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Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 58: e20230272, 2024. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1550653


ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the knowledge of nursing staff before and after training on incontinence-associated dermatitis. Method: A study before and after an educational intervention carried out with nursing staff from the medical and surgical clinics and intensive care unit of the university hospital in June 2023. The training took place over three meetings. Data was collected using a questionnaire administered immediately before and after the training. McNemar's test for dependent samples was used to compare before and after training. Results: 25 nurses and 14 nursing technicians took part. The items that showed statistical significance were related to the identification and correct differentiation of dermatitis associated with incontinence and pressure injury; and the correct way to sanitize the skin. Conclusion: The training of the nursing team made it possible to assess their knowledge of how to identify, prevent and treat incontinence-associated dermatitis.

RESUMEN Objetivo: Verificar los conocimientos del personal de enfermería antes y después de la formación sobre la dermatitis asociada a la incontinencia. Método: Estudio antes y después de una intervención formativa realizada con personal de enfermería de las clínicas médicas y quirúrgicas y de la unidad de cuidados intensivos de un hospital universitario en junio de 2023. La formación se impartió en tres sesiones. Los datos se recogieron mediante un cuestionario aplicado inmediatamente antes y después de la formación. Se utilizó la prueba de McNemar para muestras dependientes para comparar antes y después de la formación. Resultados: Participaron 25 enfermeras y 14 técnicos de enfermería. Los ítems que mostraron significación estadística estaban relacionados con la identificación y correcta diferenciación de la dermatitis asociada a la incontinencia y al daño por presión; y la forma correcta de higienizar la piel. Conclusión: La formación del equipo de enfermería permitió evaluar los conocimientos del equipo de enfermería sobre cómo identificar, prevenir y tratar la dermatitis asociada a la incontinencia.

RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar o conhecimento da equipe de enfermagem antes e após capacitação sobre dermatite associada à incontinência. Método: Estudo antes e depois de uma intervenção educativa realizado com profissionais da equipe de enfermagem das clínicas médicas, cirúrgicas e unidade de terapia intensiva do hospital universitário, no mês de junho de 2023. A capacitação ocorreu durante três encontros. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário, aplicado imediatamente antes e após a capacitação. Para a comparação do antes e após capacitação, foi realizado o teste de McNemar para amostras dependentes. Resultados: Participaram 25 enfermeiros e 14 técnicos de enfermagem. Os itens que apresentaram significância estatística foram relacionados à identificação e à diferenciação correta da dermatite associada à incontinência e lesão por pressão; e a forma correta para higienização da pele. Conclusão: A capacitação da equipe de enfermagem permitiu avaliar o conhecimento da equipe de enfermagem para identificar, prevenir e tratar a dermatite associada à incontinência.

Humans , Enterostomal Therapy , Urinary Incontinence , Pressure Ulcer , Dermatitis , Fecal Incontinence
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 34(3): 17-21, sept. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552492


Las lesiones obstétricas del esfínter anal pueden ocurrir durante el parto vaginal espontáneamente o secundariamente a la episiotomía. Su riesgo se estima en un 26% y son la causa más frecuente de incontinencia anal en mujeres jóvenes. Las lesiones de grado 4 de Sultan, también llamadas cloaca traumática, implican la ruptura completa del esfínter y la comunicación de la cavidad vaginal con el canal anal. La reparación es siempre quirúrgica, para lo que se han descrito diferentes técnicas, aunque ninguna ha demostrado ser superior. Presentamos el caso de una paciente primípara de 23 años con una cloaca traumática posparto. La reparación quirúrgica se realizó de inmediato con una técnica de overlapping. El postoperatorio fue sin complicaciones y al año presenta continencia anal completa. (AU)

Obstetric anal sphincter injuries can occur spontaneously or as a consequence of an episiotomy during vaginal delivery. Their risk is estimated at 26% and they are the most frequent cause of anal incontinence in young women. Sultan grade 4 injuries, also called traumatic cloaca, involve complete rupture of the sphincter and communication of the vaginal cavity with the anal canal. The repair is always surgical, for which different techniques have been described, although none have proven to be superior. We present the case of a 23-year-old primiparous patient with a postpartum traumatic cloaca. Surgical repair was performed immediately with an overlapping technique. The postoperative period was without complications and one year later she presents complete anal continence. (AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Anal Canal/surgery , Fissure in Ano/etiology , Obstetric Labor Complications , Fecal Incontinence , Sphincterotomy/methods
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 204-207, July-sept. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521139


