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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985476


Objective: To analyze the short-term effect of individual atmospheric PM2.5 exposure on the diversity, enterotype, and community structure of gut microbiome in healthy elderly people in Jinan, Shandong province. Methods: The present panel study recruited 76 healthy elderly people aged 60-69 years old in Dianliu Street, Lixia District, Jinan, Shandong Province, and followed them up five times from September 2018 to January 2019. The relevant information was collected by questionnaire, physical examination, precise monitoring of individual PM2.5 exposure, fecal sample collection and gut microbiome 16S rDNA sequencing. The Dirichlet multinomial mixtures (DMM) model was used to analyze the enterotype. Linear mixed effect model and generalized linear mixed effect model were used to analyze the effect of PM2.5 exposure on gut microbiome α diversity indices (Shannon, Simpson, Chao1, and ACE indices), enterotype and abundance of core species. Results: Each of the 76 subjects participated in at least two follow-up visits, resulting in a total of 352 person-visits. The age of 76 subjects was (65.0±2.8) years old with BMI (25.0±2.4) kg/m2. There were 38 males accounting for 50% of the subjects. People with an educational level of primary school or below accounted for 10.5% of the 76 subjects, and those with secondary school and junior college or above accounting for 71.1% and 18.4%. The individual PM2.5 exposure concentration of 76 subjects during the study period was (58.7±53.7) μg/m3. DMM model showed that the subjects could be divided into four enterotypes, which were mainly driven by Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae, and Ruminococcaceae. Linear mixed effects model showed that different lag periods of PM2.5 exposure were significantly associated with a lower gut α diversity index (FDR<0.05 after correction). Further analysis showed that PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with changes in the abundances of Firmicutes (Megamonas, Blautia, Streptococcus, etc.) and Bacteroidetes (Alistipes) (FDR<0.05 after correction). Conclusion: Short-term PM2.5 exposure is significantly associated with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity and changes in the abundance of several species of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the elderly. It is necessary to further explore the underlying mechanisms between PM2.5 exposure and the gut microbiome, so as to provide a scientific basis for promoting the intestinal health of the elderly.

Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Particulate Matter , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(1): 59-63, jan./mar. 2022. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1395508


O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prevalência de Clostridioides difficile e suas toxinas (A/B) nas fezes de animais domésticos de um Hospital Veterinário Universitário de Teresina - PI. A detecção de C. difficile e suas toxinas foi realizada por meio de um ensaio imunoenzimático, denominado C. Diff Quik Chek Complete® (TECHLAB), capaz de detectar antígeno Glutamato Desidrogenase (GDH) e as toxinas A/B produzidas pelo bacilo, realizado em amostras fecais de cães (C. lupus) e e gatos (Felis catus) coletadas entre agosto de 2019 a setembro de 2020. Um total de 54 amostras fecais foram analisadas, das quais 16 foram positivas para C. difficile (29,63%). 68,75% (11/16) pertenciam a caninos, enquanto 31,25% (5/16) a felinos. Amostras diarreicas e não diarreicas foram utilizadas para o estudo e uma maior prevalência do bacilo pôde ser identificada em amostras diarreicas (33%). Nenhuma das amostras apresentou toxinas do patógeno. Os achados deste estudo evidenciam que C.difficile está presente no estado do Piauí. Foi possível identificá-lo em todas as espécies e em amostras diarreicas ou não, demonstrando que essa infecção pode se manifestar de formasintomática e assintomática, levantando a possibilidade de infecção cruzada entre o animal e seu tutor.

The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Clostridioides difficile and its toxins (A/B) in the feces of domestic animals at a University Veterinary Hospital in Teresina - PI. The detection of C. difficile and its toxins was performed by an immunogenic enzyme, called C. Diff Quik Chek Complete® (TECHLAB), capable of detecting antigen glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and A/B toxins produced by this bacillus, performed in fecal samples of dogs (C. lupus) and cats (Felis catus) collected between August 2019 and September 2020.:54 stools were analyzed, of which 16 were positive for C. difficile (29.63%). 68.75% (11/16) belonged to canines, while 3.25% (5/16) to felines. Diarrheal and non-diarrheal diseases are used for the study and a higher prevalence of bacillus can be identified in diarrheal diseases (33%). None of the samples present pathogen toxins. The results of this study show that C. difficile is present in the state of Piauí. It can be identified in all species and in diarrheal or non-diarrheic samples, demonstrating that this infection can be symptomatic and asymptomatic, giving the possibility of cross-infection between the animal and its owner.

Animals , Cats , Dogs , Cats/abnormalities , Clostridioides difficile/pathogenicity , Immunoenzyme Techniques/veterinary , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Dogs/abnormalities , Feces/microbiology , Bacterial Zoonoses/diagnosis
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-9, 2022. map, ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468416


Use of antibiotics inevitably leads to antimicrobial resistance. Selection for resistance occurs primarily within the gut of humans and animals as well as in the environment through natural resistance and residual antibiotics in streams and soil. We evaluated antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacteria from a river system in a rural community in Bahia, Brazil. Water was collected from the Jiquiriçá and Brejões rivers and the piped water supply. Additionally, stools were collected from a random sample of residents, cows, pigs and horses near the river. The samples were screened for bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and meropenem and identified biochemically at the genus and species levels. Microbial source tracking demonstrated that ruminant and human fecal contamination increased as the rivers neared the village center and decreased after the last residence. Antibiotic bacteria were identified from all samples (n = 32). No bacteria were resistant to carbapenems, but the majority of the enterobacteria were resistant to ciprofloxacin, even though this class of antibiotics is not commonly used in food animals in this region. Considering these facts, together with the pattern of human fecal contamination, a human source was considered most likely for these resistant isolates.

O uso de antibióticos inevitavelmente leva à resistência antimicrobiana. A seleção para resistência antimicrobiana ocorre principalmente no intestino de seres humanos e animais, bem como no meio ambiente, através da resistência natural e resíduos de antibióticos nos esgotos e no solo. Avaliamos a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias Gram-negativas de um sistema fluvial em uma comunidade rural da Bahia, Brasil. A água foi coletada nos rios Jiquiriçá e Brejões e no abastecimento de água encanada. Além disso, foram coletadas amostras randomizadas de fezes de moradores, vacas, porcos e cavalos próximos ao rio. As amostras foram triadas para bactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, cefotaxima e meropenem e identificadas bioquimicamente nos níveis de gênero e espécie. O rastreamento de fontes microbianas demonstrou que a contaminação fecal de ruminantes e humanos aumentou à medida que os rios se aproximavam do centro da vila e diminuía após a última residência. Bactérias resistentes a antibióticos foram identificadas em todas as amostras (n = 32). Nenhuma bactéria demonstrou ser resistente aos carbapenêmicos testados, contudo, foi encontrado enterobactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, ainda que essa classe de antibióticos não seja comumente usada na medicina veterinária dos animais dessa região. Considerando esses fatos, juntamente com o padrão de contaminação fecal avaliado, a fonte de contaminação humana foi considerada a mais provável na interação desses isolados resistentes.

Gram-Negative Bacteria/pathogenicity , Enterobacteriaceae/pathogenicity , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Feces/microbiology , Water Pollutants/analysis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929267


Ma-Mu-Ran Antidiarrheal Capsules (MMRAC) is traditional Chinese medicine that has been used to treat diarrhea caused by acute enteritis (AE) and bacillary dysentery in Xinjiang (China) for many years. However, the potential therapeutic mechanism of MMRAC for AE and its regulatory mechanism on host metabolism is unclear. This study used fecal metabolomics profiling with GC/MS and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis to explore the potential regulatory mechanisms of MMRAC on a dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-induced mouse model of AE. Fecal metabolomics-based analyses were performed to detect the differentially expressed metabolites and metabolic pathways. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis was used to assess the altered gut microbes at the genus level and for functional prediction. Moreover, Pearson correlation analysis was used to integrate differentially expressed metabolites and altered bacterial genera. The results revealed that six intestinal bacteria and seven metabolites mediated metabolic disorders (i.e., metabolism of amino acid, carbohydrate, cofactors and vitamins, and lipid) in AE mice. Besides, ten altered microbes mediated the differential expression of eight metabolites and regulated these metabolisms after MMRAC administration. Overall, these findings demonstrate that AE is associated with metabolic disorders and microbial dysbiosis. Further, we present that MMRAC exerts protective effects against AE by improving host metabolism through the intestinal flora.

Animals , Mice , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Capsules , Enteritis/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Genes, rRNA , Metabolomics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928642


OBJECTIVES@#To examine the changes of intestinal flora in children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the influence of chemotherapy on intestinal flora.@*METHODS@#Fecal samples were collected from 40 children newly diagnosed with ALL before chemotherapy and at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months after chemotherapy. Ten healthy children served as the control group. 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis were performed to compare the differences in intestinal flora between the ALL and control groups and children with ALL before and after chemotherapy.@*RESULTS@#The ALL group had a significant reduction in the abundance of intestinal flora at 1 and 2 months after chemotherapy, with a significant reduction compared with the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the ALL group had a significant reduction in the diversity of intestinal flora before and after chemotherapy (P<0.05). At the phylum level, compared with the control group, the ALL group had a significant reduction in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months after chemotherapy (P<0.05) and a significant increase in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria at 1 and 2 months after chemotherapy (P<0.05). At the genus level, compared with the control group, the ALL group had a significant reduction in the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months after chemotherapy (P<0.05); the relative abundance of Klebsiella in the ALL group was significantly higher than that in the control group at 1 and 2 months after chemotherapy and showed a significant increase at 1 month after chemotherapy (P<0.05); the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium in the ALL group was significantly lower than that in the control group before and after chemotherapy and showed a significant reduction at 2 weeks and 1 month after chemotherapy (P<0.05). The relative abundance of Enterococcus increased significantly at 1 and 2 months after chemotherapy in the ALL group (P<0.05), and was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The diversity of intestinal flora in children with ALL is significantly lower than that in healthy children. Chemotherapy significantly reduces the abundance of intestinal flora and can reduce the abundance of some probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium) and increase the abundance of pathogenic bacteria (Klebsiella and Enterococcus) in children with ALL.

Child , Humans , Bacteria/genetics , Bifidobacterium , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936311


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes in bacterial flora in fecal samples, at the tumor loci and in adjacent mucosa in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).@*METHODS@#We collected fecal samples from 13 patients with CRC and 20 healthy individuals and tumor and adjacent mucosa samples from 6 CRC patients. The differences in bacterial composition between the fecal and mucosa samples were analyzed with 16S rDNA sequencing and bioinformatics methods. We also detected the total number of bacteria in the feces using flow cytometry, isolated and identified the microorganisms in the fecal and mucosa samples using common bacterial culture media. We further tested the effects of 7 isolated bacterial strains on apoptosis of 3 CRC cell lines using lactate dehydrogenase detection kit.@*RESULTS@#The bacterial α-diversity in the feces of healthy individuals and in adjacent mucosa of CRC patients was significantly higher than that in the feces and tumor mucosa in CRC patients (P < 0.05). Lactobacillaceae is a specific bacteria in the feces, while Escherichia, Enterococcus, and Fusobacterium are specific bacteria in tumor mucosa of CRC patients as compared with healthy individuals. Cell experiment with3 CRC cell lines showed that Bacteroides fragilis isolated from the tumor mucosa of CRC patients produced significant inhibitory effects on cell proliferation (P < 0.0001), while the isolated strain Fusobacterium nucleatum obviously promoted the proliferation of the cell lines (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#The bacterial flora in the feces, tumor mucosa and adjacent mucosa of CRC patients is significantly different from that in the feces of healthy individuals, and the fecal flora of CRC patients can not represent the specific flora of the tumor mucosa. Inhibition of F. nucleatum colonization in the tumor mucosa and promoting B. fragilis colonization may prove beneficial for CRC treatment.

Humans , Bacteria , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Intestinal Mucosa
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935317


To explore the composition and diversity of the intestinal microflora of Leopoldamys edwardsi in Hainan Island. In November 2019, DNA was extracted from fecal samples of 25 adult Leopoldamys edwardsi (14 males and 11 females) in Hainan Island at the Joint Laboratory of tropical infectious diseases of Hainan Medical College and Hong Kong University. Based on the IonS5TMXL sequencing platform, single-end sequencing (Single-End) was used to construct a small fragment library for single-end sequencing. Based on Reads shear filtration and OTUs clustering. The species annotation and abundance analysis of OTUs were carried out by using mothur method and SSUrRNA database, and further conducted α diversity and β diversity analysis. A total of 1481842 high quality sequences, belonging to 14 Phyla, 85 families and 186 Genera, were obtained from 25 intestinal excrement samples of Leopoldamys edwardsi. At the level of phyla classification, the main core biota of the Leopoldamys edwardsi contained Firmicutes (46.04%),Bacteroidetes (25.34%), Proteobacteria (17.09%), Tenericutes (7.38%) and Actinobacteria (1.67%), these five phyla account for 97.52% of all phyla. The ratio of Helicobacter which occupied the largest proportion at the genus level was 12.44%, followed by Lactobacillus (11.39%), Clostridium (6.19%),Mycoplasma (4.23%) and Flavonifractor (3.52%). High throughput sequencing analysis showed that the intestinal flora of Leopoldamys edwardsi in Hainan Island was complex and diverse, which had the significance of further research.

Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Bacteria/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Intestines , Murinae/genetics
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(2): 66-79, 20210000.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1361343


Introducción: Se han analizado terapias ayurvédicas y prácticas médicas para un grupo de pacientes en Japón. La característica del tratamiento ayurvédico es una desintoxicación con una gran cantidad de tratamiento con aceite mediante un masaje con aceite en la superficie del cuerpo y una terapia de purificación con ghee o aceite de hierbas especialmente preparado. Los cambios de la microbiota intestinal durante estos tratamientos no han sido bien estudiados. Mé- LA PRENSA MÉDICA ARGENTINA Ayurveda Treatment (Virechana and Basti) and Changes of Intestinal Microbiota at Phyla and Species Level 79 V.107/Nº 2 todo: Los participantes fueron reclutados de la Clínica Hatai Ayurveda en Tokio. La terapia de Virechana, una terapia de purificación o la terapia de Basti (decocción y enema de aceite) se llevó a cabo en 13 pacientes con diversas manifestaciones. Todos los participantes proporcionaron el detalle de su estilo de vida, hábitos dietéticos, enfermedades pasadas y presentes mediante el cuestionario, y se registró la condición precisa durante la admisión al final del campamento. Se tomaron muestras fecales a la entrada, durante el tratamiento, al alta y tres semanas después para analizar la microbiota intestinal por el gen seqyebcubg 16srRNA. Resultados: el peso corporal disminuyó aproximadamente un 5% con la terapia de Virechana, mientras que no ocurrió con Basti, pero la grasa corporal aumentó un 4% (2,2 kg) en promedio en ambos grupos. Varias manifestaciones clínicas de los participantes mejoraron, especialmente en una erupción cutánea y un cambio atópico. El paciente deprimido también remitió mejoras en sus ganas de vivir. En su mayoría son vegetarianos y tenían más Bacteroides (48.09 ± 7.51%), Firmicutes (38.27 ± 10.82%) y Actinobacteria (3.30 ± 3.58%) que los omnívoros que tenían más Proteobacteria (10.73 ± 4.75%), Fusobacteria (2.40 ± 6.25%) y cianobacterias (0,09 ± 0,24%). Cuando los grupos se dividieron por el consumo de aceite, los usuarios de ghee mostraron más Fusobacterium y menos Firmicutes y Actinobacteria. La terapia con Virechana provocó cambios notables en la microbiota después del pretratamiento, como la disminución de Firmicutes y el aumento de Proteobacterias. A nivel género-especie, destacan el aumento de Enterobacteriaceae y la pérdida de Akkermansia municiphila. Niruha Basti y Matra Basti disminuyeron Firmicutes y aumentaron Proteobacteria (p = 0.096). Fusobacterium también aumentó. Después del alta, la Proteobateria se mantuvo alta, pero Firmicutes regresó al 30% en promedio, oscilando entre el 25% y el 50%. Tres semanas después, la variedad aumentó con Fusobacterium, Verrucomicrobia, Tenericutes y Lentisphaerae. La variedad de especies también aumentó tres semanas después. Conclusión: Varias quejas de los participantes mejoraron por el tratamiento ayurvédico con una gran cantidad de tratamiento de aceite por masaje de aceite de superficie corporal y terapia de purga. Causó cambios en la microbiota intestinal y los metabolitos bacterianos pueden afectar las lesiones cutáneas y la salud mental como la sensación depresiva

Humans , Therapeutics/methods , Body Weight Changes , Herbal Medicine , Feces/microbiology , Ghee , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Massage/methods , Medicine, Ayurvedic
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 57-63, feb. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385312


SUMMARY: The insectivorous bat Myotis chiloensis is endemic of South America. Even though potentially pathogenic bacterial species of Mycoplasma have been reported from this species, there are no further studies regarding the bacterial communities they harbor. This may provide important insights for the better understanding of its ecology, diet and implications in cross-species pathogens transmission. Here we report a first survey on bacterial communities of M. chiloensis based on metagenomic analysis of fecal samples. We found that taxonomic profile is dominated by Proteobacteria (23.7 to 57.7 %) and Firmicutes (11.8 to 61.6 %), which main families are represented by Burkholderiaceae- Enterobacteriaceae and Veillonellaceae-Bacillaceae, respectively. Phyla Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria were also present with abundance above 1 % of the total reads. Variations among individuals could be observed at genus level and no significant differences were found between sex groups regarding taxonomic profiles and diversity. Potentially pathogenic species were also detected in all the samples, including Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium perfringens. Our results highlight the significance M. chiloensis as a reservoir of pathogenic bacteria and its microbiota as an interesting ecological model due to its wide distribution. Further metagenomic studies are necessary for a better understanding of M. chiloensis diet and its host-symbiont relationships.

RESUMEN: El murciélago insectívoro Myotis chiloensis es endémico de América del Sur. A pesar de que en esta especie se han reportado bacterias potencialmente patógenas tipo Mycoplasma, no existen estudios sobre sus comunidades bacterianas, lo cual podría proporcionar información importante para una mejor comprensión de su ecología, dieta e implicaciones en la transmisión de patógenos. En el presente trabajo se realiza una descripción de las comunidades bacterianas del murciélago M. chiloensis basada en análisis metagenómico de muestras fecales. El perfil taxonómico encontradofue dominado por Proteobacterias (23,7-57,7 %) y Firmicutes (11,8-61,6 %), cuyas principales familias fueron representadas por Burkholderiaceae-Enterobacteriaceae y Veillonellaceae-Bacillaceae, respectivamente. También se encontraron los filos Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes y Acidobacteria con una abundancia superior al 1 %. Se observaron variaciones entre los individuos a nivel de género, sin diferencias significativas de los perfiles taxonómicos y diversidad según sexo. Se detectaron especies potencialmente patógenas en todas las muestras, entre ellos Staphylococcus aureus y Clostridium perfringens. Nuestros resultados destacan la importancia de M. chiloensis como un reservorio de bacterias patógenas y el estudio de su microbiota como un modelo ecológico debido a su amplia distribución. Más estudios metagenómicos son necesarios para comprender la dieta de M. chiloensis y sus relaciones huésped-simbionte.

Animals , Chiroptera , Feces/microbiology , Manure/microbiology , Chile , Metagenomics , Microbiota
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): e191-e193, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100475


Yersinia enterocolitica es un bacilo Gram-negativo causante de infección intestinal en los humanos. Se presenta con diferentes cuadros clínicos que obligan a descartar una variedad de etiologías, lo cual, a veces, hace difícil alcanzar un diagnóstico correcto en forma oportuna.Se expone el caso de un varón adolescente con dolor en la fosa ilíaca derecha a partir de una ileítis terminal con hallazgos similares a la enfermedad de Crohn, que se diagnosticó, finalmente, como infección por Yersinia enterocolitica. Se destaca la utilidad de los diferentes métodos auxiliares empleados.

Yersinia enterocolitica is a gram-negative rod causing intestinal infection in humans. It shows different clinical pictures with many different etiologies to be ruled-out, which sometimes makes it difficult to reach a timely and correct diagnosis. We report the case of an adolescent boy presenting with right lower quadrant pain from terminal ileitis with endoscopic findings akin to Crohn ́s disease finally diagnosed as Yersinia enterocolitica, highlighting the usefulness of the different ancillary methods employed.

Humans , Male , Child , Yersinia enterocolitica , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Ileitis/complications , Microbiological Techniques , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Diagnosis, Differential , Feces/microbiology
REVISA (Online) ; 9(4): 823-833, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146145


Objetivo: Investigar a presença de fungos patogênicos isolados a partir de amostras de fezes de pombos, em locais de atenção a pacientes imunocomprometidos no DF. Método: As amostras foram coletadas em hospitais onde se oferta atendimento a pacientes HIV/AIDS e que tenha uma presença massiva de pombos. Colônias de leveduras foram previamente selecionados em meio Ágar Sabouraud Dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol, seguindo-se com análise microscópica das estruturas leveduriformes. Colônias de leveduras com suspeita de pertencerem ao gênero Candida spp. ou Cryptococcus sp., foram inoculadas no meio Ágar Cromogênico para identificação das espécies de Candida e em meio Ágar quimicamente definido para indução dos fenótipos de virulência característicos de Cryptococcus sp. Resultados: 100% das amostras analisadas apresentaram crescimento de leveduras do gênero Candida spp. e Rhodotorula sp. No meio Ágar Cromogênico foram identificadas nas amostras C. krusei em 75%; C. tropicalis em 50% e C. glabrata em 15%. Em 15% das amostras foi identificado leveduras do gênero Cryptococcus sp. Conclusão: Dados deste estudo sugerem que fezes de pombo podem estar dispersando leveduras patogênicas e contribuindo com a incidência de infecções fúngicas no DF.

Objective: To investigate the presence of pathogenic fungi isolated from pigeon stool samples, in places of care for immunocompromised patients in the Federal District. Method: The samples were collected in hospitals where care is offered to HIV / AIDS patients and which has a massive presence of pigeons. Yeast colonies were previously selected on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plus chloramphenicol, followed by microscopic analysis of the yeast structures. Yeast colonies suspected of belonging to the genus Candida spp. or Cryptococcus sp., were inoculated in the Chromogenic Agar medium to identify Candida species and in chemically defined Agar medium to induce the virulence phenotypes characteristic of Cryptococcus sp. Results: 100% of the analyzed samples showed growth of yeasts of the genus Candida spp. and Rhodotorula sp. In the chromogenic agar medium, 75% were identified in C. krusei samples; C. tropicalis in 50% and C. glabrata in 15%. In 15% of the samples, yeasts of the genus Cryptococcus sp. Conclusion: Data from this study suggest that pigeon feces may be dispersing pathogenic yeasts and contributing to the incidence of fungal infections in DF

Objetivo: Investigar la presencia de hongos patógenos aislados de muestras de heces de palomas, en los lugares de atención a pacientes inmunodeprimidos del Distrito Federal. Método: Las muestras se recolectaron en hospitales donde se brinda atención a pacientes con VIH / SIDA y que tiene una presencia masiva de palomas. Las colonias de levadura se seleccionaron previamente en Sabouraud Dextrose Agar más cloranfenicol, seguido de un análisis microscópico de las estructuras de la levadura. Las colonias de levaduras sospechosas de pertenecer al género Candida spp. o Cryptococcus sp., se inocularon en medio de agar cromogénico para identificar especies de Candida y en medio de agar químicamente definido para inducir los fenotipos de virulencia característicos de Cryptococcus sp. Resultados: el 100% de las muestras analizadas presentó crecimiento de levaduras del género Candida spp. y Rhodotorula sp. En el medio agar cromogénico, el 75% se identificó en muestras de C. krusei; C. tropicalis en 50% y C. glabrata en 15%. En el 15% de las muestras, levaduras del género Cryptococcus sp. Conclusión: Los datos de este estudio sugieren que las heces de las palomas pueden estar dispersando levaduras patógenas y contribuyendo a la incidencia de infecciones fúngicas en el DF.

Humans , Animals , Columbidae/microbiology , Rhodotorula/isolation & purification , Candida/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , Hospitals , Mycoses/transmission
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2018123, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057201


ABSTRACT Objective: To perform a systematic review of literature data on gut microbiota and the efficacy of probiotics for the treatment of constipation in children and adolescents. Data source: The research was performed in the PubMed, the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) databases in English, Portuguese and Spanish. All original articles that mentioned the evaluation of the gut microbiota or the use of probiotics in children with constipation in their title and abstract were selected. Data synthesis: 559 articles were found, 47 of which were selected for reading. From these, 12 articles were included; they studied children and adolescents divided into two categories: a gut microbiota evaluation (n=4) and an evaluation of the use of probiotics in constipation therapy (n=8). The four papers that analyzed fecal microbiota used different laboratory methodologies. No typical pattern of gut microbiota was found. Regarding treatment, eight clinical trials with heterogeneous methodologies were found. Fifteen strains of probiotics were evaluated and only one was analyzed in more than one article. Irregular beneficial effects of probiotics have been demonstrated in some manifestations of constipation (bowel frequency or consistency of stool or abdominal pain or pain during a bowel movement or flatulence). In one clinical trial, a complete control of constipation without the use of laxatives was obtained. Conclusions: There is no specific pattern of fecal microbiota abnormalities in constipation. Despite the probiotics' positive effects on certain characteristics of the intestinal habitat, there is still no evidence to recommend it in the treatment of constipation in pediatrics.

RESUMO Objetivo: Realizar revisão sistemática dos dados da literatura sobre a microbiota intestinal e a eficácia dos probióticos para o tratamento da constipação intestinal em crianças e adolescentes. Fonte de dados: Foi realizada busca nas bases de dados PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), em inglês, português e espanhol. Foram selecionados, pelo título e pelo resumo, todos os artigos originais que avaliaram a microbiota intestinal ou o emprego de probióticos em crianças com constipação intestinal. Síntese dos dados: Foram encontrados 559 artigos, dos quais 47 foram selecionados para leitura. Destes, foram incluídos 12 artigos que estudaram crianças e adolescentes distribuídos em duas categorias: avaliação da microbiota intestinal (n=4) e avaliação do emprego dos probióticos na terapêutica da constipação intestinal (n=8). Os quatro artigos que analisaram a microbiota fecal utilizaram metodologias laboratoriais diferentes. Não foi observado um padrão típico de microbiota intestinal. Quanto ao tratamento, foram encontrados oito ensaios clínicos com metodologias heterogêneas. Foram avaliadas 15 cepas de probióticos e apenas uma foi avaliada em mais de um artigo. Foram evidenciados efeitos benéficos não uniformes dos probióticos em algumas manifestações da constipação intestinal (frequência evacuatória, consistência das fezes, dor abdominal, dor ao evacuar ou flatulência). Em apenas um ensaio clínico foi obtido completo controle da constipação intestinal sem o emprego concomitante de laxantes. Conclusões: Não existe um padrão específico de anormalidades da microbiota fecal na constipação intestinal. Apesar dos efeitos positivos dos probióticos em determinadas características do hábito intestinal, ainda não existem evidências que permitam sua recomendação no tratamento da constipação intestinal em pediatria.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Constipation/therapy , Probiotics/adverse effects , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Abdominal Pain/chemically induced , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Constipation/microbiology , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Feces/microbiology , Flatulence/chemically induced , Flatulence/epidemiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878672


Objective To investigate the correlation between serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D[T-25(OH)D]level and fecal microbiota in patients with inflammatory bowel disease(IBD). Methods Twenty-three patients with IBD completed the tests for serum T-25(OH)D,and the fecal microbiota was studied using V4 hypervariable region of 16S ribosomal RNA(rRNA)gene sequencing.According to serum T-25(OH)D level,the patients were divided into three groups including vitamin D normal group(

Humans , Bacteria/classification , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Vitamin D/blood
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 91(4): e920, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093730


Introducción: Se estima que 1,4 billones de personas están en riesgo de infectarse por cólera y la mitad de los fallecidos son menores de 5 años. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente a los pacientes afectados por vibrión colérico según la edad de los enfermos y el tiempo que medió entre la aparición de los síntomas de la enfermedad y la asistencia al Sistema Nacional de Salud. Métodos: Estudio clínico, epidemiológico, descriptivo y prospectivo desde 2013-2017 a los pacientes que se les confirmó por coprocultivo el V. cholerae como causa de enfermedad diarreica aguda en el hospital pediátrico de Centro Habana. Se analizaron variables cualitativas y cuantitativas. Resultados: Se registraron 115 niños mayores de 5 años y 44 menores de 5 años afectados por el cólera. El 54,7 por ciento del total de pacientes estudiados estuvo en la zona afectada, el 94,3 por ciento presentó deposiciones líquidas, el 18,2 por ciento con aspecto de agua de arroz, el 7,5 por ciento con olor a pescado, el 47,2 por ciento presentó vómitos, el 6,9 por ciento fiebre y el 12,8 por ciento dolor abdominal. El valor de la mediana del tiempo que medio entre la aparición de los síntomas y la asistencia al médico fue de 24 horas. Conclusiones: Los pacientes más afectados son los mayores de 5 años y los que más tardíamente acudieron al Sistema Nacional de Salud. En todos predomina la procedencia de la zona afectada, las deposiciones líquidas y los vómitos(AU)

Introduction: It is estimated that 1.4 billion people are at risk of being infected by cholera and half of them are children under 5 years old. Objective: To describe clinically and epidemiologically the patients affected by Vibrio cholerae according to their age and the time passed from the onset of symptoms of disease to their attendance to the National Health System. Methods: Clinical, epidemiological, descriptive and prospective study from 2013 to 2017 in patients with confirmed V. cholerae by stool culture as a cause of acute diarrheal disease in the Pediatric Hospital of Centro Habana municipality.Qualitative and quantitative variables were analyzed. Results: There was a record of 115 children over 5 years and 44 children under 5 years affected by cholera. The 54.7percent of the total number of patients studied was in the affected area, 94.3 percent presented liquid stool, 18.2 percent of those looked like rice water, 7.5 percent with fishy smell; 47.2 percent of the patients presented vomiting, and 6.9 percent fever and 12.8 percent abdominal pain. The value of the mean time between the onset of symptoms and the assistance to the physician was of 24 hours. Conclusions: Most affected patients and that attended late to the National Health System were the ones over 5 years. In all predominated coming from the affected area, liquid stools and vomiting(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Cholera/diagnosis , Cholera/epidemiology , Feces/microbiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Dysentery/prevention & control
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(11): 1382-1389, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094167


Background Chile has one of the highest mortality rates by gastric cancer (GC) worldwide. Primary prevention of GC and detection of pre-neoplastic and early neoplastic lesions should be a national priority. Aim To assess the impact of the protocolization of endoscopy referral and the use of H. pylori stool antigen test (HPSA) in the management of dyspepsia to decrease the waiting list for endoscopy and increase the detection of gastric pre-neoplastic and early neoplastic lesions. Material and Methods We included all patients referred to the Endoscopy Unit of a regional hospital, from January 2015 to December 2017. We also included patients with known pre-neoplastic lesions and all those with first degree relatives with GC. We implemented protocols for referral of patients with dyspepsia considering the use of HPSA test, prioritizing to endoscopy those with a higher risk of GC. Results A total of 4,641 endoscopies and 2,631 HPSA tests were carried out. After the adoption of these protocols, we observed a 52% decrease in the waiting time for endoscopy. The GC detection rate in this period was 1.8 to 3.1 cases per 100 endoscopies. After the adoption of the protocols, we observed a significant increase in early GC detection rate (from none in 2015 to 13% in 2017, p = 0.03). Conclusions The protocolization of the referral for endoscopy associated with widespread use of HPSA test in the management of patients with dyspepsia, are successful strategies to decrease waiting lists for endoscopy and optimize the detection rate of pre-neoplastic lesions and early GC.

Humans , Precancerous Conditions/diagnosis , Waiting Lists , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Dyspepsia/diagnosis , Feces/microbiology , Antigens, Bacterial/analysis , Precancerous Conditions/microbiology , Primary Health Care , Referral and Consultation , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Early Diagnosis , Dyspepsia/microbiology , Endoscopy/statistics & numerical data
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 447-452, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286541


Introduction: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the main symptomatic primary immunodeficiency and is associated with complex immune disorders. Gut microbiota interacts closely with the immune system, and intestinal dysbiosis is related to multiple diseases. Objective: To describe for the first time the composition of gut microbiota in Mexican patients with CVID. Methods: Fecal samples from five patients with CVID were collected and massive sequencing of the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was carried out using illumina technology. Results: Bacterial relative abundance was observed at all taxonomic levels. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were the predominant phyla. The Clostridia class and the Clostridial order were the most common in their respective taxon; the Ruminococcaceae family predominated. A total of 166 genera were reported, with the most abundant being Faecalibacterium. Five species were identified, but only Bifidobacterium longum was present in all patients. Conclusions: Unlike healthy subjects' gut microbiota, where Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes predominate, the microbiota of the patients with CVID considered in this study was abundant in Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The low presence of Bacteroidetes and high abundance of Firmicutes might indicate the existence of intestinal dysbiosis in these patients.

Humans , Adult , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Bacteria/classification , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Clostridium/isolation & purification , Bacteroidetes/isolation & purification , Ruminococcus/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , Verrucomicrobia/isolation & purification , Dysbiosis/immunology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Firmicutes/isolation & purification , Clostridiales/isolation & purification , Faecalibacterium/isolation & purification , Bifidobacterium longum/isolation & purification , Mexico
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(3): 229-233, set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041831


La salmonelosis es una de las enfermedades bacterianas que afectan el tracto digestivo de los terneros y provocan en ellos diarrea. Con el objetivo de estudiar la prevalencia de los distintos serovares de Salmonella en terneros de crianza artificial y determinar la asociación con signos diarreicos, se realizó un estudio epidemiológico con diseno transversal en la región lechera Mar y Sierras, ubicada en la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Mediante hisopado de mucosa rectal, se muestrearon 726 terneros en período de crianza distribuidos en 50 establecimientos lecheros de dicha zona, se incluyeron animales con signos diarreicos y sin estos. Los aislamientos identificados como Salmonella spp. fueron tipificados utilizando antisueros poli- y monovalentes dirigidos contra antígenos somáticos, flagelares y capsulares (Vi). Salmonella spp. se detectó en el 36% de los establecimientos y los serovares hallados fueron S. Mbandaka, S. Anatum, S. Typhimurium, S. Dublin, S. Montevideo, S. Meleagridis, S. Newport, S. Seftemberg, S. subesp.16,7:z1, S. Infantis y S. Give. El 5,5% de los terneros fueron positivos y aquellos terneros con signología diarreica presentaron 5,9 veces más probabilidad de estar infectados con Salmonella spp. que aquellos que no tuvieron signos. La edad de los terneros positivos osciló desde un día hasta 53 días de vida; la mayor frecuencia se detectó al segundo día de nacidos. Se concluye que 11 serovares de Salmonella están presentes en más de un tercio de los establecimientos lecheros de la región lechera Mar y Sierras y que estos serovares mostraron estar asociados a la existencia de signos diarreicos en los terneros, sobre todo a la presencia de moco en las heces. La prevalencia de Salmonella fue mayor en terneros de menos de 21 días de vida.

Salmonellosis in calves is a bacterial disease that affects their digestive tract causing diarrhea. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out with the aim of studying the prevalence of various serovars of Salmonella in calves and their relationship with diarrhea signs. The study was conducted in Mar and Sierras Dairy Basin located in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Seven hundred and twenty six calves both with diarrhea signs or not were sampled by rectal mucosa swab in 50 dairy farms during the rearing period. Isolates identified as Salmonella spp. were classified using polyvalent and monovalent antisera against somatic, flagellar and capsule antigens (Vi). Salmonella spp. was found in 36% of the farms and serotypes were: S. Mbandaka, S. Anatum, S. Typhimurium, S. Dublin, S. Montevideo, S. Meleagridis, S. Newport, S. Seftemberg, S. subesp. 16,7:z1, S. Infantis, S. Give. A percentage of 5.5% calves was positive and calves showing diarrheal signs were 5.9 times more likely to be infected with Salmonella spp. than those having no signs. The age of positive calves ranged from the first day of life to 53; the second day being the most frequent time. In conclusion, 11 Salmonella serovars were detected in one out of 3 dairy farms in Mar and Sierras Dairy Basin, and not only were these serovars associated with diarrhea signs including the presence of mucus in feces, but they were also more prevalent among calves aged up to 21 days.

Animals , Cattle , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Cattle/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Rectum/microbiology , Salmonella/classification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Feces/microbiology , Serogroup , Farms , Animal Feed , Animal Husbandry/methods
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 414-422, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001449


Abstract Birds of prey and from Psittacidae family are host to fungal microbiota and play an important role in the epidemiology of zoonoses. Few studies in the literature have characterized mycelial and yeast fungi in the droppings of these birds and correlated the isolates with the zoonotic potential of the microorganisms. Droppings from 149 birds were evaluated and divided into two groups: captive: Rhea americana araneipes, Primolius maracana, Ara ararauna, Ara chloropterus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Amazona aestiva, Ara macao macao, Ramphastos toco, Sarcoramphus papa, Busarellus nigricollis, Bubo virginianus nacurutu, Buteogallus coronatus, Buteogallus urubitinga urubitinga, Spizaetus melanoleucus, Spizaetus ornatus ornatus, Buteo albonotatus, Geranoaetus albicaudatus albicaudatus, Rupornis magnirostris magnirostris and Harpia harpyja, and quarantined birds: Amazona aestiva and Eupsitulla aurea. The fungal isolates were identified according to macroscopic (gross colony appearance), micromorphological and biochemical characteristics. Among birds displayed in enclosures, Aspergillus niger (41.1%) and Candida kefyr (63.8%) were the fungi most frequently isolated in Harpia harpyja and Ramphastos toco, respectively. For quarantined birds, the following percentages were observed in Eupsittula aurea , (76.6%) C. krusei, (84.4%) C. kefyr and (15.2%) C. famata, while in Amazona aestiva, (76.2%) C. krusei was observed. These findings indicate potentially pathogenic species in the bird droppings assessed, which constitute a risk of exposure for keepers and individuals who visit the zoo. Birds of the Cerrado and Pantanal of Mato Grosso (Central Western region of Brazil) could act in the epidemiological chain of important zoonoses.

Resumo Aves de rapina e psitacídeos são hospedeiras de uma rica microbiota fúngica e desempenham um papel importante na epidemiologia de zoonoses. Poucos estudos na literatura têm caracterizado fungos micelianos e leveduras nos excrementos de pássaros e correlacionados estes isolados com o potencial zoonótico dos microrganismos isolados. Excrementos de 149 aves foram divididas e avaliados em dois grupos: Em cativeiro: Rhea americana araneipes, Primolius maracana, Ara ararauna, Ara chloropterus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Amazona aestiva, Ara macao macao, Ramphastos toco, Sarcoramphus papa, Busarellus nigricollis , Bubo virginianus nacurutu, Buteogallus coronatus, Buteogallus urubutinga urubitinga, Spizaetus melanoleucus, Spizaetus ornatus ornatus, Buteo albonotatus, Geranoaetus albicaudatus albicaudatus, Rupornis magnirostris magnirostris e Harpia harpyja e aves em quarentena: Amazona aestiva e Eupsittula aurea). Os isolados de leveduras e de fungos micelianos foram identificados em observações macroscópicas (aspectos das colônias), características micromorfológicas e bioquímicas. Entre as aves indicadas em compartimentos, Aspergillus niger (41,1%) e Candida kefyr (63,8%) foram os fungos mais isolada em Harpia harpyja e Ramphastos toco, respectivamente. Para as aves em quarentena, os seguintes percentuais foram observados em Eupsittula aurea (76,6%) C. krusei, (84,4%) C. kefyr e (15,2%) C. famata, enquanto em Amazona aestiva (76,2%) de C. krusei foi observada. Estes resultados indicam a presença de espécies potencialmente patogênicos nas excretas das aves avaliadas, constituem um risco a exposição para os criadores e pessoas que visitam o zoológico. Aves do Pantanal e do Cerrado de Mato Grosso (região Centro-Oeste do Brasil) poderia atuar na cadeia epidemiológica das zoonoses importantes.

Humans , Animals , Parrots/microbiology , Raptors/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Brazil , Risk Assessment , Rheiformes , Feces/microbiology , Animals, Zoo
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 460-465, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001467


Abstract The fidelity of the genomes is defended by mechanism known as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) systems. Three Type II CRISPR systems (CRISPR1- cas, CRISPR2 and CRISPR3-cas) have been identified in enterococci isolates from clinical and environmental samples. The aim of this study was to observe the distribution of CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 and CRISPR3-cas in non-clinical strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates from food and fecal samples, including wild marine animals. The presence of CRISPRs was evaluated by PCR in 120 enterococci strains, 67 E. faecalis and 53 E. faecium. It is the first report of the presence of the CRISPRs system in E. faecalis and E. faecium strains isolated from wild marine animal fecal samples. The results showed that in non-clinical strains, the CRISPRs were more frequently detected in E. faecalis than in E. faecium. And the frequencies of CRISPR1-cas and CRISPR2 were higher (60%) in E. faecalis strains isolated from animal feces, compared to food samples. Both strains showed low frequencies of CRISPR3-cas (8.95% and 1.88%). In conclusion, the differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may be related with the results observe in distribution of CRISPRs systems.

Resumo A fidelidade dos genomas ​​é defendida por mecanismos conhecidos como sistemas de repetições palindrômicas curtas agrupadas e regularmente interespaçadas (CRISPRs). Três tipos de sistemas CRISPR II (CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 e CRISPR3-cas) têm sido identificados em cepas de enterococos isolados de amostras clínicas e ambientais. O objetivo deste estudo foi observar a distribuição dos CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 e CRISPR3-cas em cepas não-clínicas de Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium isoladas de amostras alimentícias e fecais, incluindo animais marinhos selvagens. A presenca dos CRISPRs foi determinada por PCR em 120 cepas de enterococos, sendo 67 E. faecalis e 53 E. faecium. É o primeiro relato da presença do sistema CRISPRs nas estirpes E. faecalis e E. faecium isoladas de amostras fecais de animais marinhos selvagens. Os resultados mostraram que em cepas não-clínicas, os CRISPRs foram mais frequentemente detectados em E. faecalis do que em E. faecium. E as frequências de CRISPR1-cas e CRISPR2 foram maiores (60%) em cepas de E. faecalis isoladas de fezes de animais, quando comparadas à amostras de alimentos. Ambas as cepas apresentaram baixas freqüências de CRISPR3-cas (8,95% e 1,88%). Em conclusão, as diferenças nos habitats das espécies de enterococos podem estar relacionadas com os resultados observados na distribuição dos sistemas CRISPRs.

Animals , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Food Microbiology , Turtles/microbiology , Vegetables/microbiology , Chickens/microbiology , Dairy Products/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Spheniscidae/microbiology , Fur Seals/microbiology , Meat/microbiology