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1.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00482020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349006

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of tick populations on 16 family farms that were members of the agricultural producers' cooperative of the São Pedro region of the state of São Paulo (COOPAMSP). Bioassays were conducted on nine commercial products in 2018 and 2019. Their active agents were as follows: deltamethrin, amitraz, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + citronella, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + fenthion, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + piperonyl butoxide, dichlorvos + chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, chlorfenvinphos + dichlorvos, and ivermectin. On some farms, a larval packet test (LPT) was also performed. Overall, four acaricides presented mean efficacy greater than 89%, among which two were associations of pyrethroids + organophosphates and two were associations of organophosphates + organophosphates. Deltamethrin, cypermethrin and ivermectin presented mean efficacy lower than 50%. In the bioassays using the LPT, all five farms showed resistance to diazinon, while only one farm presented resistance to cypermethrin. The results were handed over to each farmer with appropriate guidance for treatments. This study demonstrated that the important points to be implemented related directly to use control strategies, based on direct assistance for farmers and diagnosis of tick population sensitivities.


Subject(s)
Ticks , Tick Control , Acaricides , Organophosphates , Biological Assay , Community-Institutional Relations , Cymbopogon , Rhipicephalus , Diazinon , Fenthion
2.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154248

ABSTRACT

Fenthion (FEN) is an organophosphorus pesticide known for its wide toxic manifestations. In this study, the effects of FEN were evaluated on the cerebrum and cerebellum oxidant/antioxidant status and histopathological disorders in the suckling rats. Pregnant rats were divided into two groups: control group received pure water, while FEN group received daily by their drinking water 551 ppm of FEN from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity was inhibited in both the cerebrum and cerebellum of suckling rats whose mothers were treated with FEN. The cerebrum and cerebellum oxidative damage was demonstrated by a significant increase of malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein product and glutathione (GSH) levels and disturbance in the antioxidant enzyme activities. A significant decline of non-protein thiol and vitamin C levels was also observed. These changes were confirmed by histopathological observations which were marked by pyknotic neurons in the cerebrum and apoptotic cells in the cerebellum of FEN-treated rats. In the cerebellum of FEN-treated rats, the most conspicuous damage was the absence of external granular layer, indicating growth retardation. These data suggested that exposure of pregnant and lactating rats to FEN induced oxidative stress and histopathological disorders in the cerebrum and cerebellum of their pups. Thus, the use of FEN must be under strict control, especially for pregnant and lactating mothers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Suckling , Antioxidants/metabolism , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Female , Fenthion/toxicity , Insecticides/toxicity , Male , Oxidants/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar
4.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 32(1): 1-8, July 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-646445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of increasing larval rearing temperatures on the resistance status of Trinidadian populations of Aedes aegypti to organophosphate (OP) insecticides. METHODS: In 2007-2008, bioassays and biochemical assays were conducted on A. aegypti larvae collected in 2006 from eight geographically distinct areas in Trinidad (Trinidad and Tobago). Larval populations were reared at four temperatures (28 ± 2ºC, 32ºC, 34ºC, and 36ºC) prior to bioassays with OP insecticides (fenthion, malathion, and temephos) and biochemical assays for esterase enzymes. RESULTS: Most larval populations reared at 28 ± 2ºC were susceptible to fenthion (>98% mortality) but resistant to malathion and temephos (< 80% mortality). A positive association was found between resistance to OP insecticides and increased activities of α- and β-esterases in larval populations reared at 28 ± 2ºC. Although larval populations reared at higher temperatures showed variations in resistance to OPs, there was a general increase in susceptibility. However, increases or decreases in activity levels of enzymes did not always correspond with an increase or decrease in the proportion of resistant individuals reared at higher temperatures. CONCLUSIONS: Although global warming may cause an increase in dengue transmission, based on the current results, the use of insecticides for dengue prevention and control may yet be effective if temperatures increase as projected.


OBJETIVO: Examinar los efectos del aumento de las temperaturas de desarrollo larvario sobre el estado de resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados de las poblaciones de Aedes aegypti en Trinidad. MÉTODOS: En 2007 y 2008 se llevaron a cabo ensayos biológicos y bioquímicos en larvas de A. aegypti recogidas en el 2006 de ocho áreas geográficamente separadas en Trinidad (Trinidad y Tabago). Las poblaciones larvarias se desarrollaron en cuatro temperaturas (28 ± 2 ºC, 32 ºC, 34 ºC y 36 ºC) antes de los ensayos biológicos con insecticidas organofosforados (fentión, malatión y temefós) y los análisis bioquímicos para las enzimas de esterasa. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de las poblaciones larvarias que se desarrollaron a 28 ± 2 ºC fueron susceptibles al fentión (mortalidad > 98%) pero resistentes al malatión y al temefós (mortalidad < 80%). Se encontró una asociación positiva entre la resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados y la mayor actividad de αy β-esterasas en las poblaciones larvarias que se desarrollaron a 28 ± 2 ºC. Aunque las poblaciones larvarias que se desarrollaron a temperaturas mayores mostraron variaciones en la resistencia a los organofosforados, hubo un aumento general de la sensibilidad. Sin embargo, los aumentos o las disminuciones en los niveles de actividad de las enzimas no siempre se correspondieron con un aumento o disminución en la proporción de individuos resistentes desarrollados a las temperaturas más altas. CONCLUSIONES: Aunque el recalentamiento del planeta puede causar un aumento de la transmisión del dengue, según los resultados de este estudio el uso de insecticidas para la prevención y el control del dengue todavía puede ser eficaz si las temperaturas aumentan según lo proyectado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Fenthion/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Malathion/pharmacology , Temperature , Temefos/pharmacology , Aedes/enzymology , Aedes/growth & development , Dengue/prevention & control , Esterases/analysis , Esterases/physiology , Global Warming , Hot Temperature , Insect Proteins/analysis , Insect Proteins/physiology , Insect Vectors/enzymology , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Insecticide Resistance/physiology , Larva/drug effects , Larva/enzymology , Species Specificity , Trinidad and Tobago
5.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 10(supl.1): 43-51, mar. 2012. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-656912

ABSTRACT

El fentión es un insecticida organofosforado usado en todo el mundo cuya aplicación puede derivar en contaminación de aguas y efectos potenciales en salud humana y animal. Objetivos: para evaluar los efectos tóxicos, la actividad colinesterasa plasmática tipo butiril (BChE) y el uso potencial en monitoreo ambiental se distribuyeron al azar treinta y cuatro juveniles de cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus) en tres tratamientos (control, 0,13 ppm y 2 ppm fentión) por un período de 96 horas. Materiales y métodos: los ejemplares fueron expuestos al fentión en tanques de diez galones, evaluando sintomatología, cambios post-mortem, índice viscero-somático (IVS) y actividad BChE. Se compararon las medias de cada variable para determinar significancia estadística (ANAVA, a=0,05). Resultados: se presentaron signos clínicos severos (nado frenético, tremores musculares y pérdida de eje de nado) en tres individuos (2 ppm) hacia las 11 y 34 horas. En 0,13 ppm hubo signos leves a moderados (tremores y movimiento de aleta caudal). Los IVS (control = 5,3 ± 0,5; 0,13 ppm = 6,9 ± 0,3 y 2 ppm = 7,3 ± 0,6) fueron significativamente diferentes entre los expuestos a fentión y los controles. La actividad BChE (control = 185,0 ± 20,4; 0,13 ppm = 12,5 ± 2,3 y 2 ppm = 9,8 ± 1,8 nmoles / ml plasma / min) mostró inhibición significativa en los expuestos a fentión con respecto a controles. Conclusiones: se demostraron los efectos tóxicos agudos del fentión en juveniles de cachama blanca. Los resultados en BChE mostraron su utilidad en monitoreo ambiental por exposición a insecticidas organofosforados.


Fenthion is an organophosphate insecticide used worldwide that may pollute waters after its application causing potential problems in public health and poisoning in domestic and wildlife animals. Objective: to evaluate toxic effects, butyrylcholinesterase activity (BChE) and use in environmental monitoring, 34 juveniles of white cachama (Piaractus brachypomus) were distributed in 3 groups (control, 0,13 ppm and 2 ppm fenthion) for 96 h. Materials and methods: fish were exposed in 10-gallon tanks; symptoms, gross lesions post-mortem, viscerosomatic index (VSI) and plasma BChE activity were evaluated. Mean comparisons for each variable among treatments were performed (ANOVA, a=0,05). Results: severe signs were seen in 3 specimens (3/11) of 2 ppm fenthion between 11 and 34 h of exposure. These signs were frantic swimming, muscle tremors and loss of swimming axis. In 0,13 ppm, mild to moderate signs (tremors and caudal fin flapping) were observed in some of the fish. The VSI (control = 5,3 ± 0,5; 0,13 ppm = 6,9 ± 0,3 and 2 ppm = 7,3 ± 0,6) was significantly different between exposed to fenthion and controls. BChE activity (control = 185,0 ± 20,4; 0,13 ppm = 12,5 ± 2,3 and 2 ppm = 9,8 ± 1,8 nmoles / ml plasma / min) showed significant inhibition in exposed to fenthion as compared to controls. Conclusions: the present work confirmed the toxic effects of fenthion in white cachama juveniles. Results found in BChE activity suggest its use in environmental monitoring as a good biomarker of organophosphates waterborne exposure.


O fentião é um inseticida organofosforado utilizado no mundo todo cuja aplicação pode derivar em contaminação de águas e efeitos potenciais em saúde humana e animal. Objetivos: para avaliar os efeitos tóxicos, a atividade da colinesterase plasmática tipo butirilo (BChE) e o uso potencial em controle ambiental se distribuíram ao acaso trinta e quatro juvenis de pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus) em três tratamentos (controle, 0,13 ppm e 2 ppm fentião) por um período de 96 horas. Metodologia: os exemplares foram expostos ao fetião em tanques de dez galões, avaliando sintomatologia, mudanças post-mortem, índice viscero-somático (IVS) e atividade BChE. Compararam-se as médias de cada variável para determinar significância estadística ANAVA, a=0,05). Resultados: apresentaram-se signos clínicos severos (nado frenético, tremores musculares e perda de eixo de nado) em três indivíduos (2 ppm) às 11 e 34 horas. Em 0,13 ppm houve signos leves e moderados (tremores e movimento de nadadeira caudal). Os IVS (controle = 5,3 ± 0,5; 0,13 ppm = 6,9 ± 0,3 y 2 ppm = 7,3 ± 0,6) foram significativamente diferentes entre os expostos a fentião e os controles. A atividade BChE (controle = 185,0 ± 20,4; 0,13 ppm = 12,5 ± 2,3 y 2 ppm = 9,8 ±1,8 nmoles / ml plasma / min) mostrou inibição significativa nos expostos a fentião em relação a controles. Conclusões: se demonstraram os efeitos tóxicos agudos do fentião em juvenis de pirapitinga. Os resultados em BChE mostraram sua utilidade em controle ambiental por exposição a inseticidas organofosforados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cholinesterases , Poisoning , Signs and Symptoms , Environmental Monitoring , Environmental Pollution , Toxicity , Fenthion , Fishes , Insecticides
7.
J Environ Biol ; 2005 Jan; 26(1): 31-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113450

ABSTRACT

Pesticide (fenthion) which finds its way into water bodies, bring about physiological changes in aquatic animals, via histomorphology and histopathology of various tissues. In fishes, it induces disorders including hyposecretion of gonadotropin in the PPD and regression of gonads. Light microscopic studies were made on control and treated pituitary (gonadotropin secreting cells-GTH) and testis of Glossogobius giuris (HAM) during spawning phase after exposing them to different (0.05 to 0.5 ppm) sub-lethal concentration of fenthion for a short-term period (24 to 96 hrs). The results indicated alteration in normal histology of gonadotropin secreting cells and testis, reduction in number of sperms and degranulation of GTH cells under light microscopy. Degeneration and fragmentation of cytoplasmic organelles was noticed in GTH cells under electron microscope, with the increase in the sub-lethal concentration of fenthion. Significance of the results is discussed in detail in the manuscript.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fenthion/toxicity , Fishes , Insecticides/toxicity , Male , Microscopy, Electron , Pituitary Gland/drug effects , Testis/drug effects
8.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 33(3)jul.-sept. 2004. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-400239

ABSTRACT

Se presenta un caso de una paciente de 56 años de edad que ingirió con fines suicida una cantidad desconocida de un insecticida organofosforado, conocido con el nombre Fentión. La paciente presentó al poco tiempo una crisis colinérgica típica que se trató con atropina endovenosa a razón de 2 mg cada 5 min, apoyo ventilatorio y medidas generales. La colinesterasa sérica se mostró profundamente inhibida desde el ingreso. A pesar de la aparente evolución clínica favorable, la paciente no pudo ser desconectada de la ventilación, por lo que se hizo el diagnóstico de síndrome intermedio por organofosforado. El no uso de regeneradores de la colinesterasa unido a la demora en la búsqueda de asistencia médica inicial pudieron influir en la producción del síndrome. Se concluye que el síndrome intermedio por organofosforado es una condición seria e infrecuente que complica la evolución de estos pacientes


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Fenthion , Insecticides, Organophosphate , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Suicide, Attempted , Ventilator Weaning
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-112862

ABSTRACT

Laboratory studies carried out using Temephos and Fenthion, two commonly used larvicides under Urban Malaria Scheme (NMEP) and NFCP for the control of mosquito larvae. The results revealed that the LC50 and LC90 values for temephos against Aedes aegypti 0.0177 and 0.0559, Anopheles stephensi 0.0148 and 0.0472, Culex quinquefasciatus 0.0157 & 0.0480 and for Culex vishnui group of mosquitoes 0.043 & 0.0118 ppm respectively. The results obtained revealed that there is a 62.8 & 94.12 times increase in the LC50 & LC90 of Cx. Quinquefasciatus which indicates that the species has developed resistance to temephos. There were 6.32 & 8.34 fold increase in Ae. aegypti and 2.27 & 2.34 fold increase in LC50 & LC90 values of An. stephensi are indicative of development of tolerance against temephos. Similarly LC50 and LC90 values estimated for fenthion against Ae. aegypti 0.0173 & 0.0392, An. stephensi 0.0274 & 0.0992 and Cx. quinquefasciatus 0.03 & 0.0469 respectively. The slope values were found to be higher in fenthion as compared to temephos. It was recorded to be 2.72 times higher in Cx. quinquefasciatus and 1.54 times against An. stephensi. However, much difference was not observed in the slope values of temephos and fenthion in Ae. aegypti.


Subject(s)
Aedes/drug effects , Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Biological Assay , Culex/drug effects , Culicidae/drug effects , Fenthion/pharmacology , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Mosquito Control/methods , Temefos/pharmacology
10.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 56(1)ene.-abr. 2004. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-387008

ABSTRACT

Fueron estudiadas 2 cepas de Aedes aegypti provenientes de 2 Consejos populares con altos índices de infestación de este vector, producto de la necesidad de hacer un control efectivo de larvas y adultos en el municipio Guanabacoa. Se determinaron los niveles de susceptibilidad y/o resistencia a insecticidas organofosforados, piretroides y un carbamato. Los resultados de los bioensayos en larvas mostraron completa susceptibilidad a los insecticidas organofosforados malation, clorpirifos, pirimifos metil y al carbamato propoxur en ambos consejos populares, sin embargo, se observó alta resistencia a temefos y a fention, no se observó resistencia a fenitrotion en uno de los consejos populares, pero sí en el otro. En el estado adulto, a la dosis recomendada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud o por los fabricantes de los productos, se observó resistencia a malation, fenitrotion y propoxur, sin embargo, se obtuvieron mejores resultados con los piretroides, con porcentajes de mortalidad por encima de 90 por ciento. Según los resultados obtenidos, utilizando el sinergista S S S tributil fosforotritiado (DEF) y piperonil butóxido, se demostró que las enzimas esterasas y oxidasas de función múltiple desempeñaron un papel importante en la resistencia a temefos y a fention. Por medio de ensayos bioquímicos se demostró que la amplificada actividad de estas enzimas se encontró a elevada frecuencia en ambos consejos populares, al igual que la enzima glutation transferasa (GST) en uno de los 2 Consejos Populares. Mediante electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida se observó que en ambos consejos populares prevaleció la amplificada actividad de esterasas A4


Subject(s)
Aedes , Cuba , Fenthion , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides, Organophosphate , Mosquito Control , Temefos
11.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 56(1)ene.-abr. 2004. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-387009

ABSTRACT

Se determinaron los niveles de susceptibilidad y/o resistencia a insecticidas en larvas de Aedes aegypti, colectadas del municipio Playa, durante la etapa intensiva de la campaña contra el mosquito Aedes aegypti en Ciudad de La Habana, en el presente año. En larvas, se encontró alta resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados fention y temefos y moderada a fenitrotion, también se detectó alta resistencia al carbamato propoxur. Las larvas resultaron susceptibles a clorpirifos, malation y pirimifos metil. Los resultados a través del uso de sinergistas indicaron que las esterasas desempeñan un papel importante en la resistencia detectada a los insecticidas organofosforados, pero no en la resistencia a propoxur, sin embargo, las monoxigenasas intervienen solamente en la resistencia a fenitrotion. Estos mecanismos se encontraron a elevada frecuencia en las larvas de este municipio. Se confirmó el papel de las esterasas en la resistencia a temefos mediante ensayos de inhibición en gel de poliacrilamida


Subject(s)
Aedes , Esterases , Fenthion , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides, Organophosphate , Mosquito Control , Temefos
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 34(4): 339-342, jul.-ago. 2001. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-461935

ABSTRACT

The action of fenthion was studied in a 15% epicutaneous formulation upon Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which may transmit pathogens to men and other animals, such as Ehrlichia, Babesia and Ricketsia. Dogs were artificially infected for the trial. The fenthion bioassays were begun four months after artificial infestation. The test group, having a mean of 186 ticks per dog, received the formulation dosage according to body weight on the neck region. Tick counts were performed, considering diameters > or = 2mm, during 11 days of treatment, in the most affected body areas: back, ears and paws. Before the application of fenthion in the dogs, it were observed an average 43.3% ticks in the ears, 38.1% in the back area and 17.6% in the paws. The number of ticks in dogs decreased by 36.2%, 63.8%, 82.7%, 67%, 40% and 4.9%, respectively on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 after treatment. R. sanguineus anti-tick activity, lower than that officially recommended, was verified. The number of ticks increased progressively after the 5th day, demonstrating residual insecticide inefficacy. The results obtained did not indicate the use of this formulation, at the tested dosage, as an elective measure for R. sanguineus control.


Investigou-se a atividade de fenthion em formulação epicutânea a 15% sobre Rhipicephalus sanguineus, transmissor de patógenos ao homem e animais, tais como Ehrlichia, Babesia e Ricketsia. Infestou-se artificialmente cães com larvas deste carrapato. Os bioensaios com o fenthion iniciaram-se 4 meses após a infestação artificial. Constatada a média de 186 ixodídeos/cão, cães do grupo teste receberam na região da nuca a dosagem correspondente ao seu peso. Avaliaram-se a eficiência e a atividade residual através de contagens dos carrapatos com diâmetro ³ 2mm, durante 11 dias, nas áreas corpóreas mais parasitadas: dorso, orelhas e patas. Anteriormente, à aplicação do fenthion, 44,3% dos carrapatos format observados nas orelhas, 38,1% na área estudada do dorso e 17,6% nas patas. Revelou-se uma redução do número de carrapatos nos cães de 36,2%, 63,8%, 82,7%, 67%, 40% e 4,9%, respectivamente, nos dias 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 e 11. Atividade carrapaticida menor do que a recomendada oficialmente foi constatada. O número de carrapatos aumentou progressivamente após o 5° dia, denotando ineficácia carrapaticida residual. Os resultados obtidos impedem a indicação da formulação na dosagem testada como medida eletiva para controle de R. sanguineus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Fenthion/administration & dosage , Tick Infestations/drug therapy , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Injections, Intradermal
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2001 Feb; 39(2): 170-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56691

ABSTRACT

Pesticides are known to affect the testis in fishes and cause cytomorphological changes or gross physiological alterations due to changes in its histology, retard gonadotrophic secretions thereby causing regression of the gonads. Light and ultrastructural studies were made on control and fenthion treated testis, interstitial gland and sperms of G. giuris during spawning phase after exposing them to different sub-lethal concentrations (0.05, 0.25 and 0.5 ppm) fenthion for a short-term period (24, 48, 72 and 96 hr). The results indicated extensive cytotoxic damages in the testis including atrophy of testis, reduction in lipoidal material in the interstitial cell and degeneration of sperms. The alteration in histology of testis, interstitial cell and sperms progressively increased with the increase in the sub-lethal concentration of pesticides.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fenthion/pharmacology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Male , Microscopy, Electron , Perciformes , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testis/drug effects
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intermediate myasthenia syndrome(IMS) is thought to have clinical importance because it may cause sudden respiratory failure during the recovery phase of a cholinergic crisis of organophosphate poisoning. We designed this study to identify the prevalence, the inducing agent, clinical predictor, and the proposed treatment of IMS. METHODS: Patients who had admitted with the diagnosis of acute organophosphate poisoning from 1992 to 1998 at two teaching hospitals were enrolled in this study. We selected the cases of IMS based on a review of medical records using modified He's criteria. RESULTS: Twelve(12) out of 110 patients with acute organophosphate poisoning were diagnosed for a prevalence at 10.9%. The drug inducing IMS were identified as dichlorvos, fenthion, EPN, methidathion, and phosphamidon. The occurrence of IMS was not related to either the initial treatment with atropine and pralidoxime, or the level of serum cholinesterase. Complications were pneumonia, sepsis, pancreatitis, and pseudomembranous colitis, etc. Eleven(11) patients were discharged without sequelae, and one patient was discharged as a hopeless care. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that IMS is not rare, so close observation is required to detect IMS in organophosphate-poisoning patients. Also, more studies are required to find predictors and treatments.


Subject(s)
Atropine , Cholinesterases , Diagnosis , Dichlorvos , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous , Fenthion , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Medical Records , Organophosphate Poisoning , Pancreatitis , Phosphamidon , Pneumonia , Prevalence , Respiratory Insufficiency , Sepsis
16.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 7(1): 4-6, jul. 1999. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-258694

ABSTRACT

Las actividades enzimáticas de la colinesterasa y la Alanin Transaminasa, así como las pruebas histológicas de higado, fueron monitoreadas a las 0, 8, 16, 24 y 48 horas de administración de 80 mg/Kg. de Fention a ratones de la línea B6D2F1 via oral. En los resultados obtenidos se observó una inhibición significativa de la enzima colinesterasa y un aumento de la actividad Alanin Transaminasa en los grupos de ratones tratados con el insecticida, no encontrándose una correlación significativa entre los comportamientos de ambas enzimas. Los estudios histopatológicos de las muestras de hígados de los ratones tratados con Fentión corroboraron la presencia de daños celulares en este órgano(AB)


Subject(s)
Mice , Alanine Transaminase , Cholinesterases , Fenthion/administration & dosage , Fenthion/adverse effects , Fenthion/poisoning , Liver , Mice , Pesticide Exposure
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anticholinesterase drug inhibits acetylcholinesterase(AChE), induce accumulation of acetylcholine(ACh) near cholinergic receptors and cholinergic stimulation. This experiment was performed to study the effects of anticholinesterase drugs on gastric motility and the effect of ethanal on anticholinesterase drug-induced motility change. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After excision of stomach, 2x10mm circular musele strips were made, which were then fixed to the isolated muscle chamber. An isometric tension transducer was used to measure the contraction change of the gastric smooth muscle strips after drug addition. RESULTS: Fenthion, and irreversible anticholinesterase drug, increased ACh induced contraction of gastric smooth muscle strips and PAM, a cholinesterase activator, antagnized this action. Physostigmine, a reversible anticholinesterase drug, also increased the ACh induced contraction. The gastric motility was decreased by PAM. Ethanol, which is known to induce smooth muscle relaxation, inhibited the increase of contraction by fenthion. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that irreversible and reversible anticholinesterase drugs increase gastric motility and antagonized by cholinesterase activating drugs. And when exposed to both ethanol and anticholinesterase drug, gastric motility was decreased by the smooth muscle relaxation effect by ethanal.


Subject(s)
Acetaldehyde , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Cholinesterases , Ethanol , Fenthion , Muscle, Smooth , Physostigmine , Receptors, Cholinergic , Relaxation , Stomach , Transducers
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34700

ABSTRACT

Controlled release monolithic formulation of fenthion, an organophosphorus mosquito larvicide, prepared by the physical entrapment of the active agent into biodegradable polymer matrices was evaluated against Mansonia mosquito larvae breeding in hydrophytes infested coconut husk retting ponds. Field evaluation was carried out at two application rates viz, 2.5 and 1.0 ppm. Absolute control of larval breeding was observed for 25 and 17 weeks and over 50% reduction in breeding density was observed for another 3 and 2 weeks for the respective application rates of 2.5 and 1.0 ppm. The bioassay carried out with the water samples collected from the ponds treated at 2.5 ppm against the fourth instar larvae of Mansonia annulifera showed larval mortality of more than 95% for 14 weeks and 80-95% from 15 to 25th week. The concentration of fenthion in the treated ponds was found to vary between 0.006 and 0.095 ppm during the evaluation period.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodegradation, Environmental , Delayed-Action Preparations , Developing Countries , Elephantiasis, Filarial/prevention & control , Female , Fenthion , Humans , India , Larva , Male , Mosquito Control
19.
Iranian Journal of Public Health. 1995; 24 (1-2): 35-42
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-37459

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility of two wild strains of An. stepliens, collected from Kazeroun [ST-K.Az and Bandar-Abbas [ST-BAN], south of Iran was compared to fenthion, malathion, temephos, pirimiphos, methyk, deltamethrth, DDT dimilin and etopenprox as larvicides in the laboratory. Susceptibility test on the ST-KAZ strain indicated that this strain is susceptible to the named insecticides i.e. the resistance ratios remained between 0.91 to 1.37 folds that of the ST-TEH strain, the susceptible laboratory stock.The ST-BAN strain has the long history of insecticide - application like, DDT, dieldrin, malathion, propoxur, actellic lambdacyhalotith[icon] as adulicides and abate as a larvicide, therefor it showed different pattern of susceptibility to the latter insecticides. The ST-BAN strain showed susceptibility to DDT, deltamethrjn, etofenprox and dimilin, moderately tolerant to fenthion and temephos [i.e.reslstance ratios ranged between 1.67 to 1.75 folds] and tolerant to Pirimiphos-methyl and malathion with resistance ratio of about 2.37 folds, that of the ST-TEH strain. The observer's tolerance in the ST-DAN strain to Pmmiphos-methyl [actellic] and malathion might be as the result of regular use of adulticides or abate in malaria control programs in south of Iran and develop of cross-tolerance in An.stephensj from Bandar-Abbas south of Iran


Subject(s)
Insecta , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Fenthion , Malathion , Temefos , Diflubenzuron , DDT
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35854

ABSTRACT

Five pesticides were evaluated against laboratory colonies of Leptotrombidium fletcheri (Womersly and Heaslip) by the Pasteur pipet technique. The pesticides were dieldrin (LC50 = 3.6 ppm, LC99 = 18.2 ppm), bromopropylate (LC50 = 9.2 ppm, LC99 = 239.6 ppm), dicofol (LC50 = 27.8 ppm, LC99 = 118.1 ppm), fenthion (LC50 = 15.4 ppm, LC99 = 29.7 ppm), and malathion (LC50 = 84.7 ppm, LC99 = 313.9 ppm). Dieldrin was the most toxic. Dicofol was recommended for further evaluation in field trials.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzilates , Dicofol , Dieldrin , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Fenthion , Insect Control/methods , Insect Vectors , Insecticides , Lethal Dose 50 , Malathion , Malaysia , Scrub Typhus/transmission , Trombiculidae
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