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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 162-165, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528832

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The femur, the body's longest bone, plays a critical role in orthopaedics and radiology. Understanding its anatomy, particularly the neck-shaft angle (NSA), is vital for diagnosing bone issues and designing hip implants. While some Asian populations' femur measurements have been studied, there is a research gap concerning Sri Lankans. This study aimed to fill this gap by examining the proximal femur's anatomy in the Sri Lankan population. We analysed 45 adult human femurs (26 right, 19 left) of unknown sex, ethically sourced from the University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Femurs with fractures or pathologies were excluded. Precise measurements were recorded using digital vernier callipers, with millimetre accuracy. Parameters included mean femoral length, vertical and transverse femoral head diameters, neck axis and neck length. Each measurement was taken three times to minimize subjectivity. Right femurs had a mean length of 42.8 mm (SD±2.64), while left femurs measured 43.53 mm (SD±3.27). Mean NSA was 125.78º (SD±4.45) for left femurs and 127.59º (SD±2.06) for right. Mean femoral head diameters were 4.09mm (SD±0.30) (right) and 4.12mm (SD±0.31) (left). Mean anterior neck lengths of the right and left were 2.61 (SD±0.54) and 2.71(SD±0.50) respectively. Comparing our findings with other Asian populations highlighted significant variations in femur measurements. These discrepancies emphasize the need for population-specific data for orthopaedic interventions and raise questions about the suitability of imported prosthetics. Differences in femur length, neck length, and NSA between sides suggest potential challenges in using implants designed for one side on the other. This study underscores the necessity of population-specific data in orthopaedics, as femur measurements differ even among Asian populations. Further research and statistical analysis are essential for tailoring orthopaedic solutions to individual populations. The findings also suggest a potential need for locally manufactured prosthetics to better suit the Sri Lankan population.


El fémur, el hueso más largo del cuerpo, desempeña un papel fundamental en ortopedia y radiología. Comprender su anatomía, en particular el ángulo cuello-diáfisis (NSA), es vital para diagnosticar problemas óseos y diseñar implantes de cadera. Si bien se han estudiado las medidas del fémur de algunas poblaciones asiáticas, existe un vacío en la investigación sobre los habitantes de Sri Lanka. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la anatomía del fémur proximal en la población de Sri Lanka. Analizamos 45 fémures humanos adultos (26 derechos, 19 izquierdos) de sexo desconocido, obtenidos éticamente de la Universidad de Sri Jayewardenepura. Se excluyeron fémures con fracturas o patologías. Se registraron mediciones precisas utilizando calibradores vernier digitales, con precisión milimétrica. Los parámetros incluyeron la longitud femoral media, los diámetros vertical y transversal de la cabeza femoral, el eje del cuello y la longitud del cuello. Cada medición se tomó tres veces para minimizar la subjetividad. Los fémures derechos tuvieron una longitud media de 42,8 mm (DE ± 2,64), mientras que los fémures izquierdos midieron 43,53 mm (DE ± 3,27). La NSA media fue de 125,78º (DE±4,45) para el fémur izquierdo y de 127,59º (DE±2,06) para el derecho. Los diámetros medios de la cabeza femoral fueron 4,09 mm (DE ± 0,30) (derecha) y 4,12 mm (DE ± 0,31) (izquierda). Las longitudes medias del cuello anterior de la derecha y la izquierda fueron 2,61 (DE ± 0,54) y 2,71 (DE ± 0,50) respectivamente. La comparación de nuestros hallazgos con otras poblaciones asiáticas destacó variaciones significativas en las medidas del fémur. Estas discrepancias enfatizan la necesidad de datos específicos de la población para las intervenciones ortopédicas y plantean dudas sobre la idoneidad de las prótesis importadas. Las diferencias en la longitud del fémur, la longitud del cuello y la NSA entre lados sugieren posibles desafíos al utilizar implantes diseñados para un lado en el otro. Este estudio subraya la necesidad de datos específicos de la población en ortopedia, ya que las mediciones del fémur difieren incluso entre las poblaciones asiáticas. Es esencial realizar más investigaciones y análisis estadísticos para adaptar las soluciones ortopédicas a poblaciones individuales. Los hallazgos también sugieren una posible necesidad de prótesis fabricadas localmente para adaptarse mejor a la población de Sri Lanka.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Femur/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Femur Head/anatomy & histology , Femur Neck/anatomy & histology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1570-1574, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521038

ABSTRACT

En la literatura actual se encuentra escasa información referente a la fóvea de la cabeza del fémur (fóvea de la cabeza del hueso fémur). Este estudio tuvo como propósito recolectar datos morfológicos y biométricos respecto a la fóvea de la cabeza del fémur y reconocer variaciones que podrían ser de utilidad en las diversas patologías de la región. Se utilizaron 46 huesos fémures humanos pertenecientes al Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. Para la medición de datos se utilizó material ad hoc y los datos fueron analizados el programa Excel y los softwares ImageJ e Image Pro Plus. La longitud promedio de los huesos fémures fue de 43,8 ± 2,9 cm; el ángulo de torsión del cuello fue de 23,0 ± 2,0°. En el 100 % de las muestras se observó una fóvea en el cuadrante posteroinferior de la cabeza del fémur. El área promedio de la fóvea de la cabeza del fémur fue de 1,51 ± 0,7 cm2. El perímetro fue de 4,72 ± 1,0 cm; la forma de la fóvea fue: 60,9% ovalada, 23,9% triangular y 15,2 % circular, teniendo como base la fórmula derivada del índice craneal, dejando la fórmula como feret mínimo/feret máximo, con el cual los valores mayores a 0,8 se clasificaban como circulares y los menores como ovalados. Conocer la ubicación de la fóvea de la cabeza del fémur adquiere implicancia médica, ya que una fóvea en posición anormalmente alta, en imágenes radiológicas, es un indicador de displasia pélvica. La importancia de las variaciones de la fóvea de la cabeza del fémur debe ser más investigadas para una correcta comprensión de las patologías que afectan a la cabeza femoral.


SUMMARY: In the current literature there is little information regarding the fovea for ligament of head of femur. The aim of this study was to collect morphological and biometric data regarding the fovea for ligament of head of femur and recognize variations that could be useful in the various pathologies of the region. Forty six human femur bones belonging to the Department of Basic Sciences of the University of La Frontera, Chile were used. For data measurement, ad hoc material was used and the data were analyzed with the Excel program and the ImageJ and Image Pro Plus software. The average length of the femur bones was 43.8 ± 2.9 cm; the neck torsion angle was 23.0 ± 2.0°. In 100% of the samples, a fovea was observed in the posteroinferior quadrant of the head of femur. The average area of the fovea for ligament of head of femur was 1.51 ± 0.7 cm3. The perimeter was 4.72 ± 1.0 cm; The shape of the fovea was: 60.9% oval, 23.9% triangular and 15.2% circular, based on the formula derived from the cranial index, leaving the formula as minimum feret/maximum feret, with which the values greater than 0.8 were classified as circular and those less as oval. Knowing the location of the fovea for ligament of head of femur acquires medical implications, since a fovea in an abnormally high position, in radiological images, is an indicator of pelvic dysplasia. The importance of variations in the fovea for ligament of head of femur must be further investigated for a correct understanding of the pathologies that affect the femoral head.


Subject(s)
Humans , Femur/anatomy & histology , Ligaments/anatomy & histology , Femur Head/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 894-900, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514321

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: It is known that diabetes mellitus has late complications, including microvascular and macrovascular diseases. Diabetes can affect bones through biochemical markers of bone structure, density, and turnover. This study aimed to biomechanically investigate the bone-protective effects of angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), one of the active peptides in the renin-angiotensin system, in rats with diabetes. Thirty male Wistar albino rats, three months old and weighing 250-300 g, were divided into four groups: diabetes, Ang 1- 7, diabetes plus Ang 1-7, and control. One month later, diabetes developed in rats; the rats were sacrificed, and their right femur was removed. Three-point bending biomechanical tests were performed on the femurs. The diabetic group had significantly higher bone fragility than the other groups (Pr >.05). Bone fragility was lower, and bone flexibility was higher in the Ang 1-7 groups (Pr>F value 0.05). As a result of our study, the effect of Ang 1-7 on the bones of rats with diabetes was investigated biomechanically. Ang 1-7 has a protective impact on the bones of rats with diabetes.


Se sabe que la diabetes mellitus tiene complicaciones tardías, incluyendo enfermedades microvasculares y macrovasculares. La diabetes puede afectar los huesos a través de los marcadores bioquímicos de la estructura, la densidad y el recambio óseo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar biomecánicamente los efectos protectores en los huesos de la angiotensina 1-7 (Ang 1-7), uno de los péptidos activos en el sistema renina-angiotensina, en ratas con diabetes. Treinta ratas albinas Wistar macho, de tres meses de edad y con un peso de 250-300 g, se dividieron en cuatro grupos: diabetes, Ang 1-7, diabetes más Ang 1-7 y control. Un mes después, se desarrolló diabetes en ratas; se sacrificaron los animales y se extrajo su fémur derecho. Se realizaron pruebas biomecánicas de flexión de tres puntos en los fémures. El grupo diabéticos tenía una fragilidad ósea significativamente mayor que los otros grupos (Pr > 0,05). La fragilidad ósea fue menor y la flexibilidad ósea fue mayor en los grupos Ang 1-7 (valor Pr>F 0,05). Como resultado de nuestro estudio, se determinó biomecánicamente el efecto de Ang 1-7 en los huesos de ratas con diabetes. Se concluye que Ang 1-7 tiene un impacto protector en los huesos de ratas diabéticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Peptide Fragments/administration & dosage , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin I/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Femur/drug effects , Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 527-534, abr. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440307

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament that mainly controls the anterior and rotational mobility of the knee joint, and its surface is covered by a synovial membrane with large number of blood vessels. In general, nutritional supply to the ligament is from many capillaries in the adjacent synovium. However, statistical studies of the capillaries distributed to the ACL are insufficient. In this study, we examined cross-sectional histological images of the femoral attachment (femoral level), middle level of the tendon (middle level), and tibial attachment (tibial level) of the ACL and statistically analyzed blood capillary distribution among the three levels. The ACLs of 10 cadavers were divided into 5 equal sections, and 4mm-thick paraffin sections were made at the femoral level, middle level, and tibial level, and then hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining were performed. The area of each transverse section was measured using Image-J 1.51n (U. S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA). Fiber bundles of the ACL were relatively small and sparse in cross-sectional area at the femoral level and became larger and denser toward the tibial level. Many blood levels. The synovium at the attachment of ACL covered the surface of the fiber bundle and also penetrated deeply between the fiber bundles. In particular, the blood capillaries were densely distributed in the synovium at the femoral attachment rather than another two levels. Indeed, the number of capillaries were also most abundant in the femoral level. The cross-sectional ACL area at the femoral level is significantly small, however, the blood capillaries were most abundant. Therefore, when the ACL is injured, its reconstruction with preservation of the femoral ligamentous remnant may be clinically useful for remodeling of the grafted tendon.


El ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA) es un ligamento que controla principalmente la movilidad anterior y rotacional de la articulación de la rodilla, y su superficie está cubierta por una membrana sinovial con gran cantidad de vasos sanguíneos. En general, el suministro de nutrientes al ligamento proviene de muchos capilares en la sinovial adyacente. Sin embargo, los estudios estadísticos de los capilares distribuidos en el LCA son insuficientes. En este estudio, examinamos imágenes histológicas trans- versales de la inserción femoral (nivel femoral), el nivel medio del tendón (nivel medio) y la inserción tibial (nivel tibial) del LCA y analizamos estadísticamente la distribución de los capilares sanguíneos entre los tres niveles. Los LCA de 10 cadáveres se dividieron en 5 secciones iguales y se realizaron cortes en parafina de 4 µm de espesor a nivel femoral, medio y tibial, y luego se realizó tinción con hematoxilina-eosina (HE). El área de cada sección transversal se midió utilizando Image-J 1.51n (Institutos Nacionales de Salud de EE. UU., Bethesda, MD, EE. UU.). Los haces de fibras del LCA eran relativamente pequeños y escasos en el área de la sección transversal a nivel femoral y se hicieron más grandes y más densos hacia el nivel tibial. La membrana sinovial en la unión del LCA cubría la superficie del haz de fibras y también penetraba profundamente entre entre los haces de fibras. En particular, los capilares sanguíneos estaban densamente distribuidos en la unión femoral de la sinovial respecto a los otros dos niveles. De hecho, el número de capilares también fue más abundante a nivel femoral. El área transversal del LCA a nivel femoral era significativamente pequeña, sin embargo, los capilares sanguíneos fueron los más abundantes. Por lo tanto, cuando hay una lesión del LCA su reconstrucción con preservación del ligamento femoral remanente puede ser clínicamente útil para remodelar el tendón injertado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Capillaries/anatomy & histology , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/blood supply , Femur/blood supply , Synovial Membrane/blood supply , Tibia/blood supply , Cadaver
5.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 689-694, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520346

