infection in HCC patients needs to be further investigated in epidemiological and experimental studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/parasitology , Fasciola hepatica/immunology , Fascioliasis/complications , Liver Neoplasms/parasitology , Peru , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Risk Factors , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/blood , Fascioliasis/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/blood , Middle Aged
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