Introduction: Treatment of complex fistulas such as inter- or transsphincteric, recurrent, and high fistulae have high rate of recurrence or incontinence. Fistulectomy with primary sphincter reconstruction might represent an effective and safe alternative to reduce rate of recurrence and incontinence. The aim of this study is to assess incontinence and recurrence after fistulectomy with primary sphincter reconstruction for management of complex fistulas. Material and Methods: There were 60 patients with complex fistulae involving the sphincter, with 56 male and 4 female, mean age 40.6 years, operated by fistulectomy and primary sphincter repair over a period of 7 years. Patients were followed up for 6months for any complications, recurrence, and incontinence. Results: The majority of patients (50, 83.3%) had complete wound healing in 2 weeks, while 4 (6.6%) patients had hematoma and superficial wound dehiscence, which were managed conservatively and healed in 4 weeks. There was one recurrence. All patients had good continence postoperatively, except for mild fecal incontinence (FI, score 3), seen in 6 (10%) patients. However, all these patients regained continence within 6 weeks. Conclusions: Primary reconstruction of anal sphincter with fistulectomy is a safe option for complex fistula-in-ano. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome , Fecal Incontinence
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 159-165, July-sept. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521149


Introduction: Distension of the rectum wall and subsequent momentary relaxation of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) trigger a reflex called the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR). This same rectal distension causes a reflex contraction of the external anal sphincter (EAS), responsible for conscious continence called rectoanal excitatory reflex (RAER). This set of reflexes are named sampling reflex. Objectives: The sampling reflex is necessary to initiate defecation or flatulence. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sampling reflex and its practical applicability as a manometric marker of the main defecation disorders. Methodology: This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) items. The development method consisted of searching for articles in the research platforms BVS, PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and ScienceDirect and for the selection of articles the Rayyan Platform was used. The articles resulting from the search strategies were added to the platform and five collaborators were invited for the blind selection. Finally, 6 articles were included in the final review. Results: An intact sampling reflex allows the individual to facilitate discrimination between flatus and stool and to choose whether to discharge or retain rectal contents. On the other hand, an impaired sampling reflex can predispose an individual to incontinence. Therefore, it was observed that patients with defecation disorders had an impaired sampling reflex, since it was found that constipated patients have incomplete opening of the IAS, lower amplitude of RAIR and increase of RAER. Most incontinent patients present a failure in the recruitment of the EAS, a decrease in the RAER and an increase in the RAIR, in duration and amplitude. (AU)

Humans , Anal Canal/physiopathology , Fecal Incontinence/diagnosis , Reflex , Constipation , Manometry
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(1): 7-11, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430686


Objectives: To assess the status of the pelvic floor muscle (PFM) of premature ovarian insufficiency women (POI women) and the incidence of fecal incontinence (FI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods: A secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study with 150 women with POI was performed. Pelvic floor muscle assessment was performed with the PERFECT scale. The subscales POPDI-6 and CRADI-8 of the questionnaire Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20) were used for pelvic floor symptoms focused on FI and POP. Moreover, FI and POP were also assessed as dichotomous variables (yes/no). Results: Women with FI and POP did not present differences in the PFM assessment across P (p = 0.61), E (p = 0.78), R (p = 0.22), and F (p = 0.79) variables when compared with women with POI; no differences were also seen between women with and without POP according the pelvic muscles: P (p = 0.91), E (p = 0.99), R (p = 0.62), and F (p = 0.10). Women with FI and POP presented higher scores in all PFDI-20 subscales and total score when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Pelvic floor muscle assessment within POI women with or without FI or POP did not differ. However, PF symptoms are more severe in the FI or POP groups. (AU)

Humans , Female , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency , Fecal Incontinence , Pelvic Organ Prolapse , Health Profile , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Pelvic Floor Disorders
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(1): 18-23, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430688


Objective: Pelvic floor dysfunction can manifest as a spectrum including anorectal dysfunction, vaginal prolapse, and urinary incontinence. Sacrospinous fixation is a procedure performed by gynecologists to treat vaginal prolapse. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of transvaginal prolapse surgery on anorectal function. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing sacrospinous fixation surgery for vaginal prolapse between 2014 to 2020. Those with anorectal dysfunction who had also been evaluated by the colorectal service preoperatively and postoperatively were included for analysis. These patients were assessed with symptom-specific validated questionnaires. The effect of surgery on constipation and fecal incontinence symptoms was analyzed. Results: A total of 22 patients were included for analysis. All patients underwent transvaginal sacrospinous fixation, and 95.4% also had posterior colporrhaphy for vaginal prolapse. There were a statistically significant improvements in the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI), the St. Mark's Incontinence Score (Vaizey), the embarrassment and lifestyle components of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Score, the Constipation Scoring System, the Obstructed Defecation Score, and components of the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life score. Conclusion: Transvaginal prolapse surgery leads to a favorable effect on anorectal function, with improvements in both obstructed defecation and fecal incontinence scores in this small series. (AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Uterine Prolapse/surgery , Constipation , Fecal Incontinence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Pelvic Floor Disorders/surgery
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(1): 24-29, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430694


