Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 544
Filter
1.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 36: e220176, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521582

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the prevalence of overweight among Brazilian adults aged 20 to 59, according to sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and food consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on data from a population-based survey in a major metropolitan city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, conducted between 2015-2016. Prevalences and prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression; food consumption means were estimated using linear regression. Results: We analyzed data from 855 adults, 61% of whom were overweight. The prevalence of overweight was significantly higher among males, those aged 30 or older, with 8 to 11 years of education, and those who reported eating more than they should. The body mass index was significantly associated with hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, waist-to-height ratio, taking weight-loss medications, overeating, and the habit of checking labels. Overweight adults reported eating meat with visible fat and drinking soda more frequently than those not overweight. Overweight adults reported eating significantly more grams of food daily and had a higher intake of energy, total fat, saturated fats, trans fats, carbohydrates, protein, insoluble dietary fiber, sodium, and potassium. Their diets had a higher glycemic load when compared to participants who were not overweight. Conclusion: Adults with and without overweight differed in their sociodemographic, dietary, and clinical characteristics. Diet quality was similar between both groups, suggesting a need for improving dietary habits in this population regardless of body weight.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência de excesso de peso entre adultos brasileiros, de 20 a 59 anos, segundo características sociodemográficas, de comportamentos relacionados à saúde e quanto ao consumo alimentar. Métodos: Estudo transversal, de pesquisa de base populacional, em uma cidade metropolitana de São Paulo - Brasil, conduzida entre os anos de 2015 e 2016. Foram estimadas as prevalências e as razões de prevalência por meio da regressão de Poisson, e as médias de consumo alimentar pelo uso da regressão linear. Resultados: Foram analisados dados referentes à 855 adultos, 61% destes apresentavam sobrepeso. A prevalência de excesso de peso foi significativamente maior entre: homens, com 30 anos ou mais, pessoas que possuíam entre 8 e 11 anos de estudo e entre aqueles que acreditavam comer mais do que deveriam. O índice de massa corporal foi significativamente associado à hipertensão, diabetes, colesterol alto, razão cintura-estatura, uso de medicamentos, comer mais do que deveria e o hábito de checar rótulos. Adultos com excesso de peso ingeriam carnes com gordura e refrigerantes em maior frequência quando comparados à adultos com peso saudável. Adultos com excesso de peso consumiam, significativamente, mais gramas de alimentos por dia e apresentaram maior ingestão de calorias, gorduras totais, saturadas e trans, carboidratos, proteína, fibras insolúveis, sódio e potássio. A dieta deles continha uma maior carga glicêmica quando comparada àqueles com peso saudável. Conclusão: Adultos com e sem excesso de peso, diferiram quanto às características sociodemográficas, dietéticas e clínicas. A qualidade da dieta foi similar em ambos os grupos, o que sugere a necessidade de melhora dos hábitos alimentares da população, independentemente do peso corporal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Health Behavior/physiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Eating/physiology , Waist-Height Ratio , Glycemic Load/physiology , Sociodemographic Factors , Hypercholesterolemia/epidemiology
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 276-282, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927603

ABSTRACT

Olfaction and food intake are interrelated and regulated. In the process of feeding, the metabolic signals in the body and the feeding signals produced by food stimulation are first sensed by the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus and the nucleus tractus solitarius of brain stem, and then these neurons project to the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus. The paraventricular nucleus transmits the signals to other brain regions related to feeding and regulates feeding behavior. In this process, olfactory signals can be transmitted to hypothalamus through olfactory bulb and olfactory cortex to regulate feeding behavior. At the same time, gastrointestinal hormones (ghrelin, insulin, leptin, etc.) and some neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, endocannabinoid, etc.) produced in the process of feeding act on the olfactory system to regulate olfactory function, which in turn affects the feeding itself. This review summaries the research progress of the interaction between olfaction and food intake and its internal mechanism from the aspects of neuronal and hormonal regulation.


Subject(s)
Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus/metabolism , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Hypothalamus , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus , Smell
3.
Revagog (Impresa) ; 3(2): 40-53, Abr-Jun. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1344613

ABSTRACT

Following healthy eating patterns is important for pregnant and lactating women for a number of reasons. Increasing calories and nutrient intake is necessary to support the growth and development of the baby and maintain the health of the mother. Having access to a healthy dietary pattern before and during pregnancy will improve pregnancy outcomes. In addition, following a healthy diet plan before and during pregnancy as well as while breastfeeding has the potential to influence the health of mother and child in successive stages of life. Pregnancy and breastfeeding are special stages in a woman's life and nutrition plays a vital role before, during and after these stages in maintaining the health of the mother and her child. Consideration should be given to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight before pregnancy, gaining weight during pregnancy as recommended, and returning to a healthy weight after the postpartum period. Events that occur in the early stages of life play an important role in the development of chronic diseases. It is recognized that diet and lifestyle during pregnancy are crucial determinants for modulating the microbiota of the offspring, through a vertical transfer from the dysbiotic maternal environment. In addition, intestinal colonization is maximized in the first two years of life through the type and timing of feeding of the newborn


Seguir patrones de alimentación saludables es importante para las mujeres embarazadas y mujeres lactantes por varias razones. Aumento de calorías y la ingesta de nutrientes es necesaria para apoyar el crecimiento y desarrollo del bebé y mantener la salud de la madre. Tener acceso a un patrón dietético saludable antes y durante el embarazo mejorará. resultados del embarazo. Además, seguir un plan de dieta saludable antes y durante el embarazo, así como durante la lactancia, tiene el potencial influir en la salud de la madre y el niño en las sucesivas etapas de la vida. El embarazo y la lactancia son etapas especiales en la vida de una mujer y la nutrición juega un papel vital antes, durante y después de estas etapas en el mantenimiento de la salud de la madre y su hijo. Consideración debe darse para lograr y mantener un peso saludable antes embarazo, aumento de peso durante el embarazo según lo recomendado, y volver a un peso saludable después del período posparto. Los eventos que ocurren en las primeras etapas de la vida juegan un papel importante en el desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas. Se reconoce que la dieta y El estilo de vida durante el embarazo son determinantes cruciales para modular la microbiota de la descendencia, a través de una transferencia vertical desde el ambiente materno disbiótico. Además, la colonización intestinal se maximiza en los primeros dos años de vida a través del tipo y el momento de alimentación del recién nacido


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding , Pregnant Women , Eating , Microbiota/immunology , Postnatal Care/methods , Growth and Development/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Diet, Healthy
4.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e54483, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368749

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to detect early hypertension, diabetes and obesity, as well as their risk factors, in 105 young shooters from Tiro de Guerra 11-002 in the city of Ituiutaba-MG. This is a cross-sectional mixed study. A semi-structured questionnaire that contained questions related to the sociodemographic context, health status, lifestyle, eating habits, and psychosocial variables was applied. Blood pressure, anthropometric indexes, and lipid and glycemic profiles were measured. Descriptive and inferential statistics, including Pearson's correlation test and Spearman's coefficient, considering significative value (p < 0.05). The shooters had an average of 18.9 years old, most educated and brown. Anthropometric indices indicated a mainly eutrophic population, and normotensive and desirable lipid and glycemic profiles. However, overweight, high blood pressure, and self-declaration of family history for chronic diseases were identified. In addition, most shooters affirmed to ingest alcoholics beverages, to have insufficient time of physical activity, and to be aware of their levels of stress, pressure and anxiety and a few hours of sleep. Overall, the shooters showed good anthropometric and biochemical indicatorsof blood. Risk behavior, such as drinking alcoholic beverages and smoking, low level of physical activity and self-perception of stress, anxiety and pressure were also noted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Health Status , Risk Factors , Adolescent Behavior/physiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Anxiety , Quality of Life , Tobacco Use Disorder , Exercise , Nutritional Status/physiology , Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus , Overweight , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Alcoholics , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Psychological Distress , Sociodemographic Factors , Hypertension , Life Style , Lipids/physiology , Obesity
5.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(1): e167, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126451

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Los malos hábitos alimentarios contribuyen a la aparición de la obesidad, la cual representa un factor de riesgo para el inicio de la diabetes mellitus. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre hábitos alimentarios y el riesgo de desarrollar diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en pacientes con obesidad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en el consultorio médico de familia número 6 perteneciente al Policlínico Universitario "José Machado Rodríguez", municipio Unión de Reyes, Matanzas, durante el período comprendido entre diciembre 2013 y febrero 2015. El universo lo constituyó un total de 380 pacientes diagnosticados como obesos y se seleccionó una muestra de 186 individuos, según los criterios de selección. Se utilizó el score de riesgo Finish Diabetes Risk Score. Se solicitó el consentimiento asistido de los pacientes. Resultados: Se evidenció un predominio general del sexo femenino (51,61 por ciento), lo que se asocia con el grupo de edad más frecuente de 35 a 54 años (49,46 por ciento). Existió un elevado porcentaje de obesos que adicionan sal a las comidas después de cocidas o al sentarse a la mesa (93,0 por ciento), seguido del consumo de grasa animal para cocinar (52,7 por ciento). Hubo un escaso consumo diario de frutas (15,6 por ciento), y de verduras/hortalizas (25,3 por ciento). Predominaron los pacientes con riesgo alto de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (31,2 por ciento) asociados a 29,6 por ciento con malos hábitos alimentarios dentro de ese grupo. Conclusiones: La obesidad asociada a patrones de alimentación inadecuados predomina en los pacientes considerados laboralmente activos. El mayor porcentaje de individuos con riesgo alto y muy alto de diabetes presenta incorrectos hábitos dietéticos. Existe una asociación porcentual entre los malos hábitos alimentarios y el riesgo estimado de desarrollar diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en individuos obesos(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Bad eating habits contribute to the emergence of obesity, which represents a risk factor for the onset of diabetes mellitus. Objective: To determine the association between food habits and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 2 in patients with obesity. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Family Doctor´s office number 6 belonging to ´´José Machado Rodríguez´´ University Policlinic, in Union de Reyes municipality, Matanzas province, during the period from December 2013 to February 2015. The sample was a total of 380 patients diagnosed as obese and it was selected a sample of 186 individuals, according to the selection criteria. It was used the Finish Diabetes Risk Score risk score. It was requested the assisted consent of patients. Results: There was a general predominance of females (51.61 percent), which is associated with the most frequent age group of 35 to 54 years (49.46 percent). There was a high percentage of obese individuals that add salt to the meals after cooked or while at the table (93.0 percent), followed by consumption of animal fat for cooking (52.7 percent). There was a low daily consumption of fruits (15.6 percent), and vegetables (25.3 percent). There was a predominance of patients at high risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 (31.2 percent) associated with 29.6 percent with bad eating habits within that group. Conclusions: Obesity associated with inadequate feeding patterns prevails in patients considered occupationally active. The highest percentage of individuals with high and very high risk of diabetes presents incorrect dietary habits. There is a percentage association between the bad eating habits and the estimated risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 2 in obese individuals(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Obesity/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5227, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056054

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the efficacy of a behavior change program named Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients. Methods Ninety hypertensive patients aged over 40 years were randomly allocated to one of two groups: Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde or Control (n=45 respectively). Patients in the Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde group took part in a behavior change program aimed to encourage changes in physical activity levels and eating habits, according to the Social Cognitive Theory. The program consisted of 90-minute weekly group meetings conducted by a physical therapist and a dietitian. One chapter of the educational material (workbook) provided was discussed per meeting. Participants in the Control Group attended a single educative lecture on lifestyle changes. Brachial and central blood pressure, arterial stiffness and endothelial function parameters were measured pre- and post-intervention. Results Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde led to reduction of brachial (131.3±15.8mmHg to 125.1±17.3mmHg; p<0.01) and central (123.6±16.3mmHg to 119.0±20.6mmHg; p=0.02) systolic and brachial diastolic (123.6±16.3mmHg to 119.0±20.6mmHg; p<0.01) blood pressure values, and improvement of post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (from 5.7±2.5mL·100mL−1 to 6.5±2.1mL·100mL−1 tissue·min−1; p=0.04). No changes in body composition, heart rate and arterial stiffness parameters were detected in both groups (p>0.05). Conclusion Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde program improved blood pressure and microvascular reactivity in hypertensive patients. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02257268


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a eficácia do programa de mudança de comportamento Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde sobre parâmetros cardiovasculares em pacientes hipertensos. Métodos Noventa pacientes hipertensos ≥40 anos foram aleatoriamente randomizados em dois grupos: Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde (n=45) e Controle (n=45). O Grupo Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde participou de um programa de mudança de comportamento que objetiva motivar mudanças na atividade física e nos hábitos alimentares, de acordo com a teoria sociocognitiva. O programa foi conduzido em grupos, durante 12 semanas consecutivas, em encontros semanais (~90 minutos), conduzidos por um profissional de edução física e um nutricionista. Um capítulo do material didático era discutido em cada um desses encontros. O Grupo Controle participou de uma única palestra educativa sobre mudanças de estilo de vida. Medidas de pressão arterial braquial e central, rigidez arterial, e de função endotelial foram realizadas nos momentos pré e pós-intervenção. Resultados O Grupo Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde reduziu a pressão arterial sistólica braquial (de 131,3±15,8mmHg a 125,1±17,3mmHg; p<0,01) e central (de 123,6±16,3mmHg a 119,0±20,6mmHg; p=0,02) e a pressão arterial diastólica braquial (123,6±16,3mmHg a 119,0±20,6mmHg; p<0,01) e apresentou melhora na hiperemia reativa pós-oclusão (de 5,7±2,5mL·100mL−1a 6,5±2,1mL·100mL−1tecido·min−1; p=0,04). Não houve modificação na composição corporal, na frequência cardíaca e nem nos parâmetros de rigidez arterial em ambos os grupos (p>0,05). Conclusão O Programa Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde melhorou a pressão arterial e a reatividade microvascular em pacientes hipertensos. Registro do estudo: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02257268


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Health Behavior/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Composition , Exercise/physiology , Program Evaluation , Treatment Outcome , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Hyperemia/physiopathology , Hypertension/psychology , Life Style , Middle Aged
7.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4039, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056073

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the oxidative profile, nutritional status and food intake (caloric value; macronutrients; vitamins A, E and C; and zinc), and to correlate oxidative stress with nutritional status in patients who were candidates for liver transplant. Methods This is a cross-sectional, analytical, and descriptive study with 51 candidates for liver transplant. Sociodemographic and clinical data, anthropometric parameters, food consumption, and a 10mL blood sample were collected from each patient. Oxidative stress was analyzed by the thiobarbituric acid method. The consumption of macronutrients, caloric value and micronutrients (zinc, vitamins A, E and C) were qualitatively analyzed, and zinc was also quantitatively analyzed. Results The mean age was 49.17±8.17 years. The highest percentage of malnutrition was according to arm muscle circumference (56.86%), followed by arm circumference (52.94%), triceps skin fold (50.98%), and body mass index (1.96%). The mean malondialdehyde level was 14.80±8.72μM/L, presenting a negative correlation with the body mass index for patients with liver cirrhosis according to IMC-Campillo values (p=0.001; r=-0.430). Low energy, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin A and E consumption were observed in more than 50% of subjects. Conclusion This study showed an association of nutritional status through body mass index for patients with liver cirrhosis according to IMC-Campillo, with oxidative stress in patients with liver cirrhosis on a liver transplant waiting list.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o perfil oxidativo, o estado nutricional e o consumo alimentar (valor calórico; macronutrientes; vitaminas A, E e C; e zinco), e correlacionar o estresse oxidativo com o estado nutricional em pacientes candidatos ao transplante hepático. Métodos Trata-se de estudo transversal, analítico e descritivo com 51 pacientes candidatos ao transplante hepático. Coletaram-se dados sociodemográficos e clínicos, parâmetros antropométricos, consumo alimentar e amostra de 10mL de sangue de cada paciente. O estresse oxidativo foi analisado por método do ácido tiobarbitúrico. O consumo de macronutrientes, do valor calórico e dos micronutrientes (zinco, vitaminas A, E e C) foi analisado qualitativamente, e o zinco também foi analisado quantitativamente. Resultados A média de idade foi de 49,17±8,17 anos. Maior percentual de desnutrição esteve de acordo com circunferência muscular do braço (56,86%), seguida de circunferência do braço (52,94%), dobra cutânea triciptal (50,98%) e índice de massa corporal (1,96%). A média do malondialdeído foi de 14,80±8,72µM/L, apresentando correlação negativa com os valores do índice de massa corporal para pacientes com cirrose hepática segundo IMC-Campillo (p=0,001; r=-0,430). Observou-se baixo consumo de energia, carboidrato, proteína, e vitaminas A e E em mais de 50% dos indivíduos. Conclusão Este estudo mostrou associação do estado nutricional, por meio do índice de massa corporal para pacientes com cirrose hepática segundo IMC-Campillo, com o estresse oxidativo em paciente com cirrose hepática em lista de transplante de fígado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Nutritional Status/physiology , Liver Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Oxidative Stress/physiology , End Stage Liver Disease/metabolism , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , Energy Intake , Nutrition Assessment , Anthropometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Educational Status , Feeding Behavior/physiology , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Malondialdehyde/blood , Middle Aged
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190277, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057296

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the occurrence of gonotrophic discordance in females of Culex quinquefasciatus in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Resting females were collected monthly for 8 months. Females of Cx. quinquefasciatus were identified, and their midgut and ovaries were dissected. RESULTS: Two hundred females were dissected, out of which, 27.5% were nulliparous and 57% were parous. Most females had no blood in the midgut, but gonotrophic discordance was found in 21% females. CONCLUSIONS: Females of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed a high parity rate and gonotrophic discordance, which could favor the vector capacity of this species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Culex/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Elephantiasis, Filarial/transmission , Brazil , Culex/classification , Dirofilariasis/transmission , Oviparity/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Longevity/physiology
9.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 21(3): e105, sept.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093831

ABSTRACT

Introduction: gouty arthritis is a persistent metabolic disease that produces an increase of the circulating uric acid, with the resulting deposit of monosodic urate crystals in the tissues. Objective: to characterize patients with gouty arthritis clinically and epidemiologically. Methods: a descriptive investigation of 72 patients with a diagnosis of gouty arthritis, assisted at Arnaldo Milián Castro Clinical Surgical University Hospital was carried out from January 2008 to December 2017. Results: patients between 40 and 49 years of age were the most representative group with a highest incidence in not white patients and the male sex. Obesity and hypertension prevailed as previous personal antecedents. Alcohol intake was the most represented toxic habit. A crisis of inflammation of the big toe was the more frequent starting manifestation. Swelling of soft tissues was the main radiologic alteration. Conclusion: gouty arthritis is present with a highest frequency in the male sex with a peak of incidence in the fourth decade of life. It is associated to bad diet habits and alcohol intake that could cause joint damage(AU)


Introducción: la artritis gotosa es una enfermedad metabólica persistente, que produce un aumento del ácido úrico circulante, con el consiguiente depósito de cristales de uratos monosódicos en los tejidos. Objetivo: caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente a los pacientes con artritis gotosa. Método: se realizó una investigación descriptiva de 72 pacientes con diagnóstico de artritis gotosa, atendidos en el Hospital Universitario Clínico Quirúrgico Arnaldo Milián Castro, entre enero del 2008 y diciembre del 2017. Resultados: los pacientes entre 40 y 49 años de edad fueron los más representativos, con mayor incidencia en no blancos y del sexo masculino. Predominó la obesidad y la hipertensión arterial como antecedentes patológicos personales. El alcohol fue el hábito tóxico mayoritariamente representado. La crisis de podagra resulto ser la manifestación inicial más usual. El aumento de partes blandas fue la principal alteración radiológica. Conclusiones: La gota se presenta con mayor frecuencia en el sexo masculino con un pico de incidencia en la cuarta década de la vida. Está asociada a malos hábitos dietéticos y al consumo de bebidas alcohólicas pudiendo ocasionar daño articular(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Arthritis, Gouty/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Metabolic Diseases
10.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(5): 508-514, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058177

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La escala Early Feeding Skills (EFS) evalúa la conducta del neonato antes, durante y posterior al proceso de alimentación. OBJETIVOS: Determinar la validez de fachada, de contenido y evaluar con dicha escala el proceso de alimentación en los recién nacidos prematuros comparando con variables relevantes. PPACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Se evaluaron prematuros de 34 a 36 semanas de edad corregida sin daño neurológico o malformaciones craneofaciales. Diseño de tipo descriptivo de corte transversal. Los datos fueron obtenidos mediante escala EFS, versión corregida mediante validación de fachada y contenido. Las variables de estudio fueron género, logro de alimentación por pecho, y habilidades de alimentación durante el proceso de alimentación, evaluadas por 2 observadoras Se analizaron medidas de dispersión y se aplicó prueba Fisher al 5% de significancia, estableciendo la asociación de los resultados obtenidos con las variables. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 5 dominios: (1) Capacidad de mantenerse enfocado en la alimentación, en que el 75,3% posee un nivel desempeño deficiente y el 28,6% equitativo existiendo diferencias significativas con la variable sexo. (2) Capacidad de organizar el funcionamiento motor - oral tiene un 10,5% deficiente, un 68,8% equitativo y un 20,6% bueno. (3) Capacidad de coordinar la deglución el 95,2% presenta un rendimiento equitativo. (4) Capacidad de mantener la estabilidad fisiológica el 96,7% fue equitativo y en (5) Evaluación de la tolerancia alimentaria oral tiene un desempeño deficiente del 41,6%. CONCLUSIÓN: La escala EFS es una herra mienta que aporta información relevante para describir el proceso de alimentación oral en lactantes prematuros, permitiendo identificar las áreas de mayor dificultad que requieren tratamiento profe sional, sin embargo, esta herramienta no es suficiente por sí sola para llevar a cabo una evaluación integral del proceso de alimentación del neonato.


INTRODUCTION: The Early Feeding Skills (EFS) scale assessed the neonate's behavior before, during, and after the feeding process. OBJECTIVES: To determine the face and content validity, and to evaluate with this scale the feeding process in premature newborns comparing with relevant variables. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Premature newborns were evaluated; they were between 34 to 36 weeks of corrected age, without neurological damage or craniofacial malformations. Cross-sectional descriptive study. The data were obtained through the EFS scale, version corrected by face and content validation. The study variables were gender, breastfeeding achievement, and feeding skills during the feeding process, evaluated by two observers. Dispersion measures were analyzed, and the Fisher test was used at 5% significance, establishing the association of the obtained results with the variables. RESULTS: 5 domains were evaluated: (1) Ability to stay focused on food, in which 75.3% have a poor performance level, and 28.6% equitable, with significant differences in the sex variable. (2) Ability to organize motor- oral functioning presents 10.5% deficient, 68.8% equitable, and 20.6% good. (3) Ability to coordinate swallowing 95.2% presents an equitable performance. (4) Ability to maintain physiological stability 96.7% was equitable; and (5) Evaluation of oral food tolerance presents 41.6% of poor performance. CONCLUSION: The EFS scale is a tool that provides relevant information to describe the oral feeding process in premature infants, allowing to identify the areas of greatest difficulty that require profes sional treatment, however, this tool is not enough by itself to carry a comprehensive evaluation of the newborn feeding process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Breast Feeding , Infant, Premature/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Deglutition/physiology
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 723-730, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038738

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Although some studies have investigated the role of nutritional intervention on migraine, they had focused on triggers or on weight change and, to the best of our knowledge, none studied diet quality. Objective To investigate whether nutritional intervention focused on improving diet quality and healthy weight can promote improvement in clinical parameters of women with migraine. Methods Non-controlled and non-randomized intervention study conducted for 90 days. Women received an individualized diet meal plan and nutritional orientation according to their nutritional diagnosis. Anthropometric, clinical and nutritional data were measured once a month. Diet energy content and macronutrients were evaluated using 24-hour dietary recall. Diet quality was assessed through the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R). The Migraine Disability Assessment and Headache Impact Test version 6 were used to assess the severity of migraine, and the Beck Depression Inventory evaluated depressive symptoms. Results Fifty-two women aged 44.0 ± 13.0 years were enrolled. Anthropometric characteristics, energy, macronutrients and fiber intake did not change after intervention. However, the BHEI-R scores improved after 60 and 90 days of intervention. Concurrent to this, the Beck Depression Inventory scores and Headache Impact Test scores decreased after 60 and 90 days, respectively. The change in the BHEI-R score was negatively correlated with the migraine severity as assessed by the Headache Impact Test at the end of the intervention. Conclusions We concluded that the management of diet quality may be a good strategy for improving migraine severity, regardless of the nutritional status and weight change.


RESUMO Estudos investigaram o papel da intervenção nutricional, focada no consumo de alimentos "gatilhos" ou na alteração de peso, na melhora da migrânea. Porém, mudanças na qualidade da dieta ainda não foram abordadas. Objetivo Investigar se intervenção nutricional focada na qualidade da dieta e peso saudável pode melhorar parâmetros clínicos em mulheres com migrânea. Métodos Estudo de intervenção, não controlado e não randomizado. As mulheres receberam plano alimentar individualizado e orientações nutricionais, conforme o diagnóstico nutricional. Dados antropométricos, clínicos e alimentares foram medidos uma vez por mês durante três meses. Recordatório alimentar de 24 horas forneceu informações sobre o consumo alimentar. Qualidade da dieta foi avaliada pelo Índice Brasileiro de Alimentação Saudável (IQD-R). Os questionários Migraine Disability Test (MIDAS) e Headache Impact Test, versão 6 (HIT-6) avaliaram a incapacidade gerada pela enxaqueca e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck (BDI) investigou sintomas depressivos. Resultados Cinquenta e duas mulheres com 44,0 ± 13,0 anos participaram da amostra. Características antropométricas e consumo de energia, macronutrientes e fibras não se alteraram depois da intervenção. No entanto, os escores do IQD-R melhoraram após 60 e 90 dias de intervenção. Os escores do BDI e do HIT-6 diminuíram após 60 e 90 dias, respectivamente. A mudança no escore do IQD-R correlacionou de maneira negativa com a gravidade da enxaqueca avaliada pelo HIT-6 ao final da intervenção. Conclusões O manejo da qualidade da dieta pode ser estratégia para melhorar a gravidade da migrânea, independente do estado nutricional e da mudança de peso dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Diet, Healthy/methods , Migraine Disorders/diet therapy , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Nutrition Assessment , Pilot Projects , Anthropometry , Nutritional Status , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Disability Evaluation , Overweight/physiopathology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Migraine Disorders/physiopathology
12.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 35(2): e1973, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1149877

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La buena salud depende de factores como la nutrición, determinante para garantizar un adecuado estado físico, mental y académico, aspectos indispensables para el desarrollo individual y social de cualquier persona. Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos alimentarios y estado nutricional de los preescolares de un centro de educación inicial. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal correlacionar, en un centro de educación inicial en Santa Elena, Ecuador, durante 2016. Universo constituido por 125 binomios padres-escolares, entre tres y cinco años. Se utilizó el método observacional y encuesta, las variables estudiadas fueron edad, hábitos alimentarios, nivel de instrucción, adquisición de alimentos, peso, talla. Para el análisis de datos, se utilizó el software IBM-SPSS-Statistics-21.0; en el descriptivo se utilizaron promedios, media, moda, desviación estándar, valores máximos y mínimos. Para la comparación entre los grupos, se utilizó prueba de Anova de muestras independientes y Χ2, considerando significativo p < 0,05. Para comparar el estado nutricional se analizó la concordancia e índice Kappa, considerándose una buena concordancia un valor ≥ 0,80. Resultados: En cuanto a los padres: 53,60 pòr ciento eran jóvenes, 32,00 por ciento entre 21 a 25 años de edad, 85,00 por ciento con nivel de instrucción medio, 26,40 por ciento con dificultad para adquirir alimentos. El estado nutricional en los niños fue deficiente, debido al consumo de proteínas de alto valor biológico (3,97 por ciento) y 8,32 por ciento, 7,94 por ciento y 4,70 por ciento demostraron alto consumo en alimentos de baja calidad nutricional. Conclusiones: Los hábitos alimentarios de los preescolares se caracterizaron por una alimentación hiperglucídica e hipoproteica, alta en sodio, deficiente en hierro y zinc, evidenciando baja calidad nutricional en los alimentos consumidos(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Good health depends on factors such as nutrition, a determinant to guarantee proper physical, mental and academic state, essential aspects for the individual and social development of any person. Objective: To characterize the eating habits and nutritional status of preschoolers in an initial education center. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional, correlation study carried out in an initial education center in Santa Elena, Ecuador, during 2016. The study population consisted of 125 parent-schoolchild binomials, the school children aged between three and five years. The observational method and the survey were used. The variables studied wereage, eating habits, school level, food acquisition, weight, height. The software IBM-SPSS-Statistics-21.0 was used for data analysis. The results were expressed in average, median, mode, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values. For the comparison between the groups, the Anova test of independent samples and the chi-square test were used, considering p bellow 0.05 significant. To compare the nutritional status, the concordance and Kappa index were analyzed, considering a good value as being higher or equal than 0.80. Results: As for the parents, 53.60 percent were young; of them, 32 percent were between 21 and 25 years old, 85 percent had completed the average education level, and 26.40 percent expressed difficulties in acquiring food. The nutritional status in children was poor, due to the consumption of proteins of high biological value (red meat, 3.97 percent) and foods of poor nutritional quality such as soft drinks (8.32 percent), sweets (7.94 percent) and snacks (4.71 percent). Conclusions: The preschooler's eating habits were characterized by a hyperglycidic and hypoproteic diet, high in sodium, deficient in iron and zinc, which shows low nutritional quality in the food consumed(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Schools , Nutritional Status/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Nutritive Value , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Analysis
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(6): 693-702, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020717

ABSTRACT

Background: Seventy four percent of Chileans replaced the traditional dinner for the consumption of "five o'clock tea" (5CT), a mealtime that includes bread and is simliar to western breakfast. The latter favors the intake of unhealthy foods. Aim: To study whether the consumption of "5CT", instead of dinner, could be a risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Material and Methods: Anthropometric parameters, mean blood pressure, lipid profile, thyroid stimulating hormone and fasting glucose were measured in 489 subjects aged 39 ± 12 years (33% women) who attended a primary cardiovascular prevention (CV) program. A 24-hour recall and usual meal times were registered during a dietary interview. To determine the association between the consumption of "5CT" or dinner and the probability of presenting two or more components of MetSyn, we built an odds proportional model adjusted by age and sex. In addition, severity for MetSyn was calculated. Results: Nineteen percent of participants had MetSyn and 39%, two or more MetSyn components. Those who consumed "5CT" instead of dinner, had 54% more probability of having 2 or more MetSyn components (Odds ratio = 1.54, confidence intervals 1.032.32, p = 0.04). Participants who included processed carbohydrates in their last meal had a higher probability of having components of MetSyn. This probability decreased among participants who ate dinner with a low proportion of refined carbohydrates. Conclusions: Subjects who eat "5CT", instead of dinner as the last meal, have a higher cardiometabolic risk and MetSyn severity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tea/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Diet/adverse effects , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Meals/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Logistic Models , Chile , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Risk Assessment
14.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(2): 247-254, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002463

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzyme activity is a potential inflammatory biomarker for cardiovascular disease. We examined the tracking, or persistence, of sPLA2 enzyme activity levels from childhood to adulthood, and identify potentially modifiable factors affecting tracking. Method: Prospective cohort of 1735 children (45% females) who had serum sPLA2 enzyme activity levels and other cardiovascular disease risk factors measured in 1980 that were followed-up in 2001. Results: sPLA2 activity tracked from childhood to adulthood for males (r = 0.39) and females (r = 0.45). Those who decreased body mass index relative to their peers were more likely to resolve elevated childhood sPLA2 levels than have persistent elevated sPLA2 levels in childhood and adulthood. Those who consumed less fruit, and gained more body mass index relative to their peers, began smoking or were a persistent smoker between childhood and adulthood were more likely to develop incident elevated sPLA2 levels than those with persistent not elevated sPLA2 levels. Conclusions: Childhood sPLA2 enzyme activity levels associate with adult sPLA2 levels 21 years later. Healthful changes in modifiable risk factors that occur between childhood and adulthood might prevent children from developing elevated sPLA2 levels in adulthood.


Resumo Objetivo: A atividade da enzima fosfolipase A2 secretória (sPLA2) é um possível biomarcador inflamatório de doença cardiovascular. Examinamos o monitoramento, ou a persistência, dos níveis de atividade da enzima sPLA2 da infância à vida adulta e identificamos fatores possivelmente modificáveis que afetam o monitoramento. Método: Coorte prospectiva de 1.735 crianças (45% do sexo feminino) cujos níveis de atividade da enzima sPLA2 no soro e outros fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular foram medidos em 1980 e acompanhados até 2011. Resultados: Atividade da enzima sPLA2 monitorada da infância à vida adulta para indivíduos do sexo masculino (r = 0,39) e sexo feminino (r = 0,45). Aqueles que diminuíram seus índices de massa corporal com relação a seus pares foram mais propensos à redução dos níveis elevados de sPLA2 na infância do que a manter níveis persistentemente elevados de sPLA2 na infância e vida adulta. Aqueles que consumiram menos frutas e ganharam mais índice de massa corporal com relação a seus pares, que começaram a fumar ou foram fumantes persistentes entre a infância e vida adulta foram mais propensos a desenvolver níveis de sPLA2 elevados do que aqueles com níveis de sPLA2 não elevados persistentes. Conclusões: Os níveis de atividade da enzima sPLA2 na infância estão associados aos níveis de sPLA2 na vida adulta, 21 anos mais tarde. As mudanças saudáveis nos fatores de risco modificáveis que ocorrem entre a infância e a vida adulta podem evitar que as crianças desenvolvam níveis elevados de sPLA2 na vida adulta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Phospholipases A2, Secretory/blood , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Life Style
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 311-320, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989459

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present paper addresses the feeding activity of Trachinotus cayennensis, collected in Lençóis Bay (1°18'S - 1°19'S; 44°51'W - 44°53'W) on the western coast of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. Sampling was conducted between June 2012 and June 2013 using driftnets with stretch mesh sizes from 95 to 100 mm. A total of 205 individuals (114 females and 91 males) were analyzed. Statistically significant differences in the sex ratio were found in June, September and December 2012. Food items were analyzed based on frequency of occurrence and volumetric method, with the subsequent calculation of the alimentary importance index. Three size groups were defined to determine possible ontogenetic changes in eating habits based on the size range of the individuals collected: I (˂ 29 cm), II (29.1 to 37.0) and III (≥ 37.1). Eleven food item categories were identified: mollusks, polychaetes, crustaceans, nematodes, insects, algae, bryozoans, ophiuroids, fishes, vegetal matter and sediments. The variety of items in the diet of T. cayennensis indicates considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic behavior. Seasonal variations influenced the feeding pattern of the species, with greater feeding activity in the dry season. The considerable availability of resources in estuarine habitats of the western coast of Maranhão constitutes another factor that influences the feeding behavior of this species.


Resumo Atividade alimentar do pampo Trachinotus cayennensis (Cuvier 1832) (Perciformes, Carangidae) em estuários na costa ocidental do Maranhão, Brasil. O presente trabalho descreve a atividade alimentar do Trachinotus cayennensis , coletado na Baía de Lençóis (1°18'S - 1°19'S; 44°51'W - 44°53'W) na costa oeste do Maranhão. Amostragens foram realizadas entre junho de 2012 e junho de 2013, utilizando redes de emalhar à deriva com tamanho de malha de 95 a 100 mm. Foram analisados ​​205 indivíduos (114 fêmeas e 91 machos). Encontraram-se diferenças estatisticamente significativas na proporção sexual nos meses de junho, setembro e dezembro de 2012. Os itens alimentares foram analisados ​​com base na frequência de ocorrência e utilizando o método volumétrico, com o subsequente cálculo do índice de importância alimentar. Três grupos de tamanho foram definidos para determinar possíveis mudanças ontogenéticas nos hábitos alimentares com base na faixa de tamanho dos indivíduos coletados: I (˂ 29 cm), II (29,1 a 37,0) e III (≥ 37,1). Foram identificadas 11 categorias de alimentos: moluscos, poliquetas, crustáceos, nematoides, insetos, algas, briozoários, ophiuro, peixes, matéria vegetal e sedimentos. A variedade de itens na dieta de T. cayennensis indica uma plasticidade alimentar considerável e um comportamento oportunista. As variações sazonais influenciaram o padrão alimentar da espécie, com maior atividade de alimentação na estação seca. A considerável disponibilidade de recursos nos habitats estuarinos da costa oeste do Maranhão constitui outro fator que exerce influência sobre o comportamento alimentar desta espécie.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Perciformes/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Brazil , Estuaries
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 304-310, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989439

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Neotropical green-belly stink bug, Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. in the main production areas of Brazil. It usually feeds on the stems of young plants (seedlings) causing heavy damage by affecting the plant growth and mitigating seed yield. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine body position (upward or downward) of the bug on plant (seedling) stem during feeding and not feeding activities. Ten visual records were taken per day, each spaced one hour during 30 days of 10 adult bugs of similar age exposed to maize seedlings inside cages (plastic tubes). At each observation, it was recorded if the bug was feeding on the stem (i.e., stylets inserted into the plant tissue) or not, and its body position. During feeding, waveforms were recorded using the EPG (electropenetrography) technique, which were correlated with histological studies to reveal the feeding sites. Results indicated that when they were feeding, the majority of the bugs were in the downward position. In contrast, when the bugs were on the plants, and not feeding, they were mostly in the upward position. Waveforms generated using the EPG coupled with histological studies demonstrated that during ingestion bugs fed from the xylem vessels and from the parenchyma tissue using cell rupture strategy in the latter. No clear explanation was found to explain the preferred downward body position during ingestion, but some hypothesis are speculated.


Resumo O percevejo barriga-verde, Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) é uma praga importante do milho, Zea mays L. nas principais áreas produtoras do Brasil. Usualmente alimenta-se nas hastes de plantas jovens (plântulas) causando danos severos no seu crescimento e reduzindo o rendimento de grãos. Estudos foram conduzidos em laboratório para determinar a posição do corpo (voltado para cima ou para baixo) dos percevejos nas hastes das plântulas de milho durante as atividades de alimentação e não-alimentação. Foram feitas dez observações por dia, espaçadas por uma hora, durante 30 dias em 10 percevejos adultos com idade semelhante sobre plântulas de milho colocadas em gaiolas (tubos de plástico). Em cada observação, anotou-se se o percevejo estava se alimentando (i.e., estiletes bucais inseridos no tecido vegetal) ou não, e a posição do corpo. Durante a alimentação, ondas eletromagnéticas foram registradas utilizando-se o EPG (técnica da eletropenetrografia), as quais foram correlacionadas com estudos histológicos para revelar os locais de alimentação. Os resultados indicaram que quando os percevejos estavam se alimentando, a maioria estava voltado para baixo. Em contraste, os percevejos sem se alimentar nas plântulas estavam a maioria voltados para cima. As ondas geradas pelo EPG junto com os estudos histológicos revelaram que os percevejos se alimentaram dos vasos do xilema e do tecido parenquimatoso usando a estratégia de ruptura celular no último. Não foi encontrada uma explicação clara para a preferência dos percevejos em se alimentarem na posição voltados para baixo, mas algumas hipóteses são especuladas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zea mays/parasitology , Heteroptera/physiology , Seedlings/parasitology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Posture/physiology , Plant Stems/parasitology
17.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(2): 217-224, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013286

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the risk behavior for bulimia among female adolescents from public and private high schools. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 850 female students aged 15-18 years was carried out in a city in northeastern Brazil, using the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh (BITE) to assess the risk behavior for bulimia. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software and the Pearson's chi-square , Fisher's exact and robust Poisson regression tests, adopting the significance level of 5%. Results: Less than half of the sample (42.0%) showed standards of dietary risk and weight control practices; in 1.4% of the sample, bulimia signs were already installed. Fear of gaining weight was reported by 62.8% of the subjects. Risk practices were lower among students from public schools; (Odds Ratio - OR - 0.82; confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI - 0.69-0.97). Among restrictive practices, fasting for a whole day was the most applied (29.9% of the students). Among individuals who were at risk situation, almost half believed to have normal eating habits (prevalence ratio - PR - 0.42; 95%CI 0.36-0.49). Individuals who consider their eating habits normal, who are afraid of gaining weight, those who seek emotional comfort in food and follow strict diets had higher risk for bulimia (p<0.05). Conclusions: The number of female adolescent students with risk behavior practices for bulimia is high, and the frequency of those unaware of this situation is also very high. Risk situations emerge as a collective health problem, and individuals from private schools were more likely to be in this situation.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar comportamentos de risco para bulimia em adolescentes do sexo feminino de escolas públicas e particulares. Métodos: Estudo transversal com amostra aleatória de 850 estudantes do sexo feminino, com idades entre 15 e 18 anos, realizado em cidade do Nordeste do Brasil, utilizando o Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh (BITE) para avaliar comportamentos de risco para transtornos alimentares. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson, o teste exato de Fisher e a regressão de Poisson, com o software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), adotando o nível de significância de p<0,05. Resultados: Da amostra estudada, 42,0% apresentou padrões de risco e práticas de dieta e controle de peso e 1,4% já apresentava sinais de bulimia instalados. O medo de ganhar peso foi relatado por 62,8% das adolescentes. As práticas de risco foram menos frequentes em estudantes de escolas públicas (Odds Ratio - OR - 0,82; intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% - 0,69-0,97). Entre as práticas restritivas, jejum por um dia inteiro foi o mais aplicado pelas participantes (29,9%). Entre os indivíduos com situação de risco, quase metade acreditava ter hábitos alimentares normais (razão de prevalência - RP - 0,42; IC95% 0,36-0,49). Estudantes que consideram seus hábitos alimentares normais, que têm medo de ganhar peso, que procuram conforto emocional em alimentos e seguem dietas rigorosas tiveram maior risco para bulimia (p<0,05). Conclusões: O número de estudantes com práticas de comportamento de risco para bulimia é alto, e o número daquelas que desconhecem essa situação também é muito alto. As situações de risco emergem como problemas de saúde coletiva, e indivíduos de escolas particulares são mais propensos a apresentar transtornos alimentares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Life Style , Brazil/epidemiology , Bulimia/psychology , Bulimia/epidemiology , Random Allocation , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Assessment , Adolescent Health/statistics & numerical data , Diet, Reducing/adverse effects , Diet, Reducing/psychology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Feeding Behavior/psychology
18.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 35(1): e1785, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1149863

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução: Universitários ingressantes no curso de enfermagem podem passar por mudanças no estilo de vida e adoção de novos e não saudáveis hábitos, os quais favorecem o surgimento de fatores de risco e doenças cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil alimentar, clínico e o padrão de atividade física em graduandos de enfermagem. Métodos: Estudo transversal, com 119 ingressantes do curso de enfermagem de uma universidade pública, submetidos à entrevista e avaliação clínica. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva. Resultados: Constatou-se consumo inferior ao recomendado para peixe (78,15 porcento), verduras/legumes (68,07 porcento), frango (67,22 porcento), feijão (52,10 porcento), frutas/sucos (30,25 porcento), e superior para doces (25,21 porcento), refrigerante (23,53 porcento) e massas (16,97 porcento). O acréscimo de sal à comida foi identificado para 28,6 porcento e o preparo de alimentos de todas as formas para 42,9 porcento. Verificou-se risco alto e muito alto para razão cintura/quadril (41,03 porcento), baixo nível de lipoproteína de alta densidade (33,68 porcento), excesso de peso (29,06 porcento), alto nível de lipoproteína de baixa densidade alto (5,26 porcento) e pressão arterial alta (0,86 porcento). Predominou baixo nível de atividade física e elevado tempo gasto sentado (96,64 porcento). Conclusão: Os universitários estão expostos a fatores de risco cardiovascular e mudanças no estilo de vida devem ser estimuladas na formação acadêmica(AU)


RESUMEN Introducción: Los universitarios que ingresan en el curso de enfermería pueden pasar por cambios en el estilo de vida y adopción de nuevos y no saludables hábitos, que favorecen el surgimiento de factores de riesgo y enfermedades cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Describir el perfil alimentario, clínico y el patrón de actividad física en los estudiantes de enfermería. Métodos: Estudio transversal con 119 estudiantes del curso de enfermería de una universidad pública, sometidos a la entrevista y evaluación clínica. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de estadística descriptiva. Resultados: Se constató consumo inferior al recomendado para pescado (78,15 por ciento), verduras / legumbres (68,07 por ciento), pollo (67,22 por ciento), frijoles (52,10 por ciento), frutas / jugos (30, 25 por ciento), y superior, para dulces (25,21 por ciento), refrigerante (23,53 por ciento), y masas (16,97 por ciento). El aumento de sal a la comida fue identificado con el 28,6 por ciento y la preparación de alimentos de todas las formas con el 42,9 por ciento. Se verificó riesgo alto y muy alto para razón cintura / cadera (41,03 por ciento), bajo nivel de lipoproteína de alta densidad (33,68 por ciento), el exceso de peso (29,06 por ciento), alto nivel de lipoproteína de baja densidad alta (5,26 por ciento), presión arterial alta (0,86 por ciento). Predominó el bajo nivel de actividad física y elevado tiempo que pasan sentados (96,64 por ciento). Conclusión: Los universitarios estudiados estaban expuestos a factores de riesgo cardiovascular y los cambios en el estilo de vida deben ser estimulados en la formación académica(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: University students who enter the Nursing course can undergo changes in lifestyle and adoption of new and unhealthy habits, which favor the emergence of risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To describe the nutritional and clinical profile and the pattern of physical activity in Nursing graduates. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 119 students starting the Nursing course of a public university, submitted to interview and clinical evaluation. The data was analyzed by means of descriptive statistics. Results: Consumption lower than recommended was shown for fish (78.15 percent), vegetables/legumes (68.07 percent), chicken (67.22 percent), beans (52.10 percent), fruits/juices (30.25 percent); and higher for sweets (25.21 percent), snacks (23.53 percent), and bread (16.97 percent). The increase in salt amount added to the food was identified for 28.6 percent and the preparation of food in all forms accounted for 42.9 percent. There was high and very high risk for waist/hip ratio (41.03 percent), low HDL (33.68 percent), overweight (29.06 percent), high LDL-c (5.26 percent), high blood pressure (0.86 percent). Low level of physical activity and high time spent sitting (96.64 percent) predominated. Conclusion: The university students studied were exposed to cardiovascular risk factors and changes in lifestyle must be promoted in their academic formation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students, Nursing , Education, Nursing/trends , Overweight/etiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Life Style , Exercise/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(1): 3-9, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001331

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional condition, which main symptoms of pain, discomfort and abdominal distension, constipation, diarrhea, altered fecal consistency and sensation of incomplete evacuation can be influenced by the presence of dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs). This study aimed to assess the relationship between the quantity of fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAP) and fiber consumed by individuals diagnosed with IBS, and their classification according to the Rome III criteria. METHODS: A transversal study was carried out in the Intestinal Outpatient Clinic of the Gastroenterology Discipline of UNIFESP. The nutrients of interest for the study were: fiber, general carbohydrates and FODMAPs, with intake quantity measured in grams, analyzed through portions consumed. A nutrition log was used, along with a semi-quantitative questionnaire of consumption frequency. RESULTS: The sample included 63 adult patients; 21 with constipated IBS, 21 with diarrhea IBS, and 21 with mixed IBS. Carbohydrate intake was suboptimal in 55.6% of patients in all groups; excessive consumption was identified in 38.1% of the diarrhea group, 14.3% of the mixed group and 38.1% of the constipated group. Low consumption of carbohydrates was found in 28.6% of diarrhea patients and 47.6% of the mixed group. A mean intake of 23 g of fiber per day was identified, lower than recommended. CONCLUSION: The study identified a number of inadequacies in the consumption of different nutrients, excessive carbohydrate intake, especially FODMAPs, identified by the respondents as responsible for a worsening of their conditions. By contrast, other food groups such as meat, eggs and dairy were consumed by the sample population in insufficient quantities.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A síndrome do intestino irritável é um distúrbio funcional crônico, no qual a dieta, principalmente o teor de fibra dietética e presença de carboidratos fermentativos (FODMAPs) podem influenciar nos principais sintomas: dores, desconforto e/ou distensão abdominal, constipação, diarreia, alteração na consistência das fezes, sensação de evacuação incompleta. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as quantidades de carboidratos fermentativos (FODMAP) e fibras consumidas por indivíduos com o diagnóstico de síndrome do intestino irritável e relacionar com seu modelo da classificação, segundo os critérios Roma III. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, realizado no Ambulatório de Doenças Intestinais da Disciplina de Gastroenterologia/UNIFESP. Os nutrientes de interesse para o estudo foram: fibras, carboidratos em geral e FODMAPs, calculando-se suas quantidades em gramas, analisadas através das porções consumidas. Os instrumentos de pesquisa utilizados: ficha de acompanhamento nutricional e questionário de frequência alimentar semi-quantitativo. RESULTADOS: A amostra incluiu 63 pacientes adultos, com síndrome do intestino irritável constipado (21), diarreico (21) e misto (21). O consumo de carboidratos mostrou-se inadequado em 55,6% dos indivíduos em todos os grupos; os que tinham alto consumo (38,1%) pertenciam ao grupo diarreia, 14,3% ao misto e 38,1 % ao constipado. Baixo consumo deste nutriente foi 28,6% nos casos de diarreia e 47,6% do misto. Observamos uma ingestão média de fibras equivalente à 23 g/dia, nos três grupos, inferior ao recomendado. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo permitiu reconhecer várias inadequações no consumo dos diferentes grupos de alimentos, particularmente excesso de carboidratos, incluindo os classificados como FODMAPs, identificados pelos doentes como responsáveis pela piora das suas queixas. Em contrapartida, nutrientes fundamentais, como carnes, ovos, leite e derivados estiveram referidos em níveis abaixo do recomendado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/physiopathology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Fermentation/physiology , Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/etiology , Middle Aged
20.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22: e190026, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990744

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: Padrões alimentares parecem predizer melhor o risco de doenças do que nutrientes ou alimentos isoladamente. Objetivo: Identificar padrões alimentares e fatores associados em mulheres adultas. Método: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, com 1.128mulheres, de 20 a 69 anos de idade, de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por meio de um questionário de frequência. Utilizou-se análise de componentes principais para identificação dos padrões alimentares. Razõesde prevalências brutas e ajustadas foram estimadas por meio de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Resultados: Foram identificados três padrões alimentares que explicaram 25,8% da variância total: saudável (frutas, vegetais e alimentos integrais); de risco (alimentos ultraprocessados); e brasileiro (arroz e feijão). Opadrão saudável apresentou o maior percentual de variância explicada (11,62%). A probabilidade de adesão ao padrão saudável aumentou linearmente com a idade e a escolaridade e foi maior em ex-fumantes (razão de prevalência - RP = 1,22; intervalo de 95% de confiança (IC95%) 1,04 - 1,42). Já mulheres mais jovens e com maior escolaridade tinham maior probabilidade de aderir ao padrão de risco. A probabilidade de adesão ao padrão brasileiro aumentou à medida que diminuiu a escolaridade e foi maior em mulheres de cor de pele não branca (RP = 1,29; IC95% 1,04 - 1,59). Conclusões: Enquanto a adesão aos padrões saudável e de risco comportou-se distintamente segundo a idade das mulheres, ela foi semelhante para a escolaridade. Já a adesão ao padrão brasileiro foi definida pelas condições socioeconômicas.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Dietary patterns may be more predictive of disease risk than individual nutrients or foods. Objective: To identify dietary patterns and associated factors among adult women. Method: Population-based cross-sectional study with 1,128 women, aged 20 to 69 years, living in São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul. Food intake was assessed with a frequency questionnaire. The principal component analysis identified dietary patterns. We estimated crude and adjusted prevalence ratios using Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: Threedietary patterns - responsible for 25.8% of the total variance - were identified: healthy (fruits, vegetables, and whole foods); risk (ultra-processed foods); and Brazilian (rice and beans). The healthy pattern showed the largest percentage of explained variation (11.62%). The probability of adherence to the healthy pattern increased linearly with age and schooling and was higher among ex-smokers [prevalence ratio (PR)=1.22; confidence interval of 95% (95%CI) 1.04 - 1.42]. Younger women and those with better schooling had more chances of adhering to the risk pattern. The probability of adherence to the Brazilian pattern increased as schooling decreased and was higher among non-white women (PR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.04- 1.59). Conclusions: While adherence to healthy and risk patterns behaved differently according to women's age, it was similar regarding schooling. Socioeconomic conditions defined adherence to the Brazilian pattern.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Epidemiologic Methods , Women's Health , Food/classification , Middle Aged
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL