Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 160
Filter
1.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e51421, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368157

ABSTRACT

Population aging in Brazil increases on a large scale due to declining fertility and mortality. This phenomenon can be influenced by several factors (demographic, biological and social), making them determinants for the health conditions of the elderly populations residing in different geographic areas. The present study aims to identify the functional limitation in elderlyresidents of urban and rural areas of Brazil. This is a descriptive epidemiological study with a quantitative approach. It was evidenced that the functional limitation for activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living are concentrated in the northeast region, mainly in the urban area. The following states presented the highest proportions of daily life activity limitation in urban areas: Alagoas (11.60%), Rio Grande do Norte (10.95%), Pernambuco (10.36%) and Paraíba (9.62%). For activities of daily living in the rural area were found in the states of Paraíba (12.19%), Maranhão (8.93%), Piauí (8.85%) and then Pernambuco (7.24%). Data from the functional limitation for instrumental activities of daily living again highlighted the Northeast region, with the states of Rio Grande do Norte (26.01%), Paraíba (25.96%), Maranhão (25.72%) and Alagoas (24.57%). Lastly, it was verified that the elderly woman exhibits greater proportions of functional limitation in relation to the elderly of the masculine sex, standing out again the northeastern region of the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Aged/physiology , Feminization/mortality , Activities of Daily Living , Aging/physiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Indicators of Quality of Life , Fertility/physiology
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 278-285, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989450

ABSTRACT

Abstract We studied the biology of Corythucha gossypii in Ricinus communis under different temperatures in climatic chambers adjusted at 20, 23, 25, and 28 °C, 60 ± 10% relative humidity, and a 12-h photoperiod. The development period and viability of eggs, the development period and survival rate of nymphs, and egg-adult cycle of C. gossypii as well as the adult longevity and fecundity were estimated. The thermal requirements (K) and temperature-base (Tb) were estimated for each of the immature stages and for the eggs-adults period. The duration of the eggs and nymphs phases and the egg-adult cycle of the C. gossypii on castor bean leaves at 20-28 °C were 7.6-17 days, 10.2-27.5 days, and 16.9-44.5 days, respectively. The lower temperature inhibited the oviposition of C. gossypii, whereas the higher temperatures were most favorable for its development. The municipalities of the Bahia state of Brumado, Irecê, Itaberaba, Jacobina, and Senhor do Bonfim were estimated to have a high potential for the population growth of C. gossypii. However, a greater number of generations per year of C. gossypii were observed in the municipalities of Brumado and Itaberaba.


Resumo Estudamos a biologia de Corythucha gossypii em Ricinus communis sob diferentes temperaturas em câmaras climatizadas ajustadas as temperaturas de 20, 23, 25 e 28 °C, umidade relativa de 60 ± 10% e fotoperíodo de 12 horas. O período de desenvolvimento e a viabilidade dos ovos, o período de desenvolvimento e a taxa de sobrevivência de ninfas e do ciclo de ovo-adulto de C. gossypii, bem como a longevidade dos adultos e fecundidade foram estimados. As exigências térmicas (K) e as temperaturas-bases (Tb) foram estimadas para cada um dos estádios imaturos e para o ciclo de ovo-adulto. A duração das fases de ovos e ninfas e do ciclo de ovo a adulto de C. gossypii em folhas de mamona a 20-28 °C foram de 7,6-17 dias, 10,2-27,5 dias e 16,9-44,5 dias, respectivamente. A temperatura mais baixa inibiu a oviposição de C. gossypii , enquanto as temperaturas mais altas foram favoráveis ao seu desenvolvimento. Os municípios do estado da Bahia de Brumado, Irecê, Itaberaba, Jacobina e Senhor do Bonfim foram estimados para ter um alto potencial para o crescimento populacional de C. gossypii. No entanto, o maior número de gerações por ano de C. gossypii foi observado nos municípios de Brumado e Itaberaba.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ricinus , Heteroptera/anatomy & histology , Heteroptera/physiology , Temperature , Brazil , Photoperiod , Fertility/physiology , Longevity/physiology , Nymph/physiology
3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(3): 183-190, Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Considering that myths and misconceptions regarding natural procreation spread rapidly in the era of easy access to information and to social networks, adequate counseling about natural fertility and spontaneous conception should be encouraged in any kind of health assistance. Despite the fact that there is no strong-powered evidence about any of the aspects related to natural fertility, literature on how to increase the chances of a spontaneous pregnancy is available. In the present article, the Brazilian Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Associations (FEBRASGO, in the Portuguese acronym) Committee on Endocrine Gynecology provides suggestions to optimize counseling for non-infertile people attempting spontaneous conception.


Resumo Uma vez que mitos e equívocos sobre a procriação natural se espalham rapidamente na era do fácil acesso à informação e às redes sociais, o aconselhamento adequado sobre a fertilidade natural e a concepção espontânea deve ser encorajado em qualquer tipo de assistência à saúde. Apesar do fato de não haver evidências fortes sobre qualquer dos aspectos relacionados à fertilidade natural, existe literatura sobre como aumentar as chances de uma gravidez espontânea. No presente artigo, a Comissão Nacional de Ginecologia Endócrina da Federação Brasileira das Associações de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia (FEBRASGO) oferece sugestões para otimizar o aconselhamento a pessoas que tentam a concepção espontânea, na ausência do diagnóstico de infertilidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Preconception Care , Fertilization/physiology , Ovulation/physiology , Posture , Brazil , Attitude to Health , Smoking/adverse effects , Age Factors , Maternal Age , Paternal Age , Coitus/psychology , Sex Determination Processes/physiology , Counseling , Diet , Lubricants/administration & dosage , Fertility/physiology , Infertility, Female/diagnosis , Middle Aged
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 419-423, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003048

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Premature Ovarian Insufficiency is defined as a decline in ovarian function that is accompanied by two biochemical determinations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone in hypergonadotropic values, in addition to low levels of circulating estrogens in women under 40 years old. Although some of its possible etiologies are recognized and diagnosed, most of the time, its cause remains unknown. It is a pathology with medical, psychological, and reproductive implications. Patients may experience climacteric symptoms, infertility, and emotional distress. In the medium and long term, cardiovascular and bone health can be affected, and some degree of cognitive deterioration can be evidenced. The therapeutic approach needs to be comprehensive for the patient and multidisciplinary. SAEGRE created in Argentina an interhospital network dedicated to gathering relevant statistical information regarding this and other pathologies in order to provide better assistance for these patients.


RESUMO Insuficiência ovariana primária é definida como um declínio da função ovariana acompanhado por dois determinantes bioquímicos do Hormônio Folículo Estimulante em valores hipergonadotróficos, além de baixos níveis de estrogênios circulantes em mulheres com menos de 40 anos de idade. Embora algumas das suas possíveis etiologias serem reconhecidas e diagnosticadas, na maioria das vezes sua causa permanece desconhecida. Trata-se de patologia com a implicações médicas, psicológicas e reprodutivas. Os pacientes podem vivenciar sintomas climatéricos, infertilidade e problemas emocionais. A médio e longo prazo, a saúde cardiovascular e óssea pode ser afetada, e algum grau de deterioração cognitiva pode ser observado. A abordagem terapêutica precisa ser abrangente para o paciente e multidisciplinar. A SAEGRE criou na Argentina uma rede interospitalar dedicada a reunir informações estatísticas relevantes sobre esta e outras patologias, a fim de proporcionar uma melhor assistência para esses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Menopause/physiology , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/etiology , Fertility/physiology , Menstrual Cycle/physiology
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(6): 741-746, June 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902539

ABSTRACT

Background: Age plays a crucial role in women fertility and is related with a decreased oocyte quality and quantity. The evidence for this asseveration comes from data obtained in infertile women. However there is a paucity of studies in patients with proven fertility evaluating ovarian reserve and its decline with time. Aim: To measure antral follicle count (AFC) in probed fertile patients and to create a distribution chart based on variables that may affect its natural decline. Material and Methods: Observational prospective study. A transvaginal ultrasound was made between menstrual cycle days 3 and 5, evaluating AFC in 100 patients, followed during a year. Results: Median antral follicle count media was 14.5 (interval 3 to 26). There was a lineal decline of AFC with age. Women with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus had significantly less follicles. However, a multiple regression analysis showed that only women's age was a significant predictor of AFC (R2 = 0.84). Conclusions: There was a lineal relationship between AFC and age in women with probed fertility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aging/physiology , Fertility/physiology , Ovarian Reserve/physiology , Ovarian Follicle/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Body Mass Index , Cell Count/statistics & numerical data , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Ultrasonography , Age Factors
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(2): 278-284, mar.-abr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-833810

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin implantation on basic testicular characteristics and reproductive performance of Kivircik and Charollais rams and ewes during the non-breeding season. In this study, 8 Kivircik and 6 Charollais rams were used. Rams were implanted with 54 mg melatonin according to the manufacturer's instructions. At melatonin implantation and at ram introduction the reproductive performance and testicular characteristics were evaluated. Throughout the experimental period, rams were permanently kept outdoors under conditions of natural day length and at ambient temperature. The effects of exogenous melatonin treatments on the reproductive performances of rams and ewes, estrus response, pregnancy rate, litter size and twinning rate of ewes were evaluated in all groups. Libido values were significantly higher in Charollais rams compared to Kivircik rams (P<0.001). Testicular volume (TV) was increased in both ram breeds. Scrotal length (SL) was also increased in both Kivircik and Charollais rams (P<0.01). In conclusion, we showed that the treatment of rams with slow release melatonin implants increased scrotal diameters and testicular volumes in both Kivircik and Charollais rams. Furthermore, melatonin implantation improved the reproductive performances of ewes naturally mated with these melatonin implanted rams during non-breeding season.(AU)


Esse estudo foi conduzido para investigar os efeitos de implantação de melatonina em características testiculares básicas e desempenho reprodutivo de carneiros Kivircik e Charollais durante a estação não reprodutiva. Nesse estudo, oito carneiros Kivircik e 6 Charollais foram utilizados. Foi implantado 54 mg de melatonina nos cordeiros de acordo com as instruções do produtor. Ao implantar a melatonina e à introdução do carneiro, foram avaliados o desempenho reprodutivo e as características testiculares. Ao longo do período experimenta, os cordeiros foram mantidos em ambiente externo sob condições de luz e ritmo circadiano naturais e à temperatura ambiente. O efeito de tratamento com melatonina exógena no desempenho reprodutivo de carneiros e ovelhas, resposta estral, taxa de prenhez, tamanho de ninhada e taxa de gemelaridade foram avaliados em todos os grupos. Valores de libido foram significativamente maiores em Charollais comparados a Kivircik (P<0.001). Volume testicular (VT) estava aumentado em ambas as raças. Comprimento escrotal (CE) também estava aumentado tanto em Kivircik quanto em Charollais (P<0.01). Conclui-se que o tratamento de carneiros com implantes de liberação lenta de melatonina aumentou diâmetro e volume testiculares tanto em carneiros Kivircik quanto em Charollais. Ademais, implantação de melatonina melhorou o desempenho reprodutivo de ovelhas naturalmente cruzadas com esses carneiros implantados com melatonina durante o período não reprodutivo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Melatonin/analysis , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Sheep/physiology , Testis/anatomy & histology , Testis/physiology , Estrous Cycle , Fertility/physiology
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 293-303, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897542

ABSTRACT

Abstract:In fish reproduction, previous information of ovary oocyte distribution is necessary, when oocytes quantitative estimates are required to estimate batch or annual fecundity. Heterogeneous oocyte distribution requires a standardized sampling protocol to prevent bias in estimates, whereas homogeneous distribution, allows sampling of any portion of gonads with no risk of bias. We studied gonad oocyte distribution patterns in the hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus population from Southern Gulf of Mexico. For this, 23 mature females were selected from a total of 47 individuals exhibiting visible oocytes in the ovaries. These females were classified by reproductive phase and sub-phase (early developing-ED, developing-D, spawning capable-SC and actively spawning-AS). Six histological sections were taken from the anterior, middle and posterior regions of the left and right ovary lobes of each individual. Digital image processing (AxioVision and Image ProPlus programs) was used to estimate oocyte density per unit area, and for different development stages. Contingency tables were used to analyze oocyte distribution frequencies between the regions of each lobe, and between the lobes of each ovary. This was supported with a Pearson's χ2 test for goodness-of-fit and a replicated G test to confirm distribution heterogeneity. Oocyte stage distribution was homogeneous in almost all 23 females regardless of the ovary lobe. In the left ovary lobe, oocyte distribution was uniform in all three regions sampled regardless the female phase or sub-phase. In the right ovary lobe, oocyte frequencies were similarly uniform for the ED, D and AS phase and sub-phases; nevertheless, during SC phase, some heterogeneity was observed in tertiary vitellogenesis-Vtg3 oocytes, especially in samples from middle and posterior regions of this lobe. Females in AS sub-phase are normally used to estimate batch fecundity in fish such as L. maximus, which has shown to have asynchronous oocyte development and batch spawning. Given the homogeneous oocyte distribution pattern within and between the ovary lobes in females in AS sub-phase, no systematization is required of the gonad histological sampling protocol to estimate species batch fecundity. Nevertheless, due to the heterogeneous Vtg3 oocytes distribution in the right ovary lobe of females in the SC phase, it is best to systematically take sections of any region in the left ovary lobe when conducting a study encompassing all of a species' reproductive aspects. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 293-303. Epub 2017 March 01.


ResumenPara el estudio de la reproducción de los peces es necesario, un conocimiento previo sobre la distribución de los ovocitos en el ovario, así como estimaciones cuantitativas del número de ovocitos para estimar la fecundidad por lote o anual. Una distribución heterogénea exige tener un protocolo de muestreo estandarizado para prevenir sesgos en las estimaciones, mientras que una distribución homogénea permite utilizar muestras de cualquier parte de las gónadas sin riesgo de sesgo. Nosotros estudiamos el patrón de distribución de los ovocitos de la población de la doncella de pluma Lachnolaimus maximus del sur del Golfo de México. Para este propósito, 23 hembras maduras fueron seleccionadas de un total de 47 individuos que presentaron ovocitos observables a simple vista en los ovarios. Estas hembras fueron clasificadas según su fase o sub-fase reproductiva (desarrollo temprano-DT, desarrollo-D, aptitud para desovar-AD y desove activo-DA). Seis secciones histológicas fueron realizadas de las regiones anterior, media y posterior de los lóbulos derecho e izquierdo del ovario de cada individuo. Un procesamiento digital de imágenes (AxioVision e Image ProPlus) fue utilizado para estimar la densidad de los ovocitos, en diferentes estadios de desarrollo, por unidad de área. Las frecuencias de distribución de los ovocitos fueron analizadas entre regiones de un mismo lóbulo y entre lóbulos de cada ovario por medio de tablas de contingencia. Este análisis involucró la aplicación de la prueba de bondad de ajuste del χ2 de Pearson y de la prueba de G replicada en el caso de observar una distribución heterogénea. La mayoría de las 23 hembras analizadas presentó una distribución homogénea de los diferentes estadios de ovocito, en cualquier lóbulo considerado. En el lóbulo ovárico izquierdo, la distribución de los ovocitos fue similar en las tres regiones muestreadas, en cualquier fase o sub-fase de las hembras. En el lóbulo ovárico derecho, las frecuencias de los ovocitos fueron semejantes para las hembras en fase y sub-fases de DT, D y DA; sin embargo, durante la sub-fase de AD, una heterogeneidad en el desarrollo de los ovocitos en vitelogénesis terciaria-Vtg3 fue observada, especialmente en las muestras de las regiones media y posterior de este lóbulo. Las hembras en sub-fase de DA son usualmente utilizadas para estimar la fecundidad por lote en las especies de peces como L. maximus, la cual presenta un desarrollo asincrónico de los ovocitos y realiza desoves sucesivos por lote. Debido al patrón de distribución homogéneo de los ovocitos en y entre los lóbulos ováricos de las hembras en sub-fase de DA, no se requiere estandarizar un protocolo de muestreo histológico de las gónadas para estimar la fecundidad por lote de la especie. Sin embargo, debido a la distribución heterogénea de los ovocitos en Vtg3 en el lóbulo ovárico derecho de las hembras en fase de DA, es preferible tomar sistemáticamente secciones de cualquier región del lóbulo ovárico izquierdo cuando se realiza un estudio que incluye todo los aspectos reproductivos de la especie.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oocytes/physiology , Ovary/anatomy & histology , Ovary/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Perciformes/physiology , Reference Values , Seasons , Fertility/physiology , Gulf of Mexico
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 255-265, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897539

ABSTRACT

Abstract:Puntius shalynius is a highly endemic freshwater minor carp that is economically important and is threatened because of its ornamental value. The present investigation evaluated this barb gonadal maturation, based on morphology and spawning of this species in the Umiam river, Meghalaya, India. The population of this indigenous fish has declined due to its fragmented distribution and exploitation as an ornamental fish. The reproductive cycle of P. shalynius was studied for the first time. A total of 609 fish samples were randomly collected from the river for a period of two years during January 2010 and December 2011. Five maturity phases (rest, primary growth, secondary growth, ripe and spent) were observed on the basis of ovarian and testicular macroscopic evaluation throughout the annual cycle. Peak spawning activity was observed in the month of June/ July and it coincided with the start of the monsoon season. The study showed that the fish spawns once in a year with single spawning peak and that the species is a low fecund fish. It is important to conserve this species for its unique ecological value and urgent management policies should promote its sustainable utilization. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 255-265. Epub 2017 March 01.


ResumenPuntius shalynius es un pez de agua dulce altamente endémico que posee importancia económica y esta amenazado por su valor ornamental. En esta investigación se evaluó la maduración de las gónadas de este pez basado en la morfología y desove de esta especie en el río Umiam, Meghalaya, India. La población de esta especie nativa ha decrecido debido a su distribución fragmentada y explotación como pez ornamental. El ciclo reproductivo de P. shalynius se estudió por primera vez. En el río se recolectó al azar una muestra de 609 peces por un período de dos años entre enero 2010 y diciembre 2011. Se observaron cinco estadios de madurez (descanso, crecimiento primario, crecimiento secundario, maduro, agotamiento) basados en la evaluación macroscópica testicular y ovárica durante el ciclo anual. La actividad máxima del desove se observó entre junio y julio lo que coincidió con el comienzo de la época de monzones. El estudio demostró que estos peces desovan una vez al año con un único punto máximo y que la especie es de baja fecundidad. Es importante la conservación de esta especie por su valor ecológico único y se deben promover políticas de manejo urgentes para su uso sostenible.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Reproduction/physiology , Cyprinidae/physiology , Ovum/physiology , Rain , Sexual Maturation/physiology , Temperature , Time Factors , Body Weight , Rivers , Eggs , Fertility/physiology , Gonads/physiology , India
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 239-253, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-897538

ABSTRACT

ResumenPseudocurimata lineopunctata representa un importante aporte nutricional para las comunidades locales en Colombia y Ecuador. A pesar que su captura anual es baja (590 kg/año), no hay restricciones sobre el tamaño mínimo, y esta especie está catalogada como vulnerable en riesgo de extinción moderada por la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca (Colombia). Para apoyar los programas de conservación, se requiere de datos biológicos de las especie. Por lo tanto, los objetivos de este estudio fueron describir la proporción de sexos, la distribución, el tamaño en relación al peso, las fases macroscópicas de la madurez reproductiva, fecundidad y talla de primera madurez sexual para P. lineopunctata. Las muestras de peces fueron capturados con redes por nueve meses (Febrero-Octubre) en 2007. La longitud total (Lt) de los peces capturados varió entre 10.7 y 16.5 cm, con peso total (Pt) entre 25.0 y 67.5 g. Las hembras representaron el 52.6 % del grupo de muestra mientras que los machos el 47.4 %, y se observaron diferencias en la proporción de sexos en relación con el tamaño del pez. Durante todos los meses muestreados se capturaron ejemplares en estado de madurez avanzado. Con base en el análisis de los índices gonadosómatico, (IGS), gonádico (IG) y de condición (K), se postula que habría dos máximos de desove, uno de junio-julio y otro en septiembre-octubre. La talla de primera madurez sexual para las hembras fue determinada en 9.2 cm y para los machos en 10.1 cm de Lt. La fecundidad absoluta fue estimada en 3 598 ovocitos/♀, con una fecundidad relativa de 84 ovocitos/g♀. Se hace necesario realizar investigaciones adicionales que aumenten la información sobre la reproducción de esta especie, con la finalidad de apoyar futuros programas de repoblamiento.


Abstract:Pseudocurimata lineopunctata represents an important nutritional source for local human communities in Colombia and Ecuador. Although the yearly catch of this fish is low (590 kg/year), there are no restrictions on minimum size, and this species is categorized as vulnerable with moderate extinction risk by the Regional Autonomous Corporation of the Cauca Valley (Colombia). To support conservation programs, biological data of the target species are required. Therefore, the aims of this study were to describe the sex ratio, distribution, size to weight ratio, macroscopic stages of reproductive maturity, fecundity, and size at first sexual maturity for P. lineopunctata. For this, fish samples were captured with nets over nine months (February-October) in 2007. The total length (Lt) of the captured fish ranged between 10.7 and 16.5 cm, with total weight (Pt) between 25.0 and 67.5 g. Females represented 52.6 % of the sample group while males represented 47.4 %, and differences in sex ratio were observed in relation to fish size. For all sampled months, the fish captured showed an advanced maturity state. Based on analyses of the gonadosomatic index (IGS), gonadic index (IG), and Fulton's condition factor (K), and two spawning peaks were determined, one in June-July, and the other in September-October. The size at first sexual maturity was 9.2 cm for females and 10.1 cm for males. Absolute fecundity was estimated as 3 598 oocytes/ g♀. It is necessary to carry out additional investigations on the reproduction of this species, to support future repopulation programs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 239-253. Epub 2017 March 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Rivers , Characiformes/physiology , Oocytes/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Sexual Maturation/physiology , Sex Ratio , Time Factors , Colombia , Body Size , Fertility/physiology , Animal Distribution , Gonads/physiology
10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 77-87, Jan.-Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-897527

ABSTRACT

ResumenAlgunas especies de peces marinos tienen complejas relaciones con los ecosistemas costeros durante sus periodos reproductivos, tal es el caso del pez aguja Tylosurus pacificus, que conforma agregaciones de desove en playas de grava en el Parque Nacional Natural Utría. Se describe la actividad pesquera y algunos aspectos de la biología reproductiva de T. pacificus y se proponen algunas medidas para mitigar el impacto sobre este evento y los procesos ecológicos asociados. Se realizó un monitoreo pesquero entre abril 2008 y febrero 2009 en el Parque Nacional Natural Utría (PNNU), Pacífico colombiano. Se analizaron los volúmenes de captura, estructura por talla, proporción de sexos y fecundidad (n= 84). La longitud total osciló entre 60.5 cm y 104 cm con una media y desviación estándar de 85.35 ± 9.09 cm. La fecundidad promedio fue 189 685.56 ovocitos por gónada, con una moda de 8 mm de diámetro y un desarrollo gonadal asincrónico. La especie desova en forma colectiva en la playa cuando la marea alcanza el nivel más alto durante la luna llena y nueva, generalmente al anochecer. Pescadores que habitan los pueblos cercanos aprovechan este recurso, durante la agregación reproductiva de la especie. Es importante ampliar el estudio de la reproducción de T. pacificus y los procesos ecológicos asociados a su desove para poder dar un aprovechamiento adecuado y garantizar la sostenibilidad de su pesquería a largo plazo.


Abstract:Some species of marine fish have complex relationships with coastal ecosystems during their reproductive periods, as the needle fish Tylosurus pacificus that forms spawning aggregations in gravel beaches in Utría Park. We described fishery and some aspects of the reproductive biology of T. pacificus and proposed some strategies to mitigate the impact of this event and associated ecological processes. Fisheries monitoring were conducted between April 2008 and February 2009 in the Utría National Park, Colombian Pacific. Catch volumes, length structure, sex ratio and fecundity (n= 84) were analyzed. The total length ranged among 60.5 and 104 cm with a mean and standard deviation of 85.35 ± 9.09 cm. The average fertility of oocytes per gonad was 189 685.56, with a mode of 8 mm diameter and an asynchronous gonadal development. This species spawns collectively on the beach when the tide reaches the highest level during full and new moon, usually in the evening. Fishermen of a near town take advantage of the spawning aggregation of this species. The reproduction study of T. pacificus and ecological processes associated with their spawning, should be expanded to give adequate use, and ensure the sustainability of their fishery over the long term. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 77-87. Epub 2017 March 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Reproduction/physiology , Ecosystem , Beloniformes/physiology , Fertility/physiology , Fisheries , Oocytes/physiology , Seasons , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Pacific Ocean , Sex Factors , Colombia , Conservation of Natural Resources , Eggs
11.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 19(1): 57-63, jan.-mar. 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-833815

ABSTRACT

O conhecimento da fisiologia do desenvolvimento testicular e ponderal, a precocidade sexual, a capacidade de produção e qualidade espermática, além dos fatores que potencialmente interferem nestes processos, são importantes para predizer a capacidade reprodutiva dos touros. Entre esses fatores, existem alguns que podem influenciar negativamente na fisiologia reprodutiva do touro, e, dessa forma, reduzir a fertilidade desses animais e causar esterilidade, tais como os fatores diretamente relacionados ao manejo e a nutrição. Dessa forma, torna-se de fundamental importância o conhecimento da fisiologia do desenvolvimento testicular e ponderal, e de como alguns fatores, como o manejo e o clima, podem interferir nestes processos. Portanto, o objetivo desta revisão é demonstrar como alguns fatores do ambiente, tais como o manejo e o clima, podem influenciar nessas características, com vistas à produção animal.(AU)


Knowledge of the physiology and weight of the testicular development, sexual precocity, ability and quality of sperm production, and the factors that potentially interfere with these processes are important for predicting the reproductive capacity of bulls. Among these factors, there are some that can negatively influence their reproductive physiology, and thus reduce their fertility, causing sterility, such as factors directly related to the management and nutrition. Thus, it is of fundamental importance to study the physiology of testicular development and weight, and how certain factors, such as management and climate, can interfere with these processes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to show how some environmental factors, such as management and climate, can influence these characteristics, aiming to animal production.(AU)


El conocimiento de la fisiología del desarrollo testicular y ponderal, la precocidad sexual, la capacidad de producción y la calidad del esperma, además de los factores que potencialmente interfieren en estos procesos, son importantes para predecir la capacidad reproductiva de los toros. Entre estos factores, hay algunos que pueden influir negativamente en la fisiología reproductiva del toro, y por lo tanto reducir la fertilidad de esos animales y causar esterilidad, tales como los factores directamente relacionados al manejo y la nutrición. Por lo tanto, es de fundamental importancia el conocimiento de la fisiología del desarrollo testicular y ponderal, y cómo ciertos factores, como el manejo y el clima, pueden interferir en estos procesos. Así, el objetivo de esta revisión es demostrar cómo algunos factores ambientales, tales como manejo y el clima, pueden influenciar en esas características, con miras a la producción animal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Cattle/physiology , Fertility/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Heat Stress Disorders , Semen
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(5): 611-617, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755888

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the effects of Leishmaniaspp infection on several population parameters of Lutzomyia longipalpis sensu lato andLutzomyia pseudolongipalpis, vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela, under experimental conditions during the first post-feeding period. Females of both species were allowed to feed and engorge on a suspension of fresh washed human red blood cells in foetal calf serum. These blood cells were either non-infected or infected with one of the fourLeishmaniaspp strains and were offered through a chicken skin membrane. The longevity, life expectancy and the fecundity of uninfected flies were similar in both species, but the fertility was significantly lower in uninfected Lu. longipalpis females. In all cases, the infection of Lu. longipalpis and Lu. pseudolongipalpis by the Leishmaniastrains resulted in significant detrimental effects, which exerted a fitness cost expressed by reduced survival and life expectancy, as well as decreased fertility and fecundity compared with the control groups. Nevertheless, differences in these parameters were observed between these vector species depending on whether they were infected with the autochthonous Venezuelan Leishmania infantum strain (NESA) or the Brazilian reference strain (PP75). The experimental data obtained agree with field data on the natural infection of these vector species and the significance of this scenario is discussed.

.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Host-Parasite Interactions , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/physiology , Psychodidae/parasitology , Chickens , Fertility/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Life Expectancy , Psychodidae/physiology , Venezuela
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(1): 198-207, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744349

ABSTRACT

The epipelagic flyingfish, Hirundichthys affinis is a major artisanal fishery resource from the Northeastern coastal waters of Brazil. However, biological information about this species has been poorly documented. This paper presents data on the length-weight relationship, sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, gonadal development and fecundity of H. affinis sampled from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The total body length and weight for both sexes ranged from 23.4 to 29.4 cm and from 89 to 188g, respectively. The allometric coefficient of males was 2.208 and that of females was 2.985, indicating negatively allometric growth. The sex ratio was 1M:1.6F thus differing from the expected ratio of 1:1 (χ2 = 18.63). The total length at first sexual maturity was estimated at 27.3 cm for males and 27.1 cm for females. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. affinis showed seven phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The mean absolute fecundity was 9092 vitelogenic oocytes. Spawning occurred during the months of March to July. The microscopic descriptions of the stages of gonad maturation indicate that the study area is an important spawning ground of H. affinis.


O peixe epipelágico voador, Hirundichthys affinis é um importante recurso de pesca artesanal das águas costeiras do Nordeste do Brasil. No entanto, as informações biológicas sobre esta espécie tem sido pouco documentada. Este trabalho apresenta dados sobre a relação peso-comprimento, proporção sexual, comprimento de primeira maturação sexual, desenvolvimento gonadal e fecundidade de H. affinis amostrados das águas costeiras do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. O comprimento total e o peso total de ambos os sexos variaram 23,4-29,4 cm, e de 89 a 188g, respectivamente. O coeficiente alométrico dos machos foi de 2,208 e o de fêmeas foi 2,985, indicando um crescimento alométrico negativo. A proporção entre os sexos foi 1M:1.6 F, diferindo da proporção esperada de 1:1 (χ2 = 18.63). O comprimento total da primeira maturação sexual foi estimado em 27,3 centímetros para os machos e 27,1 cm para as fêmeas. As características macroscópicas das gônadas indicaram quatro estádios de maturação. Estudos histológicos das gônadas de H. affinis mostram sete fases de desenvolvimento do ovócito e quatro fases de desenvolvimento do espermatócito. A fecundidade absoluta média foi de 9.092 ovócitos vitelogênicos. A desova ocorreu durante os meses de março a julho. As descrições microscópicas dos estágios de maturação gonadal indicam que a área de estudo é uma importante área de desova de H. affinis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Fertility/physiology , Fishes/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Sexual Maturation , Brazil , Fishes/classification , Gonads/growth & development , Seasons , Sex Ratio
14.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 13(1): 221-228, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744507

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study provides the first results on the reproductive biology of the anchovy, Anchoa marinii, in a nearby-coastal area of Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, 37º32'00"S 57º19'00"W, Argentina. To perform this, we employed mainly female gonads, at both microscopic and macroscopic levels. The oocyte diameter distribution and the microscopy analysis of oocytes, showed different batches of growing oocytes, suggesting that the anchovy is a multiple spawner, with constant oocytes recruitment all over the reproductive season. The batch fecundity ranged between 749 and 3,207 oocytes for females, and the relative fecundity ranged from 127 to 422 yolked oocytes per female gram (ovary free). The fecundity estimation has been made with yolked oocytes. No correlation between the fecundity estimation and female size and total weight (without ovary) has been found. The estimated L50 values were 74.13 and 73.76 mm TL for females and males, respectively. Shoals of females in advanced maturity phase were recorded, between December to April in the study area. During this period a significant increase of species abundance was correlated with water temperature increase (above 16°C). This fact, together with the detection of post-ovulatory follicles, indicated the existence of reproductive events in the nearby-coastal area of Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon.


El objetivo del presente trabajo es avanzar en la comprensión del ciclo de vida de la anchoa, Anchoa marinii, en relación a la franja submareal frente a la laguna costera Mar Chiquita, 37º32'00"S 57º19'00"W, Argentina. Para llevarlo a cabo se utilizaron gónadas, principalmente hembras, y se estudiaron a nivel macro y microscópico. El análisis microscópico de los ovarios evidenció la presencia de diferentes camadas de ovocitos, con un reclutamiento constante de ovocitos inmaduros durante la época reproductiva, relacionado con un patrón de puestas parciales. La fecundidad parcial arrojo valores entre 749 y 3207 ovocitos, y la fecundidad relativa estuvo comprendida entre 127 y 422 ovocitos por peso total libre de ovarios. Las estimaciones se realizaron a partir de ovarios con ovocitos vitelados. No se encontraron relaciones significativas entre las estimaciones de fecundidad y la talla o peso de las hembras. La talla de primera madurez se estimó en 74,13 mm para las hembras y 73,76 mm para los machos, en el área muestreada. La presencia de hembras en estadio de maduración avanzada fue muy abundante entre diciembre y abril, correlacionándose con elevada temperatura del agua (por encima de 16°C). Este hecho sumado a la detección de hembras con folículos post-ovulatorios indicarían que la anchoa, Anchoa marinii, presenta actividad reproductiva durante la temporada estival, en el submareal frente a la Laguna costera Mar Chiquita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fertility/physiology , Oocytes/growth & development , Fishes/physiology , Oviposition/physiology
15.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 52(4): 356-362, 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780262

ABSTRACT

Immunohistochemical expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was evaluated in the endometrium of mares during estrus and at early diestrus. Three samples were collected by endometrial biopsy from 10 mares, on estrus/ second day, in the ovulation day and seven days after the ovulation day. PCNA expression was high in luminal epithelium and low in endometrial glands on samples taken on estrus/second day and on the ovulation day (p 0.05). For samples collected on the seventh day following ovulation, the averaged PCNA immunostaining was higher in glandular epithelium (p 0.05). The study revealed that luminal epithelial cells exhibit higher proliferation during estrus and glandular epithelial cells exhibited higher proliferation during diestrus...


A expressão do antígeno núcleo celular proliferante (ANCP) foi avaliada no endométrio de éguas durante o estro e início do diestro. Em cada uma de dez éguas foram efetuadas biópsias do endométrio em três momentos dos respectivos ciclos reprodutivos: segundo dia do estro, dia da ovulação e sete dias após a ovulação. Nas amostras colhidas no segundo dia do estro e no dia da ovulação, a expressão do ANCP foi elevada no epitélio luminal e baixa nas glândulas endometriais (p 0,05). Nas amostras colhidas no sétimo dia após a ovulação, a média de ANCP imunologicamente corado foi maior no epitélio glandular (p 0,05). O estudo revelou que as células do epitélio luminal apresentaram a maior proliferação durante o estro e que as células epiteliais glandulares apresentaram a maior proliferação durante o diestro...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/physiology , Horses/physiology , Endometrium/physiology , Biopsy/veterinary , Epithelial Cells/physiology , Diestrus/physiology , Estrus/physiology , Fertility/physiology , Cell Proliferation
16.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 12(4): 819-826, Oct-Dec/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732634

ABSTRACT

Cetengraulis edentulus is a broadely distributed engraulid in Southwest Atlantic, currently accounting for the main fish species commercially exploited at Guanabara Bay, Brazil. This study aimed to extend the knowledge on reproduction of C. edentulus at Guanabara Bay and to test whether some descriptors of reproductive activity, especially the gonadosomatic index (GSI), and the index of reproductive activity (IRA) changed among seasons. A total of 978 C. edentulus specimens were retrieved from purse seine commercial landings at Conservas Rubi S.A. company, in São Gonçalo city, RJ. Subsamples of 90-120 individuals were collected from bimonthly yields between July 2010 (winter) and June 2011 (autumn). Most fish were adults (120-170 mm TL), in response to the high selectivity of commercial fisheries. All descriptors indicated a broad spawning period (late winter to spring), peaking in November, suggesting this is the critical period to protect C. edentulus stocks from overfishing at Guanabara Bay. Fecundity averaged 12,720 oocytes and was positively related to fish size, GSI and fullness index, indicating that preserving larger individuals (TL > 160 mm) could contribute significantly to the reproductive success of C. edentulus, since they produce more oocytes. Cetengraulis edentulus é um engraulídeo amplamente distribuído no Atlântico Sudoeste, sendo um importante recurso comercialmente explorado na baía de Guanabara, Brasil. O presente estudo teve como objetivo ampliar o conhecimento sobre a reprodução de C. edentulus na baía de Guanabara e testar quais descritores da atividade reprodutiva, especialmente o índice gonadossomático (IGS) e o índice de atividade reprodutiva (IAR) se modificaram ao longo das estações do ano. Um total de 978 indivíduos de C. edentulus foram capturados pelo método de rede de cerco da frota comercial no cais da empresa Conservas Rubi S.A., na cidade de São Gonçalo, RJ. Subamostras de 90-120 indivíduos de C. edentulus foram coletados bimestralmente durante o período de julho de 2010 (inverno) e junho de 2011 (outono). A maioria dos indivíduos foram adultos (120-170 mm CT), em resposta a alta seletividade das capturas comerciais. Todos os índices indicaram um amplo período reprodutivo (final do inverno e primavera), com pico em novembro, sugerindo que este seria um período crítico para preservar os estoques de C. edentulus da sobrepesca na baía de Guanabara. A fecundidade média foi de 12720 ovócitos e foi positivamente relacionada com tamanho do peixe, IGS e índice de repleção, indicando que preservar maiores indivíduos (CT > 160 mm) poderia contribuir significativamente para o sucesso reprodutivo de C. edentulus na área, visto que esses indivíduos produzem um maior número de ovócitos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fertility/physiology , Sexual Maturation/physiology , Fishes/physiology , Fisheries/instrumentation , Reproduction/physiology
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(11): 1440-1448, nov. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734880

ABSTRACT

Background: Women in childbearing ages (WCBA) represent a strategic intervention group to reverse the global trend of increasing obesity. Aim: To conduct a review of studies reporting obesity prevalence in WCBA in Chile in the last 25 years. Material and Methods: To describe obesity prevalence, we used three approaches, namely qualitative review of studies describing obesity prevalence in WCBA and a comparative study of the prevalence of obesity, overweight, abdominal and morbid obesity in WCBA from 2003 and 2009-10 National Health Surveys (ENS). Finally, nutrition status trends of pregnant women in the period 1987-2013 were plotted. Results: According to ENS, obesity prevalence exceeded 20% and excess weight 50%, both in 2003 and 2009-10 surveys. We found seven population studies, being difficult to compare them due to the heterogeneity of obesity definitions, design, and populations. Population studies showed that the prevalence of obesity increases along with age. The higher prevalence of obesity in WCBA aged 20 to 43 years was found in the city of San Carlos in 2007 (35.5%). The lowest was found in female university students, ranging from 0% to 5.9%. Obesity in pregnant women increased from 12.9% to 32.2% in the period 1987-2004 and from 20.3% to 26.3% in the period 2005-2013. Conclusions: There is a high and increasing prevalence of obesity among women in childbearing age, whether pregnant or not-pregnant.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Fertility/physiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Time Factors
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(3): 1007-1018, jul.-sep. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753671

ABSTRACT

High mortality rates have been observed in Teleost during early developmental stages, as well as great variations in reproductive tactics, which are related to adaptations towards environmental conditions and ecological niches for which different species have a specific response. The objective of this study was to describe reproductive tactics related to the survival of Cichlasoma orientale offspring, including aspects of body size, parental care, fecundity, oocyte size and spawning patterns. Samples were performed monthly from August 2011 to July 2013, in lentic and lotic environments at Curu river basin, Brazilian Northeastern semiarid region. Individual behavior (n=113) was observed underwater for over 50 hours by ad libitum sampling and focal-animal sampling. Collected individuals (males n=185, females n=95) were evaluated regarding the standard length, batch fecundity, oocyte size and spawning pattern. In females with mature ovaries, oocyte groups at different developmental stages were observed, these cells were counted and measured, and fecundity was estimated by the gravimetric method. Our results showed that the species displayed biparental care behavior and, on average, males were larger than females. Based on 46 ovaries, the average batch fecundity was 2 052±849 (range: 254-3 389). Standard length and batch fecundity were positively correlated, but no correlation was found between oocyte size and standard length. The maximum diameter observed in the most developed oocytes was 1.8mm. The observed distribution of oocyte size classes indicated synchronous oocyte development in three groups: previtellogenic, vitellogenic and mature, showing that C. orientale is a multiple spawner. Differences in the amount of oocytes among the three groups were observed, with the most developed group showing the smallest number of oocytes. The combination of low fecundity and large egg size is characteristic of demersal spawners due to a greater environmental stability. Multiple spawning increases chances of survival mainly because of increased fecundity per reproductive season, and the reduced competition among the offspring. We concluded that C. orientale makes a heavy investment in larval survival in detriment of the offspring number. Survival is favored by the large size of oocytes, large yolk reserve, biparental care and multiple spawning pattern.


Las altas tasas de mortalidad se han observado en teleósteos durante las etapas iniciales del desarrollo, así como una gran variación en las tácticas reproductivas, que están relacionados con adaptaciones a las condiciones ambientales y nichos ecológicos con cada especie que presenta una respuesta específica. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las tácticas reproductivas relacionadas con la supervivencia de la descendencia de Cichlasoma orientale, incluyendo aspectos tales como el tamaño corporal, el cuidado parental, la fecundidad, el tamaño de los ovocitos y los patrones de desove. Las muestras se recolectaron mensualmente desde agosto 2011 hasta julio 2013, en ambientes lénticos y lóticos en la cuenca del río Curu, región semiárida del noreste de Brasil. El comportamiento individual (n=113) se observó bajo el agua durante más de 50 horas por un muestreo ad libitum y muestreo de grupos focales. Para los individuos recolectados (n=185 machos, hembras n=95) se evaluó: la longitud, la fecundidad por camada, el tamaño estándar de los ovocitos y el patrón de desove. En las hembras con ovarios maduros, se observó la cantidad de grupos de ovocitos en diferentes etapas de desarrollo y estas células fueron contadas y medidas y la fecundidad se estimadó por el método gravimétrico. Las especies muestran un comportamiento de cuidado biparental y, en promedio, los machos son más grandes que las hembras. Con base en 46 ovarios, la fecundidad promedio de lotes fue de 2 052±849 (254-3 389). Longitud estándar y fecundidad parcial se correlacionaron positivamente, pero no se encontró correlación entre el tamaño de los ovocitos y la longitud estándar. Los oocitos más desarrollados miden 1.8mm. La distribución observada de las clases de tamaño de los ovocitos indica desarrollo de los ovocitos sincrónico en tres grupos: pre-vitelogénicos, vitelogénicos y maduros, lo que demuestra que C. orientale es una especie con desova múltiple. Se observaron diferencias en la cantidad de ovocitos entre los tres grupos, con el grupo más desarrollada que muestra el menor número de ovocitos. La combinación de la baja fecundidad y gran tamaño del huevo es una característica de los reproductores demersales, debido a una mayor estabilidad del medio ambiente. Múltiples desoves aumenta las posibilidades de supervivencia, principalmente debido al aumento de la fecundidad por temporada reproductiva y reducción de la competencia entre la descendencia. Llegamos a la conclusión de que C. orientale hace una fuerte inversión en la supervivencia de las larvas en detri- mento del número de descendientes. La supervivencia se ve favorecida por el gran tamaño de los ovocitos, gran reserva de yema de huevo, cuidado biparental y patrón de desove múltiple.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Fertility/physiology , Oocytes/growth & development , Perciformes/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Perciformes/anatomy & histology , Seasons
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(3): 307-312, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716401

ABSTRACT

Introduction Triatoma carcavalloi is a wild species that is found in sympatry with Triatoma rubrovaria and Triatoma circummaculata, which are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi currently found in rural areas of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods Fertility was assessed and to determine the incubation period, the eggs were observed until hatching. The first meal was offered to 1st stage nymphs. The intermolt period was also determined. The number of blood meals was quantified at each nymphal stage and the resistance to fasting as the period between ecdysis and death. Mortality was assessed and longevity was determined by recording the time that elapsed from molting to the adult stage and until death. The developmental cycle was assessed by recording the length in days of each stage from molting to adult hood. Results The average incubation period was 22.7 days. The average first meal occurred 3.1 days after hatching. The 5th stage nymph to adult intermolting period was the longest at 193.4 days. The average number of feedings during nymphal development was 13.4. The resistance to fasting assay indicated that the 3rd, 4th and 5th stage nymphs presented higher resistance than did adults. The highest mortality rate was observed in the 3rd stage nymphs (22.2%). The average length of adult survival was 25.6 weeks, and the average total life cycle lasted 503.4 days. Conclusions This study is the first report on the biology of T. carcavalloi that fed on mice. The presented findings expand the bionomic knowledge of these species. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Insect Vectors/physiology , Life Cycle Stages/physiology , Triatoma/physiology , Fertility/physiology , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Laboratories , Longevity/physiology , Triatoma/classification , Triatoma/growth & development
20.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(1): 102-111, ene.-mar. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715417

ABSTRACT

The dry Chaco, a semiarid thorn forest, is experiencing some of the highest deforestation rates globally, coupled with the fact that small-bodied fish are at the highest risk of extinction, the killifish inhabiting this region may be some of the most threatened taxa. Yet, aspects of ecology and life history for Neotropical killifishes in the Bolivian Gran Chaco region are completely lacking, and basic life-history data is of critical importance for the design and implementation of conservation measures. Collections were conducted during the early (January 2011) and late (March-April 2011) rainy season using an area-based sampler and dip net surveys. Fish standard length and body depth were measured as well as the number of oocytes per size class, mean oocyte diameter per size class, and total fecundity for the females of each species. A total of 490 specimens of rivulids were captured; Austrolebias vandenbergi: 85 females, 105 males and 39 juveniles, and N. ornatipinnis: 62 females, 113 males, 86 juveniles. Sexual size dimorphism, absolute fecundity, oocyte developmental stages, oocyte diameter, and population sex ratios were determined for each species. Both species exhibited sexual size dimorphism. Male A. vandenbergi exhibited longer standard length (mean±SD; males: 27.07±3.89mm, females: 23.6±2.02mm) and body depth (males: 8.9±1.7mm, females: 7.2±1.1mm) as compared to females. Male N. ornatipinnis had a similar pattern for both standard length (males: 26.0±7.1mm, females: 19.1±5.83mm) and body depth (males: 5.6±1.9mm, females: 4.7±1.0mm). Austrolebias vandenbergi had fewer and smaller oocytes per female (47±31.6) than N. ornatipinnis (206±131.2). There was a positive relationship between fecundity and female body size in both species. The presence of multiple developmental stages of oocytes (immature, maturing, and mature) suggest that both species of rivulids exhibit fractional spawning, a reproductive strategy that enhances reproductive success in these extreme habitats. Neofundulus ornatipinnis exhibited a higher mean oocyte diameter for all three developmental stages (immature, maturing, and mature) as compared to A. vandenbergi. Austrolebias vandenbergi exhibited an equal adult sex ratio (males:females, 1:1), but there was a slight female biased ratio for N. ornatipinnis (males:females, 1:1.8). These results provide fundamental and valuable information for ensuring rivulid conservation in tropical regions, and also improve the knowledge on the biology and ecology of these poorly known species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first contribution on the reproductive biology of two Neotropical annual rivulid fishes (Austrolebias vandenbergi and Neofundulus ornatipinnis) inhabiting semi-permanent and ephemeral ponds in the Gran Chaco of Southeastern Bolivia.


Información sobre la ecología e historia de vida de varias especies de rivulidos no ha sido estudiada, por lo tanto se analiza la biología reproductiva de dos especies neotropicales (Austrolebias vandenbergi y Neofundulus ornatipinnis) que habitan pozos semipermanentes y temporales en el Gran Chaco Boliviano. Las recolectas se realizaron al inicio y al final de la estación lluviosa. Dimorfismo sexual, fecundidad absoluta, diámetro de los ovocitos y proporción sexual fue determinada para cada especie de rivulido. Machos en las dos especies presentaron mayor tamaño de longitud estándar y altura del cuerpo cuando fue comparado con las hembras. Austrolebias vandenbergi tuvo menor fecundidad por hembra y huevos más pequeños que N. ornatipinnis, pero hembras en ambas especies presentaron una relación estrecha y positiva entre fecundidad y tamaño cuerpo. La presencia de varios estadios gonadales sugiere un desove fraccionado, lo cual es una estrategia reproductiva que promueve la viabilidad y sobrevivencia de estos peces en hábitats de extremas condiciones. La proporción sexual no varió entre machos y hembras de A. vandenbergi (1:1), pero en N. ornatipinnis la proporción sexual fue dominada por las hembras (1:1.8). Este estudio representa uno de los primeros que investiga aspectos de la biología reproductiva de A. vandenbergi y N. ornatipinnis, lo cual es importante para la conservación de rivulidos en regiones tropicales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Cyprinodontiformes/physiology , Fertility/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Bolivia , Cyprinodontiformes/anatomy & histology , Cyprinodontiformes/classification , Seasons , Sex Characteristics , Sex Ratio
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL