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Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(1): e20190374, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1124784


RESUMO Objetivo identificar em mulheres em idade reprodutiva, com câncer e durante o tratamento quimioterápico, as orientações sobre preservação de fertilidade e planejamento reprodutivo e conhecer as informações fornecidas pela equipe de saúde. Métodos estudo descritivo, realizado com mulheres na pré-menopausa, com diagnóstico de câncer e em tratamento quimioterápico. A coleta de dados foi realizada com apoio de um instrumento com informações sociodemográficas, sobre o câncer e seus tratamentos, informações referentes a preservação de fertilidade e uso de métodos contraceptivos antes e após o diagnóstico do câncer. A análise dos dados foi feita por meio de estatística descritiva. Resultados a média de idade das 49 participantes foi de 38,2 anos (DP=6,1) e 79,6% estavam em tratamento devido ao câncer de mama. Quanto as informações recebidas sobre a importância do planejamento reprodutivo, 77,6% das participantes referiram que foram orientadas e 59,2% receberam tais orientações da equipe médica. Entretanto, em relação ao aconselhamento sobre métodos para manter a fertilidade, apenas, 6,1% das participantes foram orientadas. Conclusão e Implicações para a prática Deve-se considerar a relevância do aconselhamento especializado e a da manutenção de tomada de decisões ativas da mulher sobre a preservação de sua fertilidade.

RESUMEN Objetivo identificar en mujeres en edad reproductiva, con cáncer y durante el tratamiento de quimioterapia, las orientaciones sobre preservación de la fertilidad y planificación reproductiva y conocer las informaciones proporcionadas por el equipo de salud. Métodos estudio descriptivo, realizado con mujeres premenopáusicas diagnosticadas con cáncer y sometidas a quimioterapia. La recolección de datos se realizó con apoyo de un instrumento con información sociodemográfica sobre el cáncer y sus tratamientos, información sobre la preservación de la fertilidad y uso de métodos anticonceptivos antes y después del diagnóstico del cáncer. El análisis de los datos se realizó mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados la media de edad fue de 38,2 años (DE= 6,1), y 79,6% estaban en tratamiento para el cáncer de mama. Cuanto a la información recibida sobre la importancia de la planificación reproductiva, 77,6% de los participantes informaron que estaban orientados y 59,2% recibió orientación del equipo médico. Sin embargo, con respecto al asesoramiento sobre métodos para mantener la fertilidad, solo 6,1% de las participantes recibieron asesoramiento. Conclusión e Implicaciones para la práctica Debe tenerse en cuenta la importancia de la asesoría experta y el mantenimiento de una toma de decisiones activa por parte de las mujeres para preservar su fertilidad.

ABSTRACT Objective to identify in women of reproductive age, with cancer and during chemotherapy treatment, the guidelines on fertility preservation and reproductive planning and to know the information provided by the health team. Methods descriptive study, conducted with premenopausal women diagnosed with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy. Data collection was performed with the support of an instrument with sociodemographic information about cancer and its treatments, information regarding the preservation of fertility and the use of contraceptive methods before and after cancer diagnosis. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Results the average age of the 49 participants was 38.2 years (SD=6.1) and 79.6% were being treated for breast cancer. Regarding the information received about the importance of reproductive planning, 77.6% of participants reported that they were oriented and 59.2% received such guidance from the medical team. However, regarding counseling on methods to maintain fertility, only 6.1% of participants were counseled. Conclusion and Implications for practice consideration should be given to the importance of expert counseling and the maintenance of active decision making by women about preserving their fertility.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Family Planning (Public Health) , Fertility/drug effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Contraception/statistics & numerical data , Counseling , Pregnancy, Unplanned , Infertility, Female/chemically induced , Neoplasms/diagnosis
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(5): 1043-1054, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040070


ABSTRACT Objective Anacyclus Pyrethrum (AP) and Tribulus Terrestris (TT) have been reported as male infertility treatment in several studies; however, in Iranian traditional medicine these two plants are prescribed simultaneously. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of AP and TT extracts both separately and simultaneously on the male Wistar rat fertility parameters. Materials and Methods 32 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, TT, AP, and AT treated groups. Treatment continued for 25 days and rats were weighed daily. Their testes were dissected for histological studies. Sperm analysis including sperm count, viability and motility were performed. Serum was obtained to evaluate testosterone, LH and FSH levels. Histological studies were conducted to study Leydig, and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatid cell numbers, and to measure seminiferous diameter and epithelium thickness. Results Sperm count increased in all the treatment groups. Sperm viability and motility in AT and AP groups were elevated. TT and AT groups showed significantly increased testosterone level compared to control group (P=004, P=0.000, respectively) and TT, AP and AT treatment groups showed increased LH level (P=0.002, P=0.03 and P=0.000, respectively) compared to control, while only AT group showed increased FSH (p=0.006) compared to control. Histological studies showed significant increase of spermatogonia, Leydig and Sertoli cell numbers and epithelial thickness in AT group compared to other groups. All the treatment groups had higher number of Leydig, spermatogonia and spermatid cells. Conclusion TT and AP improved sexual parameters; however, their simultaneous administration had higher improving effects on studied parameters.

Humans , Animals , Male , Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Tribulus/chemistry , Infertility, Male/drug therapy , Organ Size , Reference Values , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Testosterone/blood , Body Weight , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Fertility/drug effects , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900405, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001089


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of the nutraceuticals omega-6/3 and omega-9/6 on endometriosis-associated infertility and pain. Methods: Controlled experimental study, with each group composed of eight female rats. Fertility groups: sham-operated control (0.9% saline solution); control with endometriosis (0.9% saline); omega-6/3 (1.2 g/kg/day); omega-9/6 (1.2 g/kg/day); and meloxicam (0.8 mg/kg/day). Pain groups: sham-operated control (0.9% saline); control with endometriosis (0.9% saline); omega-6/3 (1.2 g/kg/day); omega-9/6 (1.2 g/kg/day); medroxyprogesterone acetate (5 mg/kg/every 3 days); and meloxicam (0.8 mg/kg/day). Peritoneal endometriosis was surgically induced. Pain was evaluated with the writhing test. Fertility was evaluated by counting the number of embryos in the left hemi-uterus. Results: The mean number of writhings was as follows: sham-operated, 11.1 ± 2.9; control with endometriosis, 49.3 ± 4.4; omega-6/3, 31.5 ± 2.7; omega-9/6, 34.1 ± 4.5; medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.1 ± 0.8; meloxicam, 1 ± 0.3. There was a significant difference between both controls and all drugs used for treatment. Regarding fertility, the mean values were as follows: sham-operated, 6.8 ± 0.6; control with endometriosis, 4.2 ± 0.7; omega-6/3, 4.7 ± 1; omega-9/6, 3.8 ± 0.9; and meloxicam, 1.8 ± 0.9. Conclusions: The omega-6/3 and omega-9/6 nutraceuticals decreased pain compared to the controls. There was no improvement in fertility in any of the tested groups.

Animals , Female , Rats , Pain/drug therapy , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/administration & dosage , Endometriosis/drug therapy , Fertility/drug effects , Meloxicam/administration & dosage , Peritoneum/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Endometriosis/pathology
Clinics ; 72(8): 491-498, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890723


OBJECTIVE: The free radical theory of aging suggests that cellular oxidative damage caused by free radicals is a leading cause of aging. In the present study, we examined the effects of a well-known anti-oxidant amino acid derivative, selenocysteine, in response to environmental stress and aging using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. METHOD: The response to oxidative stress induced by H2O2 or ultraviolet irradiation was compared between the untreated control and selenocysteine-treated groups. The effect of selenocysteine on lifespan and fertility was then determined. To examine the effect of selenocysteine on muscle aging, we monitored the change in motility with aging in both the untreated control and selenocysteine-treated groups. RESULTS: Dietary supplementation with selenocysteine significantly increased resistance to oxidative stress. Survival after ultraviolet irradiation was also increased by supplementation with selenocysteine. Treatment with selenocysteine confers a longevity phenotype without an accompanying reduction in fertility, which is frequently observed in lifespan-extending interventions as a trade-off in C. elegans. In addition, the age-related decline in motility was significantly delayed by supplementation of selenocysteine. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary supplementation of selenocysteine can modulate response to stressors and lead to lifespan extension, thus supporting the free radical theory of aging.

Animals , Aging/drug effects , Selenocysteine/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Caenorhabditis elegans/physiology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reproduction/drug effects , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Age Factors , Caenorhabditis elegans/radiation effects , Fertility/drug effects , Locomotion/drug effects , Longevity/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 99-104, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840939


Our aim was to describe sperm parameters in residents from Northern Chile. We evaluated in 101 volunteers (18 and 30 years old) urinary and drinking water Boron levels using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry; semen parameters were measured with standardized methods. Each individual was categorized in 3 levels of exposure: low (B levels in urine 2.94 mgL-1 or tap water 3.0 mgL-1), medium (urinary B between 2.95-7.4 mgL-1 and B in tap water with 3.0-7.0 mgL-1) and high (urinary B > 7.4 mgL-1 or tap water > 7.0 mgL-1). We found no significant differences among groups by pH, sperm concentration (45.1; 48.2 and 38 million/mL), motility 1th hour (38.1; 40.0 and 45.5 %) and vitality 1th hour (88.6; 88.0 and 76.9 %) respectively. Abnormal morphology was significant different (83.3; 90 and 83 %). Young men exposed to B in drinking water present sperm variations associated with the level of exposure. Most of these changes are positive at intermediate levels of B. For the highest exposures were observed negative changes in sperm morphology, concentration, motility and vitality, all relevant parameters of fertility. Beneficial effect is observed at medium exposure, like a "U curve".

El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir los parámetros espermáticos en residentes del norte de Chile. Se evaluaron en 101 voluntarios (18 y 30 años), los niveles urinarios y de agua potable de boro, usando "Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry". Los parámetros del semen se midieron con métodos estandarizados. Cada individuo se clasificó en 3 niveles de exposición: bajo (niveles B en la orina 2,94 mgL-1 o agua potable 3,0 mgL-1), medio (B urinario entre 2,95-7,4 mgL-1 y B en agua de beber con 3,0- 7,0 mgL-1) y alto (B urinario >7,4 mgL-1 o agua potable > 7,0 mgL-1). No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos por pH, concentración de espermatozoides (45,1; 48,2 y 38 millones/mL), motilidad a 1 hora (38,1; 40,0 y 45,5%) y vitalidad 1 hora (88,6; 88,0 y 76,9%) respectivamente. La morfología anormal fue significativamente diferente (83,3; 90 y 83%). Los hombres jóvenes expuestos a B en el agua potable presentan variaciones espermáticas asociadas con el nivel de exposición. La mayoría de estos cambios son positivos en niveles intermedios de B. Para las exposiciones más altas se observaron cambios negativos en la morfología, concentración, motilidad y vitalidad del esperma, parámetros relevantes de la fertilidad. Un efecto beneficioso se observa en la exposición media, como una "curva U".

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Boron/toxicity , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Boron/urine , Chemical Compound Exposure , Chile , Fertility/drug effects , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Semen/chemistry , Semen/drug effects , Spermatozoa/pathology , Water Pollutants, Chemical/urine
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(9): 837-842, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829552


SUMMARY Introduction The successful development of chemotherapy enabled a fertilitysparing treatment for patients with trophoblastic neoplasia. After disease remission, the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy becomes a great concern for these women. Objective To analyze existing studies in the literature that describe the reproductive outcomes of patients with trophoblastic neoplasia treated with chemotherapy. Method Systematic review was performed searching for articles on Medline/ Pubmed, Lilacs and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “gestational trophoblastic disease” and “pregnancy outcome”. Results A total of 18 articles were included. No evidence of decreased fertility after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia was observed. The abortion rates in patients who conceived within 6 months after chemotherapy was higher compared to those who waited longer. Some studies showed increased rates of stillbirth and repeat hydatidiform moles. Only one work showed increased congenital abnormalities. Conclusion The pregnancies conceived after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia should be followed with clinical surveillance due to higher rates of some pregnancy complications. However, studies in the literature provide reassuring data about reproductive outcomes of these patients.

RESUMO Introdução o sucesso do desenvolvimento da quimioterapia no tratamento da neoplasia trofoblástica proporcionou a possibilidade de conservação da fertilidade das pacientes, tornando o futuro reprodutivo uma nova preocupação após a remissão da doença Objetivo analisar os estudos existentes na literatura que descrevem o futuro reprodutivo de pacientes com neoplasia trofoblástica tratadas com quimioterapia. Método revisão sistemática que buscou artigos nas bases de dados Medline/Pubmed, Lilacs e Biblioteca Cochrane, utilizando as palavras-chave “gestational trophoblastic disease” e “pregnancy outcome”. Resultados foram selecionados 18 artigos de acordo com critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Não foi observada diminuição da fertilidade após a quimioterapia para neoplasia trofoblástica. Pacientes que engravidaram até 6 meses do término da quimioterapia apresentaram maiores taxas de abortamento quando comparadas às que esperaram mais de 6 meses. Alguns artigos encontraram maiores taxas de natimorto e nova mola hidatiforme. Apenas um estudo mostrou aumento da taxa de malformação. Conclusão as gestações subsequentes à neoplasia trofoblástica devem ser acompanhadas com vigilância clínica em decorrência da maior taxa de complicações na gestação, principalmente nas mulheres que engravidam até 6 meses após o término da quimioterapia. No entanto, os dados encontrados nos estudos tranquilizam quanto ao futuro reprodutivo dessas pacientes.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/drug therapy , Fertility/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Abortion, Spontaneous/chemically induced , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/complications , Time-to-Pregnancy
Int. j. morphol ; 33(3): 1102-1107, Sept. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762592


Androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) are artificial testosterone analogues, used as medicine in chronic diseases, because they increase protein synthesis generating muscle hypertrophy. Its effect has caught the attention of athletes and gym users, thus their consumption has become epidemic, due to easy marketing, the immediate results and the false impression that it doesn't carry health risks. Such risks may globally harm the body. This study aims to investigate the influence on spermatogenesis of using nandrolone decanoate with or without physical training. Twenty-four rats, divided into four groups were used: sedentary group (SG), sedentary on steroids group (SSG), trained group (TG) and trained on steroids group (TSG). The animals were trained on voluntary exercise wheel twice a week during 12 weeks, and were subsequently euthanized by decapitation. Groups TSG and SSG received intramuscular injections of 5 mg / kg of the AAS. It was found that there was a greater cellularity in TSG, suggesting interference between androgen therapy and physical training on the mount of cells in the seminiferous epithelium. Comparing the TSG group with the SG, it is noticed that the physical training associated with the use of steroid tends to affect cell division without compromise, however, the number of spermatogonia, did not significantly vary compared to the control group. Finally, it seems that there was no significant statistical difference among the groups in terms of spermatogenesis yield, so that can not be said that the use of nandrolone decanoate, with or without the physical training, interfere with fertility.

Los esteroides anabólicos androgénicos (EAA) son análogos de testosterona artificiales, utilizados como medicina en las enfermedades crónicas, ya que aumentan la síntesis de proteínas generando hipertrofia muscular. Su efecto ha llamado la atención de atletas y usuarios de gimnasios, por lo que su consumo se ha convertido en epidemia, debido a la comercialización fácil, los resultados inmediatos y la falsa impresión de que no conllevan riesgos para la salud. Este estudio tiene como objetivo investigar la influencia de utilizar decanoato de nandrolona con o sin entrenamiento físico sobre la espermatogénesis. Se utilizaron 24 ratas, divididas en cuatro grupos: entrenado (GE), entrenado en esteroides (GEE), sedentario en esteroides (GSE) y sedentario (GS). Los grupos GEE y GSE recibieron inyecciones intramusculares de 5 mg/kg de la EAA. Los animales fueron entrenados con ejercicio voluntario en la rueda de correr dos veces por semana durante 12 semanas. Luego, los animales fueron sacrificados por decapitación. Se encontró que hubo una mayor celularidad en GEE, lo que sugiere la interferencia entre la terapia con andrógenos y entrenamiento físico en la cantidad de células en el epitelio seminífero. Comparando el grupo GEE con el GS, se observa que el entrenamiento físico asociado con el uso de esteroides tiende a afectar a la división celular sin comprometerla, sin embargo, el número de espermatogonias, no varió significativamente en comparación con el grupo control. Finalmente, no hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos en términos de rendimiento de la espermatogénesis, por lo que no se puede decir que el uso del decanoato de nandrolona, con o sin el entrenamiento físico, interfiere con la fertilidad.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anabolic Agents/pharmacology , Exercise , Nandrolone/pharmacology , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Fertility/drug effects , Prospective Studies , Rats, Wistar
Journal of Reproduction and Infertility. 2015; 16 (1): 10-17
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-159996


Our previous studies revealed Anethum graveolens L. caused some changes in female reproductive system that induced infertility. Therefore, in this study, oocyte changes as one of probable reasons of infertility were investigated. In this study, 59 adult female rats were divided into 3 groups of control, low dose [0.5 g/kg] and high dose [5 g/kg] of dill seed aqueous extract [LDE and HDE] treated groups that were gavaged with 1 ml of each dose for 10 days [2 estrous cycles]. Vaginal smears were prepared daily. Oocytes of superovulated animals were extracted and their morphometrical changes were measured [n=5]. Oocyte cell membrane glycoconjugates were stained with UEA, PNA, and DBA-FITC lectins [n=5]. Ultrastructural studies of oocytes were performed using TEM [n=5]. The number, weight, and crown-rump length of newborns were examined in three groups after mating with untreated males [n=5]. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results demonstrated that the duration of the estrous cycle, the diestrus phase and progesterone concentration in the experimental groups increased significantly compared to the control group [p<0.05]. Granulosa cells of corpus luteum in HDE-treated group were larger and clearer. The intensity reactions of galactose/N-acetylgalactoseamine terminal sugar of oocyte decreased insignificantly in experimental groups compared to the control group p>0.05. Duration of mating to pregnancy increased and the weight and crown-rump length of newborns decreased in experimental groups significantly [p<0.05]. Dill seed aqueous extract can induce infertility without any effect on oocyte structure

Animals, Laboratory , Oocytes/drug effects , Fertility/drug effects , Rats
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950807


BACKGROUND: Gossypol is a chemical present in the seeds of cotton plants (Gossypium sp.) that reduces fertility in farm animals. Vitamin E is an antioxidant and may help to protect cells and tissues against the deleterious effects of free radicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of reproductive toxicity of gossypol in rats and the protective effects of vitamin E. Forty Wistar rats were used, divided into four experimental groups (n = 10): DMSO/ saline + corn oil; DMSO/saline + vitamin E; gossypol + corn oil; and gossypol + vitamin E. RESULTS: Fertility was significantly reduced in male rats treated with gossypol in that a significant decrease in epididy-mal sperm count was observed (P < 0.05) and the number of offspring was significantly reduced in females mated with them (P < 0.05). This dysfunction was prevented by vitamin E. Gossypol caused a significant increase in the activity of the enzymes glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.01) and glutathione reductase (P < 0.01), but vitamin E did not reduce the enzyme activities (P > 0.05). The levels of reduced glutathione and pyridine nucleotides in testis homogen-ate were significantly reduced by gossypol (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) and this reduction was accompanied by increased levels of oxidized glutathione (P < 0.05). Vitamin E showed a preventive effect on the changes in the levels of these substances. Gossypol significantly increased the levels of malondialdehyde (P < 0.01), a lipid peroxida-tion indicator, whereas treatment with vitamin E inhibited the action of the gossypol. Vitamin E prevented a decrease in mitochondrial ATP induced by gossypol (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the reproductive dysfunction caused by gossypol may be related to oxidative stress and mitochondrial bioenergetic damage and that treatment with vitamin E can prevent the infertility caused by the toxin.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Gossypol/pharmacology , Contraceptive Agents, Male/pharmacology , Fertility/drug effects , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Gossypol/adverse effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase , Glutathione Reductase , Malondialdehyde
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Dec; 52(12): 1165-1172
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153807


Meclizine and caffeine combination is used for the treatment of morning sickness. Both compounds are teratogenic and caffeine is known to possess anti-fertility activity also. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the reproductive toxic effect of meclizine and caffeine combination. Three doses were taken for the study; low dose (LD; meclizine 3.7 mg/kg and caffeine 3 mg/kg) was selected from commercially available formulation, middle dose (MD; meclizine 37 mg/kg and caffeine 30 mg/kg) and high dose (HD; meclizine 370 mg/kg and caffeine 300 mg/kg). The mixture was administered 1-7 days and 8-14 days for fertility and embryotoxic studies respectively. Laparotomy was done on 10th day of gestation period. Number of implants and corpora lutea were counted, pre and post-implantation losses were determined. In embryo toxicity study fetuses were evaluated for external, skeletal and visceral examination. High dose was removed from both fertility and embryotoxicity studies due to its severe toxicity to the dam. Significant anti-fertility activity was observed at middle dose. Embryotoxicity study showed significant reduction in fetal body weight, body length and body mass index, dam body weight gain on gestation day 14. Absolute kidney weight in MD and absolute and relative spleen weight in both LD and MD were significantly reduced. There was no increase in external or internal congenital anomalies at both LD and MD. The, results suggest that prescription of meclizine and caffeine for morning sickness in early pregnancy should be reviewed carefully.

Abnormalities, Drug-Induced/etiology , Administration, Oral , Animals , Body Weight/drug effects , Caffeine/administration & dosage , Caffeine/toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Combinations , Eating/drug effects , Embryonic Development/drug effects , Female , Fertility/drug effects , Fetal Weight/drug effects , Gestational Age , Histamine H1 Antagonists/administration & dosage , Histamine H1 Antagonists/toxicity , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Male , Meclizine/drug effects , Meclizine/toxicity , Organ Size/drug effects , Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists/toxicity , Rats, Wistar , Spleen/drug effects , Spleen/pathology , Weight Gain/drug effects
Acta cir. bras ; 29(7): 410-416, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714571


PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of exposure of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin (UFH) in prophylactic and therapeutic doses on the fertility rates of pregnant healthy Wistar rats. METHODS: Enoxaparin and UFH were administered in prophylactic doses 1 mg/Kg/day 72 UI/Kg/day, and in therapeutic doses at 2 mg/kg/day 400UI/Kg/day. The rats were divided into five groups. The number of live and dead foetuses was quantified. The uterine horns were dissected and the presence of early and late reabsorptions (abortions) was determined. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significant differences between groups when comparing the average weight of the foetuses and placentas, rate of female VS males, rates of pre-implantation loss (RPL), rates of efficiency implantation (REI), rates of post-implantation loss (RPIL) and rates of foetal viability (RFV). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant effect on fertility with the use of anticoagulant drugs in pregnant healthy Wistar rats. .

Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Fertility/drug effects , Heparin/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Fetus/drug effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Heparin/adverse effects , Placenta/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Time Factors , Thromboembolism/drug therapy
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(2): 124-131, 03/2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-709338


Graças ao significativo avanço na conduta e no tratamento de pacientes com as diversas formas de hiperplasia adrenal congênita por deficiência de 21-hidroxilase (D21OH) durante a infância e a adolescência, essas mulheres puderam atingir a idade adulta. Dessa maneira, o manejo nessa fase tornou-se ainda mais complexo, originando novos desafios. Tanto a exposição continuada à corticoterapia (pelo uso de doses muitas vezes suprafisiológicas), quanto ao hiperandrogenismo (pelo tratamento irregular ou uso de doses insuficientes), pode causar resultados pouco favoráveis à saúde e à qualidade de vida dessas mulheres, como: osteoporose, complicações metabólicas com risco cardiovascular, prejuízos cosméticos, infertilidade e alterações psicossociais e psicossexuais. No entanto, há poucos estudos de seguimento de longo prazo nas pacientes adultas. Nessa revisão procuramos abordar alguns aspectos importantes e mesmo controversos no seguimento de mulheres adultas com D21OH, recomendando a adoção de terapia individualizada e de caráter multidisciplinar, enquanto novos estudos não proponham atitudes mais bem definidas e consensuais visando à melhora da qualidade de vida dessas mulheres.

Due to major improvements in the management and therapy of patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) along childhood and adolescence, affected women are able to reach adulthood. Therefore, management throughout adult life became even more complex, leading to new challenges. Both the protracted use of corticosteroids (sometimes in supraphysiologic doses), and excess androgen (due to irregular treatment and/or inadequate dosage) may impair the quality of life and health outcomes in affected adult women, causing osteoporosis, metabolic disturbances with high cardiovascular risk, cosmetic damage, infertility, and psychosocial and psychosexual changes. However, long-term follow-up studies with 21OHD adult women are still required. In this review, we discuss some important and controversial aspects of the follow-up of adult women with 21OHD, and recommend the use of a customized multi-disciplinary therapeutic approach while further studies with these patients do not provide distinct understanding and well-defined attitudes towards better quality of life.

Adult , Female , Humans , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/drug therapy , Algorithms , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/complications , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/epidemiology , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/etiology , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/psychology , Fertility/drug effects , Guidelines as Topic , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Incidence , Quality of Life/psychology
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Mar; 51(3): 235-240
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147587


The snake shed skin though considered as biological waste products have been mentioned in folk and traditional medicine for treatment of ailments like skin disorders, parturition problems etc. Shedded skin extract (5, sc) did not produce any change in the estrous cycle of normal cycling female mice. However in 10, sc dose, the extract caused a temporary cessation of the estrous cycle at diestrous phase in normal cycling female mice for 10 days. SSAE (10, sc) caused a significant change in the level of LH, FSH, progesterone, estradiol, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Histopathology of uterus and ovary showed structural disorientation in both. The results substantiate the influence of snake shed skin in mice reproductive cycle.

Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Elapidae , Estradiol/metabolism , Estrous Cycle/drug effects , Estrous Cycle/metabolism , Female , Fertility/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hormones/metabolism , Mice , Ovary/metabolism , Ovary/pathology , Progesterone/metabolism , Reproduction , Skin/chemistry , Uterus/metabolism , Uterus/pathology
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 12 (2): 445-451
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142666


Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats [in three groups] received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract [made from the plant's leaves, flower and stem] [treatment groups] and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline [control group] respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups [50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w] during the experiment time, compared with control group [p < 0.05]. However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly [p < 0.05]. Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive

Male , Animals, Laboratory , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fertility/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Infertility, Male
Biol. Res ; 46(2): 147-152, 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683991


Electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) scavenges reactive oxygen species and is a powerful anti-oxidant. A positive correlation between oxidative stress and aging has been proved in many model organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans, many long-lived mutants showed reduced fertility as a trade off against longevity phenotype. We aimed to study the effect of ERW on oxidative stress, fertility and lifespan of C. elegans. We also investigated the genetic pathway involved in the effect of ERW on resistance to oxidative stress and lifespan. We compared lifespan and fertility of worms in media prepared with distilled water and ERW. ERW significantly extended lifespan and increased the number of progeny produced. Then the effect of ERW on resistance to oxidative stress and lifespan of long-lived mutants was determined. ERW increased resistance to oxidative stress and lifespan of eat-2, a genetic model of dietary restriction, but had no effect on those of age-1, which is involved in insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-like signal. In addition, knockdown of daf-16, the downstream mediator of insulin/IGF-1-like signal, completely prevented the effect of ERW on lifespan. These findings suggest that ERW can extend lifespan without accompanying reduced fertility and modulate resistance to oxidative stress and lifespan via insulin/IGF-1-like signal in C. elegans.

Animals , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Longevity/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Water/chemistry , Aging/drug effects , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics , Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism , Fertility/drug effects , Fertility/genetics , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Longevity/genetics , Survival Analysis , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Transcription Factors/genetics
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(4): 543-545, June 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626450


Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. When female sandflies feed on blood, a peritrophic matrix (PM) is formed around the blood bolus. The PM is secreted by midgut cells and composed of proteins, glycoproteins and chitin microfibrils. The PM functions as both a physical barrier against pathogens present in the food bolus and blood meal digestion regulator. Previous studies of mosquitoes and sandflies have shown that the absence of a PM, resulting from adding an exogenous chitinase to the blood meal, accelerates digestion. In the present study, we analysed biological factors associated with the presence of a PM in L. longipalpis females. Insects fed blood containing chitinase (BCC) accelerated egg-laying relative to a control group fed blood without chitinase. However, in the BCC-fed insects, the number of females that died without laying eggs was higher and the number of eggs laid per female was lower. The eggs in both groups were viable and generated adults. Based on these data, we suggest that the absence of a PM accelerates nutrient acquisition, which results in premature egg production and oviposition; however, the absence of a PM reduces the total number of eggs laid per female. Reduced fecundity in the absence of a PM may be due to inefficient nutrient conversion or the loss of the protective role of the PM.

Animals , Female , Chitinases/pharmacology , Digestive System/enzymology , Oviposition/physiology , Psychodidae/enzymology , Fertility/drug effects , Fertility/physiology , Oviposition/drug effects , Psychodidae/physiology , Time Factors
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(1): 333-345, Mar. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-657782


The State of Veracruz in Mexico is one of the main cattle producers, and uses several veterinary products for disease and parasite control. For parasite control, ivermectin is one of the most frequently used substances. Nevertheless, even though previous research conducted in other countries has found that this product has negative effects on beneficial coprophagous fauna, no studies have descry ibed its effects on coprophagous insects at a local scale in Veracruz, Mexico. This study evaluated Euoniticellus intermedius survival, fecundity, fertility and preimaginal development under laboratory conditions when ivermectin was added to cattle dung at three different concentrations. The design included two controls (spiked dung), and the following product concentrations: 0.01, 1.0 and 100ppm, which were homogenized with wet cattle dung. 20 female-male E. intermedius couples between five and 15 days old were used and kept at 27°C, 70% RH, and 12h light for 10 days. The survival of all specimens, the fertility of 20 females and the gonadal maturity of 17 males were verified. The larval development in 162 pieces of brood-mass was examined, and a total of 974 larvae developed and reached adulthood. The highest ivermectin concentration was toxic at 1.0ppm dose, the survival of adults was reduced to almost the half, and at 100ppm, total mortality was observed. The effects on specimen reproductive systems showed that the ovary was not affected, that the testicle size increased, and that the fecundity and weight of brood-masses were reduced. Pre-imaginal development increased 0.5 times at 0.01ppm concentration, and the width of the cephalic capsule in third instar larvae diminished. The prolonging of development time may cause a phase lag in the field activity cycle, this lag may reduce the number of E. intermedius individuals and the efficiency of the environmental services that they provide.

El estado de Veracruz en México, es uno de los principales productores de ganado vacuno en México, asimismo utiliza diversas medicinas veterinarias para el control de enfermedades y parásitos. La ivermectina es una de las substancias más utilizadas para el control de parásitos. Sin embargo, se sabe por estudios hechos en otros países, que esta substancia tiene efectos negativos sobre la fauna coprófaga benéfica como los escarabajos del estiércol, pero no se han estudiado sus efectos sobre la fauna coprófaga de Veracruz o de México. Este estudio se realizó en condiciones de laboratorio, en donde se utilizó el estiércol vacuno a tres diferentes concentraciones de ivermectina para determinar su efecto sobre la supervivencia, fecundidad, fertilidad y desarrollo preimaginal de Euoniticellus intermedius. Por lo tanto, las tres concentraciones que se emplearon fueron: 0.01, 1.0 y 100ppm de ivermectina homogeneizada en estiércol vacuno fresco y dos testigos. Además, se utilizaron 20 parejas hembramacho por tratamiento, entre cinco y 15 días de edad y mantenidos por 10 días a 27°C, 70% HR y 12hr luz. Se determinó la supervivencia de todos, la fertilidad en 20 hembras y el estado de madurez gonádica en 17 machos. Se determinó el desarrollo preimaginal en 162 masas-nido y 974 se dejaron continuar el desarrollo hasta la emergencia de los adultos. La ivermectina es tóxica a mayor concentración. La supervivencia de adultos se redujo casi a la mitad a dosis de 1.0ppm y fue nula a 100ppm. El ovario no fue afectado. Los testículos incrementaron de tamaño. La fecundidad y el peso de las masas-nido se redujeron. El desarrollo preimaginal se incrementó 0.5 veces a concentración 0.01ppm y las larvas del tercer estadio redujeron el ancho de la cápsula cefálica. El alargamiento del tiempo de desarrollo puede causar desfase de su ciclo de actividad en campo, lo que podría reducir su número y la eficiencia de los servicios ambientales que proporcionan.

Animals , Cattle , Female , Male , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Coleoptera/drug effects , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Coleoptera/growth & development , Drug Residues , Feces/parasitology , Fertility/drug effects , Human Coprophagia , Mexico , Sex Factors
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 56(2): 96-103, Mar. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622529


OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate physical and sexual development and reproductive physiology in female rat offspring that developed in hyperglycemia conditions in utero and during lactation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maternal diabetes was induced in female rats by a single IV injection of streptozotocin before mating. Female offspring development was evaluated by means of the following parameters: physical development; age of vaginal opening and first estrus; weight and histological evaluation of uterus and ovaries; duration of the estrous cycle, sexual behavior, and fertility after natural mating. RESULTS: In the female offspring, maternal diabetes caused delays in initial physical development; diminution in ovary weight and number of follicles; and inferior reproductive performance compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The exposure to hyperglycemia in uterus and during lactation caused delays in physical and sexual development, and affected the reproductive physiology of female rats negatively.

OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento físico e sexual e a fisiologia reprodutiva de ratas que se desenvolveram em condições hiperglicêmicas in utero e lactação. MATERIAIS E METODOS: Para induzir o diabetes nas ratas, foi utilizada estreptozotocina em dose única via intravenosa antes do acasalamento. A prole feminina foi avaliada por meio dos seguintes parâmetros: o desenvolvimento físico; a idade de abertura vaginal e do primeiro estro, peso e avaliação histológica do útero e ovários; a duração do ciclo estral, o comportamento sexual e a fertilidade após acasalamentos naturais. RESULTADOS: O diabetes materno provocou, na prole feminina, retardo no desenvolvimento físico; diminuição do peso dos ovários e do número de folículos; a performance reprodutiva foi inferior à do grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: Concluiu-se que a exposição aos meios intrauterino e lactacional hiperglicêmicos provocou retardo no desenvolvimento físico e sexual e prejudicou a fisiologia reprodutiva de ratas.

Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Lactation/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Reproduction/drug effects , Sexual Development/drug effects , Animals, Newborn/growth & development , Disease Models, Animal , Fertility/drug effects , Ovary/drug effects , Ovary/growth & development , Random Allocation , Streptozocin , Sexual Behavior, Animal/drug effects
Journal of Reproduction and Infertility. 2012; 13 (4): 232-236
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-155610


Due to common use of methylphenidate [MPH] for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder [ADHD] and the role of the reproductive system in the production of gametes, studying the effects of this medication on the morphometry of testes, serum testosterone concentration, leydig cells function, and fertility rate was the aim of this study. Twenty seven male mice [Balb/C], eight weeks old, were randomly divided into one control and two treated groups. After weighing the mice, the treated groups received MPH [produced in Novartis company] at the doses of 2 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg for 40 days. The control group received only normal saline. Subsequently, after weighing the animals, the weights of testes, dimensions of the testis, and the serum testosterone concentration were measured in six mice belonging to each group. After tissue processing, the samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, then the leydig cells were counted. In order to assess male fertility in each group, 3 male mice were chosen and each of them was kept with three female mice in a separate cage. After 10 days, the fertility rates of the male mice were determined by counting the number of embryos in uterus and the corpora lutea in their ovaries. The results of this study revealed that prescription of different doses of MPH can cause a significant decrease of the body weight. It reduces the number of leydig cells, too [p<0.01]. Moreover, serum testosterone concentration [67.72 +/- 8.24 ng/ml in control group and 0.302 +/- 0.416 ng/ml after treatment with 2 mg/kg/day MPH] and fertility rate [95.42% +/- 4.68% in control group and 64.96% +/- 18.51% after treatment with 2 mg/kg/day MPH] of the male mice declined significantly in the treated groups compared with the control group [p<0.01], but it did not cause any changes in the weight or morphometric parameters of testes. The results of this study confirmed that MPH can negatively affect serum testosterone concentration and fertility rate of the male mice by decreasing the number of leydig cells and reducing the body weight

Animals, Laboratory , Testis/drug effects , Fertility/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Germ Cells , Testosterone/blood , Leydig Cells
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(1): 129-137, Jan.-Feb. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578846


The lethal and sublethal effects of the ecdysone agonist methoxyfenozide on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were investigated by feeding a methoxyfenozide-treated diet to fifth instars until pupation in doses corresponding to the LC10 and LC25 for the compound. Larval mortality reached 8 percent and 26 percent in the low and high concentration groups, respectively, on the seventh day of the experiment. A progressive larval mortality of 12 percent for the LC10 and 60 percent for the LC25 was observed before pupation. Treated larvae exhibited lower pupal weights, higher pupal mortality, presence of deformed pupae, and more deformed adults than untreated larvae. The incorporation of methoxyfenozide into the diet had a significant effect on the timing of larval development. The development period for males and females was about seven days longer than the controls for both concentrations tested. In contrast, the compound affected neither pupae nor adult longevity. Finally, S. frugiperda adults that resulted from fifth instars treated with methoxyfenozide were not affected in their mean cumulative number of eggs laid per female (fecundity), nor percentages of eggs hatched (fertility), or the sex ratio. Our results suggest that the combination of lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide may have important implications for the population dynamics of the fall armyworm.

Animals , Female , Male , Hydrazines/pharmacology , Juvenile Hormones/pharmacology , Spodoptera/drug effects , Spodoptera/physiology , Fertility/drug effects , Hydrazines/toxicity , Juvenile Hormones/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Pest Control , Spodoptera/growth & development