ABSTRACT

Abstract In an attempt to improvise the analgesia in patients with femoral fractures, we aimed at depositing local anesthetic deep to anterior psoas fascia (APf) under ultrasound (US) guidance to block lumbar plexus elements which emerge lateral, anterior, and medial to the psoas major muscle. We termed this as circumpsoas block (CPB). Clinical and computed tomography contrast studies revealed that a continuous CPB infusion with a catheter provided a reliable block of the lumbar plexus elements. No adverse were events noted. We conclude that US guided CPB is a reliable technique for managing postoperative pain after surgery of femur fractures.


Subject(s)
Pain, Postoperative , Femur , Hip Fractures , Lumbosacral Plexus , Ultrasonography , Acute Pain , Anesthesia, Conduction
6.
Rev. colomb. med. fis. rehabil. (En línea) ; 33(1): 67-74, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1451261

ABSTRACT

El femorocutáneo lateral es un nervio exclusivamente sensitivo que se origina en las raíces lumbares altas, recorre la pelvis y finalmente pasa por debajo del ligamento inguinal hasta llegar al muslo, inervando su cara lateral. En la presente revisión, en primer lugar se describe la anatomía del nervio femorocutáneo lateral y las variantes anatómicas relevantes para los electromiografistas; en segundo lugar se hace un recuento de la diferentes técnicas de neuroconducción para activarlo y sus valores normales, y, finalmente, en tercer lugar se hacen otras consideraciones importantes con respecto a dichas técnicas.


The lateral femoral cutaneous is an exclusively sensitive nerve that originates in the upper lumbar roots, runs through the pelvis, and finally passes under the inguinal ligament until it reaches the thigh, innervating its lateral aspect. Firstly, the present review describes the anatomy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and the anatomical variants re-levant to electromyographers. Secondly, the different nerve conduction techniques and their normal values are counted to obtain it; and thirdly, other important considerations are made regarding said techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Femur
7.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 65-70, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971151

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical effects of island posterior femoral composite tissue flaps in the repair of sinus cavity pressure ulcers in the areas of ischial tuberosity and greater trochanter. Methods: The retrospective observational study was conducted. From December 2018 to December 2021, 23 patients with sinus cavity pressure ulcers in the areas of ischial tuberosity and greater trochanter who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to Ganzhou People's Hospital, including 16 males and 7 females, aged 45 to 86 years. The size of pressure ulcers in ischial tuberosity ranged from 1.5 cm×1.0 cm to 8.0 cm×5.0 cm, and the size of pressure ulcers in greater trochanter ranged from 4.0 cm×3.0 cm to 20.0 cm×10.0 cm before debridement. After treatment of underlying diseases, debridement and vacuum sealing drainage for 5 to 14 days were performed. All the wounds were repaired by island posterior femoral composite tissue flaps, with area of 4.5 cm×3.0 cm-24.0 cm×12.0 cm, pedicle width of 3-5 cm, pedicle length of 5-8 cm, and rotation radius of 30-40 cm. Most of the donor site wounds were sutured directly, and only 4 donor site wounds were repaired by intermediate thickness skin graft from the contralateral thigh. The survival of composite tissue flaps, wound healing of the donor and recipient sites and the complications were observed. The recurrence of pressure ulcers, and the appearance and texture of flaps were observed during follow-up. Results: A total of 32 wounds in 23 patients were repaired by island posterior femoral composite tissue flaps (including 3 fascio subcutaneous flaps, 24 fascial flaps+fascio subcutaneous flaps, 2 fascial flaps+fascial dermal flaps, 2 fascial flaps+fascio subcutaneous flaps+femoral biceps flaps, and one fascial flap+fascio subcutaneous flap+gracilis muscle flap). Among them, 31 composite tissue flaps survived well, and a small portion of necrosis occurred in one fascial flap+fascio subcutaneous flap post surgery. The survival rate of composite tissue flap post surgery was 96.9% (31/32). Twenty-nine wounds in the recipient sites were healed, and 2 wounds were torn at the flap pedicle due to improper postural changes, and healed one week after bedside debridement. One wound was partially necrotic due to the flap bruising, and healed 10 days after re-debridement. Thirty-one wounds in the donor sites (including 4 skin graft areas) were healed, and one wound in the donor site was torn due to improper handling at discharge, and healed 15 days after re-debridement and suture. The complication rate was 12.5% (4/32), mainly the incision dehiscence of the flap pedicle and the donor sites (3 wounds), followed by venous congestion at the distal end of flap (one wound). During the follow-up of 3 to 24 months, the pressure ulcers did not recur and the flaps had good appearance and soft texture. Conclusions: The island posterior femoral composite tissue flaps has good blood circulation, large rotation radius, and sufficient tissue volume. It has a high survival rate, good wound healing, low skin grafting rate in the donor site, few postoperative complications, and good long-term effect in the repair of sinus cavity pressure ulcers in the areas of ischial tuberosity and greater trochanter.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Skin Transplantation , Femur/surgery , Necrosis/surgery , Perforator Flap
8.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 284-288, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970864

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To provide guidance for hip replacement by analyzing the variation of femoral head rotation center in different hip diseases.@*METHODS@#A total of 5 459 patients were collected from March 2016 to June 2021, who took positive and proportional plain films of both hips for various reasons. The relative position between the rotation center of the femoral head and the apex of the greater trochanter was measured. The positive variation is more than 2 mm above the top of the great trochanter, and the negative variation is more than 2 mm below the top of the great trochanter. A total of 831 patients with variation of femoral head rotation center were collected and were divided into 4 groups according to different diseases, and the variation was counted respectively. There were 15 cases in the normal group involving 10 cases of positive variation and 5 cases of negative variation. There were 145 cases of avascular necrosis of femoral head involving 25 cases of positive variation and 120 cases of negative variation. There were 346 cases of congenital hip dysplasia involving 225 cases of positive variation(including 25 cases of typeⅠ, 70 cases of type Ⅱ, 115 cases of type Ⅲ and 15 cases of type Ⅳ), and 121 cases of negative variation(including 50 cases of crowe typeⅠ, 60 cases of typeⅡ, 10 cases of type Ⅲ and 1 case of type Ⅳ). There were 325 cases of hip osteoarthritis group involving 45 cases of positive variation and 280 cases of negative variation.@*RESULTS@#There was significant difference in variation of femoral head rotation center among the four groups(P<0.05). There was significant difference in variation of femoral head rotation center among different types of congenital hip dysplasia(P<0.05). There were significant differences in cervical trunk angle and eccentricity among different variations of femoral head rotation center(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The variation of femoral head rotation center is related to cervical trunk angle and eccentricity. The variation of femoral head rotation center is an important factor in hip diseases. The variation of femoral head rotation center is different in different hip diseases. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head and osteoarthritis of the hip were mostly negative variations. With the aggravation of congenital hip dysplasia, the variation of femoral head rotation center gradually changed from negative variation to positive variation.The variation of femoral head rotation center should be paid attention to in the preoperative planning of hip arthroplasty. It is of great significance to select the appropriate prosthesis and place the prosthesis accurately.


Subject(s)
Humans , Femur Head/surgery , Hip Dislocation, Congenital/surgery , Hip Prosthesis , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/methods , Femur/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 273-278, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970862

ABSTRACT

For patients with femoral neck fractures who plan to undergo internal fixation, satisfied alignment of fracture ends is an important prerequisite for internal fixation stability and fracture healing. There are many reports on the reduction methods of displaced femoral neck fractures, which can be summarized into three categories:First, the solely longitudinal traction of lower limbs, supplemented by other manipulations such as rotation and compression; Second, the resultant force formed by the longitudinal traction of lower limbs and the lateral traction;the third is accomplished by vertical traction in the axis of femur with hip joint flexed. Each reduction method has its own advantages, but no single method can be applied to all fracture displacement. In this paper, some classical reduction techniques in the literatures are briefly reviewed. It is hoped that clinicians will not be limited to a certain reduction method, they should analyze the injury mechanism and fracture displacement process according to the morphology features and flexibly select targeted reduction methods to improve the success rate of closed reduction of femoral neck fracture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Femur , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Fracture Healing , Traction , Treatment Outcome
10.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 95-99, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970191

ABSTRACT

Limb length discrepancy(LLD) is a common complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Good positioning of the prosthesis and suitable soft tissue tension are essential to ensure hip joint stability. Patients will be more satisfied if almost the same length of both lower extremities is achieved. Preoperative comprehensive evaluation of patients is helpful to prevent the occurrence of LLD after surgery. Therefore, the pelvic spine conditions, as well as type and cause of LLD should be analyzed in detail before surgery. During operation, limb length should be adjusted by touching the position of patella, Kirschner's wires positioning and referring to the relationship between the center of femoral head and the tip of greater trochanter. After surgery, it is necessary to clearly distinguish true LLD from functional LLD, and make a reasonable therapeutic plan according to patient's symptoms and the range of differences in limb length. This article reviews the latest literatures based on clinical practice experience and summarizes the research status of LLD after THA, which helps joint surgeons to have an in-depth understanding of this postoperative complication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Femur , Femur Head , Lower Extremity , Pelvis
11.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 459-464, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the outcome of lateral femoral notch (LFN) after early anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and evaluate the recovery of knee joint function after the operation.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 32 patients who underwent early ACL reconstruction from December 2015 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The study included 18 males and 14 females, aged 16 to 54 years old, with an average age of (25.39±2.82) years. The body mass index (BMI) of the patients ranged from 20 to 30 kg/cm2, with an average of (26.15±3.09) kg/cm2. Among them, 6 cases were caused by traffic accidents, 19 by exercise, and 7 by the crush of heavy objects. MRI of all patients showed LFN depth was more than 1.5 mm after injury, and no intervention for LFN was performed during surgery. Preoperative and postoperative depth, area, and volume of LFN defects were observed by MRI data. International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) score, Lysholm score, Tegner activity levels, and knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) were analyzed before and after the operation.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up from 2 to 6 years with an average of (3.28±1.12) years. There was no significant difference in the defect depth of LFN from (2.31±0.67) mm before the operation to (2.53±0.50) mm at follow-up (P=0.136). The defect area of LFN was decreased from (207.55±81.01)mm2 to (171.36±52.69)mm2 (P=0.038), and the defect volume of LFN was decreased from (426.32±176.54) mm3 to (340.86±151.54)mm3 (P=0.042). The ICRS score increased from (1.51±0.34) to (2.92±0.33) (P<0.001), the Lysholm score increased from (35.37±10.54) to (94.46±8.45) (P<0.001), and the Tegner motor score increased from (3.45±0.94) to (7.56±1.28), which was significantly higher than that of the preoperative data (P<0.001). The KOOS score of the final follow-up was 90.42±16.35.@*CONCLUSION@#With the increase of recovery time after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the defect area and volume of LFN decreased gradually, but the defect depth remained unchanged. The knee joint function of the patients significantly improved. The cartilage of the LFN defect improved, but the repair effect was not good.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction , Femur/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Knee Joint/surgery
12.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 364-370, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981698

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore correlation between imaging classification of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and axis angle of tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis of 739 middle-aged and elderly patients with KOA (1 026 knee joints) who underwent vertical X-ray examination of both lower limbs and lateral knee joints from September 2018 to December 2020. Among them, 63 patients with K-L 0 grade (95 knee joints), 100 patients with K-L 1 grade (130 knee joints), 161 patients with K-L 2 grade (226 knee joints), 187 patients with K-L 3 grade (256 knee joints), and 228 patients of K-L 4 grade (319 knee joints). According to relative position of knee joint center and line between hip joint center and ankle joint center, the affected knee was divided into varus group(844 knees joints) and valgus group (182 knees joints). According to Install-Salvati method, the affected knee was divided into three groups, such as high patella (patella height>1.2 mm, 347 knees joints), median patella (patella height ranged from 0.8 to 1.2 mm, 561 knees joints), and low patella (patella height<0.8 mm, 118 knees joints). Lower femur angle, upper tibia angle, femoral neck shaft angle, femoral tibial angle, joint gap angle, hip-knee-ankle angle, patella-femoral angle and patella height among different groups were observed and compared.@*RESULTS@#(1) In varus KOA group, there were statistical differnces in hip-knee-ankle angle, tibiofemoral angle, lower femoral angle, upper tibial angle, joint space angle, and femoral neck shaft angle of patients with different K-L grades (P<0.05). Hip-knee-ankle angle, tibiofemoral angle, lower femoral angle, upper tibial angle, joint space angle and K-L grade were significantly positively correlated at 0.01(P<0.05);femoral neck shaft angle and K-L grade showed negative correlation at 0.01(P<0.05). (2) In valgus KOA group, hip-knee-ankle angle, there were statistical differences in tibiofemoral angle, inferior femoral angle, superior tibial angle, joint space angle, and femoral neck shaft angle of patients with different K-L grades(P<0.05). Hip-knee-ankle angle, tibiofemoral angle, lower femoral angle, upper tibial angle, and femoral neck shaft angle showed negative correlation with K-L grades at level of 0.01 (P<0.05);joint gap angle and K-L grades showed significantly positive correlation at level of 0.01(P<0.05). (3) In high patella group, there were statistically differences in patellar height and patellar femoral angle of different K-L grades(P<0.05);there were no statistical difference in patella height and patellar femoral angle of different K-L grades in median patella group. There was no significant difference in patella heightin low patella group with different K-L grades(P>0.05), and there was statistical difference in patellofemoral angle(P<0.05). Patellar height and patella-femoral angle of high patella group were significantly positively correlated with K-L grades at the level of 0.01 (P<0.05);patella height and patella-femoral angle were not correlated with K-L grades in median patella group(P>0.05). There was no correlation between height of patella and K-L grade in low patella group (P>0.05). There was significant negative correlation between patella-femoral angle and K-L grade at level of 0.05 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Inferior femoral angle, tibiofemoral angle, joint gap angle, hip-knee-ankle angle, femoral neck shaft angle and high patella are related to K-L classification of varus KOA, which could be used for early diagnosis and provide objective data for efficacy analysis of conservative treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Middle Aged , Humans , Patellofemoral Joint/diagnostic imaging , Osteoarthritis, Knee/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Knee Joint , Femur/diagnostic imaging , Tibia
13.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 846-855, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the value of CT-based radiomics and clinical data in predicting the efficacy of non-vascularized bone grafting (NVBG) in hip preservation, and to construct a visual, quantifiable, and effective method for decision-making of hip preservation.@*METHODS@#Between June 2009 and June 2019, 153 patients (182 hips) with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) who underwent NVBG for hip preservation were included, and the training and testing sets were divided in a 7∶3 ratio to define hip preservation success or failure according to the 3-year postoperative follow-up. The radiomic features of the region of interest in the CT images were extracted, and the radiomics-scores were calculated by the linear weighting and coefficients of the radiomic features after dimensionality reduction. The clinical predictors were screened using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. The radiomics model, clinical model, and clinical-radiomics (C-R) model were constructed respectively. Their predictive performance for the efficacy of hip preservation was compared in the training and testing sets, with evaluation indexes including area under the curve, C-Index, sensitivity, specificity, and calibration curve, etc. The best model was visualised using nomogram, and its clinical utility was assessed by decision curves.@*RESULTS@#At the 3-year postoperative follow-up, the cumulative survival rate of hip preservation was 70.33%. Continued exposure to risk factors postoperative and Japanese Investigation Committee (JIC) staging were clinical predictors of the efficacy of hip preservation, and 13 radiomic features derived from least absolute shrinkage and selection operator downscaling were used to calculate Rad-scores. The C-R model outperformed both the clinical and radiomics models in predicting the efficacy of hip preservation 1, 2, 3 years postoperative in both the training and testing sets ( P<0.05), with good agreement between the predicted and observed values. A nomogram constructed based on the C-R model showed that patients with lower Rad-scores, no further postoperative exposure to risk factors, and B or C1 types of JIC staging had a higher probability of femoral survival at 1, 2, 3 years postoperatively. The decision curve analysis showed that the C-R model had a higher total net benefit than both the clinical and radiomics models with a single predictor, and it could bring more net benefit to patients within a larger probability threshold.@*CONCLUSION@#The prediction model and nomogram constructed by CT-based radiomics combined with clinical data is a visual, quantifiable, and effective method for decision-making of hip preservation, which can predict the efficacy of NVBG before surgery and has a high value of clinical application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Transplantation , Femur Head/surgery , Femur , Osteonecrosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies
14.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 663-669, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981649

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes of knee joint kinematics after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction assisted by personalized femoral positioner based on the apex of deep cartilage (ADC).@*METHODS@#Between January 2021 and January 2022, a total of 40 patients with initial ACL rupture who met the selection criteria were randomly divided into the study group (using the personalized femoral positioner based on ADC design to assist ACL reconstruction) and the control group (not using the personalized femoral positioner to assist ACL reconstruction), with 20 patients in each group. Another 20 volunteers with normal knee were collected as a healthy group. There was no significant difference in gender, age, body mass index, and affected side between groups ( P>0.05). Gait analysis was performed at 3, 6, and 12 months after operation using Opti _ Knee three-dimensional knee joint motion measurement and analysis system, and the 6 degrees of freedom (flexion and extension angle, varus and valgus angle, internal and external rotation angle, anteroposterior displacement, superior and inferior displacement, internal and external displacement) and motion cycle (maximum step length, minimum step length, and step frequency) of the knee joint were recorded. The patients' data was compared to the data of healthy group.@*RESULTS@#In the healthy group, the flexion and extension angle was (57.80±3.45)°, the varus and valgus angle was (10.54±1.05)°, the internal and external rotation angle was (13.02±1.66)°, and the anteroposterior displacement was (1.44±0.39) cm, the superior and inferior displacement was (0.86±0.20) cm, and the internal and external displacement was (1.38±0.39) cm. The maximum step length was (51.24±1.29) cm, the minimum step length was (45.69±2.28) cm, and the step frequency was (12.45±0.47) step/minute. Compared with the healthy group, the flexion and extension angles and internal and external rotation angles of the patients in the study group and the control group decreased at 3 months after operation, and the flexion and extension angles of the patients in the control group decreased at 6 months after operation, and the differences were significant ( P<0.05); there was no significant difference in the other time points and other indicators when compared with healthy group ( P>0.05). In the study group, the flexion and extension angles and internal and external rotation angles at 6 and 12 months after operation were significantly greater than those at 3 months after operation ( P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the other indicators at other time points ( P>0.05). There was a significant difference in flexion and extension angle between the study group and the control group at 6 months after operation ( P<0.05), but there was no significant difference of the indicators between the two groups at other time points ( P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with conventional surgery, ACL reconstruction assisted by personalized femoral positioner based on ADC design can help patients achieve more satisfactory early postoperative kinematic results, and three-dimensional kinematic analysis can more objectively and dynamically evaluate the postoperative recovery of knee joint.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomechanical Phenomena , Knee Joint/surgery , Femur/surgery , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries/surgery , Range of Motion, Articular , Cartilage/surgery , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction/methods
15.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 641-646, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Using the mono-energy reconstruction images and X-ray films to investigate whether the ABG Ⅱ short-stem could improve the filling ratio, stability, and alignment in the Dorr type C femur, compared with the Corail long-stem.@*METHODS@#Among patients who were with Dorr type C femurs and treated with total hip arthroplasty between January 2006 and March 2012, 20 patients with a Corail long-stem (Corail group) and 20 patients with an ABG Ⅱ short-stem (ABG Ⅱ group) were randomly selected. The differences in gender, age, body mass index, and preoperative diagnoses between the two groups were not significant ( P>0.05). The ABG Ⅱ group was with a mean follow-up of 142 months (range, 102-156 months), and the Corail group was with a mean follow-up of 107 months (range, 91-127 months). There was no significant difference in the Harris score and subjective satisfaction score between the two groups at last follow-up ( P>0.05). At last follow-up, dual-energy CT scans with mono-energy image reconstruction were used to calculate the prosthetic filling ratio and to measure the alignment of the prosthesis in the coronal and sagittal positions. Stability assessment was performed based on X-ray films, and the subsidence distance was measured using EBRA-FCA software.@*RESULTS@#X-ray film observation showed that the prostheses in the two groups were stable and no signs of loosening was found. The incidence of pedestal sign was significantly lower in the ABGⅡ group than in the Corail group ( P<0.05), and the incidence of heterotopic ossification was significantly higher in the ABGⅡ group than in the Corail group ( P<0.05). The subsidence distance of femoral stem in ABG Ⅱ group was significantly greater than that in Corail group ( P<0.05), and the subsidence speed of femoral stem in ABG Ⅱ group was also greater than that in Corail group, but the difference was not significant ( P>0.05). The overall prosthesis filling ratio was significantly higher in the ABG Ⅱ group than in the Corail group ( P<0.05), while the coronal filling ratio at the lesser trochanter, 2 cm below the lesser trochanter, and 7 cm below the lesser trochanter were not significant ( P>0.05). The results of prosthesis alignment showed that there was no significant difference in the sagittal alignment error value and the incidence of coronal and sagittal alignment error >3° between the two groups ( P>0.05), while the coronal alignment error value in the ABG Ⅱ group was significantly greater than that in the Corail group ( P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Although the ABG Ⅱ short-stem avoids the distal-proximal mismatch of the Corail long-stem in the Dorr type C femur and thus achieves a higher filling ratio, it does not appear to achieve better alignment or stability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/methods , Femur/surgery , Hip Prosthesis , Lower Extremity/surgery , Prosthesis Design , Retrospective Studies
16.
Rev. venez. cir. ortop. traumatol ; 54(2): 86-95, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1516420

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar las mediciones radiológicas del extremo proximal del fémur en pacientes adultos cuyos casos fueron presentados en las discusiones clínico-radiológicas del servicio de Traumatología y Ortopedia del Hospital Central de San Cristóbal entre 2015 y 2021. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, descriptivo, transversal, que incluyó los estudios radiológicos de cadera sana en proyección anteroposterior de pelvis centrada en pubis con rotación interna de 15 %, de 126 pacientes entre 20 y 95 años. Se midieron: ángulo cervicodiafisario, lateralización femoral, longitud y ancho del cuello femoral y diámetro de la circunferencia cefálica, mediante el sotfware MicroDicom DICOM 4.0.0. La media de ángulo cervicodiafisario fue 130,8 ± 4,5 grados, en 57 individuos (45,2 %) estuvo entre 127,4 y 133,3 grados (p = 0,001); la circunferencia cefálica media fue 42,0 ± 2,4 mm, en 60 personas (47,6 %) estuvo entre 40,2 y 45,7 mm (p = 0,001); la longitud cervical media fue 78,6 ± 16,4 mm, en 54 individuos (42,9 %) estuvo entre 69,4 y 92 mm (p = 0,001); el ancho cervical medio fue 75,9 ± 12,1 mm, en 64 casos, (50,8 %) estuvo entre 62,9 y 78,7 mm (p = 0,001). En 60 individuos (47,6 %) la lateralización del fémur estuvo entre 92,6 - 117,7 mm. Las medidas son independientes del sexo; a medida que aumenta la edad, el ángulo cervicodiafisario es menor (p= 0,021). Se realizaron tablas percentiladas de las medidas radiológicas del extremo proximal del fémur, según edad y sexo, que pueden servir de referencia en pacientes futuros(AU)


The objective of this work is to determine the radiological measurements of the proximal end of the femur in adult patients whose cases were presented in the clinical-radiological discussions of the Traumatology and Orthopedics service of the Central Hospital of San Cristóbal between 2015 and 2021. A prospective study was carried out, descriptive, crosssectional, which included radiological studies of a healthy hip in anteroposterior projection of the pelvis centered on the pubis with internal rotation of 15%, of 126 patients between 20 and 95 years of age. The following were measured: cervicodiaphyseal angle, femoral lateralization, length and width of the femoral neck, and diameter of the head circumference, using the MicroDicom DICOM 4.0.0 software. The mean neck-diaphyseal angle was 130.8 ± 4.5 degrees, in 57 individuals (45.2%) it was between 127.4 and 133.3 degrees (p = 0.001); the mean head circumference was 42.0 ± 2.4 mm, in 60 people (47.6%) it was between 40.2 and 45.7 mm (p = 0.001); the mean cervical length was 78.6 ± 16.4 mm, in 54 individuals (42.9 %) it was between 69.4 and 92 mm (p = 0.001); the mean cervical width was 75.9 ± 12.1 mm, in 64 cases (50.8%) it was between 62.9 and 78.7 mm (p= 0.001). In 60 individuals (47.6%), the lateralization of the femur was between 92.6 - 117.7 mm. The measurements are independent of sex; as age increases, the cervical shaft angle is less (p= 0.021). Percentage tables of the radiological measurements of the proximal end of the femur were made, according to age and sex, which can serve as a reference in future patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Femur/surgery , Hip , Radiology , Arthroplasty, Replacement , Proximal Femoral Fractures , Hip Fractures/surgery
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1524-1529, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421798

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Different populations have different genetic traits, and this causes various anatomical features to emerge. Orthopedic implants used in Turkey are generally of Western origin, and these implants are designed based on the anatomical features of Western populations. This study aimed to evaluate the compatibility of existing implants for the Turkish population by revealing the anatomical features of the proximal femurs of individuals from the Turkish population while also constituting a helpful source of data on newly developed implants. A total of 1920 proximal femurs of 960 patients were evaluated via images obtained by Computer Tomography. Twenty patients (10 females and 10 males) for each age within the age range of 18-65 years were included. Femoral head diameter, femoral neck width, femoral neck length, medullary canal width, and collodiaphyseal angle were measured. The right and left femoral head diameter was 46.46±3.84 mm, 46.50 ±3.85 mm respectively. The right and left femoral neck width was 30.63±3.4 mm, 30.85±3.29 mm respectively. The neck length was 94.62±8.33 mm for the right proximal femur, it was 94.75±8.19 mm for the left. The width of the medullary canal was 15.46±2.25 mm for the right proximal femur and 15.53±2.20 mm for the left. The right and left hips, the collodiaphyseal angles were 133.06±2.39° and 133.13±2.36°. Anatomical features of the proximal femur vary according to age, sex, and race. This study may be used as an important resource for the evaluation of patients' compatibility with existing implants and for the design of new implants.


Diferentes poblaciones tienen diferentes rasgos genéticos, y esto hace que surjan varias características anatómicas. Los implantes ortopédicos utilizados en Turquía son generalmente de origen occidental y estos implantes están diseñados en función de las características anatómicas de estas poblaciones. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la compatibilidad de los implantes existentes para la población turca al revelar las características anatómicas de las epífisis proximales de fémures de individuos de la población turca y, al mismo tiempo, constituir una fuente útil de datos sobre implantes recientemente desarrollados. Se evaluaron un total de 1920 fémures proximales de 960 pacientes mediante imágenes obtenidas por tomografía computarizada. Se incluyeron veinte pacientes (10 mujeres y 10 hombres) para cada edad dentro del rango de edad de 18 a 65 años. Se midió el diámetro de la cabeza femoral, el ancho del cuello femoral, la longitud del cuello femoral, el ancho del canal medular y el ángulo colodiafisario. El diámetro de la cabeza femoral derecha e izquierda fue de 46,46 ± 3,84 mm, 46,50 ± 3,85 mm, respectivamente. La anchura del cuello femoral derecho e izquierdo fue de 30,63±3,4 mm, 30,85±3,29 mm, respectivamente. La longitud del cuello fue de 94,62±8,33 mm para el fémur derecho, fue de 94,75±8,19 mm, para el izquierdo. El ancho del canal medular fue de 15,46±2,25 mm para el fémur derecho y de 15,53±2,20 mm para el izquierdo. Las caderas derecha e izquierda, los ángulos colodiafisarios fueron 133,06±2,39° y 133,13±2,36°. Las características anatómicas de la epífisis proximal del fémur varían según la edad, el sexo y la raza. Este estudio puede utilizarse como un recurso importante para la evaluación de la compatibilidad de los pacientes con los implantes existentes y para el diseño de nuevos implantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Femur/anatomy & histology , Turkey , Femur Head/anatomy & histology , Femur Neck/anatomy & histology
18.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(6): 1030-1038, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423627

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the survival time, the failure rate and its causes, and the functional results of cemented endoprostheses, with a polyethylene body, used after resection of primary bone tumors of the distal femur. Methods A retrospective study including 93 primary and 77 review procedures performed between 1987 and 2014. Survival was obtained by the Kaplan Meyer analysis, and the risk factors for implant failure were assessed through the Cox proportional risk model. The causes of endoprosthesis failure were classified according to Henderson et al. into five types: soft-tissue failure, aseptic loosening, structural fracture, infection, and tumor recurrence. The functional evaluation was performed using the functional classification system of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) of bone sarcomas of the lower extremity, Brazilian version (MSTS-BR). Results Osteosarcoma was the most common diagnosis; 64.5% of the patients were younger than 20 years of age; the mean follow-up was of 124.3 months. The failure rate of the primary implant was of 54.8%, and the mean survival was of 123 months. The estimated survival of the primary implant was of 63.6%, 43.5%, 24.1%, and 14.5% in 5, 10, 15, and 20 years respectively. The most common cause of failure was type 2 (37.3%). Age ≤ 26 years and right side were risk factors for failure. The mean MSTS-BR score was of 20.7 (range: 14 to 27). Conclusion The results obtained for the failure rate and survival of the implant are in accordance with those of the literature, so the procedure herein studied is adequate and yields satisfactory functional results, even in the long term.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o tempo de sobrevida, a taxa de falha e suas causas, e os resultados funcionais de endopróteses cimentadas, com corpo em polietileno, empregadas após ressecção de tumores ósseos primários do fêmur distal. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo, que incluiu 93 procedimentos primários e 77 de revisão, realizados entre 1987 e 2014. A sobrevida foi obtida pela análise de Kaplan Meyer, e os fatores de risco para falha do implante foram avaliados por meio do modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox. As causas de falha da endoprótese foram classificadas segundo Henderson et al. em cinco tipos: falha de partes moles, soltura asséptica, fratura estrutural, infecção e recorrência do tumor. A avaliação funcional foi realizada por meio do sistema de classificação funcional da Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) para sarcomas ósseos da extremidade inferior, versão brasileira (MSTS-BR). Resultados Osteossarcoma foi o diagnóstico mais comum; 64,5% dos pacientes tinham menos de 20 anos; e o seguimento médio foi de 124,3 meses. A taxa de falha do implante primário foi de 54,8%, e a sobrevida média foi 123 meses. A estimativa de sobrevida do implante primário foi de 63,6%, 43,5%, 24,1%, 14,5% em 5, 10, 15 e 20 anos, respectivamente. A causa de falha mais comum foi a do tipo 2 (37,3%). Idade ≤ 26 anos e lado direito foram fatores de risco para falha. A pontuação média no MSTS-BR foi de 20,7 (variação: 14 a 27). Conclusão Os resultados obtidos para a taxa de falha e o tempo de sobrevida do implante estão de acordo com os da literatura, de forma que o procedimento estudado é adequado e apresenta resultados funcionais satisfatórios, inclusive em longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostheses and Implants , Bone Neoplasms/therapy , Osteosarcoma/surgery , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Limb Salvage , Femur/pathology
19.
Actual. osteol ; 18(2): 60-74, oct. 2022. graf, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1437640

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los GOS son prebióticos naturales presentes en la leche materna que pue-den obtenerse enzimáticamente a partir de la lactosa de leche de vaca durante la fabricación de yogur. El producto lácteo resultante será reducido en lactosa y contendrá prebióticos y bacterias potencialmente probióticas. Sin embargo, mantendrá la baja relación Ca/Pi que aporta la leche de vaca, lo que podría alterar el remodelamiento óseo y la mineralización. Objetivo: comparar si un yogur reducido en lactosa que contiene GOS (YE) ofrece ventajas adicionales respecto de un yogur regular sin GOS (YR) sobre las absorciones (Abs) de Ca y Pi, retención y calidad ósea durante el crecimiento normal. Al destete, ratas machos fueron divididas en 3 grupos alimentados con AIN ́93-G (C), YE o YR durante 28 días. Resultados: YE mostró el mayor aumento de lactobacilos fecales; producción de ácidos grasos de cadena corta especialmente p, profundidad de las criptas colónicas y menor pH cecal. El %AbsCa y %AbsPi aumentó en el siguiente órden: YE> YR> C (p < 0,05). El contenido de Ca y Pi en fémur, la densidad y contenido mineral óseos y los parámetros biomecánicos fueron similares en YE y C, mientras que YR mostró valores significativa-mente menores (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: YE aumentó las Abs y biodisponibilidad de minerales, alcanzando la retención y calidad ósea de C. El aumento en las Abs observado en YR no logró obtener la retención y calidad ósea de C. Conclusión: YE habría contrarrestado el efecto negativo del mayor aporte de Pi de la leche de vaca y sería una buena estrategia para lograr el pico de masa ósea y calidad del hueso adecuados, especialmente en individuos intolerantes a la lactosa. (AU)


Breast milk contains an optimal calcium/phosphate (Ca/Pi) ratio and GOS. These natural prebiotics can be enzymatically produced via cow's milk lactose inyogurt manufacture. This milk product is low in lactose and contains prebiotics and potentially probiotic bacteria but maintains a low Ca/Pi ratio that could alter bone remodeling and mineralization. We evaluated if a lactose-reduced yogurt containing GOS (YE) offers additional advantages over regular yogurt without GOS (YR) on Ca and Pi absorption (Abs), bone retention and quality during normal growth. Weaning male rats were divided into 3 groups fed AIN'93-G (C), YE or YR for 28 days. Results: YE showed the highest increase in fecal lactobacilli; short-chain fatty acids production, especially propionate and butyrate; intestine crypt depth, and the lowest cecal pH. AbsCa% and AbsPi% increased in this order: YE> YR> C (p <0.05). Ca and Pi content in femur, bone density and mineral content, and biomechanical parameters were similar in YE and C, while YR showed the significantly lowest value (p < 0.05). Conclusions: YE increased mineral Abs reaching the retention and bone quality of C. Although YR increased Abs, bone retention and quality did not achieve C values. Seemingly, YE compensated for the negative effect of the higher Pi supply and would be a good strategy to achieve adequate peak bone mass and bone quality, especially in lactose intolerant individuals. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Osteogenesis/physiology , Calcium, Dietary/pharmacokinetics , Phosphorus, Dietary/pharmacokinetics , Intestinal Absorption/physiology , Lactose/metabolism , Magnesium/pharmacokinetics , Tibia/anatomy & histology , Yogurt/analysis , Calcium, Dietary/metabolism , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Phosphorus, Dietary/metabolism , beta-Galactosidase/chemical synthesis , Rats, Wistar , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/isolation & purification , Femur/anatomy & histology , Intestine, Large/anatomy & histology , Magnesium/metabolism , Nutritive Value
20.
Rev.chil.ortop.traumatol. ; 63(2): 108-122, ago.2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1436126

ABSTRACT

Con la osteotomía en un solo nivel, se puede lograr la corrección del eje de la extremidad en pacientes con deformidades combinadas femoral y tibial, pero de forma simultánea generará una alteración patológica de oblicuidad de la interlínea articular, lo que conducirá a elongación ligamentaria, inestabilidad, degeneración condral y, en última instancia, comprometerá su sobrevida y los resultados funcionales. En virtud del análisis de la literatura más reciente, podemos concluir que existe un número significativo de pacientes que requieren de un procedimiento combinado para lograr un objetivo biomecánico óptimo. La finalidad de una osteotomía en doble nivel alrededor de la rodilla consiste en restablecer la anatomía normal, descargar el compartimiento afectado, normalizar los ángulos mecánicos y la orientación de la interlínea articular. Los ejes fisiológicos pueden restablecerse a través de un análisis preoperatorio exhaustivo, respetando principios biomecánicos y fijación estable con placas bloqueadas. Es un procedimiento demandante y con indicaciones en evolución, que progresivamente se ha instaurado como una alternativa de tratamiento justificada en estudios clínicos y biomecánicos para el manejo de deformidades severas alrededor de la rodilla.


With single-level osteotomy, correction of the limb axis in patients with combined femoral and tibial deformities can be achieved. This correction, however, will generate a pathological alteration in the joint line oblicuity, leading to ligament elongation, instability, joint degeneration and, ultimately, it will compromise the longevity and functional results of the correction. By analyzing the most recent literature, we can conclude that there is a significant number of patients who require a combined procedure to achieve an optimal biomechanical goal. The purpose of a double-level osteotomy around the knee is to restore normal anatomy, unload the affected compartment, normalize the mechanical angles and the orientation of the joint line. Physiological axes can be reestablished by means of a thorough preoperative analysis, observing the biomechanical principles and stable fixation with locked plates. It is a demanding procedure with increasing indications, which has progressively been established in clinical and biomechanical studies as a justified treatment alternative for the management of severe deformities around the knee.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteotomy/methods , Joint Deformities, Acquired/surgery , Knee Joint/physiopathology , Tibia/surgery , Biomechanical Phenomena , Joint Deformities, Acquired/physiopathology , Femur/surgery
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