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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4978-4985, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921635

ABSTRACT

In this paper, co-processed lactose SuperTab 40 LL was selected as fillers to study the preparation of musk sustained-release mini-tablets in the Xihuang multiple-unit drug release system. Musk sustained-release tablets containing different proportions of SuperTab 40 LL and MCC were prepared under various pressures, and then the compressibility and compactibility of these prescriptions were evaluated by Walker, Heckel and Ryshkewitch-Duckworth equations. In addition, the fluidity of the prescriptions was evaluated by parameters of Kawakita equation. There was a comprehensive analysis of the effect of SuperTab 40 LL on musk sustained-release mini-tablets combined with the appearance of SuperTab 40 LL and their tensile strength. The results shown that SuperTab 40 LL had better compression process through the Heckel equation, and the direct compression process of drug powders with excipients can be analyzed by the Kawakita and Ryshkewitch-Duckworth equations. As a new type of co-processed lactose, SuperTab 40 LL had a good fluidity and compactibility. SuperTab 40 LL may undergo particle crushing and plastic deformation during the compression process, which increased the contact area and bonding sites between the particles, and aggregated and shaped the mixed powder easy. Moreover, MCC showed a synergistic effect, and the combined application with SuperTab 40 ll could effectively improve the fluidity and compressibility of the musk sustained-release powder. When the ratio of SuperTab 40 LL and MCC was 2∶1, musk sustained-release mini-tablets had a high drug loading capacity and good compactibility in line with the design objectives.


Subject(s)
Delayed-Action Preparations , Drug Compounding , Excipients , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Models, Theoretical , Powders , Tablets
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1000-1008, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129715

ABSTRACT

The addition of different oil blends in the feed of finishing pigs was evaluated. Twenty-four castrated male finishing pigs were used in a randomized block design containing four treatments and six replicates. The treatments consisted of: Reference ration (RR) - 100% soybean oil feed; and the combination of the different oils: Blend1 - 50.0% soybean oil (SO), 25.0% flaxseed oil (FO), 12.5% olive oil (OO) and 12.5% canola oil (CO); Blend2 - 25.0% SO, 50.0% FO, 12.5% OO and 12.5% CO; and Blend3 - 25.0% SO, 12.5% FO, 12.5% OO and 50.0% CO. The performance, quantitative and qualitative carcass parameters, fatty acids profile and economic feasibility of the diets were evaluated. The use of blends in the diets did not influence the performance or carcass quality, but increased marbling and carcass yield. The fatty acid profile of the loin presented greater amounts of stearic acid in Blend3 and higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in animals fed with Blend1. The fatty tissue presented greater amounts of myristic acid in Blend1 and oleic acid in Blend3. The reference ration was the most economic. The Blends did not affect performance or carcass characteristics and improved the fatty acid profile.(AU)


Foi avaliada a utilização de diferentes blends de óleo em dietas de suínos em terminação. Foram utilizados 24 suínos, machos, castrados, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração referência (RR) - 100% de ração com utilização de óleo de soja; e a combinação de diferentes óleos: Blend1 - 50,0% de óleo de soja (OS), 25,0% de óleo de linhaça (OL), 12,5% de óleo de oliva (OO) e 12,5% de óleo de canola (OC); Blend2 - 25,0% OS; 50,0% OL; 12,5% OO e 12,5% OC; e Blend3 - 25,0% OS; 12,5% OL; 12,5% OO e 50,0% OC. Foram avaliados os parâmetros de desempenho, a qualidade de carcaça, o perfil de ácidos graxos e a viabilidade econômica. O uso de blends nas dietas não influenciou o desempenho ou a qualidade da carcaça, mas aumentou o marmoreio e o rendimento de carcaça. O perfil de ácidos graxos do lombo apresentou maiores quantidades de ácido esteárico com a utilização do Blend3 e maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos insaturados nos animais alimentados com o Blend1. O tecido adiposo apresentou maiores quantidades de ácido mirístico quando se forneceu o Blend1 e de ácido oleico com o Blend3. A ração testemunha foi a mais econômica. As misturas não afetaram o desempenho e as características de carcaça e melhoraram o perfil de ácidos graxos da carne.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/administration & dosage , Linoleic Acid , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Food, Fortified
3.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(4): 817-825, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057126

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to determine the fatty acid composition of mature milk of nursing mothers and its distribution according to some maternal variables. Methods: this is a cross-sectional observational epidemiological study based on the eva-luation of the fatty acid profile of mature human milk. Samples of mature breast milk were taken from 106 nursing mothers, by manual milking and who were after the 5th postpartum week. The milk fat extraction was carried out by using the Bligh and Dyer method and methy-lated with 0.25 mol/L sodium methoxide in methanol diethyl ether. The fatty acid of the milk profile was determined by a Gas Chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. Results: among the saturated fatty acids, the highest values were observed for palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) fatty acids, respectively. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, there was a higher contribution of oleic (C18:1) and palmi-toleic (C16:1) fatty acids, respectively. The total essential fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic) was 14.94%. Conclusions: a low content of essential fatty acids in the breast milk of the nursing mothers was observed in the present study, which are important for infant growth and deve-lopment. We suggest the need to implement nutrition education strategies aimed for pregnant women and nursing mothers who should be advised to eat healthier foods.


Resumo Objetivos: determinar a composição em ácidos graxos do leite maduro de nutrizes e sua distribuição segundo algumas variáveis maternas. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico observacional, transversal realizado a partir da avaliação do perfil de ácidos graxos do leite humano maduro. Amostras de leite materno maduro foram obtidas de 106 nutrizes, a partir da 5ª semana pós-parto, por meio de ordenha manual. A extração da gordura do leite foi realizada através do método de Bligh e Dyer, e metiladas com metóxido de sódio 0,25 mol/L em metanol dietil - éter. O perfil de ácidos graxos do leite foi determinado por um Cromatógrafo a Gás equipado com detector por ionização de chamas. Resultados: dentre os ácidos graxos saturados, foram observados valores mais elevados para os ácidos graxos palmítico (C16:0), esteárico (C18:0), mirístico (C14:0) e láurico (C12:0), respectivamente. Entre os ácidos graxos mono-insaturados, verificou-se maior contribuição dos ácidos graxos oleico (C18:1) e palmitoleico (C16:1), respectivamente. O total de ácidos graxos essenciais (linoleico e α- linolênico) foi de 14,94%. Conclusões: foi observado baixo teor de ácidos graxos essenciais no leite materno das nutrizes do presente estudo, que são importantes para o crescimento e desenvolvimento do lactente, sugerindo-se a necessidade de implementação de estratégias de educação nutricional direcionadas a gestantes e nutrizes que devem ser orientadas a consumir alimentos mais saudáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Food and Nutrition Education , Fatty Acids, Essential/analysis , Infant Nutrition , Fatty Acids/analysis , Milk, Human/chemistry , Lactation , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/analysis , Child Development , Maternal and Child Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study , Flame Ionization/methods
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(4): 491-498, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013815

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La palta es un tipo de fruta tropical autóctona de Guatemala y México, caracterizada por su alto contenido de lípidos, principalmente por ácido oleico (>50% de lípidos totales) y rica en fitoquímicos como vitamina E, carotenoides, polifenoles y luteína, compuestos asociados a una fuerte actividad antioxidante. El consumo mundial de palta muestra un crecimiento exponencial, por lo que resulta relevante aumentar la investigación de este fruto no sólo de la pulpa, sino también de su semilla, e investigar el potencial impacto en la salud cardiovascular, cáncer y otras actividades antipatógenas. El objetivo de esta revisión fue sugerir con fundamento científico el consumo de este fruto, tanto de su pulpa como semilla, principalmente en la prevención y tratamiento de las enfermedades crónicas.


ABSTRACT Avocado is a type of tropical fruit native to Guatemala and Mexico. It is characterized by its high lipid, mainly oleic acid (> 50% of total lipids), content and rich in phytochemicals such as vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols and lutein, compounds associated with strong antioxidant activity. Worldwide avocado consumption shows an exponential growth, therefore it is important to investigate, not only the pulp, but also the seed, of this fruit and its potential impact on cardiovascular health, cancer and other antipathogenic activities. The objective of this review was to suggest with scientific support the consumption of this fruit, both of its pulp and seed, mainly in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Cardiovascular Diseases , Persea , Metabolic Syndrome , Neoplasms , Antioxidants
5.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 199-209, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the synergy of the Burkholderia signaling molecule cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) and fluconazole (FLU) or itraconazole (ITRA) against two azole-resistant C. albicans clinical isolates in vitro and in vivo.@*METHODS@#Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics against two azole-resistant C. albicans were measured by the checkerboard technique, E-test, and time-kill assay. In vivo antifungal synergy testing was performed on mice. Analysis of the relative gene expression levels of the strains was conducted by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).@*RESULTS@#BDSF showed highly synergistic effects in combination with FLU or ITRA with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of ⪕ 0.08. BDSF was not cytotoxic to normal human foreskin fibroblast cells at concentrations of up to 300 μg/mL. The qRT-PCR results showed that the combination of BDSF and FLU/ITRA significantly inhibits the expression of the efflux pump genes CDR1 and MDR1 via suppression of the transcription factors TAC1 and MRR1, respectively, when compared with FLU or ITRA alone. No dramatic difference in the mRNA expression levels of ERG1, ERG11, and UPC2 was found, which indicates that the drug combinations do not significantly interfere with UPC2-mediated ergosterol levels. In vivo experiments revealed that combination therapy can be an effective therapeutic approach to treat candidiasis.@*CONCLUSION@#The synergistic effects of BDSF and azoles may be useful as an alternative approach to control azole-resistant Candida infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents , Pharmacology , Burkholderia cenocepacia , Chemistry , Candida albicans , Physiology , Candidiasis , Drug Therapy , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Fluconazole , Pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Triazoles , Metabolism
6.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 816-828, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy of cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) in the treatment and prevention of vaginal candidiasis in vivo.@*METHODS@#The activities of different concentrations of BDSF against the virulence factors of Candida albicans (C. albicans) were determined in vitro. An experimental mouse model of Candida vaginitis was treated with 250 μmol/L BDSF. Treatment efficiency was evaluated in accordance with vaginal fungal burden and inflammation symptoms.@*RESULTS@#In vitro experiments indicated that BDSF attenuated the adhesion and damage of C. albicans to epithelial cells by decreasing phospholipase secretion and blocking filament formation. Treatment with 30 μmol/L BDSF reduced the adhesion and damage of C. albicans to epithelial cells by 36.9% and 42.3%, respectively. Treatment with 200 μmol/L BDSF completely inhibited phospholipase activity. In vivo mouse experiments demonstrated that BDSF could effectively eliminate vaginal infection and relieve inflammatory symptoms. Four days of treatment with 250 μmol/L BDSF reduced vaginal fungal loads by 6-fold and depressed inflammation. Moreover, BDSF treatment decreased the expression levels of the inflammatory chemokine-associated genes MCP-1 and IGFBP3 by 2.5- and 2-fold, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#BDSF is a novel alternative drug that can efficiently control vaginal candidiasis by inhibiting the virulence factors of C. albicans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Candida albicans , Metabolism , Virulence , Physiology , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Microbiology , Chemokine CCL2 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Fungal Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Virulence , Virulence Factors , Genetics , Metabolism
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3806-3810, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776927

ABSTRACT

Forest musk deer(Moschus berezovskii) is mainly distribute in Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces of China. The musk is a dry exudates in the mature male sachet with complex chemical composition, abundant modern identification methods, various pharmacological action, extensive clinical application. The population quantity and quality of wild and captive forest musk deer failed to improve because of lacking scientific management, excessive hunting and habitat destruction, etc. Carrying out the captive forest musk deer is an effective way to protect them, fast breeding of forest musk deer is the key to increase the yield of musk. Therefore, we should develop new technologies such as natural estrus and artificial insemination in order to speed up the breeding of musk deer and increase the yield of musk. This article reviews the research progress of new artificial propagation technique and musk, which teases some feasible research basis for optimization of forest musk deer species and the research of musk.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Breeding , Methods , China , Deer , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Chemistry , Insemination, Artificial
8.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 324-335, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We examined dietary fat intake and the major food sources by young children in Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 1,041 children aged 1–5 years were identified from the 2013–2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data on total fat and fatty acid intake were obtained by a single 24-h dietary recall. Food sources were identified based on the amounts of total fat and fatty acids consumption according to each food. Fat and fatty acid intakes and their food sources were presented by age group (1–2-y, n = 401; 3–5-y, n = 640). Fat and fatty acid intakes were also evaluated according to socioeconomic characteristics. RESULTS: The mean intake of fat was 27.1 ± 0.8 g in the 1-2-y group and 35.5 ± 0.7 g in the 3-5-y group, and about 23% of the total energy was obtained from fat in both age groups. The mean intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was 10.5 ± 0.3 g in the 1-2-y group and 12.7 ± 0.3 g in the 3-5-y group, with the 1-2-y group obtaining more energy from SFA than the 3-5-y group (9.2% vs. 8.3%). The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was 6.3 ± 0.1 g in the total subjects, with 0.8 ± 0.03 g of n-3 fatty acids and 5.5 ± 0.1 g of n-6 fatty acids being consumed. Milk, pork, and eggs were major food sources of total fat, SFA, and monounsaturated fatty acids, and soybean oil was the main contributor to PUFA in both age groups. In the 1-2-y group, children in rural areas had significantly higher intake of PUFA and n-3 fatty acids than did those in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide current information on dietary fat intake among young Korean children and could be used to establish dietary strategies for improvement of health status.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Fats , Eggs , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Fatty Acids, Omega-6 , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Korea , Milk , Nutrition Surveys , Ovum , Red Meat , Soybean Oil
9.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 157-163, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812793

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To study the effects of muskolibanum combination on the proliferation and differentiation of prostate stem cells.@*METHODS@#We cultured prostate epithelial cells and urogenital sinus mesenchymal (UGSM) cells from 7-10 d old C57BL/6 mice and 16-18 d old pregnant C57BL/6 mice, transplanted the mixed suspension of the two types of cells under the kidney envelope of SCIDCB.17 male mice, and harvested the transplants 30 days later. We randomly divided the SCIDCB.17 mice into four groups to be treated intragastrically with musk (n = 8), olibanum (n = 8), musk+olibanum (n = 7), and normal saline (blank control, n = 8)) respectively, all for 14 days. Then we collected the kidney tissue for observation of the morphology of the glandular tubes and differentiation of different subsets of stem cells by HE staining and determination of the expressions and distribution of P63, CD133, CD117 and Sca1 by immunohistochemistry and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#A system was successfully established for the isolation and mixed culture of Sca1 Lin+ CD49f+ (LSC) cells of prostate stem cells and UGSM cells of the mouse embryonic prostate. Immunohistochemistry showed positive expressions of P63, CD133, Sca1, and CD117 in the prostatic acinar epithelia and proved the presence of prostatic acinar epithelial structure in the transplants. Compared with the blank control group, the expressions of CD133, Sca1 and CD117 were significantly increased in the musk, olibanum, and musk+olibanum groups (P< 0.05), higher in the musk+olibanum than in the musk or olibanum group (P< 0.05), and their protein expressions were even more elevated in the musk+olibanum group (P< 0.01), with statistically significant difference from the olibanum group (P< 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The combination of musk and olibanum can improve the proliferation and differentiation of prostate stem cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Drug Therapy, Combination , Epithelial Cells , Cell Biology , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Pharmacology , Frankincense , Pharmacology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, SCID , Prostate , Cell Biology , Random Allocation , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Receptors, Cholinergic , Stem Cells , Cell Biology
10.
Biol. Res ; 50: 10, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The muskrat is a seasonal breeder. Males secrete musk to attract females during the breeding season. The testosterone binding to the androgen receptor (AR) in musk glands of muskrat may play an important role conducting the musk secretion process. METHODS: The musk gland, testis and blood samples of musk rats are collected in both breeding and non-breeding seasons. Some part of the samples are kept in liquid nitrogen for transcriptome analysis and Western blotting test. Some part of the samples are kept in 70% alcohol for histology experiment, blood samples are kept at -20 °C for the serum testosterone measurement experiment. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that the quantity of secreted musk, the volume of the musk glands, the diameter of the gland cells and AR expression are all higher during the breeding season than at other times (p < 0.01). StAR, P450scc and 3ß-HSD expression in the Leydig cells of the testis were also higher during this season, as was serum testosterone. AR was also observed in the gland cells of two other musk-secreting animals, the musk deer and small Indian civet, in their musk glands. These results suggest that the testes and musk glands co-develop seasonally. CONCLUSION: The musk glands' seasonal development and musk secretion are regulated by the testes, and testosterone plays an important role in the seasonal development of musk glands.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Scent Glands/growth & development , Scent Glands/metabolism , Testis/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/metabolism , Organ Size , Reference Values , Reproduction/physiology , Scent Glands/anatomy & histology , Seasons , Testis/growth & development , Testosterone/blood , Breeding , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Receptors, Androgen/analysis , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Arvicolinae , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Leydig Cells/metabolism
11.
Singapore medical journal ; : 115-120, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304075

ABSTRACT

Local healthcare providers often question the possible steroidal activity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs or herbal products and implicate them as a cause for adrenal insufficiency or Cushing's syndrome in patients with a history of TCM intake. We conducted a comprehensive database search for evidence of potential glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgenic or oestrogenic activity of herbs or herbal products. Overall, there are not many herbs whose steroidal activity is well established; among these, most cases were based on preclinical studies. Liquorice root may cause pseudoaldosteronism through interference with the steroidogenesis pathway. Although ginseng and cordyceps have some in vitro glucocorticoid activities, the corroborating clinical data is lacking. Deer musk and deer antler contain androgenic steroids, while epimedium has oestrogenic activity. On the other hand, adulteration of herbal products with exogenous glucocorticoids is a recurrent problem encountered locally in illegal products masquerading as TCM. Healthcare providers should stay vigilant and report any suspicion to the relevant authorities for further investigations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Androgens , Cordyceps , Databases, Factual , Deer , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Epimedium , Estrogens , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Glucocorticoids , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mineralocorticoids , Panax , Plant Preparations , Risk , Singapore , Steroids , Tissue Extracts
12.
J. vasc. bras ; 15(1): 52-60, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780903

ABSTRACT

Esta revisão teve como objetivo apresentar e discutir os achados mais recentes do efeito dos ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (AGMI) sobre marcadores plasmáticos do metabolismo lipídico em estudos pós-prandiais e de intervenção clínica nutricional. Realizou-se busca em diferentes bases de dados entre 2010 e 2014, usando os seguintes termos de indexação: MUFA, Lipemia, Lipid Metabolism, Triglycerides e Postprandial. O consumo de refeição com alto conteúdo de AGMI tem demonstrado efeito benéfico na resposta lipidêmica pós-prandial, mas se essa resposta pode ser alterada em indivíduos com excesso de peso e/ou outras doenças crônicas após consumo de AGMI, ainda não está totalmente elucidado. De modo geral, após a intervenção com AGMI, os fatores de risco cardiovascular diminuíram, além de haver melhora no perfil lipídico. Em conclusão, os estudos recentes têm demonstrado um efeito benéfico do consumo de AGMI em curto e longo prazos, mediante aumento/manutenção das concentrações de HDL colesterol e diminuição do LDL colesterol.


The objective of this review is to present and discuss the most recent findings related to the effects of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on plasma markers of lipid metabolism observed in postprandial studies and clinical nutritional intervention studies. Searches were conducted on several different databases for publications from 2010 to 2014 using the following keywords: MUFA, Lipemia, Lipid Metabolism, Triglycerides and Postprandial. High-MUFA meal has presented beneficial effect on postprandial lipidemia response, but it is not yet completely clear whether this response to MUFA intake may be different in people with excess weight and/or other chronic diseases. In general, cardiovascular risk factors were reduced and lipid profiles improved after interventions with MUFA. In conclusion, recent studies have demonstrated that consuming MUFA has beneficial effects at short and long time by increasing/maintaining HDL-cholesterol concentrations and reducing levels of LDL cholesterol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/adverse effects , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Oleic Acid/blood , Bertholletia , Olive Oil
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 549-556, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328201

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Stellate ganglion (SG) plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases. The electrical activity of SG neurons is involved in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of fluvastatin on the electrophysiological characteristics of SG neurons in a rabbit model of myocardial ischemia (MI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The MI model was induced by abdominal subcutaneous injections of isoproterenol in rabbits. Using whole-cell patch clamp technique, we studied the characteristic changes of ion channels and action potentials (APs) in isolated SG neurons in control group (n = 20), MI group (n = 20) and fluvastatin pretreated group (fluvastatin group, n = 20), respectively. The protein expression of sodium channel in SG was determined by immunohistochemical analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>MI and the intervention of fluvastatin did not have significantly influence on the characteristics of delayed rectifier potassium channel currents. The maximal peak current density of sodium channel currents in SG neurons along with the characteristics of activation curves, inactivation curves, and recovery curves after inactivation were changed in the MI group. The peak current densities of control group, MI group, and fluvastatin group (n = 10 in each group) were -71.77 ± 23.22 pA/pF, -126.75 ± 18.90 pA/pF, and -86.42 ± 28.30 pA/pF, respectively (F = 4.862, P = 0.008). Fluvastatin can decrease the current amplitude which has been increased by MI. Moreover, fluvastatin induced the inactivation curves and post-inactive recovery curves moving to the position of the control group. But the expression of sodium channel-associated protein (Nav1.7) had no significantly statistical difference among the three groups. The percentages of Nav1.7 protein in control group, MI group, and fluvastatin group (n = 5 in each group) were 21.49 ± 7.33%, 28.53 ± 8.26%, and 21.64 ± 2.78%, respectively (F = 1.495, P = 0.275). Moreover, MI reduced the electrical activity of AP and increased amplitude of AP, fluvastatin pretreatment could recover amplitude and electrical activity of AP. The probability of neurons induced continuous APs were 44.44%, 14.29%, and 28.57% in control group, MI group, and fluvastatin group, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Fluvastatin pretreatment can recover electrophysiology characteristics of ion channel and AP in SG neurons in a rabbit model of MI. It could be considered as potential method for treating coronary heart diseases.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Action Potentials , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Pharmacology , Indoles , Pharmacology , Myocardial Ischemia , Drug Therapy , Sodium Channels , Stellate Ganglion , Physiology
14.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 581-593, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728671

ABSTRACT

The advantages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been well established. However, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-diabetic action of MUFAs remain unclear. This study examined the anti-hyperglycemic effect and explored the molecular mechanisms involved in the actions of fish oil- rich in MUFAs that had been acquired from hybrid catfish (Pangasius larnaudii×Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) among experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetic rats that were fed with fish oil (500 and 1,000 mg/kg BW) for 12 weeks significantly reduced the fasting plasma glucose levels without increasing the plasma insulin levels. The diminishing levels of plasma lipids and the muscle triglyceride accumulation as well as the plasma leptin levels were identified in T2DM rats, which had been administrated with fish oil. Notably, the plasma adiponectin levels increased among these rats. The fish oil supplementation also improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and pancreatic histological changes. Moreover, the supplementation of fish oil improved insulin signaling (p-Akt(Ser473) and p-PKC-ζ/λ(Thr410/403)), p-AMPK(Thr172) and membrane GLUT4 protein expressions, whereas the protein expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and nuclear NF-κB) as well as p-PKC-θ(Thr538) were down regulated in the skeletal muscle. These data indicate that the effects of fish oil-rich in MUFAs in these T2DM rats were partly due to the attenuation of insulin resistance and an improvement in the adipokine imbalance. The mechanisms of the anti-hyperglycemic effect are involved in the improvement of insulin signaling, AMPK activation, GLUT4 translocation and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine protein expressions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Adipokines , Adiponectin , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Blood Glucose , Catfishes , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Fish Oils , Glucose , Glucose Transporter Type 4 , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Leptin , Membranes , Muscle, Skeletal , Plasma , Triglycerides
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(2): 107-114, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741027

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of preconditioning with oils mixes containing ω3/ω6/ω9 associated with micro-currents on skin repair in rats. METHODS: One-hundred and eight Wistar rats randomized into G-1, G-2 and G-3 groups were treated with saline (0.9%), mix 1 (corn+soybean oils) and mix 2 (olive+canola+flaxseed oils), respectively, in a single dose (0.01ml/g) by gavage. Next, each group was subdivided into sham and stimulated subgroups. Pulsed-wave microcurrents (0.5 µA, 0.5 Hz) were applied to stimulated subgroups for 20 min. One hour later anesthetized rats were subjected to surgery. A dorsal incision (6 cm long) was carried out and closed with interrupted nylon sutures. Samples (1cm2) were harvested from the mid-portion of the incision on the 7, 14, 21 post-operative (P.O.) days. Variables were analyzed using Mann-Whitney/Dunn tests Significance level was set to 5 % (p<0.05). RESULTS: Micro-currents promoted increase of exudate and reduction of epithelialization on day 7 in G1 rats. Mixes 1/2 reduced vascularization on 7/14th days P.O. Both 1/2 mixes reduced fibrosis on day 14. Preconditioning with mix 1 led to increased expression of NF-kB on the 7th day. CONCLUSION: Preconditioning with microcurrents has pro-inflammatory effects while oil mixes 1 and 2 decrease fibrosis and vascularization in the proliferative phase of cicatrization. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/therapeutic use , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/therapeutic use , Skin/drug effects , Wound Healing/drug effects , Fibrosis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Skin/blood supply , Skin/pathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 256-262, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319509

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of drug plasma of musk and olibanum (DP-M&O) on the release of inflammatory cytokines from monocytes and the expressions of the proteins associated with inflammation of prostatic or endothelial cells induced by prostate antigen (PAg) stimulation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We prepared DP-M&O using SD rats and monocytes and PAgs using BALB/c mice. We pre-treated the monocytes with DP-M&O at the gradient concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20% for 1 hour, activated them with PAgs, and then cultured them for 96 hours, followed by detection of the release of inflammatory cytokines. We co-cultured the prostate RWPE-1 cells with the endothelial EA. hy926 cells, pre-treated them with the same gradient concentrations of DP-M&O as above for 1 hour, activated with PAgs, and cultured for 96 hours. Then we determined the expression levels of the proteins associated with inflammation of RWPE-1 and EA. hy926 cells by Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>DP-M&O decreased the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 and increased that of IL-10 in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant differences were found between the 20% P-M&O and PAg groups in the release of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha (70.8 +/- 22.3 vs. 277.1 +/- 65.5, P < 0.01) , IL-113 (277.5 +/- 22.6 vs. 630.4 +/- 89.7, P <0.01), IL-6 (232.7 +/- 62.7 vs. 994.2 vs. 182.3, P < 0.01), IL-8 (227.3 +/- 79.2 vs. 769.3 +/- 284.1, P < 0.01), and IL-10 (640.2 +/- 201.2 vs. 271.1 +/- 55.8, P < 0.01). Compared with the PAg group, the 10 and 20% P-M&O groups showed remarkable decreases in the protein expression of MCP-1/CCL2 in the RWPE-1 cells (1.12 +/- 0.34 vs. 0.56 +/- 0.11 and 0.34 +/- 0.08) and that of VCAM-1 in the EA. hy926 cells (0.94 +/- 0.22 vs. 0.52 +/- 0.17 and 0.38 +/- 0.12) (P < 0.05 or 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The compatibility of musk and olibanum can decrease the expression of MCP-1/CCL2 in prostate cells and VCAM-1 in vascular endothelial cells, blocking the adhesion of leucocytes and suppressing inflammatory response.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Blotting, Western , Cytokines , Metabolism , Endothelial Cells , Metabolism , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Pharmacology , Frankincense , Pharmacology , Inflammation , Metabolism , Interleukin-10 , Metabolism , Interleukin-1beta , Metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Metabolism , Interleukin-8 , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Monocytes , Metabolism , Prostate , Cell Biology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Metabolism
18.
Clinical Nutrition Research ; : 110-123, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13532

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the associations between intakes of various nutrients and food groups and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study among Koreans aged 20 to 80 years. A total of 150 new cases and 116 controls were recruited with subjects' informed consent. Dietary data were collected using the food frequency questionnaire developed and validated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence. High intakes of total lipid (OR(T3 vs T1) = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.33-12.96, p for trend = 0.034), saturated fatty acid (OR(T3 vs T1) = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.24-7.04, p for trend = 0.016) and monounsaturated fatty acid (OR(T3 vs T1) = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.23-7.54, p for trend = 0.018) were significantly associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. High dietary fiber (OR(T3 vs T1) = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56, p for trend = 0.002) and vitamin C (OR(T3 vs T1) = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.05, p for trend = 0.021) intakes were significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence. From the food group analysis, bread (OR(T3 vs T1) = 2.26, 95% CI: 0.96-5.33, p for trend = 0.031), red meat (OR(T3 vs T1) = 7.33, 95% CI: 2.98-18.06, p for trend < 0.001), milk.dairy product (OR(T3 vs T1) = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.10-5.31, p for trend = 0.071) and beverage (OR(T3 vs T1) = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.35-7.48, p for trend = 0.002) intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. On the other hand, high intake of traditional rice cake (OR(T3 vs T1) = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14-0.86, p for trend = 0.024) was linked with lower colorectal cancer incidence. In conclusion, eating a diet high in total lipid, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids is associated with higher incidence of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in dietary fiber and vitamin C was found to lower the incidence in Korean adults. Interestingly high traditional rice cake consumption is associated inversely with colorectal cancer incidence, warranting a future study.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Ascorbic Acid , Beverages , Bread , Case-Control Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms , Diet , Dietary Fiber , Eating , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Hand , Incidence , Informed Consent , Korea , Logistic Models , Meat , Odds Ratio , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2015; 31 (6): 1467-1471
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-175129

ABSTRACT

Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the amount and type of fat consumed by early school-age children per day. Dietary fat intake as a percentage of the total calorie intake was also estimated


Methods: The study was conducted in Lublin, the largest city in south-east Poland, between January 2014 and April 2014, on 702 randomly selected children, i.e. 3% of the total population of early school-age children in the research area. The parents were asked to provide information about the type and amount of food consumed by their children daily. A standard food frequency questionnaire was used


Results: Dietary levels of saturated fat were elevated in the analyzed populations and were the source of 13.33% of daily calorie intake. In the studied population, the ratio of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was determined at 3.25: 2.95: 1. Dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid [ALA] reached 1.057 +/- 0.55 g [0.63% of daily calorie intake] on average, and dietary intake of linoleic acid [LA] was determined at 3.86 +/- 2.51 g [2.31% of daily calorie intake]


Conclusions: The average total calorie intake of children aged 6-11 years was 1445.66 calories per day. Average fat intake was 29.64% of the total calorie intake. The highest intake of SFAs was found in the youngest age group of 6- to 8-year-olds. The type of food consumed by children affected the amount and type of dietary fat in all age groups


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Dietary Fats , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Surveys and Questionnaires , Diet , Child , Schools
20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 848-853, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257057

ABSTRACT

Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is an important liver-specific uptake transporter, which mediates transport of numerous endogenous substances and drugs from blood into hepatocytes. To identify and investigate potential modulators of OATP1B1 from natural products, the effect of 21 frequently used natural compounds and extracts on OATP1B1-mediated fluorescein methotrexate transport was studied by using Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing OATP1B1 (CHO-OATP1B1) in 96-well plates. This method could be used for the screening of large compound libraries. Our studies showed that some flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, chrysanthemum flavonoids and mulberrin) and triterpenoids (e.g., glycyrrhetinic acid and glycyrrhizic acid) were inhibitors of OATP1B1 with IC50 values less than 16 µmol · L(-1). The IC50 value of glycyrrhetinic acid on OATP1B1 was comparable to its blood concentration in clinics, indicating an OATPlB1-mediated drug-drug interaction could occur. Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that flavonoids had much higher inhibitory activity than their glycosides. Furthermore, the type and length of saccharides had a significant effect on their activity. In addition, we used OATP1B1 substrates fluvastatin and rosuvastatin as probe drugs to investigate the substrate-dependent effect of several natural compounds on the function of OATP1B1 in vitro. Our results demonstrated that the effect of these natural products on the function of OATPlB1 was substrate-dependent. In summary, this study would be conducive to predicting and avoiding potential OATP1B1-mediated drug-drug and drug-food interactions and thus provide the experimental basis and guidance for rational drug use.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Products , CHO Cells , Cricetulus , Drug Interactions , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Pharmacology , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Indoles , Pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Organic Anion Transporters , Genetics , Metabolism , Rosuvastatin Calcium , Pharmacology , Structure-Activity Relationship
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