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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e23542, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533991


Abstract The goal of this work is to identify new fatty acid-mimetic 99mTc-complexes to be used as myocardial imaging agents that allow studying heart abnormalities in high-risk patients. In this sense, we designed a fatty acid-mimetic substructure including an amide moiety that, among other properties, could improve myocardial residence time. A diamide with a chain length of 15 atoms and porting a 6-hydrazinonicotinyl (HYNIC) chelator, and an analog with a short carbon-chain, were prepared with convergent organic synthetic procedures and radiolabeled with 99mTc using tricine as the sole coligand. The in vivo proofs of concept were performed using healthy mice. The new 99mTc-complexes were obtained with adequate radiochemical purity. The lipophilicities were in agreement with the length of the chains. While both 99mTc-complexes showed uptake in the myocardial muscle, the designed radiopharmaceutical with the longest chain length had preferential target-uptake and target-retention compared to other complexes described in the bibliography. Further studies, involving imaging assays, synthetic modifications, and assay of new coligands for 99mTc-HYNIC complexes, are currently ongoing.

Animals , Female , Mice , Radiopharmaceuticals/adverse effects , Fatty Acids/agonists , Amides/adverse effects , Heart Defects, Congenital/classification
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254252, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355876


Abstract Indian major carps are the widely consumed fish species of Pakistan, being a cheap source of proteins and unsaturated fatty acids, they are good for cardiovascular health. Water pollution due to discharge of untreated industrial waste water into water bodies contaminates this precious source of nutrients. The present study therefore, was aimed to assess deterioration of fatty acid profile of three Indian major carp species due to different concentrations of industrial wastes. The water samples were collected from the river Chenab at the site where it receives industrial wastewater via Chakbandi drain. After exposure to 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% dilutions of collected water in different aquaria it was observed that proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in selected fish species were decreased significantly as the intensity of the dose increased (P < 0.05). Conversely the level of saturated fatty acids increased with the increasing dose of treatment (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that untreated wastewater not only deteriorate the fatty acid profile of aquatic animals but also these toxic substances can reach human body through fish meat and pose further health hazards. Therefore, it is highly recommended that industrial effluents should be treated before they are dumped into water bodies.

Resumo As carpas indianas são as espécies de peixes mais consumidas no Paquistão, sendo uma fonte barata de proteínas e de ácidos graxos insaturados e boa para a saúde cardiovascular. A poluição da água por causa do descarte de resíduos industriais não tratados em corpos d'água contamina essa preciosa fonte de nutrientes. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a deterioração do perfil de ácidos graxos de três principais espécies de carpas indianas em diferentes concentrações de resíduos industriais. As amostras de água foram coletadas do rio Chenab no local onde recebe esgoto industrial via dreno de Chakbandi. Após a exposição a diluições de 1,5%, 3% e 4,5% da água coletada em diferentes aquários, foi observado que a proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados em espécies de peixes selecionadas diminuiu significativamente com o aumento da intensidade da dose (P < 0,05). Por outro lado, o nível de ácidos graxos saturados aumentou com a elevação da dose de tratamento (P < 0,05). Essas descobertas sugerem que águas residuais não tratadas não apenas deterioram o perfil de ácidos graxos dos animais aquáticos, mas também essas substâncias tóxicas podem atingir o corpo humano por meio da carne de peixe e representar mais riscos à saúde. Portanto, é recomendável que os efluentes industriais sejam tratados antes de serem despejados em corpos d'água.

Humans , Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Carps , Textile Industry , Rivers , Fatty Acids
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258276, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360199


Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) has attracted the attention of many researchers, especially that of microbial origin due to its biological importance to the consumer. The current study aims to extract LA Isomerase enzyme from Lactobacillus paracasei bacteria from milk and to use the enzyme in the production of CLA. Selective media, including MRS and MRS-Dagatose, were used in isolating local strains. The selected bacterial isolates were tested for their ability to produce LA-Isomerase enzyme. The isolate with high enzymatic activity was selected. After extraction and partial purification of the enzyme, the optimal conditions for the production of conjugated fatty acid were studied, and the reaction products were diagnosed using GC-MS technology. It was found that 11 isolates have the ability to produce CLA at different concentrations, H1 isolate showed the highest production of conjugated fatty acid at a concentration of 120.45, this isolate was selected as the source for enzyme extraction. The enzymatic activity of the crude extract and partially purified with ammonium sulfate was estimated using color methods at wavelength of 233 nm. The effect of the optimum conditions (pH, temperature, linoleic acid concentration and enzyme concentration) on the CLA product was studied using the partially purified LA Isomerase enzyme, the optimum conditions for production were 6.5, 45 °C, 100 µ and 0.7 ml, respectively. The GC-MS technique showed the presence of a number of reaction products that are isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (C9T11, T9T12, T10C12) with different concentrations.

O Ácido Linoleico Conjugado (CLA) tem chamado a atenção de diversos pesquisadores, principalmente aquele de origem microbiana, devido à sua importância biológica para o consumidor. O presente estudo visa extrair a enzima LA Isomerase da bactéria Lactobacillus paracasei do leite e usar essa enzima na produção de CLA. Meios seletivos, incluindo MRS e MRS-Dagatose, foram usados no isolamento de cepas locais. Os isolados bacterianos selecionados foram testados quanto à sua capacidade de produzir a enzima LA-Isomerase. Foi selecionado o isolado com alta atividade enzimática. Após a extração e purificação parcial da enzima, as condições ideais para a produção de ácido graxo conjugado foram estudadas e os produtos da reação foram identificados usando a tecnologia GC-MS. Verificou-se que 11 isolados possuem capacidade de produzir CLA em diferentes concentrações. O isolado H1 apresentou a maior produção de ácido graxo conjugado, na concentração de 120,45, e este isolado foi selecionado como fonte para extração enzimática. A atividade enzimática do extrato bruto e parcialmente purificado com sulfato de amônio foi estimada por métodos de coloração em comprimento de onda de 233 nm. O efeito das condições ótimas (pH, temperatura, concentração de ácido linoleico e concentração de enzima) no produto CLA foi estudado usando a enzima LA Isomerase parcialmente purificada e as condições ótimas para produção foram 6,5, 45 °C, 100 µ e 0,7 mL, respectivamente. A técnica de GC-MS mostrou a presença de uma série de produtos de reação que são isômeros do ácido linoleico conjugado (C9T11, T9T12, T10C12) com diferentes concentrações.

Linoleic Acid , Milk , Fatty Acids , Lacticaseibacillus paracasei
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(3): 127-133, Mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449712


Abstract Objective: To assess the maternal blood levels of fatty acids (FAs) in pregnancies with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included pregnant women with gestational age between 26 and 37 + 6 weeks with FGR and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses. The levels of saturated, trans, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated FAs were measured using centrifugation and liquid chromatography. The Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney test, and general linear model, with gestational age and maternal weight as covariants, were used to compare FA levels and the FGR and AGA groups. The Chi-square was used to evaluate the association between groups and studied variables. Results: Maternal blood sample was collected from 64 pregnant women, being 24 FGR and 40 AGA. A weak positive correlation was found between the palmitoleic acid level and maternal weight (r = 0.285, p = 0.036). A weak negative correlation was found between the gamma-linoleic acid level and gestational age (r = −0.277, p = 0.026). The median of the elaidic acid level (2.3 vs. 4.7ng/ml, p = 0.045) and gamma-linoleic acid (6.3 vs. 6.6ng/ml, p = 0.024) was significantly lower in the FGR than the AGA group. The palmitoleic acid level was significantly higher in the FGR than AGA group (50.5 vs. 47.6ng/ml, p = 0.033). Conclusion: Pregnant women with FGR had lower elaidic acid and gamma-linoleic acid levels and higher palmitoleic acid levels than AGA fetuses.

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis sanguíneos maternos de ácidos graxos (AGs) em gestações com restrição de crescimento fetal (RCF). Métodos: Este estudo prospectivo transversal incluiu gestantes com idade gestacional entre 26 e 37 semanas e 6 dias com RCF e fetos adequados para a idade gestacional (AIG). Os níveis de ácidos graxos saturados, trans, monoinsaturados e poliinsaturados foram medidos usando centrifugação e cromatografia líquida. O teste t-Student, o teste de Mann-Whitney e o modelo linear geral, com idade gestacional e peso materno como covariantes, foram utilizados para comparar os níveis de AGs e os grupos RCF e AIG. O teste Qui-quadrado foi utilizado para avaliar a associação entre os grupos e as variáveis estudadas. Resultados: Amostra de sangue materno foi coletada de 64 gestantes, sendo 24 RCF e 40 AIG. Uma correlação positiva fraca foi encontrada entre o nível de ácido palmitoleico e o peso materno (r = 0,285, p = 0,036). Uma correlação negativa fraca foi encontrada entre o nível de ácido gama-linoleico ea idade gestacional (r = −0,277, p = 0,026). A mediana do nível de ácido elaídico (2,3 vs. 4,7 ng/ml, p = 0,045) e ácido gama-linoleico (6,3 vs. 6,6 ng/ml, p = 0,024) foram significativamente menores no grupo RCF do que no grupo AIG. O nível de ácido palmitoleico foi significativamente maior no grupo RCF do que no grupo AIG (50,5 vs. 47,6 ng/ml, p = 0,033). Conclusão: Gestantes com RCF apresentaram níveis mais baixos de ácido elaídico e ácido gama-linoleico e níveis mais elevados de ácido palmitoleico do que os fetos AIG.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Fatty Acids , Fetal Growth Retardation
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 180 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437402


Diversas evidências científicas demonstram que o consumo de ácidos graxos trans está associado com mortes por doenças cardiovasculares. A OMS, em 2018, considerando a presença de ácidos graxos trans nos alimentos recomendou a sua total eliminação até o ano de 2023. Sendo assim, no Brasil, em 2019, a RDC 332 aborda que a partir de 01 de janeiro de 2023 estarão proibidas a produção e a importação de ácidos graxos trans em alimentos destinados ao consumo humano. Atualmente, a legislação que está em vigor sobre ácidos graxos trans é a RDC 54, da ANVISA, que estabelece que, somente os alimentos que apresentarem teores de ácidos graxos trans ≤ 0,1 g por porção e somatória de ácidos graxos saturados e ácidos graxos trans até 1,5 g por porção podem alegar zero trans na rotulagem nutricional. As bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers são importantes representantes de alimentos ultraprocessados, sendo muito consumidas por adultos e principalmente por crianças pelo seu baixo custo e acessibilidade. A partir destas considerações, o objetivo desse estudo foi o de avaliar os teores de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados por cromatografia gasosa em bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers, comercializadas no Estado de São Paulo, analisando os teores dos ácidos graxos e comparando com a RDC 54. Em 2018 e 2019, foram analisadas 65 bolachas recheadas, e 40 bolachas wafers, as bolachas foram divididas entre as que possuíam ácidos graxos trans nos rótulos, e as que possuíam a ausência dessa gordura. Os teores de ácidos graxos trans encontrados nas bolachas com a presença de ácidos graxos trans na rotulagem, variaram de 0,34 a 5,21 g por 100 g e 0,19 e 8,54 g por 100 g nas bolachas recheadas e nas bolachas wafers, respectivamente. Diante disso, constatou-se que algumas marcas de bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers apresentaram grandes quantidades de gordura trans em sua composição. Em relação às bolachas recheadas e wafers com a ausência de gordura trans nos rótulos, todas as bolachas estavam em acordo com a legislação vigente em relação aos valores menores ou iguais a 0,1 g de gordura trans por porção, porém, em relação à somatória de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados de até 1,5 g por porção, todas estavam com valores superiores, dessa maneira, os fabricantes dessas bolachas não poderiam alegar zero trans na rotulagem nutricional, e por isto, estavam em desacordo com a legislação vigente. Em 2022, foram reanalisadas seis amostras de bolachas recheadas e quatro amostras de bolachas wafers, que em 2018 apresentaram altos teores de ácidos graxos trans. Também foram analisadas três bolachas wafers que em 2022 ainda apresentavam altos teores de gorduras trans nos rótulos. Os resultados dessas amostras demonstraram que em 2022 ainda há em supermercados brasileiros, bolachas com altos teores de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados em sua composição. Diante disso, ratifica-se a necessidade do cumprimento da legislação vigente e da RDC 332 em 2023 e de fiscalizações mais frequentes pelos órgãos competentes, devido aos malefícios do consumo dos ácidos graxos trans para a saúde da população

There is a lot of scientific evidence showing that consumption of trans fatty acids is associated with deaths from cardiovascular diseases. The WHO in 2018, considering the presence of trans fatty acids in foods, recommended their total elimination by the year 2023. Therefore, in Brazil in 2019, RDC 332 addresses that from January 1, 2023, the production and the importation of trans fatty acids in foods intended for human consumption are prohibited. Currently, the legislation in force on trans fatty acids is ANVISA's RDC 54, this RDC establishes that only foods that have trans fatty acids contents ≤ 0.1 g per serving and the sum of saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids up to 1.5 g per serving can claim zero trans on nutrition labels. Stuffed cookies and wafer cookies are important representatives of ultra-processed foods, being widely consumed by adults and especially children due to their low cost and accessibility. Based on these considerations, the objective of this study was to evaluate the contents of trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids by gas chromatography (AOAC method 996.06) in stuffed cookies and wafers cookies, commercialized in the State of São Paulo, analyzing the contents of the fatty acids and comparing with RDC 54. In 2018 and 2019, 65 stuffed cookies and 40 wafers cookies were analyzed, the cookies were divided between those that had trans fatty acids on the labels, and those that had the absence of this fat. The levels of trans fatty acids found in the cookies with the presence of trans fatty acids on the label ranged from 0.34 to 5.21 g per 100 g and 0.19 and 8.54 g per 100 g in the stuffed cookies and wafers cookies, respectively. Therefore, it was found that some brands of stuffed cookies and wafers cookies had large amounts of trans fat in their composition. Regarding the stuffed cookies and wafers cookies with the absence of trans fat on the labels, all cookies were in accordance with current legislation in relation to values less than or equal to 0.1 g of trans fat per serving, but in relation to the sum of acids trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids up to 1.5 g per serving, all had higher values, thus, the manufacturers of these cookies could not claim zero trans on the nutrition label, and therefore, they were in disagreement with the current legislation. In 2022, six samples of stuffed cookies and four samples of wafers were reanalyzed, which in 2018 had high levels of trans fatty acids. Three wafers were also analyzed, which in 2022 still had high levels of trans fats on the labels. The results of these samples showed that in 2022 there are still cookies in brazilian supermarkets with high levels of trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids in their composition. In view of this, the need to comply with current legislation and RDC 332 in 2023 and more frequent inspections by competent institutions are ratified, due to the harmful effects of the consumption of trans fatty acids on the health of the population

Brazil/ethnology , Trans Fatty Acids/analysis , Cookies , Fatty Acids/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Minors/classification , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Nutritional Sciences/classification
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4168-4188, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008019


Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a membrane glycoprotein receptor capable of binding and transporting fatty acid. Nogo-B regulates the metabolism of fatty acids in the liver and affects the development of liver cancer. To date, it remains unclear whether the interaction between CD36 and Nogo-B affects the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. In the current study, we aimed to determine whether the interference of CD36 and Nogo-B affects the proliferation and migration of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. The results showed that inhibition of CD36 or Nogo-B alone can inhibit the proliferation and migration of TNBC cells, and the inhibitory effect was more pronounced when CD36 and Nogo-B were inhibited simultaneously. Meanwhile, it was found that inhibition of CD36 and Nogo-B expression can inhibit the expression of Vimentin, B-cell lympoma-2 (BCL2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vivo, knockdown of CD36 or Nogo-B in E0771 cells reduced its tumorigenic ability, which was further enhanced by knockdown of CD36 and Nogo-B simultaneously. Mechanistically, inhibition of CD36 and Nogo-B expression can decrease fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4) expression. Moreover, overexpression of CD36 and Nogo-B-induced cell proliferation was attenuated by FABP4 siRNA, indicating that inhibition of CD36 and Nogo-B expression could inhibit the absorption and transport of fatty acids, thereby inhibiting the proliferation and migration of TNBC. Furthermore, inhibition of CD36 and Nogo-B expression activated the P53-P21-Rb signaling pathway which contributed to the CD36 and Nogo-B-inhibited proliferation and migration of TNBC. Taken together, the results suggest that inhibition of CD36 and Nogo-B can reduce the proliferation and migration of TNBC, which provides new targets for the development of drugs against TNBC.

Humans , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cell Line, Tumor , Fatty Acids
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3827-3837, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007996


Mycolic acids (MAs), i.e. 2-alkyl, 3-hydroxy long-chain fatty acids, are the hallmark of the cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are related with antibiotic resistance and host immune escape. Nowadays, they've become hot target of new anti-tuberculosis drugs. There are two main methods to detect MAs, 14C metabolic labeling thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer (LC-MS). However, the user qualification of 14C or the lack of standards for LC-MS hampered the easy use of this method. TLC is a common way to analyze chemical substance and can be used to analyze MAs. In this study, we used tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and methyl iodide to hydrolyze and formylate MAs from mycobacterium cell wall. Subsequently, we used diethyl ether to extract methyl mycolate. By this method, we can easily extract and analyze MA in regular biological labs. The results demonstrated that this method could be used to compare MAs of different mycobacterium in different growth phases, MAs of mycobacteria treated by anti-tuberculosis drugs or MAs of mycobacterium mutants. Therefore, we can use this method as an initial validation for the changes of MAs in researches such as new drug screening without using radioisotope or when the standards are not available.

Mycolic Acids/metabolism , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Fatty Acids , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 587-594, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007774


Lipids droplets are organelles that store neutral lipids and are closely related to lipid accumulation. Long chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase 3 (ACSL3) is a lipid droplet-associated protein mainly distributed in the cell membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, and intracellular lipid droplets, and its distribution depends on cell type and fatty acid supply. ACSL3 is a key regulator of fatty acid metabolism that is closely related to intracellular lipid accumulation, and plays an important role in various pathophysiological processes such as lipid droplet synthesis and lipid metabolism, cellular inflammation, and ferroptosis. This paper mainly reviews the role of ACSL3 in lipid synthesis, ferroptosis, and inflammatory response, with focus on the mechanism of its role in lipid accumulation in atherosclerosis, and provides new ideas for exploring potential therapeutic targets in atherosclerotic diseases.

Humans , Atherosclerosis , Coenzyme A Ligases/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 19-19, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971209


BACKGROUND@#The association between meat, fish, or fatty acid intake and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) has been investigated in a few studies, and the results were inconsistent. In addition, most studies are mainly based on the United States and European countries, in which the dietary patterns differ from that in Asia. Therefore, the risk of AML/MDS from meat, fish, or fatty acid intake in Asia requires further exploration. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between AML/MDS incidence and meat, fish, or fatty acid intake using the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.@*METHODS@#The present study included 93,366 participants who were eligible for analysis and followed up from the 5-year survey date until December 2012. We estimated the impact of their intake on AML/MDS incidence using a Cox proportional hazards model.@*RESULTS@#The study participants were followed up for 1,345,002 person-years. During the follow-up period, we identified 67 AML and 49 MDS cases. An increased intake of processed red meat was significantly associated with the incidence of AML/MDS, with a hazard ratio of 1.63 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.57) for the highest versus lowest tertile and a Ptrend of 0.04. Meanwhile, the intake of other foods and fatty acids was not associated with AML/MDS.@*CONCLUSION@#In this Japanese population, processed red meat was associated with an increased incidence of AML/MDS.

Animals , Japan/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Incidence , Public Health , Meat/adverse effects , Fatty Acids/adverse effects , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/epidemiology
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 769-772, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982672


Heart failure (HF) has become a major challenge in the treatment of global cardiovascular diseases. Great progress has been made in the drug treatment of HF, however, rehospitalization rate and mortality of patients with HF are still high. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore new treatment strategy and new underlying pathogenic mechanisms. In recent years, some researchers have suggested that regulation of ketone body metabolism may become a potentially promising therapeutic approach for HF. Some studies showed that the oxidative utilization of fatty acids and glucose was decreased in the failing heart, accompanied by the increase of ketone body oxidative metabolism. The enhancement of ketone body metabolism in HF is a compensatory change during HF. The failing heart preferentially uses ketone body oxidation to provide energy, which helps to improve the body's cardiac function. This review will discuss the potential significance of ketone body metabolism in the treatment of HF from three aspects: normal myocardial ketone body metabolism, the change of ketone body metabolism in HF, the effect of ketogenic therapy on HF and its treatment.

Humans , Heart Failure/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Ketone Bodies/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Energy Metabolism
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 680-693, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986977


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the driving gene of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence and progression and its potential as new therapeutic target of HCC.@*METHODS@#The transcriptome and genomic data of 858 HCC tissues and 493 adjacent tissues were obtained from TCGA, GEO, and ICGC databases. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) identified EHHADH (encoding enoyl-CoA hydratase/L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) as the hub gene in the significantly enriched differential pathways in HCC. The downregulation of EHHADH expression at the transcriptome level was found to correlate with TP53 mutation based on analysis of the TCGA- HCC dataset, and the mechanism by which TP53 mutation caused EHHADH downregulation was explored through correlation analysis. Analysis of the data from the Metascape database suggested that EHHADH was strongly correlated with the ferroptosis signaling pathway in HCC progression, and to verify this result, immunohistochemical staining was used to examine EHHADH expression in 30 HCC tissues and paired adjacent tissues.@*RESULTS@#All the 3 HCC datasets showed signficnatly lowered EHHADH expression in HCC tissues as compared with the adjacent tissues (P < 0.05) with a close correlation with the degree of hepatocyte de-differentiation (P < 0.01). The somatic landscape of HCC cohort in TCGA dataset showed that HCC patients had the highest genomic TP53 mutation rate. The transcriptomic level of PPARGC1A, the upstream gene of EHHADH, was significantly downregulated in HCC patients with TP53 mutation as compared with those without the mutation (P < 0.05), and was significantly correlated with EHHADH expression level. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that EHHADH expression was significantly correlated with abnormal fatty acid metabolism in HCC. The immunohistochemical results showd that the expression level of EHHADH in HCC tissues was down-regulated, and its expression level was related to the degree of hepatocytes de-differentiation and the process of ferroptosis.@*CONCLUSION@#TP53 mutations may induce abnormal expression of PPARGC1A to cause downregulation of EHHADH expression in HCC. The low expression of EHHADH is closely associated with aggravation of de-differentiation and ferroptosis escape in HCC tissues, suggesting the potential of EHHADH as a therapeutic target for HCC.

Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Transcriptome , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Fatty Acids , Peroxisomal Bifunctional Enzyme
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 392-399, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986867


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on the expression profile of circular ribonucleic acid (circRNA) in human hepatocytes through in vitro cell experiments, and to attempt to understand the potential mechanism of hepatotoxicity through bioinformatics analysis.@*METHODS@#TiO2 NPs were characterized from the aspects of particle size, shape and agglomeration state. The cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) was used to detect the cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) after exposure to 0, 1.56, 3.13, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/L TiO2 NPs for 24 h or 48 h. The cells were treated at doses of 0 mg/L TiO2 NPs (control group) and 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs (treatment group), and collected after exposure for 48 h, and then RNA from the extracted cell samples was collected and sequenced. The differential circRNAs between the control and the TiO2 NPs treatment groups were screened, and then the enrichment pathway of the differential circRNA target gene was analyzed by multivariate statistics. According to the sequencing results, significantly altered genes and important genes in the significant enrichment pathways were screened, and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) was performed to verify the results.@*RESULTS@#TiO2 NPs were spherical anatase with a hydrated particle size of (323.50±85.44) nm and a Zeta potential of (-21.00±0.72) mV in a serum-free medium. The results of the CCK8 cytotoxicity assay showed that with the increase of TiO2 NPs concentration, cell viability gradually decreased. A total of 11 478 circRNAs were found by RNA sequencing. Compared with the control groups, TiO2 NPs treatment groups (100 mg/L) had a total of 89 differential circRNAs, of which 59 were up-regulated and 30 were down-regulated. Analysis of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway showed that the targeted genes of differential circRNAs were mainly enriched in fatty acid degradation, Fanconi anemia pathway, and fatty acid metabolism. The expression levels of circRNA.6730, circRNA.3650 and circRNA.4321 were significantly different between the TiO2 NPs treatment group and the control group, which were consistent with the sequencing results.@*CONCLUSION@#TiO2 NPs can induce changes in circRNA expression profile, and epigenetics may play an important role in the mechanism of hepatotoxicity.

Humans , RNA/genetics , RNA, Circular/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Titanium , Nanoparticles , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Fatty Acids
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e386723, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1527586


Purpose: To evaluate the long-chain fatty acid and major compounds levels in the feces after prophylactic oral use of Lacticaseibacillus casei in an experimental model of intestinal mucositis. Methods: Fifteen Swiss mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=5/group): The negative or positive control groups (n = 5) received saline orally for 18 days and an the intraperitoneal (i.p.) of saline or 5 Fluorouracil (450 mg/kg) in 15th day, respectability. L. casei group received oral concentration of L. casei (1x109 CFU/mL) for 18 days, the i.p. injection of 5-fluorouracil (450 mg/kg) in 15th days. Tissue samples from colon and each small intestine segment were collected for histopathological analysis. Stool samples were collected. Fecal composition of long-chain fatty acids and sterols were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry on the 15th and the 18th day. Results: The mucosa layer of all small intestine segments of animals from L. casei showed well preserved epithelium and glands, without necrosis signs, but Goblet cells number decreased. Several long-chain fatty acids and sterols have been identified before and after in the groups. L. casei administration after 5-FU treatment reduced concentrations of linoleic acid (18:2) (p < 0.001) and oleic acid (18:1) (p < 0.001) in feces. Conclusions: L. casei prevented the mucosal damage associated with 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis reduced long-chain fatty acid levels in the feces.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mucositis , Fatty Acids , Lacticaseibacillus casei
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 115 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538391


Introdução - A dieta cetogênica (DC) tem sido utilizada como tratamento adjuvante da epilepsia fármaco resistente e tem se popularizado no manejo de outras doenças neurológicas e metabólicas (obesidade, diabetes e dislipidemias). Entretanto, também está associada a efeitos adversos que precisam ser melhor compreendidos. Objetivo - Avaliar o potencial efeito protetor de uma dieta cetogênica modificada (DCM), rica em ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (MUFAs) e ácidos graxos poli-insaturados (PUFAs), e suplementada com ácido docosahexaenóico (DHA), sobre a neuroinflamação e o estresse oxidativo e suas repercussões no comportamento de ratos. Materiais e Métodos - Estudo experimental com 18 ratos Wistar, alocados em 3 grupos de 6 animais. No grupo da dieta padrão (DP), os animais consumiram dieta comercial. No grupo da dieta cetogênica clássica (DCC), os animais consumiram uma dieta rica em gorduras saturadas. No grupo DCM, os animais consumiram dieta rica em MUFAs e PUFAs e enriquecida com DHA. Após 100 dias de intervenção foram realizados testes comportamentais e, após a eutanásia, foram feitos extratos lipídico e aquoso do lobo frontal e do hipocampo para análise de ácidos graxos e parâmetros oxidativos e inflamatórios. Resultados - Os animais DCC apresentaram um comportamento mais ansioso que ao animas DP, segundo os testes de Labirinto em Cruz Elevado e Medo ao Contexto. O grupo DCC teve mais incorporação de ácidos graxos saturados (AGs) no lobo frontal e no hipocampo em relação ao DCM. O grupo DCM teve maior incorporação de PUFAs, com destaque para o aumento de DHA no hipocampo. As citocinas inflamatórias IL1-ß e IL-6 tiveram menor concentração nos grupos DCM e DCC em relação ao grupo DP no lobo frontal, perfil semelhante ao observado com a IL-6 no hipocampo, e diferente da IL1-ß que foi reduzida significativamente apenas no DCM. Não houve diferença da concentração da Neuroprotectina D (NPD) e da enzima antioxidante Superóxido Dismutase (SOD) entre os grupos. A LDLox teve menor concentração nos grupos DCC e DCM em relação ao DP. A enzima catalase (CAT) foi menor no grupo DCM em relação ao grupo DP. Conclusão - Embora a modulação da composição de ácidos graxos da DC possa ser promissora, uma vez que a DCC induziu a um estado mais ansioso, não foi possível explicar essa diferença pelas vias inflamatória e antioxidante avaliadas.

Introduction - The ketogenic diet (KD) has been applied as an adjuvant treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy and has become popular in the management of other neurological and metabolic diseases (obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia). However, it is also associated with adverse effects that need to be better understood. Objective - To evaluate the potential protective effect of a modified ketogenic diet (MKD), rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress and their repercussions on the behavior of rats. Materials and Methods - Experimental study with 18 Wistar rats, allocated into 3 groups of 6 animals. In the standard diet (SD) group, the animals consumed a commercial diet. In the classical ketogenic diet (CKD) group, the animals consumed a diet rich in saturated fats. In the MKD group, the animals consumed a diet rich in MUFAs and PUFAs and enriched with DHA. After 100 days of intervention, behavioral tests were carried out and, after euthanasia, lipid and aqueous extracts were made from the frontal lobe and hippocampus for analysis of fatty acids and oxidative and inflammatory parameters. Results - The CKD animals showed more anxious behavior than the DP animals, according to the Elevated Cross Maze and Context Fear tests. The CKD group had more incorporation of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in the frontal lobe and hippocampus compared to MKD. The MKD group had greater incorporation of PUFAs, with emphasis on the increase in DHA in the hippocampus. The inflammatory cytokines IL1-ß and IL-6 had lower concentrations in the MKD and CKD groups compared to the PD group in the frontal lobe, a profile similar to that observed with IL-6 in the hippocampus, and different from IL1-ß, which was significantly reduced in the MKD. There was no difference in the concentration of Neuroprotectin D (NPD) and the antioxidant enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) between the groups. LDLox had a lower concentration in the CKD and MKD groups compared to the DP. The catalase enzyme was lower in the MKD group compared to the DP group. Conclusion - Although the modulation of the fatty acid composition of KD may be promising, since CKD induced a more anxious state, it was not possible to explain this difference through the inflammatory and antioxidant pathways evaluated.

Behavior , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Docosahexaenoic Acids , Oxidative Stress , Diet, Ketogenic , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Inflammation
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 16(3): 46-52, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451956


El ambiente obesogénico promueve la obesidad al facilitar el acceso y consumo de una amplia variedad de alimentos palatables altos en calorías. La activación del receptor de GLP1 (GLP1R) reduce la ingesta de alimentos, enlentece el vaciamiento gástrico y promueve un balance energético negativo a través de su acción en distintos órganos como el músculo esquelético, disminuyendo así el peso corporal. La obesidad inducida por dieta alta en grasa disminuye el efecto anorexigénico de la administración sistémica vía intra-peritoneal de EX4 (agonista de GLP1R). Sin embargo, se desconoce si la exposición a un ambiente obesogénico previo a la manifestación de obesidad disminuye los efectos anorexigénicos de EX4 o un posible efecto de EX4 sobre marcadores de oxidación de ácidos grasos y termogénesis en músculo esquelético. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto a corto plazo de la dieta CAF, un modelo del ambiente obesogénico humano, sobre la capacidad de EX4 de reducir la ingesta y modular la expresión de marcadores proteicos de oxidación de ácidos grasos y termogénesis (CPT1 y UCP2) en músculo de ratones. Nuestros datos muestran que una inyección intraperitoneal de EX4 a ratones C57BL/6J alimentados con dieta CAF o dieta control durante 10 días no altera la ingesta calórica total, peso corporal, o la expresión de proteínas marcadoras de los procesos de beta-oxidación y de termogénesis (CPT1 y UCP2). Estos datos sugieren que protocolos alternativos de administración de EX4 son necesarios para observar los efectos fisiológicos de la activación de GLP1R.

The obesogenic environment promotes obesity by facilitating access to and consumption of a wide variety of palatable, high-calorie foods. Activation of the GLP1 receptor (GLP1R) reduces food intake, slows gastric emptying, and promotes a negative energy balance by acting on organs such as skeletal muscle, thus decreasing body weight. Obesity induced by a high-fat diet decreased the anorexigenic effect of intraperitoneal systemic administration of EX4 (GLP1R agonist). However, it is unknown whether exposure to an obesogenic environment before the manifestation of obesity diminishes the anorexigenic effects of EX4 or a possible effect of EX4 on markers of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis in skeletal muscle. This investigation aimed to determine the short-term effect of the CAF diet, a model of the human obesogenic environment, on the ability of EX4 to reduce intake and modulate the expression of protein markers of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis (CPT1 and UCP2) in mouse muscle. Our data show that intraperitoneal injection of EX4 to C57BL/6J mice fed CAF diet or control diet for ten days does not alter total caloric intake, body weight, or expression of proteins markers of beta-oxidation and thermogenesis processes (CPT1 and UCP2). These data suggest that alternative EX4 administration protocols are necessary to observe the physiological effects of GLP1R activation.

Animals , Male , Mice , Diet/adverse effects , Exenatide/administration & dosage , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Blotting, Western , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Thermogenesis , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/metabolism , Uncoupling Protein 2 , Irinotecan , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(4): 285-293, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1413581


Introducción: La alimentación en la primera infancia influencia la instauración del tejido adiposo y el desarrollo de diversas patologías en la edad adulta. Objetivo: Evaluar la influencia del consumo de tres fuentes de ácidos grasos sobre parámetros sanguíneos y tejido adiposo en pollos recién eclosionados. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron 76 pollitos Cobb 500 distribuidos aleatoriamente en cuatro tratamientos, que fueron alimentados durante siete días con una de las cuatro dietas (T1: 97% Dieta basal (DB); T2: DB +3% de manteca vegetal parcialmente hidrogenada; T3: DB +3% de aceite de quinua y T4: DB +3% de aceite de pescado). Al finalizar, se evaluó en sangre glucosa, colesterol, triglicéridos y tamaño de adipocitos del tejido adiposo subcutáneo y visceral. Se aplicó ANOVA considerando 0,05 de significancia y en el caso de variables no distribuidas normalmente, se aplicó el test no paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis mediante el programa R-Studio. Resultados: Se obtuvieron diferencias significativas con disminución de los niveles de glucosa y colesterol en animales suplementados con elevada proporción de aceites insaturados (T3 y T4) en comparación a T2. Los tratamientos T3 y T4 promovieron una formación hiperplásica de adipocitos, diferenciándose significativamente de T2, que promovió la hipertrofia en dichas células, esta respuesta fue similar en ambos depósitos subcutáneos. Conclusiones: El consumo de aceite de quinua y aceite de pescado promueve la formación de tejido adiposo saludable, y reducen los niveles de glucosa y colesterol. Contrariamente el consumo de manteca vegetal propicia la hipertrofia de adipocitos de gran tamaño e incrementa los parámetros bioquímicos evaluados(AU)

Introduction: Feeding in early childhood influences the establishment of adipose tissue, and therefore also in the development of various pathologies in adulthood. Objective: To evaluate the influence of the consumption of three sources of fatty acids on blood parameters and adipose tissue at an early age. Materials and methods: 76 Cobb 500 chicks randomly distributed in four treatments were used, who were fed for seven days with one of the four diets (T1: Basal diet; T2: DB +1.0% vegetable shortening partially hydrogenated; T3: DB +1.0% quinoa oil and DB +1.0% fish oil) until the seventh day of life. At the end, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and adipocyte size of the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue were evaluated. A completely randomized design with ANOVA considering 0.05 significance was applied and in the case of non-normally distributed variables, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was applied using the R-Studio program. Results: Significant differences were obtained with a decrease in glucose and cholesterol levels in animals supplemented with unsaturated oils (T3 and T4) compared to T2. Regarding the size of adipocytes, treatments T3 and T4 promoted a hyperplastic formation of adipocytes, differing significantly from T2, which promoted hypertrophy in these cells, this response was similar in both subcutaneous deposits. Conclusions: The consumption of quinoa oil and fish oil promote the formation of healthy adipose tissue, in addition to reducing glucose and cholesterol levels. In contrast, the consumption of vegetable shortening favors the hypertrophy of large adipocytes and increases the biochemical parameters evaluated(AU)

Animals , Blood , Chickens , Adipogenesis , Fatty Acids , Vegetables , Fish Oils , Adipose Tissue , Cholesterol , Chenopodium quinoa , Intra-Abdominal Fat
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387705


Resumen Introducción: Durante millones de años, los organismos marinos han venido desarrollando estrategias para adaptarse a los cambios ambientales y con esto, sintetizando una gran variedad de metabolitos secundarios con actividades biológicas. Objetivo: Evaluar las actividades antimicrobiana y antioxidante e identificar los ácidos grasos del extracto metanólico de la esponja marina Tetilla rodriguesi recolectada en la bahía de Cispatá. Métodos: Los especímenes de T. rodriguesi se sometieron a extracción para obtener el extracto metanólico, del cual se obtuvieron los ácidos grasos que fueron esterificados e identificados haciendo uso de técnicas cromatográficas. Con el extracto metanólico se realizó la actividad antioxidante frente a los radicales ABTS+• y DPPH• y la actividad antimicrobiana por el método de microdilución frente a cepas de referencia de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis y Candida albicans; además de aislados clínicos de Candida albicans (obtenida en sangre) y Candida krusei (obtenida en catéter). Resultados: Los resultados arrojaron la identificación de 19 ácidos grasos de diferente naturaleza. En el análisis de la actividad antioxidante se pudo encontrar, que la inhibición de los radicales evaluados fue moderada (296.98 ppm para ABTS+• y 3 523.62 ppm para DPPH•). La evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana mostró, que el extracto metanólico de T. rodriguesi logró reducir en gran medida el crecimiento de todos los microorganismos evaluados. Conclusión: A pesar de que los poríferos tienden a poseer ácidos grasos de gran tamaño, en este trabajó no se encontró la presencia de ácidos grasos de cadena carbonada mayor a 20 miembros. Los resultados de la actividad antioxidante, se asemejan en gran medida al encontrado en otras especies del mismo phylum. En esta investigación, se pudo establecer que el extracto metanólico de T. rodriguesi logró disminuir en gran medida el crecimiento de todas las cepas bacterianas y fúngicas utilizadas.

Abstract Introduction: For millions of years, organisms that inhabit the marine environment have been developing strategies to adapt to environmental changes and with this, synthesizing a great variety of secondary metabolites with biological activities. Objective: Evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and identify the fatty acids of the methanolic extract of the marine sponge Tetilla rodriguesi collected in Cispatá bay, Colombian Caribbean. Methods: T. rodriguesi specimens were subjected to extraction to obtain the methanolic extract, of which the fatty acids were obtained, esterified and identified it using chromatographic techniques. With the methanolic extract, the antioxidant activity was carried out against the radicals ABTS+• and DPPH•, and the antimicrobial activity by the microdilution method against reference strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans; in addition to clinical isolates of Candida albicans (obtained in blood) and Candida krusei (obtained in catheter). Result: The results yielded the identification of 19 fatty acids of different nature. In the analysis of the antioxidant activity could be found that inhibition of radical evaluated was moderate (296.98 ppm for ABTS+• and 3 523.62 ppm for DPPH•). The evaluation of antimicrobial activity showed that the methanol extract of T. rodriguesi managed to greatly reduce the growth of all microorganisms tested. Conclusions: Despite the fact that porifers tend to have large fatty acids, in this study the presence of fatty acids with a carbon chain greater than 20 members was not found. The result of antioxidant activity is largely resembled that found in other species of the same phylum. In this research, it was established that the methanolic extract of T. rodriguesi managed to greatly reduce the growth of all the bacterial and fungal strains used.

Animals , Crambe Sponge , Fatty Acids , Ecosystem , Invertebrates , Marine Biology
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 56(2): 57-62, mayo - ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1395857


Introducción: los recién nacidos con peso elevado al nacer presentan mayor riesgo de complicaciones en el parto y problemas de salud a largo plazo. Un factor poco explorado durante la gestación es el nivel de los ácidos grasos circulantes. Materiales y métodos: estudio prospectivo donde se estudiaron mujeres durante el embarazo hasta el parto. Se analizaron las variables antropométricas y la medición de ácidos grasos libres entre las semanas 24-28 de gestación. Resultados: se incluyeron 27 pacientes, de las cuales cuatro (13,8%) dieron a luz a recién nacidos macrosómicos. Las pacientes se agruparon según el índice de masa corporal (IMC) preembarazo en normopeso y sobrepeso u obesidad. Los bebés macrosómicos correspondieron al grupo de madres con sobrepeso y obesidad que, además, tuvieron un incremento significativo de los niveles de ácidos grasos libres (2067 uM, ICC: 947,5-1590 vs 1212 uM, ICC: 13367-2247; p<0,05) en el grupo obesidad y sobrepeso. Los valores de glucemia basal y posteriores a la prueba de tolerancia oral a la glucosa no mostraron diferencias. El análisis multivariado reveló que tener obesidad o sobrepeso al inicio del embarazo resulta en un odds ratio (OR) de ácidos grasos libres de 1,0023 (IC9 5%:1,0000-1,0046), mientras que la prueba de tolerancia oral a la glucosa presentó un OR: 1,0186 (IC 95%: 0,9645-1,0756). Conclusiones: los resultados muestran el rol del IMC pregestacional sobre el riesgo de tener hijos macrosómicos, lo que confirma la necesidad de mejorar el estado nutricional de las mujeres antes y durante el embarazo.

Introduction: neonates with high birth weight are at increased risk of birth complications and long term health problems. An unexplored factor during gestation is the level of circulating fatty acids. Materials and methods: prospective study where women were studied during pregnancy until delivery. Anthropometric variables and free fatty acid measurements were analyzed between 24-28 weeks of gestation. Results: we included 27 patients, of whom 4 (13.8%) gave birth to macrosomic newborns. Patients were grouped according to pre-pregnancy mass index (BMI) into normal weight and overweight or obese. Macrosomic neonates corresponded to the group of overweight and obese mothers, who also presented a significant increase in free fatty acid levels (2067 uM, ICC: 947,5-1590 vs 1212 uM, ICC: 13367-2247; p<0.05) was found in the obese and overweight group. Basal and post oral glucose tolerance test showed no differences, Multivariate analysis showed that being obese or overweight at the beginning of pregnancy results in an OR of free fatty acids 1,0023 (95%CI: 1,0000-1,0046), while oral glucose tolerance test presented an OR: 1,0186 (95%CI: 0,9645-1,0756). Conclusions: the results show the role of pre-gestational BMI on the risk of having macrosomic children, confirming the need to improve the nutritional status of women before and during pregnancy

Fetal Macrosomia , Body Mass Index , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 81: e37903, mar.1, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, VETINDEX, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1411149


Lipids in food are conventionally analyzed in two stages: extraction with organic solvent and fat esterification reaction, in this case, the type of fat of each food influences the choice of extraction and esterification reagents. In the direct method, such procedures are performed in one step. This work compared the conventional extraction method and quantification of lipids and fatty acids, with a direct method in infant formula. A reference sample of infant formula conteining certified lipids and fatty acids values from the National Institute of Standards and Technology was used. The conventional method for lipid analysis used the acid hydrolysis method; for the determination of fatty acids, the fats were extracted with a mixture of ethyl ether and petroleum ether. The direct method consisted of direct trans esterification with sodium methoxide. In the analysis of fatty acids, the majority of the results showed statistically equal values (α < 0.05) for both methods. The direct method proved suitable, mainly because of reduction in analytical time and quantity of solvents (AU).

Os lipídios em alimentos são analisados, de forma convencional, em duas etapas: extração com solvente orgânico e reação de esterificação da gordura, neste caso o tipo de gordura de cada alimento influencia na escolha dos reagentes da extração e esterificação. No método direto, estes procedimentos são realizados em uma etapa única. Este trabalho comparou a metodologia convencional de extração e quantificação de lipídios e ácidos graxos, com um método direto em fórmula infantil. Foi utilizada uma amostra de referência de fórmula infantil com valores certificados para lipídios e ácidos graxos da Nacional Institute of Standards and Technology. A metodologia convencional para a análise de lipídios empregou método com hidrólise ácida; para a determinação dos ácidos graxos, a gordura foi extraída com uma mistura de éter etílico e éter de petróleo. O método direto fundamentou-se na transesterificação direta com metóxido de sódio. Na análise dos ácidos graxos, a maioria dos resultados demonstrou valores estatisticamente iguais (α < 0,05) para os dois métodos. O método direto demonstrou ser apropriado, principalmente pela diminuição do tempo de análise e quantidade de solventes (AU).

Chromatography, Gas , Fats , Fatty Acids
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 1-10, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356319


Abstract Background The lower frequency of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors observed in vegetarians compared to omnivores may be due to more appropriate nutrient intake according to recommendations for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Objective To compare the dietary adequacy according to the recommendations of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) in apparently healthy vegetarian (VEG) and omnivorous (OMN) men. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, conducted with apparently healthy men (44 omnivorous and 44 vegetarians, ≥ 35 years), who were assessed for daily food consumption, anthropometric data, physical exercise status, and clinical data. Multiple logistic regression was used to test the association between the type of diet and the dietary adequacy. Significant values were considered for p<0.05. Results Several clinical CV risk markers were significantly lower in VEG when compared to OMN: body mass index (BMI) (23.1 vs. 27.3 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (119.5 vs. 129.2 mmHg), and diastolic blood pressure (75.7 vs. 83.9 mmHg). VEG presented significant lower values of blood lipids and glucose. No significant difference was observed in caloric intake; however, VEG consumed significantly more carbohydrates, dietary fibers, and polyunsaturated fats. VEG presented an adequate consumption of dietary cholesterol and saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, regardless of caloric intake and age. Conclusion VEG were more likely to consume saturated fatty acids, dietary cholesterol, and fibers according to the recommendations of NCEP, factors that may contribute to lower levels of CV risk markers than OMN.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diet, Vegetarian , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Assessment , Eating , Fatty Acids , Life Style