Background: The ligation of intersphincteric fistula fract (LIFT) technique avoids postoperative anal continence disturbances and preserves quality of life. Methods: A total of 70 patients with anal fistula (AF) were treated in the Day Surgery Unit. The LIFT technique was the primary treatment in 63 patients. The other had previously undergone placement of a loose seton (two-step approach). The mean follow-up was 66.8 months. Statistical analysis was performed using contingency tables, the chi-square test, and the Student T-test. Results: The use of LIFT was successful in 40 patients (57.1%). However, 6 patients (8.6%) presented persistence of postoperative intersphincteric fistula, being successfully treated by fistulotomy. There were no differences in this technique's success rate between high and low AF (p = 0.45). The success rate of one-step LIFT, however, was significantly higher (p = 0.03). No disturbances of continence were observed. Conclusions: The LIFT technique has a role in the treatment of AF, is suitable for ambulatory surgery, and has a low complications rate. A two-step approach is not always needed. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Recurrence , Follow-Up Studies , Fecal Incontinence/prevention & control
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 1095-1102, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010127


Colonic and anorectal manometry includes anorectal manometry and colonic manometry. Anorectal manometry is a common method to evaluate anorectal function, which can objectively reflect the pathological and physiological abnormalities of outlet obstructive constipation and fecal incontinence, as well as the impact of anorectal surgery on continence. Colonic manometry is a new type of colon motility detection method developed in recent years. It can record the peristalsis and contraction of the whole colon through a pressure measuring catheter, which helps physicians further evaluate various colonic diseases. However, various factors such as testing equipment, operating standards, and evaluation parameters are difficult to unify. There is no consensus on the operation and interpretation of colorectal anal pressure measurement. Under the guidance of the Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, in collaboration with Clinical Guidelines Committee, Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Anorectal motility disorders Committee , Colorectal Surgeons Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Colonic Branch of China international exchange and promotive association for medical and healthcare, Tianjin Union Medical Center is leading the organization of domestic experts in this field. Based on searching relevant literature and combining clinical experience at home and abroad, after multiple discussions, the "Chinese expert consensus on colonic and anorectal manometry" has been prepared. This consensus discusses the indications, contraindications, pre examination management and technical procedures, treatment of complications, and interpretation of examination reports for colonic and anorectal manometry , aiming to guide the standardized clinical practice of colonic and anorectal manometry.

Humans , Rectum , Consensus , Constipation , Anal Canal , Rectal Diseases , Fecal Incontinence , Manometry/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 607-613, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986827


Intersphincteric resection (ISR) has been performed as an ultimate sphincter-sparing strategy in selected patients with low rectal cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that ISR may be an interesting alternative to abdominoperineal resection to avoid a permanent stoma without compromising oncological outcomes. However, bowel dysfunction is a most common consequence of ISR not to be neglected. To date, limited clinical research has reported functional and quality of life outcomes according to patient-reported outcome measures. Also, data concerning management of low anterior resection syndrome are scarce due to lack of quality evidence. Therefore, this review provides an up-to-date summary of systematic assessment (including function, quality of life, manometry and morphology) and bowel rehabilitation for ISR patients. Postoperative anal function is often assessed by a combination of scales, including the Incontinence Assessment Scale, the Gastrointestinal Function Questionnaire, the Specific LARS Assessment Scale and the Faecal Diary. The condition-specific Quality of Life Scale is more appropriate for Quality-of-life measures in fecal incontinence after ISR. Patients' physiological function after ISR can be assessed using water- or high-resolution solid-state anorectal manometry. Anatomical and morphological changes can be assessed using defecography and 3D endorectal ultrasound. Electrical stimulation and biofeedback, pelvic floor exercises, rectal balloon training, transanal irrigation and sacral neuromodulation are all options for post-operative rehabilitation.

Humans , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Anal Canal/surgery , Quality of Life , Organ Sparing Treatments , Fecal Incontinence
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1452101


OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of fecal incontinence and its association with clinical, functional, and cognitive-behavioral variables, medication use, frailty, falls, and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults (aged 65 years or older). METHODS: Cross-sectional, multicenter study carried out across 16 Brazilian cities. The question "In the last 12 months, did you experience fecal incontinence or involuntary passage of stool?" was defined as the indicator variable for fecal incontinence. Bivariate analyses were carried out to assess the prevalence of fecal incontinence and sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, cognition, functional capacity, depression, frailty, quality of life, and falls. Logistic regression analysis was also performed, with fecal incontinence as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Overall, 6855 subjects were evaluated; 66.56% were female, 52.93% white, and the mean age was 73.51 years. The prevalence of fecal incontinence was 5.93%. It was associated with worse self-care (OR 1.78 [1.08­2.96]), dependence for basic activities of daily living (OR 1.29 [1.01­1.95]), and urinary incontinence (OR 4.22 [3.28­5.41]). Furthermore, the absence of polypharmacy was identified as a protective factor (OR 0.61 [0.44­0.85]). CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of fecal incontinence was 5.93%. On logistic regression, one quality of life variable, dependence for basic activities of daily living, and polypharmacy were significantly associated with fecal incontinence

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de incontinência fecal e sua associação com variáveis clínicas, funcionais, cognitivo-comportamentais, uso de fármacos, fragilidade, quedas e qualidade de vida em indivíduos com 65 anos ou mais que vivem na comunidade. METODOLOGIA: Estudo transversal e multicêntrico, realizado em 16 cidades brasileiras. A pergunta "Nos últimos 12 meses o(a) senhor(a) apresentou incontinência fecal ou perda de fezes de forma involuntária?'' foi a variável indicadora de incontinência fecal. Análises bivariadas avaliaram a prevalência de incontinência fecal e suas características sociodemográficas, comorbidades, cognição, funcionalidade, depressão, fragilidade, qualidade de vida e quedas. Também realizou-se análise de regressão logística tendo a incontinência fecal como variável dependente. RESULTADOS: No total, 6855 indivíduos foram avaliados; 66,56% eram do sexo feminino, 52,93% brancos e a média de idade de 73,51 anos. A prevalência de incontinência fecal foi de 5,93% e estava associada com pior cuidado com a própria saúde [OR 1,78 (1,08­2,96)], dependência para as atividades básicas de vida diária [OR 1,29 (1,01­1,95)] e incontinência urinária [OR 4,22 (3,28­5,41)]. Além disso, observou-se que a ausência de polifarmácia [OR 0,61 (0,44­0,85)] foi identificada como associação de proteção. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de incontinência fecal foi de 5,93%. Na regressão logística, uma variável de qualidade de vida, dependência para atividades básicas de vida diária e polifarmácia mostrou-se significativamente associada à incontinência fecal

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Incontinence/epidemiology , Activities of Daily Living , Fecal Incontinence/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Socioeconomic Factors , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Physical Functional Performance
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(4): 279-285, Oct.-Dec. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430683


Objective: Despite all the technological advances, successful management of complex fistula-in-ano is still a challenge due to recurrence and incontinence. The present study evaluates the outcomes of a novel technique, Interception of Fistula Track with Application of Ksharasutra (IFTAK) in terms of success rate and degree of incontinence. Methods: In the present prospective study, 300 patients with complex fistula-inano were treated by the IFTAK technique, whose surgical steps include: incision at the anterior or posterior midline perianal area, identification and interception of the fistulous track at the level of the external sphincter, rerouting the track (and extensions) at the site of interception, and application of a ksharasutra (medicated seton) in the proximal track (from the site of interception to the internal opening) that is laid open gradually, with the resulting wound healing with minimum scarring. The distal track is allowed to heal spontaneously. Results: There were 227 transsphincteric and 73 intersphincteric varieties of fistula with supralevator extension in 23 cases, of which 130 were recurrent fistulas, 29 had horseshoe track, while 25 had blind fistula with no cutaneous opening. The mean duration of the ksharasutra application was 8.11 ± 3.86 weeks with an overall success rate of 93.33% at the 1-year follow-up. A total of 3.67% of the cases reported with a mild impairment of continence on the Wexner incontinence scoring system. Pre- and postoperative anal manometry evaluation showed minimal reduction in median basal and squeeze pressures. Conclusion: The IFTAK technique is a minimally invasive, daycare surgical procedure for the management of complex fistula-in-ano with low recurrence and minimal sphincter damage. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Recurrence , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Treatment Outcome , Fecal Incontinence
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1403143


El procedimiento de apendicostomía continente para la realización de enemas anterógrados ha sido publicado ya hace varios años para el tratamiento de la incontinencia fecal y del estreñimiento de muy difícil manejo. Otra indicación del mismo incluye el estreñimiento severo, en el cual se agotaron las medidas farmacológicas y el único tratamiento efectivo es la realización de enemas. El objetivo principal del procedimiento es ofrecer a los niños y sus familias una alternativa a la hora de realizar los enemas, logrando una mayor adherencia al tratamiento y buscando alcanzar una mejor calidad de vida que permita adecuarse a las actividades con sus pares. Por otra parte permite al niño ir logrando cierta independencia gradual a medida que crezca, preparándolos para el futuro y haciéndolos participes activos de su cuidado. Se describen los primeros casos en donde utilizamos en nuestro medio el abordaje laparoscópico, sus indicaciones, la técnica quirúrgica y los resultados iniciales. Hemos constatado como ventaja principal los beneficios del abordaje mínimamente invasivo, como la exploración completa de la cavidad abdominal, el menor dolor postoperatorio, cicatrices más pequeñas, menor creación de adherencias.

The appendicostomy procedure for performing antegrade enemas has been published several years ago for the treatment of fecal incontinence and constipation that are very difficult to manage. The Malone procedure is performed in our setting, especially in patients with fecal incontinence secondary to neurological disorders such as myelomeningocele using a conventional approach. Other indications of it is severe constipation, in which pharmacological measures have been exhausted and the only effective treatment is enemas. The main objective of the procedure is to offer children and their families an alternative when performing enemas, achieving greater adherence to treatment and seeking to achieve a better quality of life that allows them to adapt to the activities of their peers. On the other hand, it allows the child to achieve a certain gradual independence as they grow, preparing them for the future and making them active participants in their care. The first cases in which we use the laparoscopic approach, its indications, the surgical technique and the initial results are described. We think that its main advantage is the benefits of the minimally invasive approach, such as complete exploration of the abdominal cavity, less postoperative pain, smaller scars, and less creation of adhesions.

O procedimento de apendicostomia continente para a realização de enemas anterógrados foi publicado há vários anos para o tratamento de incontinência fecal e constipação de difícil manejo. Outra indicação inclui constipação grave, na qual as medidas farmacológicas foram esgotadas e o único tratamento eficaz são os enemas. O principal objetivo do procedimento é oferecer às crianças e seus familiares uma alternativa na realização dos enemas, alcançando maior adesão ao tratamento e buscando alcançar uma melhor qualidade de vida que lhes permita adaptar-se às atividades com seus pares. Por outro lado, permite que a criança alcance uma certa independência gradual à medida que cresce, preparando-a para o futuro e tornando-a participante ativa em seus cuidados. São descritos os primeiros casos em que utilizamos a via laparoscópica, suas indicações, a técnica cirúrgica e os resultados iniciais. Confirmamos os benefícios da abordagem minimamente invasiva como principal vantagem, como exploração completa da cavidade abdominal, menos dor pós-operatória, cicatrizes menores e menor formação de aderências.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Appendectomy/methods , Laparoscopy/methods , Constipation/surgery , Fecal Incontinence/surgery , Appendectomy/instrumentation , Treatment Outcome , Laparoscopy/instrumentation , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(3): 217-222, July-Sept. 2022. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421985


Objectives: Vaginal balloon inflation simulates the compressive forces on the pelvic floor during the second phase of natural delivery. The foremost use of this animal model of vaginal distention (VD) is to study the mechanisms underlying urinary incontinence. As damage to the pelvic floor during natural birth is a common cause of fecal incontinence, the present paper aimed to investigate the effect of VD on defecation behavior in adult rats. Methods: Vaginal distention was performed in 8 rats for 2 hours, and in 3 rats for 4 hours, and sham inflation was performed in 4 rats. With the use of a latrine box in the rat home-cage and 24/7 video tracking, the defecation behavior was examined. The time spent in and outside the latrine was monitored for two weeks preoperatively and three weeks postoperatively, and a defecation behavior index (DBI; range: 0 [continent] to 1 [incontinent]) was defined. Pelvic floor tissue was collected postmortem and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results: Vaginal balloon inflation for 2 hours resulted in fecal incontinence in 29% of the animals (responders) whereas the DBI scores of non-responders (71%) and control animals did not change in the postoperative phase compared with the baseline score. A 4-hour balloon inflation resulted in fecal incontinence in 1 animal and caused a humane endpoint in 2 animals with markedly more tissue damage in the 4-hour responder compared with the 2-hour responders. Conclusions: Vaginal balloon inflation, with an optimum duration between 2 and 4 hours, can be used as a model to study changes in defecation behavior in rats induced by pelvic floor damage. (AU)

Animals , Rats , Pelvic Floor/injuries , Defecation , Sprains and Strains , Vagina/injuries , Fecal Incontinence
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(2): 167-172, Apr.-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394410


ABSTRACT Background Anal fissure is a common surgical disease that is usually treated conservatively. The golden surgical treatment for anal fissure is lateral internal sphincterotomy, but it may result in multiple complications. Therefore, other treatment methods have recently been introduced, and one of them is the injection of botulinum toxin A (BTA) and fissurectomy. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of fissurectomy and BTA injection in the treatment of chronic anal fissure by single surgeon. Materials and Methods The present is a non-randomized prospective cohort study conducted by a single surgeon in Saudi Arabia. Our sample was composed of 116 female patients, with mean age of 36.57 ± 11.52 years, who presented to our Surgical Outpatient Clinic with chronic anal fissure between October 2015 and July 2020, and were treated with BTA injection combined with fissurectomy. They were followed up for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks, and after one year to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment. The main outcomes analyzed were symptomatic relief, complications, recurrence, and the need for further surgical intervention. Results The treatment with BTA injection combined with fissurectomy was effective and safe in 115 patients (99.1%) at 1 year of follow-up. A total of 5 patients experienced recurrence at 8 weeks, which resolved completely with pharmacological sphincterotomy, and 12 patients experienced minor incontinence, which disappeared later. Conclusion In total, 70 units of BTA injection combined with fissurectomy is a suitable second-line treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure, with a high degree of success and a low rate of major morbidity. (AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Pain, Postoperative , Fecal Incontinence , Fissure in Ano/surgery
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(5): 503-510, May 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387910


Abstract Objectives To evaluate the impact of surgical treatment of deep infiltrative endometriosis (DIE) on pelvic floor dysfunction (urinary incontinence [UI], pelvic organ prolapse [POP], fecal incontinence [FI)] or constipation, and sexual function [dyspareunia]). Data Source The present systematic review was performed in the PubMed database. For the selection of studies, articles should be published by January 5, 2021, without language restriction. Study Selection Six randomized controlled studies that evaluated surgical treatment for DIE and the comparison of different surgical techniques were included. Data Collection The studies were selected independently by title and abstract by two authors. Disagreements were resolved by a third author. All included studies were also evaluated according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the quality of the evidence was analyzed using the GRADE criteria. Subgroup analysis by different treatments and follow-up periods was also performed. Results Six studies were included in the quantitative analysis. The risk of bias between studies showed an uncertain risk of bias for most studies, with concealment of allocation being the least reported category. The quality of the evidence was considered low. High heterogeneity was found between the studies. No study has evaluated UI or POP comparatively before and after surgery. Conclusion Dyspareunia and FI have improved after the surgical procedure, but it was not possible to demonstratewhich surgical technique was related to these outcomes as there was surgical heterogeneity. This diversity was found across data, with the recommendation of future prospective studies addressing pelvic floor disorders withDIE.

Resumo Objetivos Avaliar o impacto do tratamento cirúrgico para endometriose infiltrante profunda (EIP) nas disfunções do assoalho pélvico (incontinência urinária [IU], prolapso de órgãos pélvicos [POP], incontinência fecal [IF] ou constipação e função sexual [dispareunia]). Fonte de Dados A presente revisão sistemática foi realizada na base de dados PubMed. Para a seleção dos estudos, os artigos deveriam ser publicados até 5 de janeiro de 2021, sem restrição de idioma. Seleção dos Estudos Foram incluídos seis estudos randomizados e controlados que avaliaram o tratamento cirúrgico para EIP e a comparação de diferentes técnicas cirúrgicas. Coleta de Dados Os estudos foram selecionados de forma independente por título e resumo por dois autores. As discordâncias foram avaliadas por umterceiro autor. Todos os estudos incluídos foram avaliados de acordo coma ferramenta Cochrane de risco de viés e a qualidade de evidência foi analisada usando os critérios GRADE. A análise de subgrupo por diferentes tratamentos e períodos de acompanhamento também foi realizada. Resultados Seis estudos foram incluídos na análise quantitativa. O risco de viés mostrou um risco incerto de viés para a maioria dos estudos, sendo a ocultação da alocação a categoria menos relatada. A qualidade de evidência foi considerada baixa. Alta heterogeneidade foi encontrada entre os estudos. Nenhum estudo avaliou a IU ou o POP comparativamente antes e após a cirurgia. Conclusão A dispareunia e a IF melhoraram após o procedimento cirúrgico, mas não foi possível demonstrar qual técnica cirúrgica esteve relacionada a estes desfechos, pois houve heterogeneidade cirúrgica. Esta diversidade foi encontrada nos dados, com a recomendação de estudos prospectivos futuros abordando distúrbios do assoalho pélvico com EIP.

Humans , Female , Urinary Incontinence , Pelvic Floor , Endometriosis/surgery , Fecal Incontinence
Estima (Online) ; 20(1): e2822, Jan-Dec. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1435502


Objetivo:Analisar a prevalência pontual de dermatite associada à incontinência (DAI) e os fatores associados em pacientes adultos internados em unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs). Método: Estudo transversal, observacional, retrospectivo, realizado com 105 pacientes em UTI de três hospitais universitários localizados no estado de São Paulo. As variáveis demográficas, clínicas e de DAI foram coletadas do banco de dados do projeto de pesquisa "Prevalência de lesão por pressão em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva", composto por informações extraídas dos prontuários e de exames físicos. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e inferencial. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Instituição proponente. Resultados: Dos 105 pacientes, 58 (55,2%) eram do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 55,76 anos (desvio padrão = 16,4), 105 (91,3%) estavam com cateter urinário e 89,4% usavam fraldas. Dez pacientes apresentaram DAI, com prevalência pontual de 9,5%. O fator associado à DAI foi a admissão por trauma (p = 0,02). Conclusão: Estudos sobre DAI são fundamentais para uma assistência de enfermagem de qualidade, bem estruturada e fundamentada, sobretudo no cuidado aos pacientes críticos.

Objective:To analyze the point prevalence of incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) and associated factors in adult patients admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Method: A cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study carried out with 105 patients in the ICU of three university hospitals located in the state of São Paulo. The demographic and clinical variables and IAD come from the database of the research project "Prevalence of pressure injuries in the Intensive Care Unit," composed of information from medical records and physical examination. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the proposing institution. Results: Of the 105 patients, 58 (55.24%) were male, with a mean age of 55.76 years (SD = 16.39), 105 (91.3%) had a urinary catheter and 89.4% wore diapers. Ten patients had IAD, with a point prevalence of 9.52%. The factor associated with IAD was admission due to trauma (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Studies on IAD are essential for quality, well-structured and grounded nursing care, especially in the care of critically ill patients.

Objetivo:Analizar la prevalencia puntual de Dermatitis Asociada a Incontinencia (DAI) y factores asociados en pacientes adultos ingresados en Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI). Método: estudio transversal, observacional, retrospectivo, realizado con 105 pacientes en la UTI de tres hospitales universitarios ubicados en São Paulo. Las variables demográficas, clínicas y DAI provienen de la base de datos del proyecto de investigación "Prevalencia de lesiones por presión en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos", compuesta por información de historias clínicas y exámenes físicos. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial. El estudio fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la institución proponente. Resultados: de los 105 pacientes, 58 (55,24%) eran del sexo masculino, con una edad media de 55,76 años (DE = 16,39), 105 (91,3%) tenían sonda vesical y 89,4% usaban pañales. Diez pacientes tenían DAI, con una prevalencia puntual del 9,52%. El factor asociado a la DAI fue el ingreso por traumatismo (p = 0,02). Conclusión: los estudios sobre la DAI son esenciales para una atención de enfermería de calidad, bien estructurada y fundamentada, especialmente en el cuidado de pacientes críticos.

Urinary Incontinence , Prevalence , Dermatitis , Fecal Incontinence , Enterostomal Therapy , Intensive Care Units
Estima (Online) ; 20(1): e0122, Jan-Dec. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1379800


Objetivo:objetivou-se descrever os procedimentos técnicos operacionais e dados clínicos relacionados à implantação de um programa de atenção à saúde das pessoas com distúrbios do assoalho pélvico em um serviço público de atenção secundária. Método: trata-se de um relato de experiência, baseado em vivências relacionadas à assistência acadêmico-profissional na implantação de serviço voltado aos distúrbios do assoalho pélvico na região do Cariri cearense, realizado de maio a julho de 2021. Resultados: para a implantação do serviço, adotaram-se as seguintes estratégias: rastreamento da rede de atenção à saúde da pessoa com distúrbios do assoalho pélvico; estruturação organizacional do serviço; captação de pessoas com disfunções pélvicas; início dos atendimentos; e seguimento terapêutico. Conclusão: face ao exposto, evidencia-se que o programa de atenção à saúde das pessoas com distúrbios do assoalho pélvico pôde ser implantado satisfatoriamente, tendo em vista a infraestrutura, ao expressivo quantitativo de atendimentos realizados e ao seguimento terapêutico alcançado. Assim, com este relato, espera-se contribuir para o desenvolvimento de novos serviços ambulatoriais voltados a essa área de atuação do enfermeiro estomaterapeuta e da equipe multidisciplinar.

Objective:the objective was to describe the technical operational procedures and clinical data related to the implementation of a health care program for people with pelvic floor disorders in a public secondary care service. Method: this is an experience report, based on experiences related to academic and professional assistance in the implementation of a service aimed at pelvic floor disorders in the Cariri region of Ceará, carried out from May to July 2021. Results: for the implementation of the service, the following strategies were adopted: tracking the health care network for people with pelvic floor disorders; organizational structuring of the service; capturing people with pelvic dysfunctions; start of care; and therapeutic follow-up. Conclusion: in view of the above, it is evident that the health care program for people with pelvic floor disorders could be implemented satisfactorily, considering the infrastructure, the significant amount of care provided and the therapeutic follow-up achieved. Thus, with this report, it is expected to contribute to the development of new outpatient services aimed at this area of work of the stomatherapist nurse and the multidisciplinary team.

Objetivo:El objetivo es describir los procedimientos técnicos operativos y datos clínicos relacionados a la implementación de un programa de atención a la salud de las personas con trastornos del suelo pélvico en un servicio público de atención secundaria. Método: se trata de un reporte de experiencia, basado en vivencias relacionadas a la asistencia académico-profesional en la implementación de servicio destinado a los trastornos del suelo pélvico en la región del Cariri cearense, realizado de mayo a julio de 2021. Resultados: para la implementación del servicio, se adoptaron las siguientes estrategias: rastreo de la red de atención a la salud de personas con trastornos del suelo pélvico; estructuración organizacional del servicio; captación de personas con disfunciones pélvicas; inicio de la atención; y seguimiento terapéutico. Conclusión: frente a lo expuesto, queda evidente que el programa de atención a la salud de las personas con trastornos del suelo pélvico puede ser implementado satisfactoriamente, teniendo en cuenta la infraestructura, el importante número de atenciones realizadas y al seguimiento terapéutico alcanzado. Así, con este informe, se espera contribuir al desarrollo de nuevos servicios ambulatorios destinados a esta área de trabajo del enfermero estomaterapeuta y del equipo multidisciplinario.

Urinary Incontinence , Delivery of Health Care , Fecal Incontinence , Pelvic Floor Disorders , Enterostomal Therapy
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(1): 77-84, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375760


Introduction: Anal incontinence is defined as the loss of voluntary control of fecal matter or gases with a recurrence period longer than 3 months in individuals aged ≥ 4 years; it has a female predominance. Among the treatment modalities is pelvic physiotherapy, the second line of treatment, which promotes the reeducation, coordination, and strengthening of the muscles of the pelvic floor to enable patients to return to their regular activities of daily living. Objective: To perform a systematic review on the physiotherapeutic treatments used in women between the ages of 18 and 65 years with a diagnosis of anal incontinence. Material and methods Clinical studies written in Portuguese, Spanish and English were searched on the the following databases: Science Direct, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) via PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and Scopus. Results: Of the 998 articles found, only 4 studies met the inclusion criteria of the present systematic review. The physiotherapeutic approaches to treat women with anal incontinence are biofeedback, Kegel exercises, electrostimulation, and training of the pelvic floor muscles. The average score on the PEDro scale was of 6.25, which indicates that the methodological quality was good. Conclusion: Although pelvic physiotherapy is effective to treat anal incontinence, it must be promoted through the performance of evidence-based scientific research. (AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Physical Therapy Modalities , Fecal Incontinence/rehabilitation , Obstetric Labor Complications/therapy , Fecal Incontinence/etiology
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(1): 32-37, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375765


Objective: To evaluate the association of fecal incontinence (FI) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients diagnosed with initial prostate cancer (PC) and after any therapeutic approach (surgery and radiotherapy). Methods: Cross-sectional study using the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score (CCIS), the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQL) questionnaire, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB). Results: A total of 84 patients with PC were included: 40 of them had not started treatment, 31 were submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP), and 13 were submitted to radiotherapy (RT). Those submitted to RT presented higher scores on the ICIQ-OAB (p=0.01). When comparing the whole sample reagarding the patients with and without FI, we observed that the incontinents presented a higher frequency of urinary incontinence (UI) (p<0.001). Moreover, when comparing patients with/without FI within their treatment groups regarding the presence of UI and FIQL scores, we identified that patients undergoing RP presented an association between UI and FI (p<0.001) and a greater impact of FI on the FIQL (p<0.001). Conclusion: Patients submitted to RT present more intense LUTS. Moreover, patients with FI present a higher association with UI, and this association is more marked in those with FI submitted to RP. (AU)

Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Quality of Life , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Fecal Incontinence
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(1): 53-60, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388919


Resumen Introducción: La rehabilitación del piso pélvico es frecuentemente indicada a los pacientes con incontinencia fecal. Su efectividad a corto plazo ha sido demostrada. Sin embargo, sus resultados en el largo plazo son controversiales. Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo es evaluar los resultados funcionales y calidad de vida a largo plazo de los pacientes con incontinencia fecal tratados mediante rehabilitación del piso pélvico. Materiales y Método: Estudio cuasi-experimental. Se incluyeron los pacientes con incontinencia fecal tratados mediante rehabilitación del piso pélvico entre 2007-2014 en nuestro centro, sin necesidad de cirugía. Se midió el puntaje funcional de Wexner y de calidad de vida (FIQLS) antes (T1) y después del tratamiento (T2). Se realizó encuesta vía correo electrónico para obtener dichos puntajes entre 3-10 años posterior al tratamiento (T3). Resultados: De 215 pacientes, 182 cumplían criterios de inclusión. 96 (52,8%) de ellos respondieron la encuesta en T3. La mediana de seguimiento fue de 4,5 (3-10) años. La edad promedio al tiempo del estudio fue de 60,8 ±13,1 años. 88,4% fueron mujeres. La mediana del puntaje funcional fue 16 (6-20) en T1 y 7 (0-18) en T2, p = 0,000. La calidad de vida mejoró significativamente en sus 4 dimensiones entre T1 y T2. En T3, ambos puntajes presentaron mejores promedios que en T1, p = 0,000. No hubo asociación entre el tiempo de seguimiento y el resultado funcional en T3. Conclusión: Los pacientes con incontinencia fecal tratados mediante rehabilitación del piso pélvico mejoran significativamente su funcionalidad y calidad de vida. El beneficio disminuye en el tiempo, pero persiste mejor que previo al tratamiento.

Introduction: Pelvic floor rehabilitation is often indicated as first-line therapy for patients with fecal incontinence. Its short-term effectiveness has been demonstrated in these patients. However, long-term results are controversial. Aim: Our objective is to evalúate long-term functionality and quality of life in patients with fecal incontinence treated with pelvic floor rehabilitation. Materials and Method: Quasi- experimental study conducted at a single tertiary care center. We included patients with fecal incontinence treated by pelvic floor rehabilitation at our center between 2007-2014 who did not require surgery. Wexner functional score and quality of life using FIQLS were measured pre (T1) and post-treatment (T2). Poste - riorly, an-e-mail survey was conducted to retrieve scores three to 10 years after treatment (T3). Results: Of the 215 patients, 182 met the inclusion criteria. 96 (52.8%) patients responded at T3 and were therefore included. The median follow-up period was of 4.5 years (3-10). The mean age at the time of the study was 60.8 ± 13.1 years and 88.4% were women. The median Wexner score was 16 (6-20) in T1 and 7 (0-18) in T2, (p = 0.000). Quality of life improved significantly in its four dimensions when comparing T1 and T2. In T3, Wexner and the quality of life scores were significantly lower than T2. However, in T3, both scales had better means than T1, (p = 0.000). There was no association between the follow-up time and the functional result in T3. Conclusions: Patients with fecal incontinence treated by pelvic floor rehabilitation improve their functionality and quality of life significantly. This benefit decreases over time but remains above its baseline.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Pelvic Floor/physiopathology , Fecal Incontinence/physiopathology , Fecal Incontinence/rehabilitation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic