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Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 113-115, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279084


Resumen Introducción: Clostridioides difficile causa diarrea y colitis pseudomembranosa. Su diagnóstico se realiza con la detección de glutamato-deshidrogenasa (GDH) o las toxinas A y B y se confirma con pruebas de amplificación de ácidos nucleicos. Objetivo: Definir si la determinación de GDH es redundante a la de las toxinas. Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de muestras fecales de pacientes con sospecha de infección por Clostridioides difficile. Las toxinas y GDH se determinaron mediante inmunocromatografía. Se realizó una simulación bayesiana con los cocientes de probabilidad; se consideró significativo un valor de p < 0.05. Resultados: Se analizaron 329 resultados de GDH y toxinas A y B. Se encontró una prevalencia de infección de Clostridioides difficile de 18.2 %. La sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba de GDH fue de 0.90 y 0.89, respectivamente. El cociente de probabilidad positivo fue de 8.9 y el negativo, de 0.11. Conclusiones: Un resultado negativo de GDH disminuye considerablemente la probabilidad de infección, pero no la descarta. La detección de toxinas de Clostridioides difficile puede ser necesaria en instituciones donde la amplificación de ácidos nucleicos no es económica o accesible.

Abstract Introduction: Clostridioides difficile causes diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Its diagnosis is made with glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) or toxins A and B detection and is confirmed with nucleic acid amplification tests. Objective: To define if GDH determination is redundant to that of toxins. Methods: Retrospective, observational study in diarrheal stools of patients with suspected Clostridioides difficile infection. Toxins and GDH were determined by immunochromatography. Bayesian simulation was performed with likelihood ratios; a p-value < 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results: 329 GDH and toxin A and B results were analyzed. Clostridioides difficile infection prevalence was 18.2 %. Sensitivity and specificity of the GDH test were 0.90 and 0.89, respectively. Positive likelihood ratio was 8.9, and negative was 0.11. Conclusions: A negative GDH result considerably reduces the probability of infection but does not rule it out. Clostridioides difficile toxins detection may be necessary in institutions where nucleic acid amplification is not affordable or accessible.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Bacterial Toxins/analysis , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Enterotoxins/analysis , Feces/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Likelihood Functions , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Bayes Theorem , Sensitivity and Specificity , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Feces/enzymology , Glutamate Dehydrogenase/analysis
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e9201, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089347


Methylophiopogonanone A (MO-A), a homoisoflavonoid extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus, has been shown to attenuate myocardial apoptosis and improve cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the hypolipidemic effects remain unknown. This study was performed to investigate a potential hypolipidemic effect of MO-A in hyperlipidemia rats, as well as its underlying mechanism of action. A rat model of hyperlipidemia was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals were randomly divided into three groups (n=8/group): normal control group (NC), HFD group, and HFD+MO-A (10 mg·kg-1·d-1) treatment group. The effects of MO-A on serum lipids, body weight, activity of lipoprotein metabolism enzyme, and gene expression of lipid metabolism were evaluated in HFD-induced rats. In HFD-induced rats, pretreatment with MO-A decreased the body weight gain and reduced serum and hepatic lipid levels. In addition, pretreatment with MO-A improved the activities of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase in serum and liver, down-regulated mRNA expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and up-regulated mRNA expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in the liver. Our results indicated that MO-A showed strong ability to ameliorate the hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced rats. MO-A might be a potential candidate for prevention of overweight and dyslipidemia induced by HFD.

Animals , Male , Rats , Ophiopogon/chemistry , Benzodioxoles/pharmacology , Lipid Metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Hyperlipidemias/prevention & control , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Benzodioxoles/isolation & purification , Feces/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hyperlipidemias/metabolism , Isoflavones/isolation & purification , Lipids/analysis
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e002220, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138085


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection on the hemato-biochemical parameters, feed digestibility, and nitrogen balance in Santa Inês lambs. Eighteen three-month-old Santa Ines castrated male lambs (16.9 ± 1.43 kg of body weight) were randomly distributed in two experimental treatments: infected with T. colubriformis (I, n = 9) and uninfected (U, n = 9). The I group received a total of 45,000 L3 larvae of T. colubriformis (5,000 infective larvae, three times per week, for three weeks). During the experimental period, blood, feed digestibility, and nitrogen balance were evaluated. The I lambs showed a reduction in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and total proteins, as well as an increase in platelets and eosinophils compared to those in the U group (p < 0.05). With the exception of total protein content, these values were within the normal range for the species. Furthermore, lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility were observed in the I lambs (p = 0.08). The present findings highlight that T. colubriformis infection has the potential to impair some hemato-biochemical parameters as well as feed digestibility in lambs, which could affect their productivity.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis nos parâmetros hemato-bioquímicos, digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e balanço de nitrogênio de cordeiros Santa Inês. Dezoito cordeiros Santa Inês, de três meses de idade e castrados (16,9 ± 1,43 kg de peso corporal), foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois tratamentos experimentais: infectados com T. colubriformis (I, n = 9) e não infectados (U, n = 9). O grupo I recebeu um total de 45.000 larvas L3 de T. colubriformis (5.000 larvas infectantes, três vezes por semana, durante três semanas). Durante o período experimental, foram avaliadas as variáveis sanguíneas, digestibilidade e balanço de nitrogênio. Os cordeiros I apresentaram redução de eritrócitos, hemoglobina, hematócrito, volume corpuscular médio e proteínas totais, além de aumento de plaquetas e eosinófilos, quando comparados ao grupo U (p< 0,05). Contudo, exceto para proteínas totais, os valores estavam dentro do intervalo normal para a espécie. Além disso, a digestibilidade da matéria seca e da matéria orgânica foi menor no grupo I de cordeiros (p = 0,08). Os presentes achados destacam que a infecção por T. colubriformis teve potencial para prejudicar alguns parâmetros hemato-bioquímicos, bem como a digestibilidade aparente da dieta, o que poderia afetar a produtividade dos cordeiros.

Animals , Male , Trichostrongylosis/parasitology , Trichostrongylus/parasitology , Sheep/parasitology , Blood Proteins/analysis , Digestive System/parasitology , Nitrogen/analysis , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Trichostrongylosis/urine , Trichostrongylosis/blood , Trichostrongylosis/veterinary , Blood Cell Count/veterinary , Hemoglobins/analysis , Serum Albumin, Bovine/analysis , Serum Globulins/analysis , 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Erythrocyte Indices/veterinary , Feces/parasitology , Feces/chemistry , Nitrogen/urine
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(4): 280-288, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011515


Objective: The incidence rate of major depression in adolescents reaches approximately 14%. This disorder is usually recurrent, without remission of symptoms even after pharmacological treatment, and persists throughout adult life. Since the effects of antidepressants take approximately 2 weeks to begin, new pharmacological therapies are under continuous exploration. Recent evidence suggests that psychedelics could produce rapid antidepressant effects. In this study, we evaluated the potential antidepressant effects of ayahuasca in a juvenile non-human primate model of depression. Methods: While living with their families, juvenile marmosets (8 males; 7 females) were observed on alternate days for four weeks during a baseline phase. This was followed by 8 weeks of an induced depressive state protocol, the social isolated context (IC), in which the animals were monitored in the first and last weeks. Subsequently, five males and four females were randomly selected for treatment, first with a single administration of saline vehicle (1.67 mL/300 g of body weight, via gavage), followed by a single dose of ayahuasca (1.67 mL/300 g of body weight, via gavage). Both phases lasted 1 week and the animals were monitored daily. A third week of sampling was called the tardive-pharmacological effects phase. In all phases the marmosets were assessed for behavior, fecal cortisol levels, and body weight. Results: After IC, the animals presented typical hypocortisolemia, but cortisol recovered to baseline levels 24 h after an acute dose of ayahuasca; this recovery was not observed in vehicle-treated animals. Additionally, in males, ayahuasca, but not the vehicle, reduced scratching, a stereotypic behavior, and increased feeding. Ayahuasca treatment also improved body weight to baseline levels in both sexes. The ayahuasca-induced behavioral response had long-term effects (14 days). Thus, in this translational juvenile animal model of depression, ayahuasca presented beneficial effects. Conclusions: These results can contribute to the validation of ayahuasca as an antidepressant drug and encourage new studies on psychedelic drugs as a tool for treating mood disorders, including for adolescents with early-onset depression.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Banisteriopsis , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Hallucinogens/administration & dosage , Antidepressive Agents/administration & dosage , Primates , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Callitrichinae , Disease Models, Animal , Feces/chemistry
Rev. salud pública ; 21(2): 224-231, ene.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094394


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate intestinal parasitosis, undernutrition and socio-environmental factors in schoolchildren from Clorinda (Formosa, Argentina). Materials and Methods Serial fecal samples and anal swabs of 114 schoolchildren, canine feces and soil samples were analyzed. Body weight and height of 215 schoolchildren were measured and undernutrition was estimated according to the World Health Organization criteria. Socio-environmental variables were assessed by means of a semi-structured questionnaire. Results 78.1% of children were infected by at least one of the 12 species identified and 70.8% had multiple parasitic infections. Blastocystis sp., Giardia lamblia and Enterobius vermicularis were the most prevalent. Additionally, 17.5% of children were infected by at least one geohelminth (e.g. Ascarislumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms). 64.3% of canine of canine feces were positive and six parasitic species were found; the most frequent were Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala and G. lamblia. Furthermore, 37.5% of soil samples showed zoonotic parasites (i.e. Ascaris sp., Toxocara sp.). Finally, 10.0% of the children were undernourished and 85.7% of them had parasites. The risk for parasitosis was higher in children that lived in houses with inadequate solid waste disposal and whose parents were unemployed or had temporary jobs. Conclusions The lack of environmental sanitation, unstable employment of parents and the presence of zoonotic species were the most relevant factors observed. Consequently, these conditions result in an increase of parasitic infections and negatively influence the growth of children.(AU)

RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la parasitosis intestinal, la desnutrición y los factores socio-ambientales en escolares de Clorinda (Formosa, Argentina). Materiales y Métodos Se analizaron muestras fecales y escobillados anales seriados de 114 escolares, heces caninas y muestras de suelo. Se midió el peso corporal y la talla de 215 escolares y se evaluó la desnutrición según los criterios de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Las variables socio-ambientales se evaluaron mediante una encuesta semiestructurada. Resultados El 78,1% de los niños estuvieron parasitados por al menos 1 de las 12 especies identificadas y el 70,8% presentó parasitosis múltiples. Blastocystis sp., Giardia lamblia y Enterobius vermicularis fueron las más prevalentes. Además, el 17,5% de los niños estaban infectados con al menos un geohelminto (e.g. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, ancylostomideos). El 64,3% de las heces caninas resultaron positivas y se encontraron seis especies parasitarias; las más frecuentes fueron Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala y G. lamblia. Además, el 37,5% de las muestras de suelo mostraron parásitos zoonóticos (i.e. Ascaris sp., Toxocara sp.). Finalmente, el 10% de los niños estaban desnutridos y el 85,7% de ellos resultaron parasitados. El riesgo de parasitosis fue mayor en los niños que vivían en casas con eliminación inadecuada de desechos sólidos y cuyos padres estaban desempleados o tenían empleos temporales. Conclusiones La falta de saneamiento ambiental, el empleo inestable de los padres y la presencia de especies zoo-nóticas fueron los factores observados más relevantes. En consecuencia, estas condiciones resultan en un aumento de las infecciones parasitarias e influyen negativamente en el crecimiento de los niños.(AU)

Humans , Child , Parasitic Diseases/diagnosis , Child Nutrition Disorders/diagnosis , Environment , Socioeconomic Factors , Feces/chemistry
Rev. biol. trop ; 67(1): 254-265, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041908


Abstract Ivermectin (IVM) is widely used for parasite control in livestock in the tropics. Residual IVM in feces conserves its insecticide activity for weeks and can harm dung beetle (DB) species. Attraction to the feces of IVM-treated cattle was tested using the DB species Onthophagus landolti (Harold) and Canthon indigaceus chevrolati (Harold) as models. Experiments were done under controlled laboratory conditions, semi-controlled field conditions and uncontrolled field conditions. Olfactometers were used in the controlled and semi-controlled trials. The control treatment was baited IVM-free feces, and the experimental treatments were the feces of cattle treated with 1 % IVM (subcutaneous administration; single, 0.2 mg/kg bw dosage) and collected at 5, 14, 21 and 28 days post-treatment. The uncontrolled field trial involved pitfall traps baited with IVM-free feces or feces from IVM-treated cattle collected five days post-treatment. Under controlled and semi-controlled conditions, the feces of IVM-treated cattle (at 5, 14, 21 or 28 days post-treatment) attracted more O. landolti and C. i. chevrolati individuals than IVM-free feces (P < 0.05). The same response occurred under uncontrolled conditions. This clear attraction for IVM-containing cattle feces by the studied DB species highlights that incorrect IVM use may pose a risk to DB communities in cattle production systems.(AU)

Resumen La ivermectina (IVM) es ampliamente utilizada para el control de parásitos en el ganado en los trópicos. La IVM residual en las heces conserva su actividad insecticida durante semanas y puede dañar diversas especies de escarabajos estercoleros. La atracción a las heces del ganado tratado con IVM se probó usando a las especies Onthophagus landolti (Harold) y Canthon indigaceus chevrolati (Harold) como modelos de estudio. Los experimentos se realizaron bajo condiciones de laboratorio controladas, condiciones de campo semicontroladas y condiciones de campo no controladas. Se utilizaron olfatómetros en los ensayos controlados y semicontrolados. El tratamiento de control consistió en heces exentas de IVM, y los tratamientos experimentales fueron heces de ganado tratado con IVM al 1 % (administración subcutánea, dosis única, 0.2 mg / kg pv) las cuales se recogieron a los 5, 14, 21 y 28 días después del tratamiento al ganado. El ensayo de campo no controlado incluyó trampas de caída libre o pitfall cebadas con heces libres de IVM y con heces de ganado tratado con IVM recogido cinco días después del tratamiento. En condiciones controladas y semicontroladas, las heces del ganado tratado con IVM (a los 5, 14, 21 y 28 días después del tratamiento) atrajeron más individuos O. landolti yC. i. chevrolati que las heces sin IVM (P < 0.05). La misma respuesta ocurrió bajo condiciones no controladas. Esta clara atracción a las heces de ganado que contienen IVM por las especies estudiadas pone de relieve que el uso incorrecto de IVM puede plantear un riesgo para las comunidades de escarabajos estercoleros en los sistemas de producción ganadera.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Coleoptera , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Rural Areas , Feces/chemistry , Olfactometry/instrumentation , Mexico
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(supl.1): S85-S94, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002481


Abstract Objective: To describe the current indicators of environmental enteric dysfunction and its association with linear growth deficit and the height-for-age anthropometric indicator. Data sources: Narrative review with articles identified in PubMed and Scopus databases using combinations of the following words: environmental, enteric, dysfunction, enteropathy, and growth, as well as the authors' personal records. Data synthesis: In the last 15 years, new non-invasive markers have been investigated to characterize environmental enteric dysfunction; however, the best tests to be used have not yet been identified. There is evidence that, in environmental enteric dysfunction, a systemic inflammatory process may also occur as a consequence of increased intestinal permeability, in addition to intestinal mucosa abnormalities. Bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine and changes in fecal microbiota profile have also been identified. There is evidence indicating that environmental enteric dysfunction can impair not only full growth but also the neuropsychomotor development and response to orally administered vaccines. It is important to emphasize that the environmental enteric dysfunction is not a justification for not carrying out vaccination, which must follow the regular schedule. Another aspect to emphasize is the greater risk for those children who had height impairment in early childhood, possibly associated with environmental enteric dysfunction, to present overweight and obesity in adulthood when exposed to a high calorie diet, which has been called "triple burden." Conclusions: According to the analyzed evidence, the control of environmental enteric dysfunction is very important for the full expression of growth, development, and vaccine response in the pediatric age group.

Resumo Objetivo: Descrever os indicadores atuais da disfunção entérica ambiental e sua relação com déficit de crescimento linear e com o indicador antropométrico estatura-idade. Fontes dos dados: Revisão narrativa com artigos identificados no PubMed e Scopus com o uso de combinações das seguintes palavras: environmental, enteric, dysfunction, enteropathy e growth e dos arquivos pessoais dos autores. Síntese dos dados: Nos últimos 15 anos, vem sendo pesquisados novos marcadores não invasivos para caracterizar disfunção entérica ambiental. No entanto, ainda não foram identificados os melhores testes a serem usados. Existem evidências de que na disfunção entérica ambiental, além das anormalidades da mucosa intestinal, pode ocorrer também processo inflamatório sistêmico em consequência da maior permeabilidade intestinal. Sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado e mudança no perfil da microbiota fecal também estão sendo identificados. Evidências indicam que a disfunção entérica ambiental pode comprometer não somente o pleno crescimento como também comprometer o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e a resposta de vacinas administradas por via oral. É importante destacar que a disfunção entérica ambiental não é justificativa para não fazer a vacinação, que deve seguir o calendário normal. Um outro aspecto a ser ressaltado é o risco maior dessas crianças que tiveram comprometimento da estatura na infância precoce, possivelmente associado à disfunção entérica ambiental, apresentarem na idade adulta excesso de peso e obesidade quando expostas a uma dieta rica em calorias, o que tem sido chamado "triple burden". Conclusões: De acordo com as evidências analisadas, o controle da disfunção entérica ambiental é muito importante para plena expressão do crescimento, desenvolvimento e resposta vacinal na faixa etária pediátrica.

Humans , Child , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Growth Disorders/physiopathology , Intestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Biomarkers , Feces/chemistry , Growth Disorders/etiology , Intestinal Diseases/complications , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 128-132, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950517


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Colorectal bleeding is a warning sign that may be identified by fecal occult blood testing. A positive fecal occult blood test result requires a subsequent colonoscopy, a costly and invasive examination. Therefore, the use of diagnostic tests with optimal sensitivity and specificity is warranted. In this study, we evaluated four different fecal occult blood tests in 176 patients undergoing colonoscopy and compared their results. OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of chemical and immunochemical fecal occult blood tests in patients undergoing colonoscopy and to evaluate the degree of concordance between the tests and colonoscopy. METHODS: Patients with indications for colonoscopy also underwent fecal occult blood testing by chemical (toluidine test) and immunochemical methods, employing three commercially available kits. Based on the endoscopic findings, the colonoscopy was rated as positive or negative for colorectal bleeding. The degree of concordance between the fecal occult blood tests and the colonoscopy was evaluated by the kappa index. RESULTS: Forty-four (25%) colonoscopies were categorized as positive for colorectal bleeding. The toluidine test presented lower concordance than the immunochemical tests, which showed moderate concordance with the colonoscopy. The toluidine test had the least sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. CONCLUSION: The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests showed greater sensitivity, specificity and predictive values in detecting colorectal bleeding. The immunochemical tests had superior indexes of agreement with colonoscopy compared to the toluidine test.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: O sangramento colorretal é considerado um sinal de alarme e não deve ser ignorado. O resultado positivo de um teste de pesquisa de sangue oculto nas fezes (PSOF) requer investigação complementar com colonoscopia, exame invasivo e de alto custo. Justifica-se, portanto, a aplicação de um teste diagnóstico mais sensível e específico. No presente estudo, foram avaliados quatro diferentes testes de PSOF em 176 pacientes submetidos à colonoscopia e seus resultados foram comparados. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade, a especificidade e os valores de predição dos testes químico e imunoquímico de PSOF em pacientes submetidos à colonoscopia e avaliar o grau de concordância entre os testes de PSOF e a colonoscopia. MÉTODOS: Pacientes com indicação de realizar colonoscopia foram submetidos também à PSOF pelo método químico (o-toluidina) e pelo método imunoquímico, empregando três kits comerciais disponíveis no mercado. Fundamentado nos achados endoscópicos, a colonoscopia foi categorizada em positiva ou negativa, de acordo com a possível fonte de sangramento colorretal. O grau de concordância entre os testes de PSOF foi avaliado pelo índice kappa. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e quatro (25%) colonoscopias foram categorizadas como positivas quanto à fonte de sangramento colorretal. O teste da o-toluidina mostrou menor concordância que os testes imunoquímicos, os quais apresentaram moderada concordância com a colonoscopia. O teste da o-toluidina revelou menor sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo. CONCLUSÃO: Os testes imunoquímicos revelaram maior sensibilidade, especificidade e valores de predição na detecção de sangramento colorretal. Os testes imunoquímicos apresentaram melhores índices de concordância com a colonoscopia, quando comparados ao teste da o-toluidina.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Toluidines/analysis , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonoscopy/standards , Feces/chemistry , Occult Blood , Immunohistochemistry , Mass Screening , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Early Detection of Cancer , Middle Aged
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 471-478, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886925


ABSTRACT The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC's) of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and gross energy (GE) of conventional feedstuffs (cottonseed meal-CSM, soybean meal-SBM, wheat bran-WHB, corn-COR) and regional alternative feedstuffs (common bean residue meal-CBR, mesquite meal-MES, pasta by-product meal-PBM) were determined for hybrid juvenile tambacu Colossoma macropomum × Piaractus mesopotamicus. The apparent DM and GE digestibility of feedstuffs decreased (p<0.05) as fiber content of the ingredients increased. No differences (p>0.05) were found among ADC's of PBM and COR. The lowest CP ADC among energy sources was observed in MES; the lowest CP ADC among plant protein sources was observed in CBR. Information about the ADC's of conventional and alternative feedstuffs for tambacu is essential to formulate low-cost diets and can contribute to regional development.

Animals , Diet/veterinary , Digestion , Fishes , Animal Feed/analysis , Nutritive Value , Soybeans , Starch , Dietary Fiber , Random Allocation , Feces/chemistry
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 29(2): 166-172, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-986840


Differentiation between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can be complex as their symptoms are often similar and unspecific. Fecal biomarkers could be useful to select patients with suspected organic diseases for colonoscopy, with the aim to improve early diagnosis and to avoid unnecessary invasive studies. Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a protein found mainly in neutrophils that is released into the feces as a result of cell disruption and apoptosis. Currently, FC is a simple and non-invasive biomarker of intestinal inflammation. Inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders are associated with high levels of FC, as occurs in IBD. This review focuses on FC as a useful tool for differential diagnosis between IBS and IBD in adults. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/analysis , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnosis , Feces/chemistry
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(2): 85-90, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838839


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Healthy individuals exhibit a significantly higher concentration of faecal bifidobacteria in comparison to celiac patients. Even though there are potential benefits in probiotic usage, they have been little explored as an adjunctive therapy in celiac disease. OBJECTIVE This study aimed at the comparison of faecal bifidobacteria concentration and pH among celiac patients and healthy subjects before and after the daily intake of 100 g of yogurt containing probiotic for a thirty-day period. METHODS Feces from 17 healthy subjects and 14 celiac patients were analyzed, in which stool culture was performed for the isolation and quantification of faecal bifidobacteria. Furthermore, Gram’s method was employed for the microscopic analysis of the colonies, while the identification of the Bifidobacterium genus was made through determination of the fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase enzyme. Faecal pH was measured using a calibrated pHmeter. RESULTS Faecal bifidobacteria concentration before probiotic consumption was significantly higher in healthy individuals (2.3x108±6.3x107 CFU/g) when compared to celiac patients (1.0x107±1.7x107 CFU/g). Faecal pH values did not show a significant difference. After the daily consumption of probiotic-containing yogurt both groups showed a significant increase in the concentration of faecal bifidobacteria, but healthy subjects presented significantly higher bifidobacteria concentrations (14.7x108±0.2x108 CFU/g) than the celiac group (0.76x108±0.1x108 CFU/g). The obtained pH values from both groups were not significantly different, being 7.28±0.518 for the celiac patients and 7.07±0.570 for healthy individuals after the probiotic intake. CONCLUSION The probiotic supplementation significantly increased the number of bifidobacteria in the feces of celiac patients, although it was not sufficient to reach the concentration found in healthy individuals prior to its consumption.

RESUMO CONTEXTO Indivíduos saudáveis apresentam uma concentração de bifidobactérias fecais significativamente maior em comparação a pacientes celíacos. Apesar de haver benefícios potenciais no uso de probióticos na doença celíaca, estes têm sido pouco explorados como uma terapia adjuvante. OBJETIVO Este estudo objetivou a comparação do pH e concentração fecal de bifidobactérias entre pacientes celíacos e indivíduos saudáveis antes e após o consumo diário de 100 g de iogurte contendo probiótico por um período de 30 dias. MÉTODOS Foram analisadas fezes de 17 pessoas saudáveis e 14 pacientes celíacos, tendo sido realizada a coprocultura para o isolamento e quantificação de bifidobactérias fecais. Além disso, o método de Gram foi empregado na análise microscópica das colônias, enquanto a identificação do gênero Bifidobacterium foi feita através da determinação da enzima frutose-6-fosfato fosfocetolase. O pH fecal foi medido usando um pHmetro calibrado. RESULTADOS A concentração de bifidobactérias fecais antes do consumo do iogurte probiótico foi significativamente maior em indivíduos saudáveis (2.3x108±6.3x107 UFC/g) quando comparada aos celíacos (1.0x107±1.7x107 CFU/g). Por outro lado, o pH fecal de ambos os grupos não apresentou diferença significativa. Após o consumo diário de iogurte contendo probiótico, ambos os grupos tiveram um aumento significativo na concentração de bifidobactérias fecais, entretanto indivíduos saudáveis apresentaram concentrações de bifidobactérias significativamente maiores (14.7x108±0.2x108 UFC/g) do que o grupo celíaco (0.76x108±0.1x108 UFC/g). Os valores de pH obtidos de ambos os grupos não foram significativamente diferentes, sendo de 7.28±0.518 para os pacientes celíacos e de 7.07±0.570 para os indivíduos saudáveis após o consumo do probiótico. CONCLUSÃO A suplementação com probiótico aumentou significativamente o número de bifidobactérias nas fezes dos pacientes celíacos apesar de não ter sido suficiente para alcançar a concentração encontrada em indivíduos saudáveis antes do consumo de probióticos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Yogurt , Bifidobacterium/growth & development , Celiac Disease/drug therapy , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Colony Count, Microbial , Celiac Disease/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Feces/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Middle Aged
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1295-1303, Apr.-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886692


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare the estimates of ether extract (EE) contents obtained by the Randall method and by the high-temperature method of the American Oil Chemist's Society (AOCS; Am 5-04) in forages (n = 20) and cattle feces (n = 15). The EE contents were quantified by using the Randall extraction or AOCS method and XT4 filter bags or cartridges made of qualitative filter paper (80 g/m²) as containers for the samples. It was also evaluated the loss of particles, and concentration of residual chlorophyll after extraction and the recovery of protein and minerals in the material subjected to extraction. Significant interaction was observed between extraction method and material for EE contents. The EE estimates using the AOCS method were higher, mainly in forages. No loss of particles was observed with different containers. The chlorophyll contents in the residues of cattle feces were not affected by the extraction method; however, residual chlorophyll was lower using the AOCS method in forages. There was complete recovery of the protein and ash after extraction. The results suggest that AOCS method produces higher estimates of EE contents in forages and cattle feces, possibly by providing greater extraction of non-fatty EE.

Animals , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical/methods , Ether/analysis , Ether/chemistry , Feces/chemistry , Poaceae/chemistry , Animal Feed/analysis , Cattle , Reproducibility of Results , Food Analysis/methods , Hot Temperature
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 191-202, Jan,-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886630


ABSTRACT The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and nutria (Myocastor coypus) are herbivorous semi-aquatic rodents. Although these rodents occur in sympatry in southern South America, little is known about how the two species interact in relationship to food resources. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the food resource overlap, the feeding strategy and the diversity of the diet of capybaras and nutria. A micro-histological analysis of feces was used to study the diets. A total of 48 plant species belonging to 10 families were identified in the diet of H. hydrochaeris, and a total of 49 species belonging to 14 families were identified in the diet of M. coypus. According to the Amundsen graphical method, both rodents adopted a specialized strategy for feeding on Poaceae and a generalized strategy for other families. The results of a multivariate analysis of the dietary data showed significant differences between the two rodent species and among the seasons. These differences between diets may be related to the different proportions of each food item eaten. However, the dietary overlap between the two rodents in the Taim wetland was high, suggesting that partitioning of other resources ensured the coexistence of the species.

Animals , Rodentia/physiology , Diet/veterinary , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology , Plants , Seasons , Brazil , Wetlands , Feces/chemistry , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e10, 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845682


RESUMEN Objetivo Demostrar la presencia de Echinoccocus granulosus en el hospedero definitivo en la ciudad de Lima, Perú, mediante la detección de antígenos del parásito en heces de canes pertenecientes a trabajadores y comercializadores de vísceras de centros de beneficio autorizados en Lima metropolitana. Métodos Se recolectaron muestras de heces de 58 canes, que fueron evaluadas utilizando la técnica coproELISA para detectar antígenos secretorio/excretorio de E. granulosus. Mediante una encuesta se obtuvo información sobre las prácticas de alimentación y el manejo de las mascotas. Resultados El 13,8% (8/58) de canes fue positivo a E. granulosus. En 27,8% (5/18) de los hogares se encontró al menos un animal positivo y se estimó que en las familias que tenían más de cuatro canes las posibilidades de encontrar al menos uno positivo eran mayores. En todos los hogares con al menos un can positivo sus mascotas se alimentaban con vísceras. El 94,4% (17) de los participantes no tenía conocimiento de las formas de contagio de la equinococosis. Conclusiones Los resultados muestran la presencia de hospederos definitivos en la zona urbana de Lima y subrayan la necesidad de aumentar la difusión de las prácticas para evitar la transmisión del parasito.

ABSTRACT Objective To demonstrate the presence of Echinoccocus granulosus in the definitive host in the city of Lima, Perú, by detecting parasite antigens in the stool of dogs belonging to offal handlers and merchants in authorized slaughterhouses in Metropolitan Lima. Methods Stool samples were collected from 58 dogs and examined using the coproELISA technique for the detection of secretory/excretory antigens of E. granulosus. A survey was conducted to obtain information on pet feeding and handling practices. Results Positivity to E. granulosus was detected in 13.8% (8/58) of the dogs. In 27.8% (5/18) of the homes, at least one animal showed positivity, and in families that had more than four dogs the chances of finding positivity in at least one dog were higher (P < 0.05). In all homes where at least one dog tested positive the pets were fed on offal. Of study participants, 94.4% (17) knew nothing about the routes of transmission of hydatid disease. Conclusions Results show the presence of definitive hosts in the urban area of Lima and underscore the need to more widely disseminate practices for the prevention of parasite transmission.

Urban Health , Echinococcus granulosus/immunology , Dog Diseases/immunology , Feces/chemistry , Antigens, Helminth/analysis , Peru
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72417


Clostridium difficile is a significant nosocomial and community-acquired pathogen, and is the leading cause of antibiotic-induced diarrhea associated with high morbidity and mortality. Given that the treatment outcome depends on the severity of C. difficile infection (CDI), we aimed to establish an efficient method of assessing severity, and focused on the stool biomarker fecal calprotectin (FC). FC directly reflects the intestinal inflammation status of a patient, and can aid in interpreting the current guidelines, which requires the integration of indirect laboratory parameters. The distinction of 80 patients with CDI versus 71 healthy controls and 30 severe infection cases versus 50 mild cases was possible using FC as a marker. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.821 and 0.746 with a sensitivity of 75% and 70% and specificity of 79% and 80%, for severe versus mild cases, respectively. We suggest FC as a predictive marker for assessing CDI severity, which is expected to improve the clinical management of CDI.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/analysis , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Feces/chemistry , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/analysis , ROC Curve , Severity of Illness Index
Arq. gastroenterol ; 53(4): 224-227, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794598


ABSTRACT Background The diagnosis of H. pylori infection can be performed by non-invasive and invasive methods.The identification through a fecal antigen test is a non-invasive, simple, and relatively inexpensive test. Objective To determine the diagnostic performance of fecal antigen test in the identification of H. pylori infection. Methods H. pylori antigens were identified in the stools of dyspeptic patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. For the identification of H. pylori antigen, we use ImmunoCard STAT! HpSA with immunochromatography technique. Histopathology plus urease test were the gold standard. Results We studied 163 patients, 51% male, mean age of 56.7± 8.5years. H. pylori infection was present in 49%. Fecal test presented: sensitivity 67.5% (CI95% 60.6-72.9); specificity 85.5% (CI95% 78.9-90.7); positive predictive value 81.8% (CI95% 73.4-88.4) and negative predictive value 73,2% (CI95% 67.5-77.6); Positive likelihood ratio was 4.7 (CI95% 2.9-7.9) and Negative Likelihood Ratio 0.4 (CI95% 0.3-0.5). The prevalence odds ratio for a positive test was 12.3 (CI95% 5.7-26.3).The index kappa between FAT and histology/urease test was 0.53 (CI95% 0.39-0.64). Conclusion Immunochromatographic FAT is less expensive than the other methods and readily accepted by the patients but its diagnostic performance does not recommend its use in the primary diagnosis, when the patient may have an active infection.

RESUMO Contexto O diagnóstico da infecção por Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) pode ser realizado por métodos invasivos e não invasivos. A identificação através do teste do antígeno fecal é um método não invasivo, simples, fácil e relativamente barato. Objetivo Determinar o desempenho diagnóstico do teste fecal imunocromatográfico na identificação da infecção pelo H. pylori. Métodos A pesquisa de antígenos fecais do H. pylori foi realizada através do ImmunoCard STAT! HpSA em pacientes dispépticos submetidos à endoscopia digestiva alta com coleta de biópsias para histopatologia e teste da urease, utilizados como padrão ouro. Resultados Foram estudados 163 pacientes, 51% do sexo masculino, com idade média de 56,7± 8,5 anos. A infecção por H. pylori esteve presente em 49%. O teste fecal apresentou o seguinte desempenho diagnóstico: sensibilidade 67,5% (IC95% 60,6-72,9), especificidade 85,5% (IC95% 78,9-90,7), valor preditivo positivo 81,8% (IC95% 73,4-88,4) e valor preditivo negativo 73,2% (IC95% 67,5-77,6). A razão de probabilidade positiva foi 4,7 (IC95% 2,9-7,9) e a razão de probabilidade negativa foi 0,4 (IC95% 0,3-0,5). A razão de chances de prevalência para teste fecal positivo foi 12,3 (IC95% 5,7-26,3). O índice kappa para a concordância do teste fecal com histologia/teste da urease foi 0,53 (IC95% 0,39-0,64) Conclusão O teste fecal imunocromatográfico apresenta baixo custo e é facilmente aceito pelos pacientes, no entanto seu desempenho diagnóstico não o recomenda para diagnóstico primário.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Chromatography, Affinity , Helicobacter pylori/immunology , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Feces/microbiology , Antigens, Bacterial/analysis , Biopsy , Reproducibility of Results , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Endoscopy , Feces/chemistry , Middle Aged
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 92(5): 486-492, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796105


Abstract Objectives: To assess the level of fecal calprotectin in preterm neonates with feeding intolerance, as well as to evaluate it as a marker of feeding intolerance and to determine a cut-off level of fecal calprotectin in feeding intolerance. Methods: Analytical, multicenter, case-control study, which was carried out in neonatal intensive care units in Egypt, in a period from August 1, 2014 to March 1, 2015 on 52 preterm neonates. Neonates were classified into two groups; a study group including 26 neonates who met inclusion criteria and a control group including 26 neonates for comparison. Results: Fecal calprotectin levels ranged from 3.9 µg/g to 971.8 µg/g, and there was a significant increase in fecal calprotectin in the study group when compared to the control group (334.3 ± 236.6 µg/g vs. 42.0 ± 38.2 µg/g, respectively) with moderate inverse significant correlation between fecal calprotectin and birth weight. Furthermore, there was moderate, significant correlation between fecal calprotectin and duration of breastfeeding range. On the other hand, there was no correlation between fecal calprotectin and post-natal age, gestational age, or volume of feeding. A cut-off at the 67.0 µg/g level, with 100.0% sensitivity and 76.9% specificity, was considered. Conclusion: Fecal calprotectin level increased significantly in neonates with feeding intolerance; it can be used to detect early cases with necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates, but this subject still needs more investigations on more patients.

Resumo Objetivos Avaliar o nível de calprotectina fecal em neonatos prematuros com intolerância alimentar, além de avaliá-lo como um indicador de intolerância alimentar e determinar um nível de corte da calprotectina fecal na intolerância alimentar. Métodos Estudo caso-controle analítico, feito em um multicentro de unidades de terapia intensiva neonatais no Egito, de 1° de agosto de 2014 a 1° de março de 2015, com 52 neonatos prematuros. Os neonatos foram classificados em dois grupos; um grupo de estudo incluindo 26 neonatos que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e um grupo de controle incluindo 26 neonatos para comparação. Resultados Os níveis de calprotectina fecal variaram de 3,9 µg/g a 971,8 µg/g e houve um aumento significativo da calprotectina fecal no grupo de estudo quando comparado com o grupo de controle (334,3 ± 236,6 µg/g em comparação com 42,0 ± 38,2 µg/g, respectivamente) com correlação inversa, moderada e significativa entre a calprotectina fecal e o peso ao nascer. Adicionalmente, houve correlação moderada significativa entre a calprotectina fecal e a duração do intervalo de amamentação. Por outro lado, não houve correlação entre a calprotectina fecal e a idade pós-natal, a idade gestacional ou o volume de amamentação. Foi considerado um corte nos níveis de 67,0 µg/g; com sensibilidade de 100,0% e especificidade de 76,9%. Conclusão O nível de calprotectina fecal aumentou significativamente em neonatos com intolerância alimentar e podemos usá-lo para detectar casos precoces com enterocolite necrosante em neonatos, porém ainda são necessárias mais investigações em mais pacientes.’.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/analysis , Feces/chemistry , Food Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Birth Weight , Breast Feeding , Infant, Premature , Biomarkers/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Gestational Age , Nutritional Support , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/immunology , Egypt
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(8): 1088-1092, ago. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830614


The relationship between Microscopic Colitis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease is unclear. However, when both are diagnosed they seem to be part of a broader spectrum of the same disease, more than just a coincidence. We report a 55 years old woman with Ulcerative Colitis limited to the rectum with complete clinical and endoscopic response to standard treatment and adequate surveillance for 13 years, who abandoned treatment and control. After eight years, she consulted for mild-to-moderate non-bloody diarrhea lasting several months. Colonoscopy and basic laboratory did not show any alterations. Nevertheless, random biopsies had a characteristically pattern compatible with Lymphocytic Colitis. After the first week of treatment with budesonide the patient was asymptomatic and still in clinical remission, with negative fecal calprotectin at 6 months’ follow-up.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Colitis, Lymphocytic/pathology , Biopsy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Colonoscopy , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/analysis , Feces/chemistry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 167-171, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775116


Abstract Helicobacter pylori infection is usually acquired in early childhood and it can persist throughout life without antibiotic treatment. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of the noninvasive H. pylori Stool Antigen Test-applied on the stool samples with the invasive gold standart Rapid Urease Test-applied on the gastric biopy samples of patients with upper gastrointestinal complaints. After endoscopy, biopsy and stool specimens were taken in 122 patients. The infection was detected with rapid urease test which is accepted as gold standart test. Rapid, one-step H. pylori card test was applied to all patients stool specimens. In this study 106 of the 122 patients (86.8%) were positive for H. pylori infection, while 16 of the 122 patients (13.2%) were negative. H. pylori card test was negative in 13 of the 16 patients and was positive in 98 of the 106. The sensitivity, specifity, positive and negative predictive values were 92.45%, 81.25%, 97.02%, and 61.90%, respectively. H. pylori card test is rapid, easy, noninvasive and inexpensive methods for detection H. pylori infection. This test showed high sensitivity and specificity. Additionally, it may be a good alternative to invasive tests for the detection of H. pylori infections especially in children.

Humans , Antigens, Bacterial/analysis , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Feces/chemistry , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity