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Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 162-165, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528832


SUMMARY: The femur, the body's longest bone, plays a critical role in orthopaedics and radiology. Understanding its anatomy, particularly the neck-shaft angle (NSA), is vital for diagnosing bone issues and designing hip implants. While some Asian populations' femur measurements have been studied, there is a research gap concerning Sri Lankans. This study aimed to fill this gap by examining the proximal femur's anatomy in the Sri Lankan population. We analysed 45 adult human femurs (26 right, 19 left) of unknown sex, ethically sourced from the University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Femurs with fractures or pathologies were excluded. Precise measurements were recorded using digital vernier callipers, with millimetre accuracy. Parameters included mean femoral length, vertical and transverse femoral head diameters, neck axis and neck length. Each measurement was taken three times to minimize subjectivity. Right femurs had a mean length of 42.8 mm (SD±2.64), while left femurs measured 43.53 mm (SD±3.27). Mean NSA was 125.78º (SD±4.45) for left femurs and 127.59º (SD±2.06) for right. Mean femoral head diameters were 4.09mm (SD±0.30) (right) and 4.12mm (SD±0.31) (left). Mean anterior neck lengths of the right and left were 2.61 (SD±0.54) and 2.71(SD±0.50) respectively. Comparing our findings with other Asian populations highlighted significant variations in femur measurements. These discrepancies emphasize the need for population-specific data for orthopaedic interventions and raise questions about the suitability of imported prosthetics. Differences in femur length, neck length, and NSA between sides suggest potential challenges in using implants designed for one side on the other. This study underscores the necessity of population-specific data in orthopaedics, as femur measurements differ even among Asian populations. Further research and statistical analysis are essential for tailoring orthopaedic solutions to individual populations. The findings also suggest a potential need for locally manufactured prosthetics to better suit the Sri Lankan population.

El fémur, el hueso más largo del cuerpo, desempeña un papel fundamental en ortopedia y radiología. Comprender su anatomía, en particular el ángulo cuello-diáfisis (NSA), es vital para diagnosticar problemas óseos y diseñar implantes de cadera. Si bien se han estudiado las medidas del fémur de algunas poblaciones asiáticas, existe un vacío en la investigación sobre los habitantes de Sri Lanka. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la anatomía del fémur proximal en la población de Sri Lanka. Analizamos 45 fémures humanos adultos (26 derechos, 19 izquierdos) de sexo desconocido, obtenidos éticamente de la Universidad de Sri Jayewardenepura. Se excluyeron fémures con fracturas o patologías. Se registraron mediciones precisas utilizando calibradores vernier digitales, con precisión milimétrica. Los parámetros incluyeron la longitud femoral media, los diámetros vertical y transversal de la cabeza femoral, el eje del cuello y la longitud del cuello. Cada medición se tomó tres veces para minimizar la subjetividad. Los fémures derechos tuvieron una longitud media de 42,8 mm (DE ± 2,64), mientras que los fémures izquierdos midieron 43,53 mm (DE ± 3,27). La NSA media fue de 125,78º (DE±4,45) para el fémur izquierdo y de 127,59º (DE±2,06) para el derecho. Los diámetros medios de la cabeza femoral fueron 4,09 mm (DE ± 0,30) (derecha) y 4,12 mm (DE ± 0,31) (izquierda). Las longitudes medias del cuello anterior de la derecha y la izquierda fueron 2,61 (DE ± 0,54) y 2,71 (DE ± 0,50) respectivamente. La comparación de nuestros hallazgos con otras poblaciones asiáticas destacó variaciones significativas en las medidas del fémur. Estas discrepancias enfatizan la necesidad de datos específicos de la población para las intervenciones ortopédicas y plantean dudas sobre la idoneidad de las prótesis importadas. Las diferencias en la longitud del fémur, la longitud del cuello y la NSA entre lados sugieren posibles desafíos al utilizar implantes diseñados para un lado en el otro. Este estudio subraya la necesidad de datos específicos de la población en ortopedia, ya que las mediciones del fémur difieren incluso entre las poblaciones asiáticas. Es esencial realizar más investigaciones y análisis estadísticos para adaptar las soluciones ortopédicas a poblaciones individuales. Los hallazgos también sugieren una posible necesidad de prótesis fabricadas localmente para adaptarse mejor a la población de Sri Lanka.

Humans , Adult , Femur/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Femur Head/anatomy & histology , Femur Neck/anatomy & histology
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(4): 662-666, July-Aug. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521802


Abstract Intracapsular proximal femoral fracture is a frequent injury in elderly patients, often associated with low-energy trauma and reduced bone mass. In young patient, it is uncommon, usually caused by high-energy trauma and accompanied by damage to the adjacent soft tissues. However, reports of open intracapsular proximal femoral fracture due to indirect trauma are rare in the orthopedic literature. In the present article, we describe a case of this injury in a 35-year-old man involved in a car accident. The proximal femur was exposed at the gluteal region due to a mechanism similar to dislocation of the posterior hip. We describe the initial treatment and subsequent management until achieving a definitive solution using total hip arthroplasty and muscle transfer to reconstruct the abductor mechanism of the hip. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient presented good functional outcome, with gradual recovery of the abductive strength and a Harris Hip Score of 91 points. In addition, a radiographic study showed that the cemented total prosthesis was well-positioned. This therapeutic strategy (total hip arthroplasty with muscle transfer to reconstruct the abductor musculature) was successful to treat an intracapsular proximal femoral fracture with bone exposure.

