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1.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(1): e1194, ene.-mar. 2021. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251752

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los ácidos grasos polinsaturados de cadena larga son esenciales en la nutrición del feto y del recién nacido. Objetivo: Examinar la importancia de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados durante el embarazo y la lactancia, para destacar los requerimientos, las recomendaciones y fuentes alimentarias. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura internacional de los últimos 15 años en bases de datos, en español y en inglés. Se utilizaron las siguientes palabras clave: embarazo, lactancia, ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, omega 3/6, fuentes y requerimientos. Se identificaron los aspectos más relevantes y controversiales. Resultados: El ácido araquidónico y docosahexaenoico influyen sobre el perfil lipídico, la sensibilidad a la insulina, la proliferación y diferenciación de los preadipocitos. Sus concentraciones durante la gestación resultan uno de los principales factores responsables de la programación fetal, que son las adaptaciones metabólicas que condicionan la evolución de la salud futura. Concentraciones óptimas de ácidos grasos omega 3 y 6 son vitales para el desarrollo neurológico del feto y del recién nacido. La funcionalidad de la placenta puede afectar la adiposidad y los niveles fetales de nutrientes clave, como los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga. Conclusiones: La dieta es uno de los principales factores ambientales durante la gestación. La lactancia materna es la mejor alternativa nutricional durante el primer año de vida, por eso es fundamental promocionarla. Es importante ofrecer una asistencia adecuada y generar estrategias que estimulen el consumo de ácidos omega-3 como una herramienta de prevención a largo plazo(AU)


Introduction: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential in the nutrition of the fetus and newborns. Objective: Examine the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation to highlight food requirements, recommendations and sources. Methods: A systematic review of the international literature of the last 15 years was carried out in databases, in Spanish and English, using the following keywords: pregnancy, lactation, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega 3/6, sources and requirements. The most relevant and controversial aspects were identified. Results: Arachydonic and docosahexaenoic acid influence lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes. Their levels during gestation are one of the main factors responsible for fetal programming that are metabolic adaptations conditioning the evolution of future health. Optimal levels of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids are vital for the neurological development of the fetus and newborn. Placenta´s functionality can affect adiposity and fetal levels of key nutrients, such as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conclusions: Diet is one of the main environmental factors during gestation. Breastfeeding is the best nutritional alternative during the first year of life, which is why it is essential to promote it. It is important to provide adequate assistance and generate strategies that stimulate the consumption of omega-3 acids as a long-term prevention tool(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adiposity , Nutritional Sciences , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Food
2.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e175224, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1343348

ABSTRACT

In dairy cattle, supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is considered to be an important tool to decrease the negative energy balance of periparturient dairy cows and improve the reproductive and immune systems. The most common PUFAs added to ruminant diets are omega 3 (n-3 PUFA) as linolenic acid and omega 6 (n-6 PUFA) as linoleic acid. This paper aims to review the potential effects of n-3 PUFA. We consider the effects of n-3 PUFA on the bovine immune system, especially on immune cells, and on in vivo and in vitro reproductive parameters, emphasizing how n-3 PUFAs act as modulators through one or more molecular mechanisms. The incorporation of n-3 PUFA in the dairy cow diet has positive effects on animal fertility and immunity. Future research on n-3 PUFA should be more explored concerning reproduction and immune function, starting from the investigation of basic biology to their potential for application in the clinical and preventive medicine fields.(AU)


Em rebanhos leiteiros, a suplementação com ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (PUFAs) é considerada uma ferramenta importante para diminuir o balanço energético negativo de vacas leiteiras durante o periparto e contribuir para a reprodução e sistema imunológico. Os efeitos da suplementação com PUFA sobre estes sistemas têm sido pouco explorados na literatura. Os PUFAs mais comuns na dieta dos ruminantes são Ômega-3 (n-3 PUFA) como ácido linolênico e Ômega-6 (n-6 PUFA) como ácido linoleico. Esta revisão abordará os aspectos gerais do n-3 PUFA, seus efeitos mais relevantes no sistema imune, principalmente seus efeitos nas células imunes, bem como seus efeitos na parte reprodutiva, tanto in vivo como in vitro, enfatizando a ação do n-3 PUFA através de mecanismos moleculares. A incorporação de n-3 PUFAs na dieta de vacas leiteiras exerce efeitos positivos na fertilidade e imunidade. Mais estudos a fim de explorar a função do n-3 PUFA na modulação do sistema imune e parâmetros reprodutivos, desde a investigação da biologia básica até a aplicação a campo de modo clínico e preventivo, devem ser requeridos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Reproduction/physiology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Linoleic Acid , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis , Immunity , Immune System
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921320

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study was to explore the effects of 2-hexyl-4-pentylenic acid (HPTA) in combination with radiotherapy (RT) on distant unirradiated breast tumors.@*Methods@#Using a rat model of chemical carcinogen (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene,DMBA)-induced breast cancer, tumor volume was monitored and treatment response was evaluated by performing HE staining, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, and western blot analyses.@*Results@#The results demonstrated that HPTA in combination with RT significantly delayed the growth of distant, unirradiated breast tumors. The mechanism of action included tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltration into distant tumor tissues, M1 polarization, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by IFN-γ.@*Conclusion@#The results suggest that the combination of HPTA with RT has an abscopal effect on distant tumors


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Proliferation/radiation effects , Combined Modality Therapy , Cytokines/immunology , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/therapeutic use , Female , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/radiotherapy , Rats , Tumor-Associated Macrophages/radiation effects
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888478

ABSTRACT

Adequate supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is of great importance for neonates, especially preterm infants. In particular,


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18479, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339305

ABSTRACT

The seed oil of Annona salzmannii A. DC. was analyzed by GC-MS and 1H qNMR, revealing a mixture of unsaturated (80.5%) and saturated (18.7%) fatty acids. Linoleic (45.3%) and oleic (33.5%) acid were the major unsaturated fatty acids identified, while palmitic acid (14.3%) was the major saturated fatty acid. The larvicidal effects of A. salzmannii seed oil were evaluated against third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.). The oil exhibited moderate larvicidal activity, with a LC50 of 569.77 ppm (95% CI = 408.11 to 825.88 ppm). However, when the cytotoxic effects of the oil were evaluated, no expressive antiproliferative effects were observed in tumor cell lines B16-F10 (mouse melanoma), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), K562 (human chronic myelocytic leukemia), HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia), and non-tumor cell line PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells), with IC50 values > 50 µg·mL-1. This is the first study to evaluate the chemical composition, larvicidal and cytotoxic activity of A. salzmannii seed oil


Subject(s)
Seeds/anatomy & histology , Plant Oils/analysis , Annonaceae/chemistry , Annona/adverse effects , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Larva/classification
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1009-1016, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129717

ABSTRACT

Nos sistemas de produção, os produtos naturais vêm se destacando na substituição a produtos sintéticos, dentre eles podemos ressaltar os óleos vegetais ricos em ácido graxos poli-insaturados (PUFA), que são conhecidos, popularmente, por seus efeitos benéficos. Dessa forma, o objetivo com este trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da suplementação dos óleos de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) e girassol (Helianthus annus) sobre parâmetros fisiológicos em leitões na fase de creche. Foram utilizados 180 leitões alojados em granja comercial, distribuídos em três grupos (n=60) conforme suplementação alimentar: óleo de pequi, óleo de girassol e controle negativo. Amostras de sangue e o peso dos animais foram obtidos nos intervalos de quatro trocas de rações da fase de creche para avaliação do desempenho, da resposta inflamatória, do perfil lipídico e do "status" oxidativo. Os parâmetros fisiológicos mensurados demonstraram que os óleos interferiram positivamente na resposta inflamatória sistêmica, por meio dos leucócitos totais e da relação neutrófilo/linfócito (P<0,05); no equilíbrio oxidante-antioxidante, por mensuração de óxido nítrico e do malondialdeído (P<0,05); e no metabolismo lipídico, com a avaliação de colesterol total e triglicérides (P<0,05). Por outro lado, esses óleos vegetais interferiram no ganho de peso e no consumo de ração (P<0,05). Assim, concluí-se que a suplementação com óleos de pequi e girassol melhora a saúde dos animais, mas tem impacto negativo no desempenho zootécnico de leitões na fase de creche.(AU)


In production systems, natural products have been outstanding in replacing synthetic products, among them, we can highlight the vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are popularly known for their beneficial effects. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) and sunflower (Helianthus annus) oil supplementation on nursery physiological parameters. We used 180 piglets housed in a commercial farm, distributed in 3 groups (n=60) according to food supplementation: pequi oil, sunflower oil and negative control. Blood samples and animal weight were obtained at intervals of four nursery phase rations to evaluate performance, inflammatory response, lipid profile and oxidative status. The physiological parameters measured showed that the oils positively interfered in the systemic inflammatory response through total leukocytes and neutrophil / lymphocyte ratio (P<0.05), in the oxidant-antioxidant balance by measuring nitric oxide and malondialdehyde (P<0.05). and lipid metabolism with the assessment of total cholesterol and triglycerides (P<0.05). On the other hand, these vegetable oils interfered with weight gain and feed intake (P<0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that supplementation with pequi and sunflower oils improves animal health, but has a negative impact on the piglet's performance in the nursery phase.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Weight Gain , Dietary Supplements , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Plant Oils/administration & dosage , Sunflower Oil/administration & dosage
7.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 396-405, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126137

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop and validate a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing consumption of fatty acids among pregnant women. METHODS: Two lists of foods were created according to percent contribution of each nutrient estimated by three 24-hour recalls: a long and short version FFQ to estimate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Student paired t-test and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to verify the differences in mean consumption of nutrients from the FFQ and 24-hour recall. The concordance between the consumption values of the two methods was assessed using the Bland-Altman method and quartiles concordance. RESULTS: For the FFQ - long version, correlation values ranged from 0.33 (<0.05) to 0.62 (<0.01) for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid (LA), respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were not correlated. Exact concordance ranged from 49.0% (energy) to 22.4% (EPA), and discordance ranged from 14.3% (DPA) to 2.0% (Saturated). The FFQ - short version had high correlations for LCPUFAs. Exact concordance ranged from 36.7% (n-3 LCPUFA) to 16.3% (DHA); and discordance from 12.2% (DPA) to 2.0% (arachidonic acid). Bland-Altman analysis showed good concordance for both versions. CONCLUSION: This nutrient-specific FFQ is a valid instrument to be used to estimate the level of consumption of fatty acids among pregnant women.


OBJETIVO: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo desarrollar y validar un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos para evaluar el consumo de ácidos grasos en gestantes. MÉTODOS: Dos listas de alimentos fueron creadas de acuerdo con la contribución porcentual de cada nutriente estimado por 3 recordatorios de 24 horas: CFC - versión larga y CFC - versión corta para estimar ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL). La prueba de t pareada de Student y el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson se utilizaron para verificar las diferencias entre el consumo medio de nutrientes de del CFC y el recordatorio de 24 horas. La concordancia entre los valores de consumo de los dos métodos se evaluó mediante el método de Bland-Altman y la concordancia de cuartiles. RESULTADOS: En CFC - versión larga, los valores de correlación oscilaron entre 0.33 (<0.05) y 0.62 (<0.01) para ácido docosahexaenoico (DHA) y ácido linoleico (LA), respectivamente. Ácido eicosapentaenoico (EPA) y ácido docosapentaenoico (DPA) no presentaron correlación. La concordancia exacta varió de 49,0% (energía) a 22,4% (EPA), y la discordancia varió de 14,3% (DPA) a 2,0% (saturado). CFC: la versión corta mostró los mejores valores de correlaciones para los AGPICL. La concordancia exacta varió de 36,7 (n-3 LCPUFA) a 16,3% (DHA); y discordancia de 12,2% (DPA) a 2,0% (ácido araquidónico). El análisis de Bland-Altman mostró una buena concordancia para ambas versiones. CONCLUSIÓN: Este método CFC específico de nutrientes es un instrumento válido que se utiliza para estimar el nivel de consumo de ácidos grasos en mujeres gestantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Energy Intake , Surveys and Questionnaires , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/administration & dosage , Mental Recall , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Diet Records , Diet Surveys , Fatty Acids/administration & dosage
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180234, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132179

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was performed to assess the proximate and nutrient content of rainbow trout flesh, cultured in the Doi Inthanon Fisheries Research Unit, Chiang Mai Inland Fisheries Research and Development Center, Thailand. 240 fish were randomly distributed across 12 cages with 20 fish cage-1. Sixteen individual fish from each cage were randomly collected at different ages of 10, 12 and 24 months. Body composition, pH, water-holding capacity, shear force, collagen content analysis, sensory, lipid oxidation, and fatty acids profile were evaluated. The results indicated that body composition and carcass length were significantly higher in fish aged 24 months, except for carcass and viscero-somatic index percentages (P ≤ 0.05). Fish at 24 months showed significantly higher pH, moisture, fat, shear force, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total collagen content values than fish at 10 and 12 months (P ≤ 0.05). However, protein percentage, sensory measurement and water-holding capacity were significantly higher in younger fish at 10 and 12 months. The average lipid content and n-6/n-3 ratios were significantly greater in fish at 12 months and in ventral fillets (P ≤ 0.05). However, polyunsaturated fatty acids: saturated fatty acid ratio was higher in fish at 24 months and in dorsal fillets. In conclusion, rainbow trout cultured in sub-tropical, montane conditions can be valuable sources of protein, unsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acids, and docosahexaenoic acids.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Nutritive Value , Thailand , Body Composition , Nutrients , Lipid Metabolism , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Fisheries
9.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 33: e190165, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136682

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Polyunsaturated fatty acids oxidize easily due to their chemical structure, causing a reduction of their nutritional properties. Nanostructured systems may be an alternative to protect fatty acids against oxidation, improving solubility and stability. Consequently, nutritional value of food is maintained as well as the sensory characteristics (color, flavor, texture, and aroma) when fatty acids are added to food products. The present study is a narrative review to introduce the potential benefits of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids nanoparticles incorporated in food products. The literature review includes publications in English and Portuguese issued between March 1985 and March 2019, in PubMed, ScienceDirect and Web of Science databases. Manual searches were conducted in the articles references lists of the articles included to identify other relevant studies. There were studies that evaluated the stability of fatty acids in food products such as bread, fruit juice, milk, yogurt, and meat. In this study, the most used nanostructured systems for the incorporation of fatty acids were the nanocapsules and the nanoliposomes. Currently, the nanostructured system demonstrates a potential to improve protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids against oxidization and thermal degradation. In this way, they maintain their functional properties and their bioavailability increases and therapeutic efficacy and sensory properties are improved. There are several methodologies being tested, which makes it difficult to identify the most efficient formulation to protect fatty acids. Nanostructured systems seem to be the best alternative to protect polyunsatured fatty acids from oxidization. The encapsulation efficiency, particle's size and type are relevant factors to be considered to evaluate oxidization. In conclusion, the review showed that currently it is impossible to determine the most efficient methodology. Besides, nanoformulations should follow international guidelines to present more standardized and therefore more efficient particles.


RESUMO Os ácidos graxos poli-insaturados são facilmente oxidados devido à sua estrutura química, o que acarreta a diminuição de suas propriedades nutricionais. Nesse contexto, o sistema nanoestruturado pode ser uma alternativa para protegê-los contra a oxidação, melhorando a solubilidade e estabilidade. Consequentemente, quando são adicionados a produtos alimentares, o valor nutricional é mantido, bem como as características sensoriais (cor, sabor, textura e aroma). O presente estudo é uma revisão narrativa para apresentar os potenciais benefícios das nanopartículas com ácidos graxos insaturados da classe ômega-3 incorporados a produtos alimentícios. A literatura consultada incluiu publicações em inglês e em português, considerando o período entre março de 1985 e março de 2019, utilizando as bases de dados PubMed, ScienceDirect e Web of Science. Foram realizadas buscas manuais nas referências dos artigos incluídos, a fim de identificar outros estudos relevantes. Foram encontradas pesquisas que avaliaram a estabilidade dos ácidos graxos em produtos alimentícios, como pães, suco de fruta, leite, iogurte e carne. Neste estudo, as nanoestruturas mais utilizadas para a incorporação dos ácidos graxos foram as nanocápsulas e os nanolipossomas. Atualmente, o sistema nanoestruturado demonstra um potencial para melhorar a proteção desses ácidos poli-insaturados contra a oxidação e degradação térmica. Dessa forma, eles mantêm suas propriedades funcionais, aumenta-se sua biodisponibilidade e há melhora da eficácia terapêutica e das propriedades sensoriais. Existem diversas metodologias sendo testadas, o que dificulta a identificação de qual seria a formulação mais eficiente nessa proteção, mas os sistemas nanoestruturados parecem ser a melhor alternativa para proteger os ácidos graxos insaturados da oxidação. A eficiência de encapsulação bem como o tamanho e o tipo de partícula são fatores importantes a considerar na avaliação da oxidação. Em conclusão, a revisão demonstrou que atualmente a metodologia mais eficiente não é possível de ser identificada. Ademais, as nanoformulações devem seguir diretrizes do protocolo internacional para apresentar partículas mais padronizadas e, assim, eficientes.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Nanotechnology , Functional Food , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
10.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(6): 783-791, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058142

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The need to obtain nutritious foods from new sources and lower waste in industry has created a high interest in studying different parts of plants or foods that today are considered waste, but could be considered by-products with high nutritional value with potential use in human diets. Pumpkin seeds are commonly considered as waste but they have a high content of fatty and amino acids, which when used as a by-product or ingredient can add value to food products. The aim of this work was to perform a wide review of the nutritional and functional properties of Cucurbita maxima seeds and their potential medicinal influence.


RESUMEN La necesidad de obtener alimentos nutritivos de nuevas fuentes y menores desperdicios en la industria ha generado un gran interés en el estudio de diferentes partes de plantas o alimentos que hoy en día se consideran desechos, pero que podrían considerarse subproductos con alto valor nutricional y uso potencial en alimentación humana. Las semillas de calabaza se consideran comúnmente como desechos, pero tienen un alto e importante contenido de ácidos grasos y aminoácidos, que cuando se utilizan como subproducto o ingrediente pueden aportar un alto valor agregado a los productos alimenticios. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una amplia revisión de las propiedades nutricionales y funcionales de las semillas de Cucurbita maxima y su potencial influencia medicinal asociada a ellas.


Subject(s)
Seeds/chemistry , Cucurbita/chemistry , Functional Food , Plant Oils/chemistry , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis , Flour , Amino Acids/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Nutritive Value
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adequate dietary fatty acid intake is important for toddlers between 12–24 months of age, as this is a period of dietary transition in conjunction with rapid growth and development; however, actual fatty acid intake during this period seldom has been explored. This study was conducted to assess the intake status of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids by toddlers during the 12–24-month period using 2010–2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data of 12–24-month-old toddlers (n = 544) was used to estimate the intakes of α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6), as well as the major dietary sources of each. The results were compared with the expected intake for exclusively breastfed infants in the first 6 months of life and available dietary recommendations. RESULTS: Mean daily intakes of ALA, EPA, DHA, LA, and AA were 529.9, 22.4, 37.0, 3907.6, and 20.0 mg/day, respectively. Dietary intakes of these fatty acids fell below the expected intake for 0–5-month-old exclusively breastfed infants. In particular, DHA and AA intakes were 4 to 5 times lower. The dietary assessment indicated that the mean intake of essential fatty acids ALA and LA was below the European and the FAO/WHO dietary recommendations, particularly for DHA, which was approximately 30% and 14–16% lower, respectively. The key sources of the essential fatty acids, DHA, and AA were soy (28.2%), fish (97.3%), and animals (53.7%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the prevailing view of DHA and AA requirements on early brain development, there remains considerable room for improvement in their intakes in the diets of Korean toddlers. Further studies are warranted to explore how increasing dietary intakes of DHA and AA could benefit brain development during infancy and early childhood.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arachidonic Acid , Brain , Diet , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Essential , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Growth and Development , Humans , Infant , Korea , Linoleic Acid , Nutrition Surveys
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759636

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between the presence of allergic rhinitis and the nutritional intake levels of Korean infants. METHODS: The study involved a total of 1,214 infant subjects aged 1~5 months from the 2013~2016 KNHNES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). The Subjects were classified into two groups based on the presence of allergic rhinitis: Non-allergic rhinitis infants (NARI, n=1,088) and allergic rhinitis infants (ARI, n=126). The general characteristics and family history of allergies, nutrient intake status, nutrient supplement intake, and breast milk and baby food start period data of the two groups were compared. All statistical analyses accounted for the complex sampling design effect and sampling weights. RESULTS: The mean age was 0.5 years old in the ARI group compared to the NARI group. In the residence, the rate of urban was higher in ARI. The family history revealed a significant difference between the two groups, particularly those of mothers rather than fathers. The nutrient intake levels were high in energy, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iron, riboflavin, niacin, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Breastfeeding was significantly higher in the ARI group than in the NARI group. The baby food start period was 0.3 months earlier in NARI group than in ARI group. The height, body weight, and birth weight were higher in ARI group than NARI group. The result of Odds ratio analysis showed that excess energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, riboflavin, and niacin intake increases the risk of allergic rhinitis. CONCLUSIONS: These results can be used as data to develop nutrition guidelines for allergic rhinitis infants.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Body Height , Breast Feeding , Calcium , Fathers , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Infant , Iron , Korea , Milk, Human , Mothers , Niacin , Nutrition Policy , Nutrition Surveys , Odds Ratio , Phosphorus , Potassium , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic , Riboflavin , Sodium , Weights and Measures
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated dietary intakes of total fat and fatty acids among the Korean adult population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used the 2016–2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. A total of 10,772 subjects aged ≥19 y for which dietary data were available were selected. Data pertaining to energy and nutrient intakes were obtained by a 24-h recall method. Total fat and fatty acids intakes were evaluated based on the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) of 2015 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans by sex and age groups. All statistical analyses accounted for the complex sampling design effect and sampling weights. RESULTS: The mean intakes of energy and total fat were 1,952 kcal (95% CI: 1928–1977) and 46.1 g (45.2–47.1), respectively, and about 21% of the energy was obtained from fat in this study population (21.7% in men and 20.2% in women). The mean percentages of energy from saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 6.4%, 6.7%, and 5.2%, respectively. About 18% of adults exceeded the AMDR for fat (30% of energy), whereas 37.6% exceeded the AMDR for saturated fatty acids (7% of energy). The proportions of subjects who consumed more than the AMDR for fat and saturated fatty acids decreased across age groups in both sexes. Among young adults (19–29 y), about 63% of the subjects obtained ≥7% of their energy from saturated fatty acids. About 61% of older adults obtained less than 15% of their energy from total fat. CONCLUSIONS: Increased intake of fat energy was prominent in saturated fatty acids. Our findings suggest current information on total fat and fatty acids intakes in Korean adults and can be used to provide dietary guidelines for the improvement of public health.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Fats , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Humans , Korea , Male , Methods , Nutrition Policy , Nutrition Surveys , Public Health , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Weights and Measures , Young Adult
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761796

ABSTRACT

Free fatty acid (FFA) intake regulates blood pressure and vascular reactivity but its direct effect on contractility of systemic arteries is not well understood. We investigated the effects of saturated fatty acid (SFA, palmitic acid), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, linoleic acid), and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, oleic acid) on the contractility of isolated mesenteric (MA) and deep femoral arteries (DFA) of Sprague–Dawley rats. Isolated MA and DFA were mounted on a dual wire myograph and phenylephrine (PhE, 1–10 µM) concentration-dependent contraction was obtained with or without FFAs. Incubation with 100 µM of palmitic acid significantly increased PhE-induced contraction in both arteries. In MA, treatment with 100 µM of linoleic acid decreased 1 µM PhE-induced contraction while increasing the response to higher PhE concentrations. In DFA, linoleic acid slightly decreased PhE-induced contraction while 200 µM oleic acid significantly decreased it. In MA, oleic acid reduced contraction at low PhE concentration (1 and 2 µM) while increasing it at 10 µM PhE. Perplexingly, depolarization by 40 mM KCl-induced contraction of MA was commonly enhanced by the three fatty acids. The 40 mM KCl-contraction of DFA was also augmented by linoleic and oleic acids while not affected by palmitic acid. SFA persistently increased alpha-adrenergic contraction of systemic arteries whereas PUFA and MUFA attenuated PhE-induced contraction of skeletal arteries. PUFA and MUFA concentration-dependent dual effects on MA suggest differential mechanisms depending on the types of arteries. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms of the various effects of FFA on systemic arteries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arteries , Blood Pressure , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Femoral Artery , Linoleic Acid , Mesenteric Arteries , Oleic Acid , Oleic Acids , Palmitic Acid , Phenylephrine , Rats , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha , Vasoconstriction
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719355

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is recognized as one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases, and it is mostly associated with oxidative stress, atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) due to its antioxidant properties may play a role in the atherosclerosis development. Although long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, the exact mechanism of action is still unknown. Our goal in this study was to determine the effect of EPA administration on gene expression of PON2 in patients with T2DM. Present study was a randomized, controlled double-blind trial. Thirty-six patients with T2DM were randomly allocated to receive 2 g/day EPA (n = 18) or placebo (n = 18) for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences between 2 groups concerning demographic or biochemical variables, and dietary intakes as well (p > 0.05). However, patients received EPA showed a significant increase in the gene expression of PON2 compared with placebo group (p = 0.027). In addition, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and fasting blood sugar decreased significantly after EPA supplementation compared with control group. Taken together, supplementation with 2 g/day EPA could be atheroprotective via the upregulation of PON2 in patients with T2DM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03258840


Subject(s)
Aryldialkylphosphatase , Atherosclerosis , Blood Glucose , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dyslipidemias , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Fasting , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Gene Expression , Humans , Lipoproteins , Metabolic Diseases , Oxidative Stress , Up-Regulation
16.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 348-353, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786424

ABSTRACT

Soluble epoxide hydrolases (sEH) are enzymes present in all living organisms, metabolize epoxy fatty acids to 1,2-diols. sEH in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids plays a key role in inflammation. In addition, the endogenous lipid mediators in cardiovascular disease are also broken down to diols by the action of sEH that enhanced cardiovascular protection. In this study, sEH inhibitory guided fractionation led to the isolation of five phenolic compounds trans-resveratrol (1), trans-piceatannol (2), sulfuretin (3), (+)-balanophonin (4), and cassigarol E (5) from the ethanol extract of the seeds of Passiflora edulis Sims cultivated in Vietnam. The chemical structures of isolated compounds were determined by the interpretation of NMR spectral data, mass spectra, and comparison with data from the literature. The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitory activity of isolated compounds was evaluated. Among them, trans-piceatannol (2) showed the most potent inhibitory activity on sEH with an IC₅₀ value of 3.4 µM. This study marks the first time that sulfuretin (3) was isolated from Passiflora edulis as well as (+)-balanophonin (4), and cassigarol E (5) were isolated from Passiflora genus.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Epoxide Hydrolases , Ethanol , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Inflammation , Metabolism , Passiflora , Passifloraceae , Phenol , Vietnam
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741827

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Malnutrition may influence neurocognitive development in children by directly affecting the brain structural development, or indirectly by affecting the children's cognition experience. Malnutrition alters the cell numbers, cell migration, synaptogenesis, and neurotransmission due to inadequate availability of necessary micronutrients to support cell growth. We aimed to analyze neurocognitive development in infants with malnutrition and its association with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), micronutrients levels and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings. METHODS: The study included two groups; group 1, infants with malnutrition (n=24), group 2; healthy infants (n=21). Peripheral blood was obtained from the participants for studying micronutrients and LC-PUFA levels. The neurocognitive development was analyzed by the use of an Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory test. MRS were performed on all infants. RESULTS: All parameters of neurocognitive development and serum calcium (9.6±0.9 mg/dL vs. 10.4±0.3 mg/dL, p < 0.05) and magnesium (2.02±0.27 mg/dL vs. 2.2±0.14 mg/dL, p < 0.05) levels were noted as being low in infants with marked malnutrition. No difference was found in LC-PUFA levels between healthy and malnourished infants. Thalamic choline/creatine levels were significantly high in infants with malnutrition (1.33±0.22 vs. 1.18±0.22, p < 0.05). Total neurocognitive development in infants was positively correlated with serum calcium levels (p < 0.05, r=0.381). CONCLUSION: Calcium supplementation may improve neurocognitive development in malnourished infants.


Subject(s)
Brain , Calcium , Cell Count , Cell Movement , Child , Cognition , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Humans , Infant , Magnesium , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Malnutrition , Mass Screening , Micronutrients , Spectrum Analysis , Synaptic Transmission
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765995

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are implicated in secondary osteoporosis, and the resulting fractures cause significant morbidity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a vital role in bone metabolism. However, few trials have studied the impact of omega-3 PUFA-containing oils against GC-induced osteoporosis. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine whether supplementation with omega-3 PUFA-containing dietary oils such as fish oil, flaxseed oil or soybean oil can impede the development of GC-induced osteoporosis. METHODS: The fatty acids (FAs) content of oils was determined using gas chromatography. Male rats were subdivided into 5 groups (8 rats each): normal control (balanced diet), prednisolone control (10 mg/kg prednisolone daily), soybean oil (prednisolone 10 mg/kg + soybean oil 7% w/w), flaxseed oil (prednisolone 10 mg/kg + flaxseed oil 7% w/w), and fish oil (from cod liver; prednisolone 10 mg/kg + fish oil 7% w/w). RESULTS: The study data exhibited a significant depletion in bone mineral density (BMD) and femur mass in the prednisolone control compared to the normal control, accompanied with a marked decrease in the levels of plasma calcium and 1,25-(OH)₂-vitamin D₃, and elevated levels of C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Supplementation with fish oil, soybean oil or flaxseed oil helped to improve plasma calcium levels, and suppress oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Additionally, bone resorption was suppressed as reflected by the decreased CTX levels. However, fish oil was more effective than the other two oils with a significant improvement in BMD and normal histological results compared to the normal control. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that supplementation with dietary oils containing omega-3 PUFAs such as fish oil, soybean oil or flaxseed oil can play a role in the prevention of bone loss and in the regulation of bone metabolism, especially fish oil which demonstrated a greater level of protection against GC-induced osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Density , Bone Resorption , Calcium , Chromatography, Gas , Dietary Fats, Unsaturated , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Femur , Fish Oils , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Inflammation , Linseed Oil , Liver , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Oils , Osteoporosis , Oxidative Stress , Plasma , Prednisolone , Rats , Soybean Oil , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
19.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 26(1): 23-43, 2019. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-995583

ABSTRACT

Background: Breast cancer is the second cause of death in women in developed and undeveloped countries, including Colombia. A high percentage of these tumors is estrogen dependent, for which the hormonal treatment is the most used therapy in breast cancer. Currently, the first line treatment for breast tumor in postmenopausal women is the letrozole, an aromatase enzyme inhibitor that avoids the transformation of androgens to estrogens. Since letrozole produced adverse effects on patients, there is a requirement for new alternative treatments. Furthermore, omega fatty acids (ω-FA), essential as they are obtained from the normal diet or from dietary supplements, have demonstrated nutraceutical potential because of their anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory activity. Nonetheless, there is controversy in in vitro, in vivo and epidemiologic reports regarding their preventive or inducing activities of carcinogenesis in animals and humans, depending on the structure of the ω-FA. Objectives: This review aims to show the main in vitro, in vivo and epidemiologic evidences of the chemotherapeutic potential of ω-3 and ω-6 FA in different types of neoplasm, particularly in breast cancer, in individual or combined treatments with diverse antineoplastics. Methods: PubMed and Science Direct databases revealed the most representative studies, published during the last two decades, about ω-3 and ω-6 FA, breast cancer and the principal therapeutic strategies for this neoplasm. Findings were presented in separated topics to provide an overview of ω-FA and their potential in treatments for breast cancer. Results: Patients treated with estrogens and progesterone derivate have shown predisposition to develop breast cancer after two years of continued therapy. Furthermore, ω-FA with known nutraceutical potential have demonstrated their potential as adjuvants in the treatment against different neoplasms, like hepatic and colon cancer. Conclusions: Current therapies for breast cancer and their low efficacy in the long term led to explore new alternative treatments with ω-FA. These essential fatty acids in daily consumption could enhance the antineoplastic agent effect. Nevertheless, metabolism of the ω-FA must be considered for this use.


Antecedentes: el cáncer de mama es la segunda causa de muerte de mujeres en países desarrollados y no desarrollados, incluido Colombia. La mayoría de estos tumores son dependientes de estrógeno por esa razón, la terapia más utilizada es la hormonal. Actualmente, el tratamiento de primera línea en mujeres posmenopáusicas es el letrozol, inhibidor de la enzima aromatasa, que evita la conversión de andrógenos en estrógenos. El letrozol causa efectos adversos en las pacientes, lo cual motiva la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas que disminuyan estos efectos. Los ácidos grasos omega, esenciales en la dieta regular o suplementaria, han mostrado su potencial nutracéutico ambivalente, como antiinflamatorios o proinflamatorios. Debido a esto, existe controversia en distintos reportes a nivel in vitro, in vivo y epidemiológicos sobre la actividad preventiva o quimioterapéutica de los ω-3 y ω-6 AGOs. Objetivos: el aporte de este artículo, es mostrar las principales evidencias in vitro, in vivo y epidemiológicas del potencial quimioterapéutico de los AGOs en tratamientos individuales y combinados con antineoplásicos, en distintos tipos de cánceres, particularmente en el cáncer de mama. Métodos: se revisaron las bases de datos PubMed y Science Direct y se seleccionaron los estudios más representativos de las dos últimas décadas sobre ω-3 y ω-6 AGOs y las principales estrategias usadas en el cáncer de mama. Los hallazgos se presentan en temas separados, primero una visión general de los AGOs y luego su potencial bioactivo en tratamientos contra el cáncer de mama. Resultados: la mayoría de los estudios en pacientes con cáncer de mama, tratadas con estrógenos y derivados de progesterona, han mostrado predisposición a desarrollar cáncer de mama después de dos años de terapia continua. De otro lado, los AGOs han demostrado su potencial como adyuvantes en el tratamiento en diferentes cánceres como el de colon y hepático. Conclusiones: las terapias actuales para el cáncer de mama y su baja eficacia a largo plazo exigen explorar nuevas alternativas de terapias, que incluyen los AGOs podrían potenciar fármacos, no obstante, es necesario tener en cuenta, el metabolismo de los AGOs, para uso


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Fish Oils , Estrogens , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
20.
HU rev ; 45(4): 452-464, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177338

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O envelhecimento da população está associado ao aumento da incidência da doença de Alzheimer (DA), a qual causa graves complicações ao paciente. Os nutrientes imunomoduladores, como os ácidos graxos poli-insaturados (PUFAs) da série ômega 3 (w-3) podem auxiliar na melhora do quadro clínico da DA. Objetivo: Analisar o efeito da suplementação de PUFAs w-3 isolado ou associado na população idosa com DA. Material e Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática de literatura científica nas bases de dados Pubmed e Science Direct, que englobou ensaios clínicos em idosos com provável e/ou comprovado diagnóstico de DA e suplementados com PUFAS w-3 isolado ou associado, no idioma inglês e com os seguintes descritores em saúde (DECs): brain, Alzheimer's disease, fatty docosahexaenoic acid(DHA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), older and elderly people e termo de pesquisa: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). O recorte temporal das publicações foi delimitado de 2006 a 2017. Resultados: foram selecionados 10 ensaios clínicos, cuja suplementação de w-3 favoreceu menor declínio no score de miniexame de estado mental (MEEM), retardo da disfunção, melhora no domínio de agitação do inventário neuropsiquiátrico (NPI) e melhora dos sintomas depressivos pela Escala de Depressão de Montgomery-Asberg (MADRS). Foram observadas mudanças significativas como aumento de apetite, peso, índice de massa corporal (IMC), EPA e DHA, além de reduções nos níveis séricos de albumina, ácido araquidônico (AA), ácido mirístico, interleucina-6 (IL- 6), interleucina 1 ß (IL-1ß) e fator estimulante de colônias de granulócitos (G-CSF) e redução na liberação de prostaglandina F2α (PGF2α). Foram relatadas alterações positivas em alguns genes e em outros, redução de sua expressão, além de hipometilação de importantes genes. Conclusão: A suplementação de PUFAs w-3 exerceu efeito positivo em pacientes com DA grau leve a moderado.


Introduction: Aging of the population is associated with an increased incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which causes severe complications to the patient. Immunomodulatory nutrients such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the omega-3 (w-3) series may help improve the clinical picture of AD. Objective: To analyze the effect of supplementation of isolated or associated w-3 PUFAs in patients with AD. Material and Methods: This is a systematic review of the scientific literature in the Pubmed and Science Direct databases, which included clinical trials in elderly people with probable and / or proven diagnosis of AD supplemented with isolated or associated PUFAS w-3, in English and with the following health descriptors (DECs): brain, Alzheimer's disease, fatty docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), older and elderly people and search term: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).The time cut of publications was delimited from 2006 to 2017. Results: a total of 10 clinical trials were selected, whose w-3 supplementation favored a smaller decline in the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, delayed dysfunction, improved neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) agitation, and improved depressive symptoms by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS). Significant changes were observed as increased appetite, weight, body mass index (BMI), EPA and DHA, as well as reductions in serum albumin levels, arachidonic acid (AA), myristic acid, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and reduced clearance of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). Positive alterations have been reported in some genes and in others, reduction of their expression, besides hypomethylation of important genes. Conclusion: Supplementation of PUFAs w-3 had a positive effect in patients with mild to moderate AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Aging , Docosahexaenoic Acids , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
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