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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1000-1008, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129715

ABSTRACT

The addition of different oil blends in the feed of finishing pigs was evaluated. Twenty-four castrated male finishing pigs were used in a randomized block design containing four treatments and six replicates. The treatments consisted of: Reference ration (RR) - 100% soybean oil feed; and the combination of the different oils: Blend1 - 50.0% soybean oil (SO), 25.0% flaxseed oil (FO), 12.5% olive oil (OO) and 12.5% canola oil (CO); Blend2 - 25.0% SO, 50.0% FO, 12.5% OO and 12.5% CO; and Blend3 - 25.0% SO, 12.5% FO, 12.5% OO and 50.0% CO. The performance, quantitative and qualitative carcass parameters, fatty acids profile and economic feasibility of the diets were evaluated. The use of blends in the diets did not influence the performance or carcass quality, but increased marbling and carcass yield. The fatty acid profile of the loin presented greater amounts of stearic acid in Blend3 and higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in animals fed with Blend1. The fatty tissue presented greater amounts of myristic acid in Blend1 and oleic acid in Blend3. The reference ration was the most economic. The Blends did not affect performance or carcass characteristics and improved the fatty acid profile.(AU)


Foi avaliada a utilização de diferentes blends de óleo em dietas de suínos em terminação. Foram utilizados 24 suínos, machos, castrados, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração referência (RR) - 100% de ração com utilização de óleo de soja; e a combinação de diferentes óleos: Blend1 - 50,0% de óleo de soja (OS), 25,0% de óleo de linhaça (OL), 12,5% de óleo de oliva (OO) e 12,5% de óleo de canola (OC); Blend2 - 25,0% OS; 50,0% OL; 12,5% OO e 12,5% OC; e Blend3 - 25,0% OS; 12,5% OL; 12,5% OO e 50,0% OC. Foram avaliados os parâmetros de desempenho, a qualidade de carcaça, o perfil de ácidos graxos e a viabilidade econômica. O uso de blends nas dietas não influenciou o desempenho ou a qualidade da carcaça, mas aumentou o marmoreio e o rendimento de carcaça. O perfil de ácidos graxos do lombo apresentou maiores quantidades de ácido esteárico com a utilização do Blend3 e maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos insaturados nos animais alimentados com o Blend1. O tecido adiposo apresentou maiores quantidades de ácido mirístico quando se forneceu o Blend1 e de ácido oleico com o Blend3. A ração testemunha foi a mais econômica. As misturas não afetaram o desempenho e as características de carcaça e melhoraram o perfil de ácidos graxos da carne.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/administration & dosage , Linoleic Acid , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Food, Fortified
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 85 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-970180

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a epilepsia é uma doença neurológica, cuja prevalência é de 0,5 a 1% na população, sendo que 20 a 30% dos pacientes apresentam crises refratárias ao tratamento medicamentoso. A dieta cetogênica (DC) composta por alto teor de gorduras, baixo teor de carboidratos e quantidade proteica adequada tem emergido como um tratamento adjuvante e eficaz no controle de crises. Apesar de sua eficácia ser bem descrita na literatura, em humanos pouco se sabe sobre influência da DC em marcadores oxidativos e na modulação de fatores de transcrição como o NF-kB e Nrf2. Além disso, não se sabe sobre o impacto que diferentes tipos de ácidos graxos dietéticos ofertados na DC poderiam ocasionar nesses marcadores. Objetivo: avaliar o impacto da modificação do perfil de ácidos graxos dietéticos ofertados na DC SAFA sobre o perfil lipídico, oxidativo e ativação de fatores de transcrição NF-kB e Nrf2 em crianças e adolescentes com epilepsia refratária submetidos ao tratamento com dieta cetogênica. Metodologia: tratase de um ensaio clínico com seguimento de 6 meses, no qual o grupo DC SAFA recebeu uma dieta rica em colesterol e gordura saturada, e o grupo DC NSAFA recebeu uma dieta com redução de pelo menos 20% de gorduras saturadas; aumento em > 50% da oferta de ácido graxo monoinsaturados e ácidos graxos poli-insaturados quando comparados ao grupo DC SAFA. Foram avaliadas características socioeconômicas e clínicas e marcadores: antropométricos; bioquímicos de adesão a dieta; de consumo Introdução: a epilepsia é uma doença neurológica, cuja prevalência é de 0,5 a 1% na população, sendo que 20 a 30% dos pacientes apresentam crises refratárias ao tratamento medicamentoso. A dieta cetogênica (DC) composta por alto teor de gorduras, baixo teor de carboidratos e quantidade proteica adequada tem emergido como um tratamento adjuvante e eficaz no controle de crises. Apesar de sua eficácia ser bem descrita na literatura, em humanos pouco se sabe sobre influência da DC em marcadores oxidativos e na modulação de fatores de transcrição como o NF-kB e Nrf2. Além disso, não se sabe sobre o impacto que diferentes tipos de ácidos graxos dietéticos ofertados na DC poderiam ocasionar nesses marcadores. Objetivo: avaliar o impacto da modificação do perfil de ácidos graxos dietéticos ofertados na DC SAFA sobre o perfil lipídico, oxidativo e ativação de fatores de transcrição NF-kB e Nrf2 em crianças e adolescentes com epilepsia refratária submetidos ao tratamento com dieta cetogênica. Metodologia: tratase de um ensaio clínico com seguimento de 6 meses, no qual o grupo DC SAFA recebeu uma dieta rica em colesterol e gordura saturada, e o grupo DC NSAFA recebeu uma dieta com redução de pelo menos 20% de gorduras saturadas; aumento em > 50% da oferta de ácido graxo monoinsaturados e ácidos graxos poli-insaturados quando comparados ao grupo DC SAFA. Foram avaliadas características socioeconômicas e clínicas e marcadores: antropométricos; bioquímicos de adesão a dieta; de consumo


Introduction: epilepsy is a neurological disease, its prevalence is estimated about 0,5 to 1 % in the population and 20 to 30% are refractory to the drug treatment. The ketogenic diet (KD) composed by high content of fat, low quantity of carbohydrate and adequate content of protein it is an adjuvant treatment with high efficacy in seizure control. Although it is well known about the efficacy of the diet, in humans there are few studies about the influence of the diet in oxidative biomarkers and its modulation in transcription factors such as NF-kB and Nrf2. Moreover it is not known about the impact of different types of dietetic fatty acids offers in KD could be influence in oxidative biomarkers and transcription factors. Objective: to evaluate and compare the impact of two different ketogenic diet, one composed by high content of saturated fatty acids (KD SAFA) and another one composed by high content of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (KD NSAFA), on lipid and oxidative profile and activations of NF-kB and Nrf2 transcriptions factors in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy on dietetic treatment with KD. Methods: clinical study, with 6 months of follow up, the patients was divided in two groups: one received a KD rich in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol (KD SAFA) and other received a KD with 20% less content of saturated fatty acids, increase in 50% of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids comparing to KD SAFA (KD NSAFA). It was evaluated socioeconomic and clinical characteristics, anthropometric measure, food intake and lipids, oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers. The patients was evaluated in three different moments: before start the diet (T0), three months after start the KD (T1) and six months after start the KD (T2). The statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS. Results: It was included 26 children and adolescents in KD SAFA and 26 in KD NSAFA. The participants treated with KD NSAFA had less modifications on classical lipid profile with less increase of: total cholesterol, LDL-C, APO B, LDL-C/HDL-C, HDL-C/APO A, LDL-C/APO B, non HDL cholesterol and non esterified fatty acids comparing to the participants treated with KD SAFA. In both diets there was a significant increase in oxidized LDL. It was observed increase of NFkB in the group treated with KD SAFA, without differences on the percentage of change of this biomarker between the interventions, in addition on the KD SAFA there was decrease in Nrf2 and the percentage of change it was different between the interventions with more reduction of this biomarker on KD SAFA. Conclusion: the KD SAFA showed worst profile in lipid, oxidative and inflammatory parameters comparing to KD NSAFA, suggesting that the use of KD NSAFA could be attenuate one of the main negative effect that are dyslipidemias


Subject(s)
Child , Adolescent , Transcription Factors , Oxidative Stress , Diet, Ketogenic , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Lipids/blood , Biomarkers , Inflammation , Antioxidants
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 135 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-970112

ABSTRACT

Introdução - Os hábitos alimentares e os nutrientes da via metabólica do folato e homocisteína possuem grande importância na manutenção da saúde. Objetivo - Investigar a relação entre padrões alimentares (PAs) e os nutrientes envolvidos nessa via metabólica, com medidas antropométricas do recém-nascido, duração da infecção por HPV em homens e concentrações de homocisteína (Hcy) em adultos. Métodos - Foram utilizados dados dos estudos de coorte ProcriAr (Influência dos fatores nutricionais e poluentes atmosféricos urbanos na saúde pulmonar de crianças: um estudo de coorte com gestantes da zona oeste do município de São Paulo, n=299); e HIM (História natural da infecção por HPV em homens, n=1.194); e do estudo transversal ISA-Capital 2008 (Inquérito de saúde do estado de São Paulo, n=281). Os padrões alimentares foram derivados por análise fatorial por componentes principais nos estudos ProcriAr e ISA-Capital 2008 e utilizando reduced rank regression (RRR) no estudo HIM. Modelos multivariados de regressão de Poisson e lineares foram utilizados nos estudos ProcriAr e HIM para identificar a relação entre PAs e medidas antropométricas do recém-nascido e duração da infecção por HPV em homens, respectivamente. Utilizando modelo de equação estrutural, investigou-se a relação entre PAs, concentrações bioquímicas de folato, vitamina B12 e ácido docosahexaenoico (DHA) e concentrações de homocisteína em adultos do estudo ISA-Capital, considerando polimorfismo da enzima metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase (MTHFR 677C>T). Os três estudos utilizaram questionário de frequência alimentar para avaliação do consumo alimentar. Resultados - No estudo ProcriAr, a maior adesão materna ao PA "Snacks, sanduíches, doces e refrigerantes", rico em energia, gordura, e folato sintético, esteve diretamente associada a ter um filho pequeno ao nascer (peso e/ou comprimento ao nascer, ajustado pela idade gestacional, abaixo do percentil 10 - INTERGOWTH-21st) (RR: 2,01; IC 95%: 1.13-3.57). No estudo HIM, homens com maior adesão ao "PA3" tiveram, em média, um aumento de 1,15 (IC95% 0,09-2,21) à 1,18 (IC95% 0,11-2,24) meses na duração da infecção por HPV. O "PA3" esteve positivamente correlacionado com vitamina B6 (r = 0,59), vitamina B12 (0,27) e DFE (0,07) e negativamente correlacionado com DHA (-0,37). No estudo ISA-Capital o PA "Prudente" esteve inversamente associado à concentração de Hcy (β = -0,12). O DHA esteve diretamente associado ao PA "Prudente"; composto por verduras e legumes, peixe, frutas, frango, suco natural e batata/mandioca/polenta (cozida ou assada). Conclusões - Os PAs estão associados às medidas antropométricas do recém-nascido, à duração da infecção por HPV em homens e às concentrações de homocisteína em adultos. Estes resultados reforçam a importância de estudos sobre alimentação e nutrição que considerem não somente nutrientes, mas principalmente o consumo de alimentos e suas combinações, servindo como base para a elaboração de estratégias e políticas públicas de promoção à saúde


Introduction - The dietary habits and nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism are of great importance in health. Objective - To investigate the relationship between dietary patterns (DP) and the nutrients involved in this metabolism, with newborn's anthropometric measurements, duration of HPV infection in men, and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in adults. Methods - Data from the cohort studies ProcriAr (Influence of nutritional factors and urban air pollutants on the pulmonary health of children: a cohort study with pregnant women from the western region of the city of São Paulo, n=299); and HIM (Natural history of HPV infection in men, n=1,194); and the cross-sectional study ISA-Capital 2008 (São Paulo State Health Survey, n=281) were used. The DP were estimated using factor analysis with principal component's estimation in ProcriAr and ISA-Capital 2008 studies and using reduced rank regression (RRR) in HIM study. Multivariate Poisson and linear regression models were used in the ProcriAr and HIM studies to identify the relationship between DP and newborn's anthropometric measurements and duration of HPV infection in men, respectively. Using a structural equation model, the relationship between DP, biochemical levels of folate, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and homocysteine levels was investigated in adults from the ISA-Capital 2008 study, considering the polymorphism of the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T). The three studies used a food frequency questionnaire to evaluate dietary intake. Results - In the ProcriAr study, the higher maternal adherence to the "Snacks, sandwiches, sweets and soft drinks" DP, which is a DP rich in energy, fat, and synthetic folate, was directly associated with having a child small at birth (weight and/or birth length by gestational age and sex below the 10th percentile - INTERGOWTH-21st) (RR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.13-3.57). In the HIM study, men with higher adherence to "DP3" had, on average, an increase from 1.15 (95% CI 0.09-2.21) to 1.18 (95% CI 0.11-2.24) months in the duration of HPV infection. "DP3" was positively correlated with vitamin B6 (r = 0.59), vitamin B12 (0.27) and DFE (0.07) and negatively correlated with DHA (-0.37). In the ISA-Capital study, the "Prudent" DP was inversely associated with Hcy levels (β = -0.12). DHA was directly associated with "Prudent" DP; composed of vegetables, fish, fruits, chicken, natural juice and potato/cassava/polenta (cooked or roasted). Conclusions - Dietary patterns are associated with newborn's anthropometric measurements, duration of HPV infection in men, and Hcy levels in adults. These results reinforce the importance of studies on food and nutrition that consider not only nutrients, but mainly the consumption of foods and their combinations, serving as a basis for the elaboration of public health promotion strategies and policies


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Papillomaviridae , Food , Eating , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Feeding Behavior , Homocysteine , Polymorphism, Genetic , Vitamin B 12 , Anthropometry , Cohort Studies
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 671-679, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889179

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Thraustochytrids are unicellular protists belonging to the Labyrinthulomycetes class, which are characterized by the presence of a high lipid content that could replace conventional fatty acids. They show a wide geographic distribution, however their diversity in the Antarctic Region is rather scarce. The analysis based on the complete sequence of 18S rRNA gene showed that strain 34-2 belongs to the species Thraustochytrium kinnei, with 99% identity. The total lipid profile shows a wide range of saturated fatty acids with abundance of palmitic acid (16:0), showing a range of 16.1-19.7%. On the other hand, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid are present in a range of 24-48% and 6.1-9.3%, respectively. All factors analyzed in cells (biomass, carbon consumption and lipid content) changed with variations of culture temperature (10 °C and 25 °C). The growth in glucose at a temperature of 10 °C presented the most favorable conditions to produce omega-3fatty acid. This research provides the identification and characterization of a Thraustochytrids strain, with a total lipid content that presents potential applications in the production of nutritional supplements and as well biofuels.


Subject(s)
Seawater/microbiology , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Stramenopiles/metabolism , Phylogeny , Biotechnology , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Stramenopiles/isolation & purification , Stramenopiles/classification , Stramenopiles/genetics , Antarctic Regions
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 30: 58-63, nov. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021458

ABSTRACT

Background: Mutation breeding is one of the most important routes to achieving high docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) productivity using Schizochytrium. However, few selection strategies have been reported that aim to generate a high DHA content in Schizochytrium lipids. Results: First, culture temperature altered the butanol tolerance of Schizochytrium limacinum B4D1. Second, S. limacinum E8 was obtained by selecting mutants with high butanol tolerance. This mutant exhibited a 17.97% lower proportion of DHA than the parent strain S. limacinum B4D1. Third, a negative selection strategy was designed in which S. limacinum F6, a mutant with poor butanol tolerance, was obtained. The proportion of DHA in S. limacinum F6 was 11.22% higher than that of parent strain S. limacinum B4D1. Finally, the performances of S. limacinum B4D1, E8 and F6 were compared. These three strains had different fatty acid profiles, but there was no statistical difference in their biomasses and lipid yields. Conclusion: It was feasible to identified the relative DHA content of S. limacinum mutants based on their butanol tolerance.


Subject(s)
Docosahexaenoic Acids/biosynthesis , Butanols/metabolism , Stramenopiles/genetics , Stramenopiles/metabolism , Selection, Genetic , Temperature , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/metabolism , Biomass , Butanols/toxicity , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Stramenopiles/drug effects , Fermentation , Mutation
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(2): 148-155, Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842539

ABSTRACT

Summary The skeletal muscle tissue has a remarkable ability to alter its plastic structural and functional properties after a harmful stimulus, regulating the expression of proteins in complex events such as muscle regeneration. In this context, considering that potential therapeutic agents have been widely studied, nutritional strategies have been investigated in order to improve the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. There is evidence of the modulatory action of fatty acids, such that oleic and linoleic acids, that are abundant in Western diets, on muscle function and trophism. Thus, fatty acids appear to be potential candidates to promote or impair the recovery of muscle mass and function during regeneration, since they modulate intracellular pathways that regulate myogenesis. This study is the first to describe and discuss the effect of fatty acids on muscle plasticity and trophism, with emphasis on skeletal muscle regeneration and in vitro differentiation of muscle cells.


Resumo O tecido muscular esquelético possui a notável capacidade plástica de alterar suas propriedades estruturais e funcionais após um estímulo lesivo, regulando a expressão de proteínas durante eventos complexos como a regeneração muscular. Nesse contexto, considerando que possíveis agentes terapêuticos vêm sendo amplamente estudados, estratégias nutricionais têm sido investigadas na perspectiva de melhorar a capacidade regenerativa do músculo esquelético. Há evidências da ação modulatória dos ácidos graxos, como os ácidos oleico e linoleico, que são abundantes nas dietas ocidentais, sobre a função muscular e o trofismo. Nesse sentido, os ácidos graxos parecem ser potenciais candidatos para promover ou prejudicar a recuperação da massa e a função muscular durante a regeneração, uma vez que modulam vias intracelulares reguladoras da miogênese. Este trabalho é o primeiro a descrever e discutir o efeito dos ácidos graxos sobre a plasticidade e o trofismo muscular, com ênfase na regeneração do músculo esquelético e na diferenciação de células musculares in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Regeneration/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/cytology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/cytology , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/metabolism , Myoblasts, Skeletal/cytology
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(11): 706-713, Nov. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827661

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of curcumin on visfatin and zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) expression levels in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Fifty-six male rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=16) and model group (n=40) and were fed on a normal diet or a high-fat diet, respectively. Equal volumes of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were intragastrically administered to the control group for 4 weeks. At the end of the 12th week, visfatin and ZAG protein expression levels were examined by immunohistochemistry. Visfatin mRNA levels were measured by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the model group showed significantly increased expression of visfatin in liver tissue (P < 0.01) and significantly decreased expression of ZAG (P < 0.01). These effects were ameliorated by curcumin treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Visfatin and zinc-α2-glycoprotein may be involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Treatment of NAFLD in rats by curcumin may be mediated by the decrease of visfatin and the increase of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Seminal Plasma Proteins/metabolism , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Random Allocation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Cholesterol/blood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Liver/pathology , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(1): 50-55, Jan. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781170

ABSTRACT

Background: The paper reports on the utilization of palm kernel oil (PKO) as a low cost renewable substrate for medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) production by Pseudomonas putida BET001. Investigation on the effects of selected key variables on growth, mixed free fatty acids consumption and mcl-PHA production by the bacterial culture in the shaken flask system were carried out along with its kinetic modeling. Results: The biomass production, fatty acids consumption and mcl-PHA production were found favorable when the strain was cultured in mineral medium at pH 6-7,28°C, aeration surface-to-volume ratio of 0.4 x 10(6) m-1, 250 rpm agitation rate for 48 h. Mcl-PHA production by this strain showed mixed growth and non-growth associated components as described by Luedeking-Piret kinetic model. Conclusion: The findings of this study provided add to the literature on key variables in for achieving good microbial growth and mcl-PHA production in shake flasks culture. In addition, suitable kinetic model to describe cultivation in this system was also presented.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Biopolymers , Pseudomonas putida , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Oils , Kinetics , Aeration , Biomass , Polyhydroxyalkanoates , Fermentation
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(3): 569-575, May-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755856

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTPurpose:

To evaluate the effects of different high-fat diets on body mass, carbohydrate metabolism and testicular morphology in rats seven months old.

Materials and Methods:

Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow), HF-S (high fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids), HF-P (high fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids), HF-SP (high fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids). The rats were fed for 16 weeks. Blood samples, testes and genital fat deposits were collected for analysis. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test, considering p<0.05 as statistically significant.

Results:

Different high-fat diets promoted an increase in the body mass (p<0.0001). The genital fat deposits were higher in the high-fat groups (HF-S, HF-P, HF-SP) (p=0.0004). Regarding serum parameters, the animals in the HF-S and HF-SP groups presented hyperglycemia (p=0.0060), hyperinsulinemia (p=0.0030) and hypercholesterolemia (p=0.0021). All of the hyperlipidemic groups showed hyperleptinemia (p=0.0019). Concerning the testis, the HF-S group showed a reduction on the seminiferous epithelium height (p=0.0003) and cell proliferation (p=0.0450). Seminiferous tubule diameter was lower in the HF-SP than in the SC group (p=0.0010).

Conclusions:

The high fat diet administration, independent of the lipid quality, promotes overweight. Diet rich in saturated fatty acids (lard) alters the carbohydrate metabolism and the testicular morphology with reductions of seminiferous epithelium height, seminiferous tubule diameter and cell proliferation which could be related to a disturbance of spermatogenesis.

.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism , Testis/anatomy & histology , Testis/metabolism , Cholesterol/blood , Fatty Acids/adverse effects , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Leptin/blood , Organ Size , Overweight/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Spermatogenesis , Time Factors , Testosterone/blood , Triglycerides/blood
10.
Clinics ; 70(5): 373-379, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748273

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury occurs in several clinical conditions and after intestinal transplantation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenomena of apoptosis and cell proliferation in a previously described intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury autograft model using immunohistochemical markers. The molecular mechanisms involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury repair were also investigated by measuring the expression of the early activation genes c-fos and c-jun, which induce apoptosis and cell proliferation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar rats were subjected to surgery for a previously described ischemia-reperfusion model that preserved the small intestine, the cecum and the ascending colon. Following reperfusion, the cecum was harvested at different time points as a representative segment of the intestine. The rats were allocated to the following four subgroups according to the reperfusion time: subgroup 1: 5 min; subgroup 2: 15 min; subgroup 3: 30 min; and subgroup 4: 60 min. A control group of cecum samples was also collected. The expression of c-fos, c-jun and immunohistochemical markers of cell proliferation and apoptosis (Ki67 and TUNEL, respectively) was studied. RESULTS: The expression of both c-fos and c-jun in the cecum was increased beginning at 5 min after ischemia-reperfusion compared with the control. The expression of c-fos began to increase at 5 min, peaked at 30 min, and exhibited a declining tendency at 60 min after reperfusion. A progressive increase in c-jun expression was observed. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed these observations. CONCLUSION: The early activation of the c-fos and c-jun genes occurred after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, and these genes can act together to trigger cell proliferation and apoptosis. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Hepatocytes/physiology , Unfolded Protein Response , Acetylcysteine/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Glutathione/metabolism , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Protein Folding
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 166-169, 02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741186

ABSTRACT

Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM) was founded in 1933 and the first Professor of Neurology was Fausto Guerner, who could not effectively assume the teaching activities due to his premature death in 1938. Professor Guerner had had his neurological training at Paris. Professor Longo was his successor. Longo was one of the founders of Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria the foremost journal of neurosciences in Latin American. Longo died in 1967 and Professor Paulo Pupo succeeded him. Pupo introduced electroencephalography in Brazil. After his death in 1970, Professor Dante Giorgi succeeded him until 1974. Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima took over the position after Giorgi’s death. He created the Neurological Emergency unit, initiated the Post-Graduation in Neurology and divided the Discipline in specialized units. During the 1980’s and until his retirement in 1995, EPM had become one of most important centers of Brazil training neurologists and researchers in neurological sciences.


A Escola Paulista de Medicina foi fundada em 1933 e o primeiro Professor de Neurologia foi Fausto Guerner, que morreu prematuramente em 1938, antes do início das aulas. O Professor Paulino Longo foi o seu sucessor. Longo, juntamente com outros, fundou os Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria e a Academia Brasileira de Neurologia. Professor Paulo Pupo, seu sucessor, introduziu a eletroencefalografia no Brasil. O Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima tornou-se chefe da Neurologia em 1974. Criou o Pronto-Socorro de Neurologia, iniciou a Pós-Graduação e dividiu a disciplina em setores especializadas. A partir dos anos 1980, a Neurologia da EPM tornou-se um dos centros acadêmicos mais importantes do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , /metabolism , Dietary Fats, Unsaturated/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Papio/metabolism , Animals, Newborn , Dietary Fats, Unsaturated/administration & dosage , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/administration & dosage , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Milk/chemistry
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(4): 330-337, 10/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-725314

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity is defined by excessive accumulation of body fat relative to lean tissue. Studies during the last few years indicate that cardiac function in obese animals may be preserved, increased or diminished. Objective: Study the energy balance of the myocardium with the hypothesis that the increase in fatty acid oxidation and reduced glucose leads to cardiac dysfunction in obesity. Methods: 30-day-old male Wistar rats were fed standard and hypercaloric diet for 30 weeks. Cardiac function and morphology were assessed. In this paper was viewed the general characteristics and comorbities associated to obesity. The structure cardiac was determined by weights of the heart and left ventricle (LV). Myocardial function was evaluated by studying isolated papillary muscles from the LV, under the baseline condition and after inotropic and lusitropic maneuvers: myocardial stiffness; postrest contraction; increase in extracellular Ca2+ concentration; change in heart rate and inhibitor of glycolytic pathway. Results: Compared with control group, the obese rats had increased body fat and co-morbities associated with obesity. Functional assessment after blocking iodoacetate shows no difference in the linear regression of DT, however, the RT showed a statistically significant difference in behavior between the control and the obese group, most notable being the slope in group C. Conclusion: The energy imbalance on obesity did not cause cardiac dysfunction. On the contrary, the prioritization of fatty acids utilization provides protection to cardiac muscle during the inhibition of glycolysis, suggesting that this pathway is fewer used by obese cardiac muscle. .


Fundamento: A obesidade é definida por um acúmulo excessivo do tecido adiposo em relação a massa magra tecidual. Estudos realizados nos últimos anos sugerem que a função cardíaca em animais obesos pode se encontrar preservada, aumentada ou reduzida. Objetivo: Estudar o balanço energético do miocárdio com a hipótese de que o aumento na oxidação de ácidos graxos e redução de glicose levam à disfunção cardíaca na obesidade. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos com 30 dias de idade foram alimentados com uma dieta padrão ou hipercalórica durante 30 semanas. A função e morfologia cardíacas foram analisadas. Neste trabalho foram estudadas as características gerais e comorbidades associadas com a obesidade. A estrutura cardíaca foi determinada pelo peso do coração e do ventrículo esquerdo (VE). A função do miocárdio foi avaliada pela análise de músculos papilares isolados do VE, na condição basal e depois de manobras inotrópicas e lusitrópicas: rigidez do miocárdio, contração pós-pausa, aumento da concentração extracelular de Ca2+, mudança na frequência de estímulos e inibição da via glicolítica. Resultados: Os ratos obesos tiveram um aumento de tecido adiposo e comorbidades associadas à obesidade em relação aos ratos do grupo controle. A análise funcional após o bloqueio pelo iodoacetato não mostrou diferença na regressão linear da tensão desenvolvida (TD), entretanto, a tensão de repouso (TR) apresentou uma diferença estatística significativa entre o grupo controle e o grupo obeso, mais notadamente na inclinação da curva no grupo C. Conclusão: O desequilíbrio energético na obesidade não promoveu ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Glycolysis/physiology , Heart/physiology , Myocardium/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glycolysis/drug effects , Heart Function Tests , Obesity/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Sept; 52(9): 860-869
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153769

ABSTRACT

Fatty acids are known to influence the ability of macrophages to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). However the effect of elaidic acid (EA, 18:1 trans fatty acid) on ROS generation is not well studied. Rat peritoneal macrophages were enriched with elaidic acid by incubating the cells with 80 µM EA. The macrophages containing EA generated higher amounts of superoxide anion (O2·-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO˙) by 54, 123 and 237%, respectively as compared to control cells which did not contain EA. To study the competition of other C18 fatty acids with EA macrophages were incubated with EA along with stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2) and α- linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3). ALA significantly reduced the incorporation of EA into macrophage lipids. This also significantly reduced the generation of O2· -, H2O2, NO˙ by macrophages. Studies were also conducted by feeding rats with diet containing partially hydrogenated vegetable fat (PHVF) as a source for EA and linseed oil (LSO) as a source for ALA. The rats were fed AIN-93 diet containing PHVF with 17% EA and incremental amounts of linseed oil for 10 weeks. The peritoneal macrophages from rats fed partially hydrogenated vegetable fat generated higher levels of O2·-, H2O2, NO˙ by 46, 161 and 76% respectively, when compared to rats fed control diets containing ground nut oil. Macrophages from rats fed PHVF with incremental amounts of LSO produced significantly lower levels ROS in a dose dependent manner. Thus ALA reduces the higher levels of ROS generated by macrophages containing EA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Linseed Oil/administration & dosage , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Macrophages, Peritoneal/metabolism , Male , Oleic Acid/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , alpha-Linolenic Acid/pharmacokinetics , alpha-Linolenic Acid/pharmacology
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(8): 538-543, 08/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719182

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate whether there is any effect resulting from preconditioning with nutraceutical supplementation containing arginine and oil mixes with high ω9:ω6 ratio and low ω6:ω3 ratio containing EPA and DHA, ALA fatty acids on inflammatory mediators, antioxidant and lipid profile modulation in surgical trauma. METHODS: Twenty-six men scheduled for radical prostatectomy were randomized into three groups and treated as follows: Group 1 (skim milk, 0% fat), Group 2 (supplement with ω6:ω3 ratio of 8:1 and arginine) and Group 3 (supplement with high ω9:ω6 ratio of 3.2:1 and low ω6:ω3 ratio of 1.4:1 and arginine). Patients received skin milk or supplements twice a day (200 ml) during five days prior to surgery. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected at three different timepoints: five days before surgery (PRE), before anesthesia induction (IND) and on the 2nd postoperative day (POS). Parameters analyzed included inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α), antioxidants (catalase), lipid profile and heat shock protein (HSP-27). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups on inflammatory mediators and antioxidant parameters. However, lipid profile values (Cholesterol, LDL, Triglycerides, VLDL), were significantly different. CONCLUSION: Preconditioning with arginine and oil mixes containing high ω9:ω6 ratio and low ω6:ω3 ratio, has no effects on inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Reduction of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL profiles may be related to the trauma effect. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Arginine/pharmacology , Catalase/blood , Dietary Supplements , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Lipids/blood , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Arginine/metabolism , Catalase/drug effects , Cholesterol/blood , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Fatty Acids/metabolism , /blood , Prostatectomy , Triglycerides/blood
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 427-438, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723098

ABSTRACT

Growth associated biosynthesis of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. Models with substrate inhibition terms described well the kinetics of its growth. Selected fatty acids (C8:0 to C18:1) and ammonium were used as carbon and nitrogen sources during growth and PHA biosynthesis, resulting in PHA accumulation of about 50 to 69% (w/w) and PHA yields ranging from 10.12 g L-1 to 15.45 g L-1, respectively. The monomer composition of the PHA ranges from C4 to C14, and was strongly influenced by the type of carbon substrate fed. Interestingly, an odd carbon chain length (C7) monomer was also detected when C18:1 was fed. Polymer showed melting temperature (Tm) of 42.0 (± 0.2) °C, glass transition temperature (Tg) of -1.0 (± 0.2) °C and endothermic melting enthalpy of fusion (ΔHf) of 110.3 (± 0.1) J g-1. The molecular weight (Mw) range of the polymer was relatively narrow between 55 to 77 kDa.


Subject(s)
Carbon/metabolism , Polyhydroxyalkanoates/metabolism , Pseudomonas putida/growth & development , Pseudomonas putida/metabolism , Ammonium Compounds/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Environmental Microbiology , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Industrial Waste , Pseudomonas putida/isolation & purification , Temperature
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163098

ABSTRACT

Microbial lipases have been heightened in bioremediation and various industries. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, between September 2010 and August 2011. To identify the lipolytic enzyme producing microbial strains in domestic oil rich wastewater, the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced. The sequences were used to identify the strains by comparing with related sequences in database using BLAST analysis. The enzyme activity was quantified by HPLC analysis. All the lipolytic bacteria showed appreciable growth rates in the wastewater (between 0.67 and 1.67 mg/day) within 5 days. The most effective lipolytic bacteria isolates in the oil-rich wastewater were two species of the genus Pseudomonas and one of Bacillus. Comparing the weights on the first day to the twelfth day values when lipolytic organisms were grown in palm oil, some appreciable increases in weight difference were recorded in some isolates: 28.3%, 7.84%, 4.44% and 6.98% for Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Klebsiella, respectively. The weight increase of each of the microbial cells in palm oil culture was usually lesser than what was obtained in the oil-rich wastewater culture. Two isolates showed high similar sequence (99%) to that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lysinibacillus sphaericus, respectively. From palm oil, Lysinibacillus sp. produced various forms of fatty acids in the medium, including myristic acid (2.61%), palmitic acid (6.22%), stearic acid (5.18%) and arachidic (3.66%). These strains are versatile in utilizing the limited nutrient and had the ability to grow appreciably in the toxic condition (soap solution), suggesting that they may serve as candidates in treating dietary oil-rich wastewater.


Subject(s)
Bacillaceae/isolation & purification , Bacillaceae/physiology , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Lipid Mobilization/etiology , Lipid Mobilization/physiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/physiology , Waste Water/microbiology , Water Pollutants
17.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Feb; 51(1): 52-57
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154234

ABSTRACT

During the complete oxidation of fatty acids, the electrons removed from fatty acids in different forms (FADH2 and NADH2) pass through the respiratory chain, driving the ATP synthesis. Generally, the ATP yield due to the complete oxidation of fatty acids is calculated by sum total the ATPs obtained due to the oxidation of FADH2 and NADH2 due to lack of any particular method. This calculation is simple for saturated even numbered fatty acids, but in the case of saturated and unsaturated odd numbered fatty acids the calculation of ATP yield is difficult and needs mathematical calculations due to some changes in their β-oxidation pathway when compared to the pathway of saturated even numbered fatty acids. These calculations are made simple by our derivations and following formulae where we require only number of carbon atoms and double bonds present in a fatty acid. Our method is superior and easier in comparison to long mathematical calculations that are in the practice.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/biosynthesis , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/chemistry , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/metabolism , Models, Biological , Oxidation-Reduction
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 294-301, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709490

ABSTRACT

Lipases produced by a newly isolated Sporidiobolus pararoseus strain have potential catalytic ability for esterification reactions. After production, the enzymatic extracts (conventional crude and precipitated, 'CC' and 'CP', and industrial crude and precipitated, 'IC' e 'IP') were partially characterized. The enzymes presented, in general, higher specificity for short chain alcohols and fatty acids. The precipitated extract showed a good thermal stability, higher than that for crude enzymatic extracts. The 'CC' and 'CP' enzymes presented high activities after exposure to pH 6.5 and 40 ºC. On the other hand, the 'IC' and 'IP' extracts kept their activities in a wide range of pH memory but presented preference for higher reaction temperatures. Preliminary studies of application of the crude lipase extract in the enzymatic production of geranyl propionate using geraniol and propionic acid as substrates in solvent-free system led to a reaction conversion of 42 ± 1.5%.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/enzymology , Lipase/isolation & purification , Lipase/metabolism , Alcohols/metabolism , Basidiomycota/growth & development , Enzyme Stability , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lipase/chemistry , Substrate Specificity , Temperature
20.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 16(3): 12-12, May 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684010

ABSTRACT

The potential of lipases (E.C.3.1.1.3.) as biocatalysts for the production of fatty acid derivatives for the food and nutraceutical industries, such as flavouring esters, fatty acid esters of antioxidants and structured lipids, is enormous, mainly due to their high regio- and stereo-selectivities, in addition to the other well-known advantages of enzymatic processes. The replacement of chemical catalysts by lipases presents great benefits in terms of the nutritional properties of the obtained products and environmental care. The reactions performed for the production of these compounds, as well as the best operation conditions, the biocatalysts used, reactor types and operation mode, are addressed in this review.


Subject(s)
Food Industry , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Lipase/metabolism , Dietary Supplements , Functional Food , Biocatalysis , Lipase/chemistry , Antioxidants
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