Resumo A fratura intracapsular do fêmur proximal é uma lesão frequente no paciente idoso, e em geral está associada a trauma de baixa energia e redução da massa óssea. No jovem, esta lesão é pouco frequente, decorre de trauma de alta energia, e resulta em dano das partes moles adjacentes. Contudo, o relato de fratura intracapsular do fêmur proximal com exposição óssea por trauma indireto é raro na literatura ortopédica. Neste relato, esta lesão foi diagnosticada em um homem de 35 anos, vítima de acidente automobilístico. Mediante um mecanismo semelhante ao da luxação posterior do quadril, o segmento proximal do fêmur determinou exposição óssea através da região glútea. Foram descritos o tratamento inicial e os tratamentos subsequentes até a solução definitiva por artroplastia total do quadril associada a transposição muscular para reconstrução do mecanismo abdutor do quadril. Após 10 meses de seguimento, o paciente apresentava boa recuperação funcional, com retorno gradual da força abdutora, Harris Hip Score de 91 pontos, com estudo radiográfico revelando prótese total cimentada bem posicionada. A estratégia terapêutica utilizada neste paciente (artroplastia total do quadril com transferência muscular para a reconstrução da musculatura abdutora) foi uma solução eficiente para tratar a fratura intracapsular do fêmur proximal com exposição óssea.

Humans , Male , Adult , Femur Neck/surgery , Fractures, Open/surgery
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 1142-1146, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009201


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate CT values of cancellous bone in femoral neck in adults over 60 years with proximal femoral fractures.@*METHODS@#From January 2020 to December 2020, a retrospective analysis was performed on 280 subjects aged 60 years or older who underwent bilateral hip CT examination, including 85 males and 195 females, 120 on the left side and 160 on the right side, aged 75 (66, 82) years old. One hundred thirty-six patients with proximal femoral fractures were included in study group and 144 patients without fractures were included in control group. GEOptima CT was used to scan and reconstruct horizontal, coronal and sagittal layers of proximal femur. CT values of cancellous bone in femoral neck were measured and compared between two groups. The relationship between CT values of cancellous bone of femoral neck and proximal femoral fracture was analyzed statistically.@*RESULTS@#In terms of age, fracture group aged 79(73.3, 85.0) years old, non-fracture group aged 69.5 (64.0, 78.8) years old, and had significant difference in age between two groups (P<0.05). In terms of CT value, regional CT value in fracture group was 8.62(-3.62, 27.15) HU, which was lower than that in non-fracture group 34.31(-5.93, 71.74) HU(P<0.05). CT value on coronal view in fracture group was -8.48(-30.96, 17.46) HU, which was lower than that in non-fracture group 40.49(5.55, 80.71) HU (P<0.05). CT value on sagittal view in fracture group was -31.28(-54.91, -5.11) HU, which was lower than that in non-fracture group 7.74(-20.12, 44.54) HU (P<0.05). CT values on horizontal view in fracture group was 0.17(-23.13, 24.60) HU, which was lower than that in non-fracture group 46.40(10.42, 85.18) HU(P<0.05). The mean regional CT values among three planes in the fracture group were lower than those in the non-fracture group. Logistic regression analysis showed coronal CT value was influencing factors of proximal femoral fracture, and it could be written into regression equations that predict probability of fracture.@*CONCLUSION@#In adults aged over 60 years old, CT values of cancellous bone of femoral neck decreased with increasing age. The smaller CT value of cancellous bone of femoral neck, the greater risk of proximal femoral fracture.

Male , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Proximal Femoral Fractures , Retrospective Studies , Femur Neck , Hip Fractures/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Bone Density
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 969-974, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009170


There are still many unresolved problems in the treatment and prognosis of nondisplaced femoral neck fractures, such as nonunion and avascular necrosis of the caput femoris .In order to reduce the risk of various complications after non-displaced femoral neck fractures, the caput femoris posterior tilt of femoral neck fractures and its impact on prognosis have attracted more and more attention. A large number of scholars' studies have found that when the posterior tilt exceeds 20°, the risk of internal fixation failure increases significantly. Based on this concept, we can choose to use primary artificial joint replacement instead of three-screw internal fixation according to the different posterior tilt angles of patients to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications. At the same time, our analysis found that comminution of the posterior segment of the femoral neck would lead to an increase in the posterior inclination angles. The purpose of this review was to investigate the relationship between caput femoris posterior tilt of femoral neck fractures and surgical outcome, and to introduce a new method for measuring caput femoris posterior tilt of the femoral neck.

Humans , Prognosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Femoral Neck Fractures/complications , Femur Neck , Reoperation , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Retrospective Studies
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 866-872, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009151


OBJECTIVE@#To explore and verify the genes related to female peak bone mass(PBM) and osteoporosis (OP) based on bioinformatics.@*METHODS@#Using GEO data, DNA microarray technology to conduct genome-wide analysis of adult female monocytes with high and low PBM. Cluster analysis, GO enrichment and KEGG analysis were used to analyze the differential genes, and the interaction network of differential genes was further analyzed. OP rat model was established and femur neck tissue staining was performed to further verify the expression of differential genes.@*RESULTS@#A total of 283 genes were obtained by differential gene screening. Compared with the high PBM samples, 135 genes were up-regulated and 148 genes were down-regulated in the low PBM samples. A total of 7 pathways and 12 differential genes were enriched, and there were differences in the expression of several genes involved in mineral absorption and transport, cellular immunity and other aspects. Among them, voltage-gated Ca2+ channel 1.3(CaV1.3) encoded by CACNA1D gene was significantly enhanced in the femoral neck tissue of OP rat model.@*CONCLUSION@#The above results suggest that the difference in the expression level of CaV1.3 gene may lead to the occurrence of OP in women with low PBM, which provides us with a potential target for the prevention and treatment of OP.

