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1.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3249-3256, mar.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251942

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El Blastocystis sp. es un parásito frecuente en el humano, identificado por el laboratorio en muestras de heces fecales. Se presentó el caso de un paciente de 5 años atendido en consulta de Gastroenterología en el Hospital Pediátrico Docente Provincial Eliseo Noel Caamaño, de Matanzas, por presentar dolor abdominal, heces pastosas, náuseas y vómitos desde hacía un año. Llevó tratamiento con ranitidina, omeprazol y domperidona, sin mejoría clínica. Se realizó estudio coproparasitológico en muestras de heces fecales seriadas, con la presencia del Blastocystis hominis. Se indicó tratamiento con metronidazol, sin mejoría clínica, y posteriormente se indicó como alternativa la nitazoxanida. Se evaluó a los 15 días, sin sintomatología y con negativización de las heces fecales seriadas. Resulta frecuente el desconocimiento y la poca importancia que los profesionales sanitarios muestran ante esta infestación, aunque cada vez más se confirma la participación del parásito en manifestaciones clínicas (AU).


ABSTRACT Blastocystis sp. is a frequent parasite in humans, identified in the laboratory in samples of fecal feces. The case of a 5-year-old patient is presented; he assisted the consultation of Gastroenterology in the Provincial Teaching Pediatric Hospital Eliseo Noel Caamaño in Matanzas, suffering abdominal pain, mash feces, nauseas and vomits for one year, and was treated with ranitidine, omeprazole and domperidone without clinical improvement. A coproparasitological study was carried out in serial fecal feces samples with the presence of Blastocystis hominis. Treatment with metronidazole was indicated without clinical improvement and them, as an alternative, nitazoxanide was indicated. He was evaluated at 15 days without symptoms and with negative serial fecal feces. The ignorance and the little importance that health professionals show towards this infestation are frequent, although more and more frequently it is confirmed the participation of the parasite in clinical manifestations (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Child , Blastocystis hominis/pathogenicity , Signs and Symptoms , Specimen Handling/methods , Clinical Diagnosis , Feces/parasitology , Gastroenterology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/complications
2.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1840, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363602

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of gastrointestinal myiasis caused by Gasterophilus spp. larvae (Diptera: Oestridae) in adult horses has been widely characterized, however data on natural infestation in young foals have been lacking. This observation may be related to the absence of conclusive diagnosis in these individuals, most likely due to logistical or financial constraints. Gastric ulceration is a problem and a significant cause of morbidity in foals, particularly during the weaning stage; therefore, gasterophilosis should be included in the differential diagnosis. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of gasterophilosis in 4- to 6-month-old weanling foals. Seventy-one healthy weanling foals were enrolled in the study. Physical assessment blood sampling and was completed in all foals before the commencement of the experiment. Gastroscopy examinations were performed under sedation (Detomidine 0.01 - 0.02 mg/kg) with a flexible endoscope inserted through nasogastric via. The lumen of the stomach was examined in order to search for botflies' larvae. Following gastroscopy, foals were classified into 2 groups based on the presence of Gasterophilus spp. larvae in their stomachs: 1) Infected and 2) Not Infected. Infected foals received a single dose of commercial trichlorfon and albendazole equine oral gel and were stalled for 24 h. The passed feces were thoroughly examined, searching for elimination of larvae. A total of 64% of the foals (n = 45/71) harbored Gasterophilus spp. larvae in the stomach. Mild hyperemia in the gastric mucosa was observed in the attachment sites of the parasites. Physical assessment and hematological parameters' data were analyzed with Shapiro-Wilk normality test. Comparison between groups for clinical signs, hematological parameters and Gasterophilus spp. infection rates were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis test or Student's t-test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. There were no statistically significant variations in physical and hematological parameters between foals that were affected and those that were not infected. The larvae found in the feces were subjected to morphological examination, which confirmed the diagnosis of Gasterophilus intestinalis. No systemic clinical indications compatible with Gasterophilus spp. infestation were seen, as described in previous studies of horses infected with the parasite. No botfly eggs were observed in the hair of evaluated foals. During gastroscopy, mild hyperemic lesions in the gastric mucosa were observed in the larvae fixation sites. Although no changes in clinical or hematological parameters were noted, the confirmation of parasite presence is a cause for concern due to horses' tolerance for low infestation levels and poor diagnosis. Additionally, the presence of this myiasis in foals may be a significant stressor during the weaning period and should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurring abdominal pain. Furthermore, infected foals might be a reservoir for the parasite and, contribute to the elimination and spread of the larvae in the environment. Thus, inclusion of young horses in deworming protocols targeted to botfly larvae is needed. This is the first report of Gasterophilus intestinalis myiasis in foals in Brazil. Further research is necessary to fully understand the epidemiology and prevalence of this condition in young horses in Brazil, based on the findings of this study.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Stomach Ulcer/veterinary , Feces/parasitology , Horse Diseases/parasitology , Horse Diseases/blood , Myiasis/veterinary , Myiasis/epidemiology , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Prevalence , Horses
3.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(2): e494, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149915

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Comparar tres métodos de concentración de enteroparásitos en muestras fecales humanas. Métodos. Se diseñó un estudio transversal en el que se evaluaron 154 muestras fecales categorizadas en dos grupos: parasitados (n= 127) y no parasitados (n= 27). Las muestras fueron sometidas a tres métodos: parasitológico directo, sedimentación simple y Ritchie modificado, y a la observación microscópica en lugol y suero fisiológico a un aumento de 40X. Resultados. Se observó mayor frecuencia en la presencia de estructuras parasitarias por el método de Ritchie modificado (37 por ciento), seguido de la sedimentación simple (14,8 por ciento) en el grupo de no parasitados; mientras que en el grupo de parasitados, se observó mayor carga parasitaria obtenida por el método de Ritchie (3+ (15,8 por ciento) y 2+ (23,6 por ciento), que en la sedimentación simple (3+ (10,2 por ciento) y 2+ (22,8 por ciento). Las especies parasitarias con mayor frecuencia fueron Entamoeba coli (20,3 por ciento), Giardia lamblia (18,8 por ciento), Blastocystis hominis (15,9 por ciento) y Endomlimax nana (15,2 por ciento); además, se presentó 48,7 por ciento casos con poliparasitismo. El área bajo la curva (AUC) para los métodos de Ritchie modificado, sedimentación simple y parasitológico directo fue de 0,870; 0.648 y 0,796, respectivamente. El AUC del método de Ritchie modificado fue mayor en los varones (0,933) que en las mujeres (0.,92); así como en aquellos menores de 12 años (0,867), comparados con personas entre 12-37 años (0,833) y 18-39 años (0,800). Conclusiones. El método de Ritchie modificado presenta alto rendimiento diagnóstico y permite concentrar mayor cantidad de parásitos intestinales que el método de sedimentación simple. Además, presenta la ventaja de utilizar insumos de fácil acceso y baja toxicidad, lo que genera mayor posibilidad de implementación en los laboratorios de parasitología(AU)


Objective: Compare three enteroparasite concentration methods in human stool samples. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 154 stool samples divided into two groups: with parasites (n= 127) and without parasites (n= 27). The samples were subjected to three methods: direct parasitological examination, simple sedimentation and modified Ritchie's, and to microscopic observation in lugol and saline solution to a 40x increase. Results: In the non-parasite group the highest frequency in the presence of parasite structures was observed with the modified Ritchie's method (37 percent), followed by simple sedimentation (14.8 percent). In the parasite group a greater parasite load was obtained by Ritchie's method (3+ (15.8 percent) and 2+ (23.6 percent) than by simple sedimentation (3+ (10.2 percent) and 2+ (22.8 percent). The parasite species showing the highest frequency were Entamoeba coli (20.3 percent), Giardia lamblia (18.8 percent), Blastocystis hominis (15.9 percent) and Endomlimax nana (15.2 percent), whereas polyparasitism was found in 48.7 percent of the cases. The area under the curve (AUC) for the modified Ritchie's method, simple sedimentation technique and direct parasitological examination was 0.870, 0.648 and 0.796, respectively. In the modified Ritchie's method the AUC was greater in male (0.933) than in female subjects (0.92), as well as in subjects aged under 12 years (0.867) in comparison with people aged 12-37 years (0.833) and 18-39 years (0.800). Conclusions: The modified Ritchie's method has a high diagnostic yield and makes it possible to concentrate a larger number of intestinal parasites than the simple sedimentation method. Additionally, it has the advantage of using inputs of easy access and low toxicity, broadening the possibility of its implementation in parasitology laboratories(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Parasites/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Parasite Load/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(4): 455-460, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149034

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se evaluaron retrospectivamente los resultados obtenidos de estudios parasitológicos en muestras de heces y escobillados anales remitidos al Laboratorio de Parasitología y Gastroenterología del Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo del trabajo fue conocer la prevalencia de los parásitos intestinales observados en las muestras remitidas a este hospital y su distribución en rangos etarios. En el período comprendido entre mayo de 2018 y abril de 2019 se analizó un total de 4713 muestras pertenecientes a 3311 pacientes, que arrojó un resultado total de 29% de positivos (1371/4713). De los exámenes coproparasitológicos el 30% fueron positivos (1193/4025) y se hallaron huevos de Enterobius vermicularis en el 26% (178/688) de los escobillados anales. En las muestras seriadas de heces se obtuvo un 37% de positividad mientras que en muestras únicas un 21%. En la totalidad de muestras fecales, los enteroparásitos más prevalentes fueron Blastocystis spp. en un 14% (579/4025), Giardia duodenalis 11% (456/4025) y Dientamoeba fragilis 7% (291/4025). Los resultados demostraron diferencias significativas con mayor prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en pacientes en edad escolar comprendidos entre los 6 y 10 años, en relación a los de edad preescolar. En las muestras fecales analizadas se evidenció un predominio de parasitismo de protozoos sobre helmintos, por lo que se debería considerar reforzar el diagnóstico de laboratorio de esas especies mediante técnicas, como coloraciones, que posibiliten su hallazgo y confirmación.


Abstract The results obtained of the coproparasitological studies and anal swab submitted to the laboratory of the Parasitology Section of the Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" of the Buenos Aires City, Argentina, were retrospectively evaluated The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites found on the submitted samples and to evaluate their frequency according to the age of the patients. Within the period between May 2018 and April 2019, a total of 4713 samples corresponding to 3311 patients were analyzed and intestinal parasites were present in 29% (1371/4713). In 30% of coproparasitological studies parasite estructures were found (1193/4025) and 26% of anal swab samples were positive for the presence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs (178/688). In serial fecal samples, 37% positive results were obtained, while in single samples, 21%. The most prevalent enteroparasites calculated from the total fecal samples were: Blastocystis spp. with 14% (579/4025), followed by Giardia duodenalis 11% (456/4025) and Dientamoeba fragilis 7% (291/4025). The incidence of intestinal parasites was higher in the group of patients between 6 and 10 years, and the existence of significant differences between proportions of parasitized patients in preschool and school infants, was observed. In the faecal samples analyzed, a greater prevalence of parasitism caused by protozoa than by helminths was evidenced, for which reason it should be considered, reinforcing the laboratory diagnosis using techniques such as stains that allow its finding and confirmation.


Resumo Os resultados obtidos de estudos parasitológicos em amostras fecais e esfregaços anais enviados ao Laboratório de Parasitologia e Gastroenterologia do Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" da Cidade de Buenos Aires, Argentina, foram avaliados retrospectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência dos parasitas intestinais observados nas amostras enviadas a este hospital e sua distribuição por faixas etárias. Durante o período compreendido entre maio de 2018 a abril de 2019 foram analisadas 4713 amostras, correspondentes a 3311 pacientes, o que deu um resultado total de 29% de positivos (1371/4713). 30% dos exames coproparasitológicos foram positivos (1193/4025) e foram encontrados ovos de Enterobius vermicularis em 26% (178/688) dos esfregaços anais. Nas amostras seriadas fecais foram obtidos 37% de resultados positivos, enquanto que em amostras únicas, 21%. Os enteroparasitas mais prevalentes na totalidade das amostras fecais foram Blastocystis spp. em 14% (579/4025), Giardia duodenalis 11% (456/4025) e Dientamoeba fragilis 7% (291/4025). Os resultados demonstraram diferenças significativas com maior prevalência de parasitas intestinais em pacientes em idade escolar da faixa etária entre 6 e 10 anos, em relação aos da pré-escola. Nas amostras fecais analisadas, evidenciou-se um predomínio de parasitismo por protozoários por sobre helmintos, pelo qual deve ser considerado o reforço do diagnóstico laboratorial dessas espécies por meio de técnicas, como colorações que permitam a sua localização e confirmação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Protozoan Infections/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Helminthiasis/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Argentina/epidemiology , Protozoan Infections/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Age Distribution , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology
5.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(1): 41-45, jan-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095991

ABSTRACT

As doenças causadas por parasitos intestinais estão entre os mais frequentes agravos do mundo, pois é um problema de saúde pública que atinge a maioria da população. O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a prevalência de parasitos em crianças de 4 a 6 anos de uma escola municipal de Moreira Sales, PR. A pesquisa foi composta por inquérito parasitológico e epidemiológico em crianças matriculadas em uma escola municipal em julho de 2017. O critério para inclusão no estudo foi: coletar a amostra de fezes, responder o questionário socioepidemiológico e ter o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido (TCLE) assinado pelos pais e/ou responsáveis. Participaram do estudo 42 crianças com idades entre 4 e 6 anos, das quais 66,7% eram meninas. Dos participantes, dez crianças (23,8%) apresentaram infecção por Balantidium coli, sendo que destas, duas apresentaram infecção mista por Entamoeba coli. Foi observado que a maioria dos infectados possuíam animais de estimação (60%), roíam unhas (60%), consumiam hortaliças (80%) e todas as crianças brincavam na terra, sendo esses alguns fatores de risco para a infecção. Diante dos resultados apresentados, é possível perceber que existem vários fatores que podem estar associados à infecção por Balantidium coli, sendo os principais: falta de saneamento básico e os hábitos de higiene inadequado. Portanto, fatores importantes para se promover a conscientização e ação profilática da população, com o intuito de minimizar as parasitoses, principalmente nas crianças.


Diseases caused by intestinal parasites are among the most frequent ones in the world, since it is a public health issue affecting most of the population. The purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of parasites in children aged 4 to 6 years at a school in the municipality of Moreira Sales, in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The study was comprised by the parasitological and epidemiological investigation in children enrolled in a school in the city in July 2017. The criteria for inclusion in the study was to collect the stool sample, answer the socio-epidemiological questionnaire and sign a Free and Clarified Consent Form. A total of 42 children took part in this study, with ages ranging between 4 and 6 years, of which 66.7% were female. From the participants, ten children (23.8%) presented infection by Balantidium coli, and among which, two of them presented mixed infection by Entamoeba coli. It was observed that most of the infected children had pets (60%), bit their nails (60%), consumed vegetables (80%) and all children played on dirt, which are some of the risk factors for infection. Considering the results, it is possible to observe that there are several factors that can be associated to infection by Balantidium coli, among which: basic sanitation and hygiene habits. Therefore, raising awareness and presenting prophylactic action to the population is essential in order to minimize intestinal parasitosis, especially in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Balantidium/parasitology , Child, Preschool , Parasites/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases/parasitology , Protozoan Infections/parasitology , Vegetables/parasitology , Water Pollution , Epidemiology , Entamoeba/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Nail Biting
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 471-479, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128381

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho descreve as espécies do gênero Eimeria Schneider, 1875, que ocorreram em um confinamento de cordeiros, bem como as dinâmicas da eliminação de oocistos no ambiente, a correlação com o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD) e as variáveis climáticas, durante nove semanas. Cento e quatro cordeiros de diversas raças e cruzas, com aproximadamente 60 dias de vida, foram confinados e submetidos a pesagens e avaliações clínicas e coprológicas periódicas. Amostras de fezes com mais de 500 oocistos de Eimeria por grama de fezes (OoPG) foram separadas para esporulação e identificação das espécies. Entre os oocistos avaliados, foram identificadas as espécies: E. parva, E. crandallis, E. ovinoidalis, E. weybridgensis, E. bakuensis, E. marsica, E. ahsata, E. granulosa, E. pallida e E. faurei. Eimeria crandallis foi a mais frequente, presente em 44 das 58 amostras avaliadas, enquanto E. parva foi a mais abundante nas contagens individuais. Nenhum dos animais apresentou quadro de eimeriose, e coeficientes negativos foram encontrados nas correlações OoPG vs. GMD (-0,075) e OoPG vs. pluviosidade (-0,1164), enquanto para OoPG vs. temperatura foi encontrado coeficiente positivo (0,2914). Animais positivos para a eliminação de oocistos apresentaram infecção mista nas avaliações semanais, com até sete espécies parasitando um mesmo cordeiro.(AU)


This study describes the Eimeria Schneider, 1875 species that occurred in a lamb feedlot, as well as the dynamics of oocyst output in the environment and its correlation with daily weight gain (DWG) and climatic variables during nine weeks. One hundred and four lambs of various breeds and crossbreeds, at approximately 60 days old, were placed in a feedlot and submitted to periodic weighing and clinical and coprological evaluations. Fecal samples presenting more than 500 Eimeria spp. oocysts per gram (OPG) were separated for sporulation, and oocysts were identified at species level. Among evaluated oocysts, the following species were identified: E. parva, E. crandallis, E. ovinoidalis, E. weybridgensis, E. bakuensis, E. marsica, E. ahsata, E. granulosa, E. pallida and E. faurei. Eimeria crandallis was the most frequent one, being identified in 44 of the 58 evaluated samples, while E. parva was the more abundant in individual counts in most weeks. None of the animals presented clinical signs of eimeriosis and negative correlation coefficients were found for OPG vs DWG (-0.075) and OPG vs rainfall, as for OPG vs temperature this coefficient was positive. Animals shedding oocysts presented mixed infection, with up to seven species parasitizing the same lamb.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/parasitology , Oocysts , Eimeria/isolation & purification , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Feces/parasitology
7.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(3): e168442, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122708

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, dogs and cats have free access in public areas in some cities, such as squares, parks and beaches, despite restrictive laws for their permanence in these places. Animals infected with intestinal parasites contaminate the environment through their feces. The present study aimed to verify the occurrence of helminth eggs, oocysts and protozoan cysts in stool samples from three beaches in Greater Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, from March 2017 to April 2018. Stool samples were processed by the Willis-Mollay flotation technique and the Hoffman sedimentation technique. The percentage of 47.65% of positive samples for helminths or protozoa was found on the southern beaches of Florianópolis island, with an occurrence of 52.78% at Morro das Pedras Beach and 42.86% at Campeche Beach. At Pinheira beach, in Palhoça, 56.66% of the samples were contaminated with one or more zoonotic parasites. In this study, the most prevalent parasites on the three beaches analyzed were hookworms and Trichuris vulpis, followed by Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. Samples containing To x o c a r a spp. eggs were collected at Pinheira beach. It is concluded that the contamination of the beaches in the present study constitutes a public health problem, considering the possibility of zoonoses transmission. The importance of implementing sanitary programs for the control of parasites in dogs and cats is emphasized, as well as awareness and education programs, in order to reduce environmental contamination in public places.(AU)


No Brasil, cães e gatos têm livre acesso em áreas públicas em algumas cidades, como praças, parques e praias, apesar de leis restritivas para sua permanência nestes locais. Animais infectados por parasitos intestinais contaminam o meio ambiente por meio de suas fezes. O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a ocorrência de ovos de helmintos, oocistos e cistos de protozoários em amostras de fezes de três praias da Grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, no período de março de 2017 a abril de 2018. As amostras de fezes foram processadas pela técnica de flutuação de Willis-Mollay e pela técnica de sedimentação de Hoffman. O percentual de 47,65% de amostras positivas para helmintos ou protozoários foi encontrado nas praias do sul da ilha de Florianópolis, na praia do Morro das Pedras a ocorrência foi de 52,78% e na do Campeche 42,86%. Na praia da Pinheira, em Palhoça, 56,66% das amostras estavam contaminadas com um ou mais parasitos zoonóticos. Os parasitos de maior ocorrência nas três praias analisadas foram os ancilostomídeos e Trichuris vulpis, seguidos de Giardia spp. e Cystoisospora spp. Amostras contendo ovos de To x o c a r a spp. foram colhidas na praia da Pinheira. Conclui-se que a contaminação das praias do presente estudo constitui um problema de saúde pública, tendo em vista à possibilidade de transmissão de zoonoses. Deve ser ressaltada a importância da implantação de programas sanitários para o controle de parasitas de cães e gatos e programas de conscientização e educação, a fim de reduzir a contaminação ambiental em locais públicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Beach Sanitation , Feces/parasitology , Helminths , Ancylostoma , Parasites , Brazil , Zoonoses , Public Health , Disease Transmission, Infectious
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190535, 2020. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136801

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since the early 20th century, the detection of intestinal parasites has improved with the development of several techniques for parasitic structures recovery and identification, which differ in sensitivity, specificity, practicality, cost, and infrastructure demand. This study aims to review, in chronological order, the stool examination techniques and discuss their advantages, limitations, and perspectives, and to provide professionals and specialists in this field with data that lays a foundation for critical analysis on the use of such procedures. The concentration procedures that constitute the main techniques applied in routine research and in parasitological kits are a) spontaneous sedimentation; b) centrifugation-sedimentation with formalin-ethyl acetate; and c) flotation with zinc sulfate solution. While selecting a technique, one should consider the purpose of its application and the technical-operational, biological, and physicochemical factors inherent in the procedures used in stool processing, which may restrict its use. These intrinsic limitations may have undergone procedural changes driven by scientific and technological development and by development of alternative methods, which now contribute to the improvement of diagnostic accuracy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Parasitology/history , Specimen Handling/history , Feces/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Parasitology/methods , Specimen Handling/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e012819, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101626

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endoparasitic infections are associated with morbidity in cats. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of endoparasites among cats of different life stages in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed individually by macroscopic exploration for proglottids and centrifugal-flotation. Stool samples were obtained from household cats (n = 57) and shelter cats (n = 336). Endoparasites were detected in 50.64% of the samples. Among household and shelter cats, 21.05% and 55.66% were infected with endoparasites, respectively. In household cats, the most prevalent endoparasites were Ancylostoma spp. (in 25.0%) and Strongyloides spp. (in 25.0%), followed by Toxocara spp. (in 16.67%), Dipylidium caninum (in 16.67%), Cystoisospora spp. (in 8.33%), and Uncinaria spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 8.33%). In shelter cats, the most prevalent endoparasite was Ancylostoma spp. (in 29.41%), followed by Cystoisospora spp. (in 26.20%) and Toxocara spp. (in 16.58%), as well as Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 8.02%); Ancylostoma spp. + Toxocara spp. (in 11.76%); Cystoisospora spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.74%); Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. + Ancylostoma spp. (in 3.21%); and Dipylidium caninum + Ancylostoma spp. (in 0.53%). Endoparasitic infections in cats underscore the need for preventive veterinary care and routine coproparasitologic tests.


Resumo Endoparasitoses estão associadas à morbidade em gatos. Este estudo objetivou investigar a ocorrência de endoparasitos em gatos de diversas faixas etárias, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. As amostras passaram por exploração macroscópica à procura de proglotes de cestódeos e analisadas individualmente por centrífugo-flutuação. Assim, amostras fecais foram obtidas de gatos domiciliados (n = 57) e de abrigos (n = 336). Endoparasitos foram detectados em 50,64% das amostras fecais. Nos gatos domiciliados e de abrigos, 21,05% e 55,66% estavam infectados por endoparasitos, respectivamente. Ancylostoma spp. (25%) e Strongyloides spp. (25%) foram os helmintos mais prevalentes encontrados nas amostras de fezes dos gatos domiciliados, seguido por Toxocara spp. (16,67%), Dypilidium caninum (16,67%), Cystoisospora spp. (8,33%) e a associação de Uncinaria spp. e Ancylostoma spp. (8,33%). Entre os gatos dos abrigos, Ancylostoma spp. estavam presentes em 29,41% das amostras, seguidos por Cystoisospora spp. (26,20%), Toxocara spp. (16,58%) e as associações de parasitos Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocara spp. (8,02%), Ancylostoma spp. + Toxocara spp. (11,76%), Cystoisospora spp. + Ancylostoma spp (3,74%), Cystoisospora spp. + Toxocaraspp. + Ancylostoma spp. (3,21%) e Dipylidium caninum + Ancylostoma spp. (0,53%). Cystoisospora spp. foi o único protozoário encontrado. A presença de endoparasitos reforça a necessidade de cuidados veterinários preventivos e testes coproparasitológicos de rotina para evitar sua disseminação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Protozoan Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Protozoan Infections, Animal/diagnosis , Protozoan Infections, Animal/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Feces/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/diagnosis , Helminthiasis, Animal/epidemiology
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e015819, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092688

ABSTRACT

Abstract An evaluation was made of the effect of anthelmintic treatments on the performance of Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves before and after weaning. To this end, the calves were divided into three groups: (1) treated monthly with a low efficacy anthelmintic drug, ivermectin; (2) treated monthly with a highly effective anthelmintic drug, albendazole; and (3) untreated control group. All the groups in this experiment showed an average fecal egg count of less than 400 eggs per gram (EPG), and no clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis. The blood variables were within the normal range and no calf presented anemia. In most of the samplings, mean EPGs were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the group treated with albendazole. The calves received dietary supplementation before and after weaning, which enabled them to gain weight in every month of the experiment and reach a body weight of about 250 kg on the last sampling date, before turning one year old. The anthelmintic treatments did not affect body weight gain, leading to the conclusion that, when fed with suitable dietary supplements, Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves are not affected by gastrointestinal nematode parasites acquired by grazing.


Resumo O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o efeito de tratamentos anti-helmínticos no desempenho de bezerros Simental x Nelore antes e após o desmame. Os bezerros foram alocados em três grupos: (1) tratado mensalmente com anti-helmínticos de baixa eficácia, ivermectina; (2) tratado mensalmente com anti-helmíntico de alta eficácia, albendazol e (3) controle não tratado. A média das contagens de ovos de nematoides durante o experimento foi inferior a 400 ovos por grama (OPG) em todos os grupos sem manifestação clínica de gastroenterite parasitária. As variáveis ​​sanguíneas mantiveram-se dentro dos limites de normalidade e nenhum bezerro apresentou anemia. Na maioria das coletas, as médias de OPG foram significativamente inferiores (P<0,05) no grupo tratado com albendazol. Os bezerros receberam suplementação antes e depois do desmame, o que lhes permitiu ganhar peso em todos os meses do experimento, atingindo peso corporal em torno de 250 kg, ao final do experimento, antes de completarem um ano de idade. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos anti-helmínticos no ganho em peso, o que permitiu concluir que bezerros Nelore x Simental não são afetados pelo parasitismo por nematoides gastrintestinais sob condições de pastejo, quando devidamente suplementados com concentrado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cattle , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Albendazole/administration & dosage , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Feces/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Nematode Infections/parasitology , Nematode Infections/drug therapy
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e013119, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058018

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of carvacryl acetate (CVA) and nanoencapsulated CVA (nCVA) on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The CVA was nanoencapsulated with chitosan/gum arabic and the efficacy of nanoencapsulation (EE), yield, zeta potential, nanoparticle morphology and release kinetics at pH 3 and 8 were analyzed. Acute and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in rodents and reduction of egg counts in the faeces (FECRT) of sheep. The sheep were divided into four groups (n = 10): G1, 250 mg/kg CVA; G2, 250 mg/kg nCVA; G3, polymer matrix and G4: 2.5 mg/kg monepantel. EE and nCVA yield were 65% and 57%, respectively. The morphology of the nanoparticles was spherical, size (810.6±286.7 nm), zeta potential in pH 3.2 (+18.3 mV) and the 50% release of CVA at pHs 3 and 8 occurred at 200 and 10 h, respectively. nCVA showed LD50 of 2,609 mg/kg. CVA, nCVA and monepantel reduced the number of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) by 57.7%, 51.1% and 97.7%, respectively. The epg of sheep treated with CVA and nCVA did not differ from the negative control (P>0.05). Nanoencapsulation reduced the toxicity of CVA; however, nCVA and CVA presented similar results in the FECRT.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do acetato de carvacrila (ACV) e do ACV nanoencapsulado (nACV) sobre nematóides gastrintestinais de ovinos. O ACV foi nanoencapsulado com quitosana/goma arábica e foi analisada a eficácia de nanoencapsulamento (EE), o rendimento, potencial zeta, morfologia das nanopartículas e cinética de liberação em pH 3 e 8. Foram avaliadas as toxicidades aguda e subcrônica em roedores e a redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (RCOF) de ovinos. Os ovinos foram divididos em quatro grupos (n = 10): G1, 250 mg/kg ACV; G2, 250 mg/kg de nACV; G3, matriz polimérica e G4: 2,5 mg/kg de monepantel. A EE e o rendimento de nACV foram de 65% e 57%, respectivamente. A morfologia das nanopartículas foi esférica, tamanho (810,6±286,7 nm), potencial zeta no pH 3,2 (+18,3 mV) e a liberação de 50% de CVA nos pHs 3 e 8 ocorreu às 200 e 10 h, respectivamente. nACV apresentou DL50 de 2.609 mg/kg. ACV, nACV e o monepantel reduziram a contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (opg) em 57,7%, 51,1% e 97,7%, respectivamente. A contagem de opg de ovelhas tratadas com ACV e nCVA não diferiu do controle negativo (P>0,05). O nanoencapsulamento reduziu a toxicidade do AVC; no entanto, nACV e ACV apresentaram resultados semelhantes na RCOF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Monoterpenes/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Nanocapsules/administration & dosage , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Nematoda/drug effects , Nematode Infections/drug therapy , Parasite Egg Count , Rodentia , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Sheep , Toxicity Tests , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Monoterpenes/toxicity , Nanocapsules/toxicity , Feces/parasitology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Anthelmintics/toxicity , Mice , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Nematoda/classification , Nematode Infections/parasitology
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e014319, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058013

ABSTRACT

Abstract The role of rodents as reservoirs of helminths of public health importance is not well known. The zoonotic potential of Syphacia spp. has been confirmed; therefore, the study aimed to estimate the occurrence of oxyurid nematodes in small rodents from pet shops and breeding clubs in Slovakia. Fecal samples of 586 pet rodents kept in 133 cages were collected between 2016 and 2018 and examined by Faust´s flotation method. Four species of oxyurid nematodes, Syphacia muris, S. obvelata, Aspiculuris tetraptera and Paraspidodera uncinata were detected. A. tetraptera was found in the faecal samples of all rodent species included in this survey. The number of positive boxes varied from 5.4% in hamsters to 70.0% with mice. The prevalence of Syphacia muris was highest in Mongolian gerbils where up to 75.0% boxes were positive; S. obvelata was found in 26.7% of boxes with mice, 25.0% of boxes with Mongolian gerbils and 3.2% of boxes with rats. The high prevalence of Syphacia spp. in all animal species points out the infection risk for humans. Animals offered for sale are often in close contact with human beings; therefore they should be regularly tested for parasites and then effectively dewormed.


Resumo O papel dos roedores como reservatórios de helmintos de importância para a saúde pública não é bem conhecido. O potencial zoonótico de Syphacia spp. foi confirmado; portanto, o estudo teve como objetivo estimar a ocorrência de nematóides oxiurídeos em pequenos roedores de pet shops e clubes de reprodução na Eslováquia. Amostras fecais de 586 roedores mantidos em 133 gaiolas foram coletadas entre 2016 e 2018 e examinadas pelo método de flotação de Faust. Foram detectadas quatro espécies de nematódeos oxiurídeos, Syphacia muris, S. obvelata, Aspiculuris tetraptera e Paraspidodera uncinata, A. tetraptera foi encontrado nas amostras fecais de todas as espécies de roedores incluídas nesta pesquisa. O número de gaiolas positivas variou de 5,4% em hamsters a 70,0% em camundongos. A prevalência de Syphacia muris foi maior nos gerbilos da Mongólia, onde até 75,0% das gaiolas foram positivas; S. obvelata foi encontrada em 26,7% das gaiolas com camundongos, 25,0% das gaiolas com gerbilos da Mongólia e 3,2% das gaiolas com ratos. A alta prevalência de Syphacia spp. em todas as espécies animais aponta o risco de infecção para os seres humanos. Animais oferecidos para venda estão frequentemente em contato próximo com seres humanos; portanto, eles devem ser regularmente testados quanto a parasitas e, então, efetivamente desparasitados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxyuriasis/veterinary , Oxyuroidea/isolation & purification , Rodent Diseases/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Pets/parasitology , Neglected Diseases/veterinary , Oxyuriasis/diagnosis , Oxyuriasis/epidemiology , Oxyuroidea/classification , Rats/parasitology , Rodent Diseases/diagnosis , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Gerbillinae/parasitology , Cricetinae/parasitology , Slovakia/epidemiology , Pets/classification , Neglected Diseases/diagnosis , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Guinea Pigs/parasitology , Mice/parasitology
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e016419, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058009

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate environmental contamination by helminth eggs with zoonotic potential that were found in dog feces in the vicinity of elementary schools. Seventy-nine samples of dog feces were collected from 28 municipal schools located in five neighborhoods in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. The samples were processed using the Willis-Mollay technique and analyzed using an optical microscope (40X), to identify any parasite eggs present. All neighborhoods were positive and 74.7% of the samples exhibited one or more helminth genera. The agent with the highest prevalence was Ancylostoma spp. (93.2%), followed by Trichuris spp. (18.6%), Toxocara spp. (11.9%) and Toxascaris (1.7%). These data show that there is a need for greater care towards controlling these helminths with zoonotic potential, including responsible pet ownership and daily activities to clean and collect dog feces in the vicinity of schools, because these are places where children play and study.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a contaminação ambiental por ovos de helmintos com potencial zoonótico, diagnosticados em fezes caninas depositadas nas proximidades de escolas primárias. Setenta e nove amostras de fezes foram colhidas em 28 escolas municipais localizadas em cinco bairros da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil. As amostras foram processadas pela técnica de Willis-Mollay e analisadas em microscópio óptico (40X), para identificar quaisquer parasitos presentes. Todos os bairros foram positivos e 74,7% das amostras apresentaram um ou mais gêneros de helmintos. O agente com maior prevalência foi Ancylostoma spp. (93,2%), seguido por Trichuris spp. (18,6%), Toxocara spp. (11,9%) e Toxascaris (1,7%). Esses dados mostram que há necessidade de maior cuidado no controle desses helmintos com potencial zoonótico, incluindo a posse responsável dos animais e atividades diárias de limpeza e colheita de fezes de cães nas proximidades das escolas, porque esses são locais onde as crianças brincam e estudam.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Parasite Egg Count , Soil/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Schools , Brazil , Urban Health , Prevalence
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200431, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154864

ABSTRACT

Giardia duodenalis infection is distributed worldwide and can achieve prevalence around 60%, especially in developing countries. This protozoan is divided into eight assemblages, in which A and B have high zoonotic potential, whereas C to H are host-specific. This scenario is changing as molecular studies progress, highlighting that knowledge on host-specificity still has a long way to go. Understanding the players involved in transmission routes enables rational designs of control strategies. Considering the high prevalence of giardiasis, this review aims to gather together the data on available studies on the distribution of G. duodenalis assemblages in Brazil until September 2020.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Giardiasis/diagnosis , Feces/parasitology , Giardia/classification , Giardia/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Zoonoses , Prevalence , Giardiasis/parasitology , Giardiasis/veterinary , Giardiasis/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Giardia/isolation & purification
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 605-612, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057981

ABSTRACT

Abstract Eimeriosis is a global poultry health problem. In the current study, we investigated the role of Salvadora persica leaf extracts (SE) against murine eimeriosis induced by Eimeria papillata. The infection induced an oocyst output of 6242 ± 731 oocysts/g feces. After treatment with 300 mg⁄kg SE, the oocysts expelled in feces decreased by approximately 3-fold. In addition, the total number of E. papillata in the parasitic stage decreased in the jejunum of mice after treatment with SE. In addition, SE significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells by approximately 2-fold in the infected jejunum. SE ameliorated the changes in glutathione, malondialdehyde, and catalase due to E. papillata infection. Finally, SE regulated the cytokine genes, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and the apoptotic genes, B-cell lymphoma-2, Bax, and Caspase-3. SE protects the jejunum from E. papillata induced injury and may have potential therapeutic value as a food additive during eimeriosis.


Resumo A eimeriose é um problema global de saúde avícola. No presente estudo, investigou-se o papel dos extratos de folhas de Salvadora persica (SE) contra a eimeriose murina induzida por Eimeria papillata. A infecção induziu uma produção de oocistos de 6242 ± 731 oocistos/g de fezes. Após o tratamento com 300 mg⁄kg SE, os oocistos eliminados nas fezes diminuíram em aproximadamente 3 vezes. Além disso, o número total de E. papillata no estágio parasitário diminuiu nos jejunos de camundongos após o tratamento com SE. Da mesma forma, o SE reduziu significativamente o número de células apoptóticas em aproximadamente 2 vezes no jejuno infectado. O estudo mostrou que o SE melhorou as alterações na glutationa, malonaldeído e catalase devido à infecção por E. papillata. Finalmente, o SE regulou os genes das citocinas, interleucina (IL) -1β, IL-6, interferon-γ e fator de necrose tumoral α, e os genes apoptóticos, linfoma-2, Bax e Caspase-3. Assim, o SE protegeu os jejunos das lesões induzidas por E. papillata e pode ter potencial valor terapêutico como aditivo alimentar durante a eimeriose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Coccidiosis/parasitology , Salvadoraceae/chemistry , Eimeria/drug effects , Feces/parasitology , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Parasite Egg Count , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 769-772, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057975

ABSTRACT

Abstract Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease that affects millions of people around the world, being common in the state of Maranhão. A total of 225 rodents of the Holochilus sciureus species from the Western Lowland Maranhão were studied, of which 144 animals (64%) exhibited Schistosoma eggs in their feces samples. Macroscopic lesions characterized as well-defined whitish areas on the liver and spleen surfaces were observed. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal granulomas in the esophagus, liver, spleen, pancreas and duodenum, with structures compatible with Schistosoma mansoni eggs, as well as severe hepatic micro-vacuolar degeneration, multifocal and coalescent, with proliferation of random bile ducts and associated epithelial hyperplasia to areas of fibrosis. Adult forms of the parasite were observed in the blood vessels of the portal space. The lungs exhibited moderate and diffuse interstitial pneumonia with intralesional S. mansoni eggs. In the kidneys, hyaline cylinders were observed in the pelvis and diffuse hemorrhage. In conclusion, H. sciureus displays a pathological picture similar to human being. This rodent plays a role as sentinel in Baixada Maranhense.


Resumo A esquistossomose é uma doença negligenciada que afeta milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo, sendo comum no estado do Maranhão. Um total de 225 roedores da espécie Holochilus sciureus da Planície Ocidental do Maranhão foram estudados, dos quais 144 animais (64%) apresentaram ovos de Schistosoma em suas fezes. Lesões macroscópicas caracterizadas como áreas esbranquiçadas bem definidas nas superfícies do fígado e baço foram observadas. O exame histopatológico revelou granulomas multifocais no esôfago, fígado, baço, pâncreas e duodeno, com estruturas compatíveis com ovos de Schistosoma mansoni, degeneração micro-vacuolar hepática grave, multifocal e coalescente, com proliferação de ductos biliares aleatórios e hiperplasia epitelial associada a áreas de fibrose. Formas adultas do parasito foram observadas nos vasos sanguíneos do espaço portal. Os pulmões exibiram pneumonia intersticial moderada e difusa com ovos de S. mansoni intralesionais. Nos rins, foram observados cilindros hialinos na pelve e hemorragia difusa. Em conclusão, H. sciureus apresenta um quadro patológico semelhante ao ser humano. Este roedor desempenha um papel de sentinela na Baixada Maranhense.


Subject(s)
Animals , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Schistosomiasis mansoni/veterinary , Sigmodontinae/parasitology , Parasite Egg Count , Schistosomiasis mansoni/parasitology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/pathology , Feces/parasitology
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 786-789, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057974

ABSTRACT

Abstract Platynosomiasis is a hepatopathy caused by Platynosomum illiciens(= P. fastosum) (Trematoda: Dicrocoelidae), which occurs mainly in domestic and wild cats in tropical and subtropical areas. The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of P. illiciens infection in domestic cats in the city of Araguaína, Tocantins, Brazil, using necropsy and coproparasitological tests. Additionally, we aimed to evaluate the use of two different techniques to diagnose P. illiciens infection in domestic cats and verify whether this parasitism was associated with individual feline characteristics. For this, 54 cats of different ages were analyzed. The percentage of infection was 33.3% (CI = 21.1-47.5%), parasite load was 9-509, mean intensity was 151.7, and mean abundance was 50.5 trematodes per animal. The risk of infection was higher for females than for males (OR = 5.00; P = 0.017). The spontaneous sedimentation coproparasitological test demonstrated the greatest sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing P. illiciens. This study is the first to report the occurrence of P. illiciens in cats in the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil.


Resumo A platinosomose é uma hepatopatia causada por Platynosomum illiciens(= P. fastosum) (Trematoda: Dicrocoelidae), que ocorre principalmente em felinos domésticos e selvagens de áreas tropicais e subtropicais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de P. illiciens em gatos domésticos do município de Araguaína, Tocantins, Brasil, por meio de necrópsia e exames coproparasitológicos, bem como avaliar o uso de diferentes técnicas no diagnóstico de P. illiciens em gatos domésticos e verificar a associação da parasitose com características individuais dos felinos. O estudo foi realizado em 54 gatos com diferentes idades, machos e fêmeas. O percentual de infecção foi de 33,3% (IC= 21,1% - 47,5%), a carga parasitária observada foi de 09-509, a intensidade média de 151,7 e a abundância média de 50,5 trematódeos por animal. As fêmeas apresentaram maior chance de infecção do que os machos (OR=5,00; P=0,017). O teste coproparasitológico que demonstrou maior sensibilidade e especificidade foi o de sedimentação espontânea. O presente estudo faz o primeiro relato da ocorrência de P. illiciens em gatos no estado do Tocantins, região Norte do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Trematoda/isolation & purification , Trematode Infections/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Trematoda/classification , Trematode Infections/parasitology , Trematode Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Feces/parasitology , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology
18.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 722-727, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057999

ABSTRACT

Abstract The goal of this study was to assess the effect of farm size (FS) and farrowing order (FO) on the occurrence of endoparasites eggs in commercial sows housed in maternity and gestation areas during the period from May to July 2014. Forty-three piglet production units were classified by FS: small (100 to 250 sows), medium (251 to 510 sows), large (511 to 1,000 sows) and very large (more than 1,000 sows). Sows were classified by FO: up to two, three to five or more than five parturitions. Faecal samples were processed using the simple flotation technique in a hypersaturated salt solution (30-35% NaCl). The results revealed that the overall prevalence of gastrointestinal endoparasites obtained in this study was 12.47%, in that 4.64% were positive for Ascaris suum, 0.56% for Trichuris suis and 8.27% for coccidia oocysts. The prevalence of endoparasites obtained for small and medium size farm, and for large and very large farm was 34.58% and 15.52%, respectively. In conclusion, the study shows that more than half of the farms were positive for A. suum and coccidia oocysts, but mainly for younger females. In general, sows with up to two parturitions and small farms showed a higher endoparasites percentage.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar o efeito de tamanho de granja (TG) e a ordem de parição (OP) sobre a ocorrência de ovos de endoparasitas em matrizes suínas comerciais alojadas na maternidade e gestação durante o período de maio a julho de 2014. Quarenta e três unidades produtoras de leitões foram classificadas por TG: pequena (100 a 250 porcas), média (251 a 510 porcas), grande (511 a 1.000 porcas) e muito grande (mais de 1.000 porcas). As porcas foram classificadas por OP: até dois, três a cinco e mais que cinco partos. As amostras fecais foram processadas usando a técnica de flotação em solução salina hipersaturada a 30-35%. Os resultados revelaram que a prevalência global de endoparasitas gastrointestinais obtidos neste estudo foi de 13,59%, em que 4,64% foram positivas para Ascaris suum, 0,56% para Trichuris suis e 8,27% para oocistos de coccídeos. A prevalência de endoparasitas obtidos para fazendas de pequeno e médio porte, e para fazendas grandes e muito grandes foi de 34,58% e 15,52%, respectivamente. Em conclusão, o estudo mostra que mais da metade das fazendas foram positivas para A. suum e oocistos de coccídeos, mas principalmente para as fêmeas mais jovens. Em geral, as porcas com até dois partos e pequenas propriedades mostraram uma porcentagem maior de endoparasitas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Swine Diseases/parasitology , Trichuris/isolation & purification , Ascaris suum/isolation & purification , Eimeria/isolation & purification , Feces/parasitology , Swine , Prevalence , Farms
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 700-707, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057997

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim here is to present data on the efficacy of anthelmintics in sheep flocks in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to discuss the interpretation of the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) for each nematode genus. Fecal eggs counts and pre- and post-treatment coprocultures were performed, the former to evaluate the efficacy of and the latter to determine the overall parasite prevalence. An additional efficacy test was performed at Farm # 1 a year after the initial test. Severe anthelmintic resistance was found for the flocks, with no FECRT sensitivity at any of the 22 farms evaluated. However, an analysis of the infective larvae showed that some drugs were effective against certain parasitic genera; i.e., levamisole was more effective against Haemonchus spp. and moxidectin against Trichostrongylus spp. In the additional FECRT performed at Farm # 1, moxidectin and nitroxynil were ineffective separately, but when applied in combination they were highly effective due to their efficacy against Haemonchus (nitroxynil) and Trichostrongylus (moxidectin), respectively. The use of the FECRT targeting the parasitic nematode species prevalent on farms may make it possible to choose more effective anthelmintics.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar dados sobre a eficácia de anti-helmínticos em rebanhos ovinos no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e discutir a interpretação do teste de redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (TRCOF) para cada gênero de nematoide. A contagem de ovos fecais (OPG) e coprocultura pré e pós-tratamento foram realizadas para avaliar a eficácia e a prevalência geral do parasito, respectivamente. Um teste de eficácia adicional foi realizado na Fazenda # 1 após um ano do teste inicial. Resistência anti-helmíntica grave foi encontrada, não havendo sensibilidade no TRCOF em nenhuma das 22 fazendas avaliadas. No entanto, na análise das larvas infectantes observou-se que algumas drogas foram eficazes contra certos gêneros parasitários; por exemplo, o levamisol foi mais eficaz contra Haemonchus spp. e a moxidectina contra Trichostrongylus spp. No TRCOF adicional realizado na Fazenda 1, a moxidectina e o nitroxinil foram ineficazes separadamente, mas quando aplicados em combinação, foram altamente eficazes devido à sua eficácia contra Haemonchus spp. (nitroxinil) e Trichostrongylus spp. (moxidectina), respectivamente. O TRCOF visando às espécies de nematoides parasitas prevalentes nas fazendas pode possibilitar a escolha de anti-helmínticos mais eficazes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasite Egg Count , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Nematoda/drug effects , Drug Resistance , Sheep , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Nematoda/classification
20.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343567

ABSTRACT

As enteroparasitoses acometem grande número de pessoas, e sua frequência está associada a condições socioeconômicas e de saneamento básico, representando um problema de saúde pública. Apesar da transição epidemiológica mundial, muitos países, como o Brasil, ainda mantêm nas doenças parasitárias importante causa de morbimortalidade. Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever a prevalência de enteroparasitos em exames parasitológicos de fezes em uma unidade laboratorial de um distrito de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brasil. Foram incluídos 2.304 pacientes que realizaram exames parasitológicos de fezes, entre março de 2011 e junho de 2013, e excluídos os sem dados. As variáveis foram obtidas da base de dados do laboratório local e os dados foram analisados utilizando o software SPSS, versão 17.0. Os pacientes estudados foram com frequência mulheres (59,0%) e com idade inferior a 40 anos (66,2%). Parasitos intestinais foram encontrados em 1.112 pacientes (48,3%). Protozoários representaram 93,3%, e helmintos, 10,3%. O monoparasitismo foi predominante (72,2%). Os parasitos mais frequentes foram Giardia lamblia (8,7%), seguido de Entamoeba histolytica (6,6%), Ancylostomideo SP (4,6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2,0%), Hymenolepis SP (1,7%) e Schistosoma mansoni (1,6%). A prevalência de enteroparasitos foi elevada, com predominância de protozoários e monoparasitoses, e o perfil da população estudada caracterizou-se por maior frequência de mulheres e adultos jovens.


The endoparasites affect large number of people; their frequency is associated with socioeconomic conditions and basic sanitation, representing a public health problem. Despite the worldwide epidemiological transition, many countries, such as Brazil, still have a major cause of morbidity and mortality in parasitic diseases. To describe the prevalence of endoparasites in parasitological exams of feces in a laboratorial unit in a district of Feira de Santana, state of Bahia, Brazil. The study included 2,304 patients that underwent parasitological stool testes between March 2011 and June 2013, absent from missing data. The variables were obtained from the local laboratory database. The data were analyzed using software SPSS v. 17.0. The patients studied were more frequently women (59.0%) and younger than 40 years (66.2%). Intestinal parasites were found in 1,112 patients (48.3%). Protozoa represent 93.3% and helminthes 10.3%. The monoparasitism was prevailing (72.2%). The more frequent parasites were Giardia lamblia (8.7%), followed by Entamoeba histolytica (6.6%), Ancylostomideo SP (4.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2.0%), Hymenolepis SP (1.7%) and Schistosoma mansoni (1.6%). The prevalence of endoparasites increased; protozoa and monoparasites predominated; and the studied population's profile was characterized by a higher frequency of women and young adults.


Los enteroparásitos acometen a un gran número de personas, y esta frecuencia está asociada a condiciones socioeconómicas y de saneamiento básico que indican un problema de salud pública. Pese a la transición epidemiológica mundial, muchos países como Brasil todavía mantienen un relevante reflejo de morbimortalidad a causa de enfermedades por parásitos. Este artículo tuvo como objetivo describir la prevalencia de enteroparásitos en muestras parasitológicas de heces en una unidad laboratorial de un distrito de Feira de Santana, Bahía, Brasil. Se incluyeron a 2.304 pacientes que realizaron muestras parasitológicas de heces entre marzo de 2011 a junio de 2013, y se excluyeron a los participantes con datos ausentes. Las variables obtenidas fueron basadas en datos del laboratorio local, y para el análisis de datos se utilizó el programa SPSS, versión 17.0. Hubo un predominio de la población femenina (59,0%) y con edad inferior a 40 años (66,2%). Se encontró parásitos intestinales en 1.112 pacientes (48,3%). Los protozoarios representaron el 93,3%; y los helmintos, 10,3%. Hubo mayor predominancia de un solo parásito (72,2%). Los parásitos más frecuentes fueron: Giardia lamblia (8,7%), seguido de Entamoeba histolytica (6,6%), Ancylostomideo SP (4,6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2,0%), Hymenolepis SP (1,7%) y Schistosoma mansoni (1,6%). La prevalencia de enteroparásitos fue elevada, predominaron protozoarios y un solo parásito; y el perfil de la población estudiada se ha caracterizado por una mayor frecuencia en mujeres y adultos jóvenes.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases , Basic Sanitation , Entamoeba histolytica , Feces , Feces/parasitology
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