Adult , Female , Humans , Animals , Rats , Osteoporosis/genetics , Bone Density , Computational Biology , Femur Neck , Staining and Labeling
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1471-1476, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009085


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the early effectiveness of the Ti-Robot assisted femoral neck system (FNS) in the treatment of elderly Garden type Ⅱ and Ⅲ femoral neck fractures.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 41 elderly patients with Garden type Ⅱ and Ⅲ femoral neck fractures who were admitted between December 2019 and August 2022 and met the selection criteria. Among them, 21 cases were treated with Ti-Robot assisted FNS internal fixation (study group), and 20 cases were treated solely with FNS internal fixation (control group). There was no significant difference in baseline data, including gender, age, side, cause of injury, time from injury to surgery, fracture Garden classification, and fracture line classification, between the two groups ( P>0.05). Surgical effectiveness was evaluated based on parameters such as operation time (including incision time and total operation time), reduction level, number of dominant pin insertions, intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency, incision length, whether to extend the incision, need for assisted reduction, postoperative hospital stay, fracture healing time, incidence of osteonecrosis of the femoral head, postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) score at 1 day, and Harris hip score at last follow-up.@*RESULTS@#The study group showed significantly shorter incision time, fewer dominant pin insertions, fewer instances of extended incisions, fewer intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency, and smaller incisions than the control group ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference in total operation time, reduction level, and assisted reduction frequency between the two groups ( P>0.05). Both groups achieved primary wound healing postoperatively, with no complications such as incision leakage or skin infection. All patients were followed up 12-24 months with an average of 14.6 months. Fractures healed in both groups, with no significant difference in healing time ( P>0.05). There was no significant difference in postoperative hospital stay between the two groups ( P>0.05). The study group showed significantly better VAS score at 1 day after operation and Harris hip score at last follow-up when compared to the control group ( P<0.05). No complication such as internal fixation failure, fracture displacement, or hip joint varus occurred in both groups during the follow-up. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head occurred in 1 patient of the control group, while no was observed in the study group, and the difference in the incidence of osteonecrosis of the femoral head between the two groups was not significant ( P=0.488).@*CONCLUSION@#Compared to sole FNS internal fixation treatment, Ti-Robot assisted FNS internal fixation for elderly Garden typeⅡ and Ⅲ femoral neck fractures can reduce incision time, achieve minimally invasive and accurate nail implantation, and decrease intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency, leading to improved postoperative hip joint function recovery.

Humans , Aged , Femur Neck , Robotics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Titanium , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Osteonecrosis , Surgical Wound
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1075-1080, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009026


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the related factors of femoral stem anteversion (FSA) after total hip arthroplasty (THA), so as to provide reference for clinical design of FSA before operation and reduce the risk of hip dislocation after arthroplasty.@*METHODS@#Ninty-three patients (103 hips) who underwent THA between October 2021 and September 2022 and met the selection criteria were selected as the study subjects. Among them, there were 48 males and 45 females with an average age of 58.5 years (range, 25-88 years). Body mass index was 18.00-37.84 kg/m 2, with an average of 24.92 kg/m 2. There were 51 cases (57 hips) of osteonecrosis of femoral head, 35 cases (39 hips) of hip osteoarthritis, and 7 cases (7 hips) of congenital hip dysplasia. Based on CT images, the following indicators were measured: preoperative femoral neck anteversion (FNA), preoperative femoral rotation angle (FRA), preoperative acetabular anteversion (AA), and preoperative combined anteversion (CA; the sum of preoperative FNA and AA); postoperative FSA and the change in femoral anteversion angle (the difference between postoperative FSA and preoperative FNA). Based on preoperative X-ray films, the following indicators were measured: femoral cortical thickness index (CTI) and canal flare index (CFI), the proximal femoral medullary cavity was classified according to Noble classification (champagne cup type, normal type, chimney type), neck-shaft angle (NSA), and femoral offset (FO). Pearson correlation analysis, one-way ANOVA, and Point-biserial correlation analysis were used to investigate the correlation between postoperative FSA, postoperative change in femoral anteversion angle, and patient diagnosis, proximal femoral medullary cavity anatomy type, gender, age, as well as preoperative FNA, FRA, AA, CA, NSA, FO, CTI, and CFI. FSA was used as the dependent variable and the independent variables that may be related to it were included for multiple linear regression analysis.@*RESULTS@#Based on CT image measurement, preoperative FNA was (15.96±10.01)°, FRA (3.36±10.87)°, AA (12.94±8.83)°, CA (28.9±12.6)°, postoperative FSA (16.18±11.01)°, and postoperative change in femoral anteversion angle was (0.22±9.98)°. Based on preoperative X-ray films measurements, the CTI was 0.586±0.081; the CFI was 4.135±1.125, with 23 hips classified as champagne cup type, 68 hips as normal type, and 12 hips as chimney type in the proximal femoral medullary cavity anatomy; NSA was (132.87±7.83)°; FO was (40.53±10.11) mm. There was no significant difference between preoperative FNA and postoperative FSA ( t=-0.227, P=0.821). Pearson correlation analysis showed that postoperative FSA was positively correlated with preoperative FNA, preoperative CA, postoperative change in femoral anteversion angle, and age ( P<0.05), while negatively correlated with preoperative FRA ( P<0.05). The postoperative change in femoral anteversion angle were positively correlated with preoperative FRA and postoperative FSA ( P<0.05), and negatively correlated with preoperative CA and FNA ( P<0.05). One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the above two indicators were not correlated with diagnosis and the proximal femoral medullary cavity anatomy type ( P>0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed a linear correlation between FSA and FNA, CA, age, and FRA ( F=10.998, P<0.001), and the best fit model was FSA=0.48×FNA-2.551.@*CONCLUSION@#The factors related to FSA after THA include patient's age, preoperative FNA, CA, FRA and postoperative femoral anteversion, of which preoperative FNA is the most closely related. When designing a surgical plan before surgery, attention should be paid to the patient's preoperative FNA, and if necessary, CT around the hip joint should be scanned to gain a detailed understanding of the proximal femoral anatomical structure.

Female , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Femur/diagnostic imaging , Femur Neck , Femur Head , Hip Joint
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 958-963, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009008


OBJECTIVE@#To explore effectiveness of positive support reduction and internal fixation in the treatment of femoral neck fractures.@*METHODS@#A clinical data of 74 patients with femoral neck fractures treated with hollow screw internal fixation between September 2017 and September 2021 was retrospectively analyzed. Based on the quality of fracture reduction, they were divided into positive support reduction group (group A, n=25), negative support reduction group (group B, n=21), and anatomical reduction group (group C, n=28). There was no significant difference in baseline data such as gender, age, cause of injury, disease duration, fracture side, Garden classification, and fracture line position classification between groups (P>0.05). The occurrence of complications such as early fixation failure, femoral neck shortening, non-union of fractures, and femoral head necrosis in three groups, as well as the Harris score of the hip joint were recorded and compared.@*RESULTS@#All patients had primary healing of incisions after operation and were followed up more than 12 months. The follow-up time for groups A, B, and C was (21.1±5.7), (22.6±4.3), and (21.9±4.1) months, respectively; there was no significant difference between groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidences of non-union of fractures, early internal fixation failure, and the femoral head necrosis between groups (P>0.05). The incidence and length of femoral neck shortening, and the hip Harris score at last follow-up in groups A and C were all superior to those in the group B, with significant difference (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the above indicators between groups A and C (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Positive support reduction can provide a good biomechanical environment for the healing of femoral neck fractures, thereby achieving a higher fracture healing rate, reducing the occurrence of femoral neck shortening, minimizing the function of hip joint, and achieving effectiveness similar to anatomical reduction.

Humans , Femur Head Necrosis , Retrospective Studies , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Femur Neck , Plastic Surgery Procedures
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 294-298, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970866


The stability of internal fixation of femoral neck fractures can be obtained through surgical techniques, the configuration of screws and bone grafting, etc. However, the blood supply injury caused by fractures could not be completely reversed by the current medical management. Hence, the comprehensive evaluation of the residual blood supply of the femoral neck, to perioperatively avoid further iatrogenic injury, has become a hotspot. The anatomy of the extraosseous blood supply of the femoral neck has been widely reported, while its clinical application mostly involved the assessment of the medial circumflex femoral artery and retinacular arteries. However, further studies are needed to explore the prognosis of patients with these artery injuries, with different degrees, caused by femoral neck fractures. Direct observations of nutrient foramina in vivo are not possible with current clinical technologies, but it is possible to make reasonable preoperative planning to avoid subsequent femoral head necrosis based on the distribution features of nutrient foramina. The anatomy and clinical application studies of the intraosseous blood supply focused on the junction area of the femoral head and neck to probe the mechanism of femoral head necrosis. Thus, the intraosseous blood supply of other regions in the femoral neck remains to be further investigated. In addition, a blood supply evaluation system based on a three-level structure, extraosseous blood vessels, nutrient foramina, and intraosseous vascular network, could be explored to assist in the treatment of femoral neck fractures.

Humans , Femur Head Necrosis , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Femur Neck , Femur Head/surgery , Femoral Artery , Fracture Fixation, Internal
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 251-255, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970857


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the biomechanical characteristics of retinaculum in the treatment of femoral neck fractures.@*METHODS@#The CT data of a 75-year-old female volunteer was processed by software to construct an intact femur model and femoral neck fracture model fixed with three cannulated screws, which were divided into models with retinaculum or not. The Von-Mises stress distribution and displacement were compared to analyze the stability differences between the different models to study the mechanical characteristics of the retinaculum in the treatment of femoral neck fractures.@*RESULTS@#In the intact femur, the most obvious displacement appeared in the weight-bearing area of the femoral head, with retinaculum 0.381 37 mm, and without retinaculum 0.381 68 mm. The most concentrated part of the Von-Mises stress distribution was located in the medial and inferior part of the femoral neck, with retinaculum 11.80 MPa, without retinaculum 11.91 MPa. In the femoral neck fracture fixed with three cannulated screws model, the most obvious position of displacement also appeared in the weight-bearing area of the femoral head, with retinaculum 0.457 27 mm, without retinaculum 0.458 63 mm. The most concentrated part of the Von-Mises located at the medical and inferior part of the femoral neck, with retinaculum 59.22 MPa, without retinaculum 59.14 MPa. For the cannulated screws, the Von-Mises force peaks all appeared in the posterior and superior screw, with retinaculum 107.48 MPa, without retinaculum 110.84 MPa. Among the three screws, the Von-Mises stress of the anterior-superior screw was the smallest, which was 67.88 MPa vs 68.76 MPa in the retinaculum and non-retinaculum groups, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The complete retinaculum has little effect on the stability of intact femur and femoral neck fractures with anatomical reduction after internal fixation, and cannot effectively improve the stability of the fracture end after the fracture.

Female , Humans , Aged , Finite Element Analysis , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Bone Screws , Femur Neck , Biomechanical Phenomena
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 203-208, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970848


OBJECTIVE@#To retrospectively analyze efficacy of single structure internal fixation and double structure internal fixation in the treatment of ipsilateral femoral shaft and neck fracture, and analyze their indications.@*METHODS@#From June 2015 to December 2020, 21 patients with ipsilateral femoral shaft and femoral neck fracture were treated, including 14 males and 7 females, aged 23 to 69 years old with an average of(38.1±12.9) years old. According to different femoral shaft fracture sites, some patients were fixed with cephalomedullary implant for both femoral neck and the femoral shaft(single structure, InterTan or PFNA Ⅱ), some patients were fixed with cannulated screws for the femoral neck and a retrograde locking nail for the femoral shaft (dual structure), and postoperative function and complications were recorded during follow-up. In 10 cases of single-structure fixation, the femoral necks were all basicervical fractures, and the femoral shaft fractures were located in the proximal isthmus;11 cases were double-structure fixation, 9 cases in 11 were basal type of femoral neck, 2 cases in 11 were neck type, and the femoral shaft fractures were located in the isthmus and the distal isthmus.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up for 12 to 27 months. No femoral head necrosis, deformity, delay or nonunion occurred in the patients with single-structure fixation, and no delayed union or nonunion occurred in femoral shaft fractures;At the final follow-up, Harris score of patients with single-structure fixation was 91.8±4.1, with 8 cases were excellent and 2 cases were good. The fractures of patients with dual-structure fixation achieved good union without femoral head necrosis, except 1 case of femoral shaft fracture had delayed union;At the final follow-up, Harris score of patients with dual-structure fixation was 92.4±5.9, 7 cases were excellent, 3 cases were good, and 1 case was fair.@*CONCLUSION@#Good reduction and fixation is the key to the treatment of such fractures. Both the single-structure fixation and the dual-structure fixation are good methods, and it should be selected according to the locations of femoral shaft and femoral neck fractures. Single-structure fixation is a good choice for femoral shaft fractures located at the proximal isthmus and basal femoral neck fractures. For isthmus and distal femoral shaft fractures combined with ipsilateral femoral neck fractures, dual-structure fixation is recommended.

Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Femur Neck , Retrospective Studies , Femoral Neck Fractures/complications , Femoral Fractures/complications , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Femoral Fractures, Distal , Treatment Outcome , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1524-1529, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421798


SUMMARY: Different populations have different genetic traits, and this causes various anatomical features to emerge. Orthopedic implants used in Turkey are generally of Western origin, and these implants are designed based on the anatomical features of Western populations. This study aimed to evaluate the compatibility of existing implants for the Turkish population by revealing the anatomical features of the proximal femurs of individuals from the Turkish population while also constituting a helpful source of data on newly developed implants. A total of 1920 proximal femurs of 960 patients were evaluated via images obtained by Computer Tomography. Twenty patients (10 females and 10 males) for each age within the age range of 18-65 years were included. Femoral head diameter, femoral neck width, femoral neck length, medullary canal width, and collodiaphyseal angle were measured. The right and left femoral head diameter was 46.46±3.84 mm, 46.50 ±3.85 mm respectively. The right and left femoral neck width was 30.63±3.4 mm, 30.85±3.29 mm respectively. The neck length was 94.62±8.33 mm for the right proximal femur, it was 94.75±8.19 mm for the left. The width of the medullary canal was 15.46±2.25 mm for the right proximal femur and 15.53±2.20 mm for the left. The right and left hips, the collodiaphyseal angles were 133.06±2.39° and 133.13±2.36°. Anatomical features of the proximal femur vary according to age, sex, and race. This study may be used as an important resource for the evaluation of patients' compatibility with existing implants and for the design of new implants.

Diferentes poblaciones tienen diferentes rasgos genéticos, y esto hace que surjan varias características anatómicas. Los implantes ortopédicos utilizados en Turquía son generalmente de origen occidental y estos implantes están diseñados en función de las características anatómicas de estas poblaciones. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la compatibilidad de los implantes existentes para la población turca al revelar las características anatómicas de las epífisis proximales de fémures de individuos de la población turca y, al mismo tiempo, constituir una fuente útil de datos sobre implantes recientemente desarrollados. Se evaluaron un total de 1920 fémures proximales de 960 pacientes mediante imágenes obtenidas por tomografía computarizada. Se incluyeron veinte pacientes (10 mujeres y 10 hombres) para cada edad dentro del rango de edad de 18 a 65 años. Se midió el diámetro de la cabeza femoral, el ancho del cuello femoral, la longitud del cuello femoral, el ancho del canal medular y el ángulo colodiafisario. El diámetro de la cabeza femoral derecha e izquierda fue de 46,46 ± 3,84 mm, 46,50 ± 3,85 mm, respectivamente. La anchura del cuello femoral derecho e izquierdo fue de 30,63±3,4 mm, 30,85±3,29 mm, respectivamente. La longitud del cuello fue de 94,62±8,33 mm para el fémur derecho, fue de 94,75±8,19 mm, para el izquierdo. El ancho del canal medular fue de 15,46±2,25 mm para el fémur derecho y de 15,53±2,20 mm para el izquierdo. Las caderas derecha e izquierda, los ángulos colodiafisarios fueron 133,06±2,39° y 133,13±2,36°. Las características anatómicas de la epífisis proximal del fémur varían según la edad, el sexo y la raza. Este estudio puede utilizarse como un recurso importante para la evaluación de la compatibilidad de los pacientes con los implantes existentes y para el diseño de nuevos implantes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Femur/anatomy & histology , Turkey , Femur Head/anatomy & histology , Femur Neck/anatomy & histology
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(6): 962-967, Nov.-Dec. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423638


Abstract Objective To evaluate the long-term results of valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy fixed with double angled dynamic hip screw for nonunion fracture of the neck of the femur in young adults. This implant allows more freedom of fixation in the sagittal plane. Very few studies have evaluated the long-term outcome for treatment of nonunion in fractures of the neck of the femur. Methods This is a prospective interventional study that included 20 patients with nonunion of the fracture of the neck of the femur aged < 60 years old without avascular necrosis of the head and significant resorption of the neck of the femur. A lateral closing wedge osteotomy was performed just above the lesser trochanter after inserting the Richard screw across the nonunion site, and it was fixed with a double-angle 120° barrel plate. The outcome was evaluated using union rate and the Harris Hip Score for functional outcome. Results The average postoperative decrease in the Pauwels angle was of 28.9°. A total of 80% of the cases progressed to union within a mean duration of 7.53 months. The mean Harris Hip Score at the final follow-up was 86.45. Conclusion Valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy and fixation with a double angled dynamic hip screw is a reliable and effective method for preservation of head and promoting union in an ununited fractured neck of the femur in young patients.

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar os resultados a longo prazo da osteotomia intertrocantérica valgizante, fixada com parafuso dinâmico de quadril (DHS, na sigla em inglês) de ângulo duplo, em fraturas não consolidadas do colo femoral em adultos jovens. Este implante permite uma liberdade maior de fixação no plano sagital. Muito poucos estudos avaliaram o desfecho do tratamento a longo prazo da fratura não consolidada do colo femoral. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo de intervenção que incluiu 20 pacientes com fratura não consolidada do colo femoral com idade < 60 anos, sem necrose avascular da cabeça femoral e significativa reabsorção do colo femoral. Foi realizada uma osteotomia em cunha de fechamento lateral logo acima do trocânter menor após a inserção do parafuso tipo Richard no sítio do retardo da consolidação óssea, sendo fixada com uma placa cilíndrica de ângulo duplo de 120°. O resultado foi avaliado com o uso da taxa de consolidação e da escala Harris Hip Score quanto ao desfecho funcional. Resultados Foi obtida uma redução pós-operatória média de 28,9° do ângulo de Pauwels. Os casos que evoluíram para a consolidação alcançaram 80%, em um período médio de 7,53 meses. A média da escala Harris Hip Score foi de 86,45 no acompanhamento final. Conclusão A osteotomia intertrocantérica valgizante e a fixação com DHS de ângulo duplo é um método confiável e eficaz para a preservação da cabeça do fêmur, promovendo a consolidação de uma fratura não consolidada do colo femoral em pacientes jovens.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Osteotomy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Femur Neck/surgery , Femur Neck/injuries , Fractures, Ununited
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 241-249, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387997


Abstract Objective In the present study, we investigated the intra and interobserver agreement of the new Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO/OTA) classification for fractures of the proximal extremity of the femur. Methods One hundred hip radiographs were selected from patients who suffered fractures of the trochanteric region or femoral neck. Four orthopedists, fellowship trained hip surgeons, and four orthopedic residents evaluated and classified fractures according to the new AO/OTA system on two separate occasions. The kappa (k) coefficient was used to evaluate intra and interobserver agreement in the different steps of the classification, namely: type, group, subgroup, and qualifier. Results Hip surgery experts obtained almost perfect intraobserver agreement of type, substantial for group and, only moderate, for subgroup and qualifiers. The residents had lower performance, with substantial agreement for type, moderate for group, and reasonable for subgroup and qualifier. In the specialists' interobserver evaluation, there was also a gradual decrease in the agreement between type (almost perfect) and group (moderate), which was even lower for subgroup and qualifiers. Residents had a substantial interobserver agreement for type, moderate for group, and reasonable in the other branches. Conclusion The new AO/OTA classification for fractures of the trochanteric region and femoral neck showed intra and interobserver agreements considered appropriate for type and group, with a drop in the subsequent branches, that is, for subgroup and qualifier. Still, in relation to the old AO/OTA classification, there was an improvement in the agreements for subgroup.

Resumo Objetivo Neste estudo, investigamos a concordância intra e interobservador da nova classificação Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO/OTA) para fraturas da extremidade proximal do fêmur. Métodos Foram selecionadas 100 radiografias do quadril de pacientes que sofreram fraturas da região trocantérica ou do colo do fêmur. Quatro ortopedistas cirurgiões de quadril e quatro residentes de ortopedia e traumatologia avaliaram e classificaram as fraturas segundo o novo sistema AO/OTA em duas ocasiões distintas. O coeficiente de kappa (k) foi utilizado para avaliar a concordância intra e interobservadores nos diferentes passos da classificação, a saber: tipo, grupo, subgrupo e qualificador. Resultados Especialistas em cirurgia do quadril obtiveram concordância intraobservador quase perfeita de tipo, substancial para grupo e, apenas moderada para subgrupo e qualificadores. Os residentes tiveram desempenho inferior, com concordância substancial para o tipo, moderada para o grupo, e razoável para o subgrupo e qualificador. Na avaliação interobservadores dos especialistas, também se observou queda gradual da concordância entre tipo (quase perfeita) e grupo (moderada), que se mostrou ainda menor parasubgrupo e qualificadores.Residentestiveramumaconcordânciainterobservadoressubstancialparatipo, moderada para grupo e razoável nas demais ramificações. Conclusão A Nova Classificação AO/OTA para fraturas da região trocantérica e do colo do fêmur mostrou concordâncias intra e interobservadores consideradas adequadas para tipo e grupo com queda nas ramificações subsequentes ou seja para subgrupo e qualificador. Ainda assim em relação à classificação AO/OTA antiga houve melhora nas concordâncias para subgrupo.

Humans , Femoral Neck Fractures/classification , Femur Neck/diagnostic imaging , Hip Fractures/classification
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 319-327, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928973


OBJECTIVES@#Femoral neck fracture is the most serious osteoporotic fractures that is responsible for high medical costs and high mortality. Femoral neck geometric parameters (FNGPs) are important parameters that reflect the geometrical characteristics of femoral neck, and are closely related to the strength of femoral neck and the risk of fragility fracture.There are differences in the incidence of femoral neck fractures among races. However, whether there is difference in FNGPs among races is unknown.Therefore, this study aims to compare the differences in FNGPs between Chinese and Japanese females.@*METHODS@#This study was a cross-sectional study, in which 3 859 healthy females aged 10-86 (45.7±17.1) years old were recruited from Changsha City of Hunan Province and surrounding areas. The weight and height were measured and recorded, and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. A dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone densitometer was used to measure femoral neck projective bone area (BA) and bone mineral density (BMD). FNGPs were calculated using the BMD and BA, which included the outer diameter (OD), cross-sectional area (CSA), cortical thickness (CT), endocortical diameter (ED), buckling ratio (BR), section modulus (SM), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), and compression strength index (CSI). The data of FNGPs in Japanese females was collected from literature. These subjects were grouped by 10-year age. The mean and standard deviation of height, weight, BMI, femoral neck BMD, and FNGPs of each group were calculated. The model with the best goodness-of-fit was selected from various mathematical regression models to analyze the distribution trend and the best fitting curve of FNGPs with age. The differences in FNGPs between Chinese and Japanese females were analyzed by using age-corresponding mean fitting curve for paired t-test, and the relative change rates of FNGPs were compared.@*RESULTS@#The mean values of FNGPs were significantly different among different years old healthy females (all P<0.01). The mean values of OD, CSA, CT, SM, and CSMI in femoral neck were high at 30 to 39 years old, and then they were gradually decreased with age. The CSI reached its peak at 20-29 years old, and it was decreased gradually after 30 years old. ED and BR were at a low level before 40 years old, they were gradually increased after 40 years old, and reached the maximum average value at 80-86 years old. The variations in FNGPs with age were fitted with the best goodness-of-fit by applying the cubic regression model and the determination coefficients of regression equations (R2: 0.062-0.404) were significant (all P<0.01). The distribution trend of FNGPs with age varied with the indices, among which CSA, CT, SM, CSMI and CSI were increased with age before 35 years old, and then they were decreased with age; BR was at a low level in the early stage, and then it was increased with age after about 40 years. There were significant differences in the fitting curves of FNGPs related to age between Chinese and Japanese females (all P<0.01). The fitting curves of OD, ED, BR and SM in Chinese females were significantly higher than those in Japanese females (all P<0.01), while those of CSA and CT in Chinese females were significantly lower than those in Japanese females (all P<0.01). Before the age of 50, the curves of CSMI and CSI of Chinese females were significantly higher than those of Japanese females (all P<0.01), while after the age of 60 the situation was reversed (all P<0.01). Except for SM and CSI, there were significant differences in the rate of OD, CSA, CT, ED, BR and CSMI with age (all P<0.01). By the age of 80 years old, the rates of change in OD, ED, and BR with the age in Chinese females were increased by 0.91%,3.94%, and 47.5%, respectively, while those in Japanese females were increased by 8.57%, 15.8% and 85.3%, respectively;the rates of change of CSA, CT, and CSMI with the age in Chinese females were declined 28.0%, 29.6%, and 25.2%, respectively, while those in Japanese females were declined 29.9%, 36.2%, and 10.9%, respectively. There were significant difference in the rates of change in FNGPs with the age between Chinese and Japanese females (all P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The study reveals the variation of FNGPs with age in Chinese, and confirms that there are racial differences in FNGPs between Chinese and Japanese females, which may be one of the important reasons for the difference in the incidence of femoral neck fracture between Chinese and Japanese females.

Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Femoral Neck Fractures/epidemiology , Femur Neck , Japan
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 28(1): 46-51, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341359


RESUMEN Introducción: La actual definición de osteoporosis es basada en la absorciometría de energía dual de Rx (DXA, por sus siglas en inglés), lo cual representa la principal técnica para la cuantificación de la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) y la evaluación del riesgo de fractura. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la DMO en columna lumbar y cuello femoral de adultos sanos desde el punto de vista metabólico óseo en una población de Bogotá-Colombia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico, de corte transversal, basado en un cuestionario aplicado a la población de estudio. Las medidas densitométricas fueron realizadas con un equipo compacto de alto rendimiento de la General Electric, modelo iDXA, por el mismo tecnólogo en los sitios esqueléticos de interés, columna lumbar L1, L2, L3, L4 y L1-4 en proyección anteroposterior y en cuello femoral. El cálculo del tamaño de muestra se realizó teniendo en cuenta la estratificación por sexo y 2 grupos de edad: 20 a 29 años y 30 a 39 años. Se encuestó a 805 individuos y 432 se realizaron la densitometría ósea. Resultados: Los valores encontrados en columna lumbar para cada uno de los grupos de nuestra población, fueron: 1,150 g/cm2 (DE: 0,11), 1,180 g/cm2 (DE: 0,10), para mujeres y hombres de 20 a 29 años, y 1,169 g/cm2 (DE: 0,10), 1,209 g/cm2 (DE: 0,10) para mujeres y hombres de 30 a 39 años, respectivamente. A nivel del cuello femoral, 0,991 g/cm2 (DE: 0,10), 1,119 g/cm2 (DE: 0,13), para mujeres y hombres de 20 a 29 años, y 0,970 g/cm2 (DE: 0,11), 1,079 g/cm2 (DE: 0,13) para mujeres y hombres de 30 a 39 años, respectivamente. Conclusión: Este estudio pudo demostrar el comportamiento de la DMO en nuestra población, la cual es inferior a la detectada en otras latitudes y a las utilizadas como valores de referencia en nuestros equipos. Adicionalmente, se determinó el valor máximo de masa ósea en cada una de las regiones de interés para los rangos de edad de la población de nuestro estudio.

ABSTRACT Introduction: The current definition of osteoporosis is based on the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which represents the main technique for the quantification of bone mineral density (BMD) and the evaluation of fracture risk. The objective of this study was to determine the BMD in the lumbar spine and femoral neck of healthy adults from a bone metabolism point of view in a population of Bogotá-Colombia. Method: An observational, analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted based on a questionnaire completed by the study population. The densitometric measurements were carried out using a high-performance compact equipment of the General Electric, iDXA model, by the same technologist at the skeletal sites of interest, lumbar spine L1, L2, L3, L4 and L1-4 in anteroposterior projection, and in femoral neck. The sample size calculation was performed taking into account stratification by gender and 2 age groups: 20 to 29 years, and 30 to 39 years. A total of 805 individuals were surveyed, and 432 bone densitometries were performed. Results: The values found in the lumbar spine for each of the groups in our population were: 1.150 g/cm2 (SD: 0.11), 1.180 g/cm2 (SD: 0.10), for women and men aged 20 to 29 years, and 1.169 g/cm2 (SD: 0.10), 1.209 g/cm2 (SD: 0.10) for women and men aged 30 to 39, respectively. At the level of the femoral neck, 0.991 g/cm2 (SD: 0.10), 1.119 g/cm2 (SD: 0.13), for women and men aged 20 to 29 years, respectively, and 0.970 g/cm2 (SD: 0.11), 1.079 g/cm2 (SD: 0.13) for women and men aged 30 to 39, respectively. Conclusion: This study was able to demonstrate the behaviour of BMD in our population, which is lower than that detected in other latitudes and those used as reference values in our equipment. Additionally, the maximum bone mass value was determined in each of the locations of interest for the age ranges of the population in our study.

Humans , Adult , Bone Density , Colombia , Densitometry , Spine , Weights and Measures , Cross-Sectional Studies , Femur Neck
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(1): 47-51, 20210000. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1362208


Objective: The normal morphology of femoral anteversion is an essential factor which determines the clinical results of hip replacement to achieve the normal activity and the length of the replaced joint. No previous study has been documented regarding normal value of femoral anteversion in Indonesian population and how they are different with Western, India and African population. This study aimed on measurement of normal femoral anteversion values of Indonesian population and compare it with existing data of Western, African and India values. Method: This cross-sectional study by measuring the femoral neck anteversion angle in 120 samples of Indonesians's cadaveric femur. Comparisons were made between Western, African and India. Result: The result showed that the average values of femoral neck anteversion angle in men were 11.60 ± 4.83 and 12.96 ± 5.1 in the right and left parts respectively, while in women, the results were 14.83+-5.14 and 13.37+-5.66 in right and left parts. The p value of ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant. Conclusion: The mean femoral anteversion values of Indonesian population is 13.22. It is significantly different in comparison with Western, African, and Indian population.

Humans , Population/genetics , Reference Values , Cadaver , Cross-Sectional Studies/statistics & numerical data , Femur , Femur Neck/growth & development , Bone Anteversion/pathology
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2556-2563, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921163


BACKGROUND@#Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common chronic progressive rheumatic disease. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing abnormal bone mineral density (BMD) in young and middle-aged patients with AS.@*METHODS@#From July 2014 to August 2018, hospitalized patients with AS and health examinees in the health examination center of our clinics, ranging in age from 20 to 50 years, were monitored. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck of AS patients and those of a healthy control group were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorption. The BMDs of AS patients were compared with respect to age, course of disease, iritis, smoking habits, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), medication use, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), platelet volume, platelet count, uric acid (UA), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and calcium ion levels. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to BMD were screened using genome-wide association analysis.@*RESULTS@#There was no statistical difference in the proportion of abnormal bone masses between the different body parts. The BMD of all bones in AS patients was lower than that in healthy controls (P < 0.05). Additionally, BMD was correlated with serum calcium and CRP in AS patients (P < 0.05), but not with age, platelet volume, platelet count, ESR, UA, AKP, height, weight, and BMI. The incidence of abnormal bone mass in AS patients was correlated with sex (P < 0.05), but not with medication use, iritis, or smoking. BMD of the lumbar spine in AS patients did not correlate linearly with the course of the disease, but BMD of the femoral neck correlated linearly with the course of the disease (P < 0.05). BMD was correlated with multiple SNPs in patients with AS. Lumbar BMD was correlated with rs7025373 and rs7848078. Femoral head BMD was correlated with 3:102157365, 3:102157417, rs1252202, rs1681355, rs3891857, rs7842614, and rs9870734, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in BMD in patients with AS.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The proportion of abnormal bone mass in AS patients was higher than that in healthy individuals of the same age. The factors related to BMD in patients with AS are gender, CRP, and blood calcium. The BMD of the femoral neck of AS patients decreases with the course of the disease, but BMD of the lumbar spine is not related to the course of the disease. BMD in AS patients is associated with multiple SNPs.

Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Femur Neck , Genome-Wide Association Study , Lumbar Vertebrae , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/genetics
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 203-208, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879415


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the related factors of aseptic necrosis of femoral head after closed reduction and internal fixation of femoral neck fracture.@*METHODS@#From January 2009 to January 2016, 236 patients with femoral neck fracture were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with 3 hollow lag screws, including 111 males and 125 females, aged from 19 to 89 (50.17±12.88) years. According to the follow-up results, the correlation of aseptic necrosis of femoral head was analyzed. Univariate analysis of age, gender, injured side, body weight, injury mechanism, preoperative waiting time, Garden classification and whether there was comminution of femoral neck cortex was conducted to obtain the independent variables with significant difference. Then binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the independent risk factors of avascular necrosis of femoral head.@*RESULTS@#The average follow-up period of 236 cases was 4.58 years. There were significant differences in the range of injury (24.69% vs. 5.16%, @*CONCLUSION@#High energy injury, preoperative waiting time (>48 h) and comminution of femoral neck cortex were independent risk factors for aseptic necrosis of femoral head. In addition, cortical comminution on the pressure side and tension side of the femoral neck is a strong prognostic risk factor for aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, because it indicates a more serious and complex injury mechanism.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Femur Head Necrosis/surgery , Femur Neck , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Fractures, Comminuted , Risk Factors
Clinics ; 76: e3312, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350630


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to correlate a higher Pelvic-Trochanteric Index (PTI) with an increased varus of the femoral neck with greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). The secondary objective was to check whether the pelvic width changes with age. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted to compare female patients diagnosed with GTPS (case group) with asymptomatic female participants (control group) from March 2011 to June 2017. On an anteroposterior pelvic radiograph, lines were drawn by two radiologists, and the PTI (ratio of the distance between the greater trochanters and distance between the iliac crests) was defined and the femoral neck-shaft angle was measured. RESULTS: Data collected based on radiographs of 182 female patients (cases) and 150 female participants (controls) showed that the mean PTI was 1.09 (SD=0.01) in the case group and 1.07 (SD=0.01) in the control group (p<0.05), regardless of age. The distance between iliac crests increased with age (p<0.05) in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. It was also found that the mean femoral neck-shaft angle was 130.6° (SD=0.59) and progression of the varus angulation occurred with age in both groups, with a significance level of 5%. CONCLUSIONS: The PTI was higher in patients with GTPS. The femoral neck-shaft angle does not differ between individuals with and without GTPS; however, it does decrease with age. The pelvic width tends to increase with aging in symptomatic or asymptomatic individuals; therefore, the increase in the pelvic width and decrease in the femoral neck-shaft angle can be interpreted as normal in aging women, which could alter the biomechanics of the hips and pelvis.

Humans , Male , Female , Bursitis , Femur/diagnostic imaging , Pain , Prospective Studies , Femur Neck