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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255431, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364530

ABSTRACT

Organic fertilization is a cheaper and highly effective option for profitability and consequent improvement of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological structure. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate different types of fertilization: organic (poultry shed litter), mineral, and leaf path on yield parameters of lettuce grown in various types of planting. The treatments consisted of using two planting systems (P1 - Line and P2 - quincunxes) and mineral and organic fertilizers (A1 - mineral fertilization; A2 - mineral fertilization + leaf fertilization; A3 - organic fertilization with poultry shed litter and A4 - fertilization organic + mineral). The experimental units consisted of 36 and 52 plants, respectively, for treatments P1 and P2, and all central plants of the experimental unit were evaluated. Heart height, fresh mass, and leaf number were observed. The mineral and mineral + leaf treatments did not differentiate, either in line or in quincunxes. The treatment that stood out about the analyzed variables was the organic fertilization and quincunxes planting system, reflecting a more significant number of lettuce plants and better use of the area.


A adubação orgânica é uma opção mais barata e de grande eficácia em relação à rentabilidade e consequente melhoria da estrutura física, química e biológica do solo. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes tipos de adubação: orgânica (cama de frango), mineral e via foliar sobre parâmetros de produtividade de alface cultivada em diferentes tipos de plantio. Os tratamentos consistiram na utilização de dois sistemas de plantio (P1 - Linha e P2 - Quincôncio) e adubações minerais e orgânicas (A1 - adubação mineral; A2 - adubação mineral + adubação foliar; A3 - adubação orgânica com cama de aviário e A4 - adubação orgânica + mineral). As unidades experimentais foram compostas por 36 e 52 plantas, respectivamente, para os tratamentos em linha e em quincôncio, sendo avaliadas todas as plantas centrais da unidade experimental. Foram observados a altura do coração, massa fresca e número de folhas. Os tratamentos mineral e mineral + foliar não diferenciaram entre si, tanto em linha quanto em quincôncio. O tratamento que se destacou em relação às variáveis analisadas foi aquele baseado na adubação orgânica e sistema de plantio em quincôncio, refletindo em maior número de pés de alface e melhor aproveitamento da área.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Cultivation , Lettuce/growth & development , Lettuce/drug effects , Fertilizers
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Moths , Phosphorus , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Insecticide Resistance , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Fertilizers , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Larva , Nitrogen
3.
Rev. tecnol. (St. Tecla, En línea) ; (15): 27-30, ene.-dic. 2022. tab.^c28 cm.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1412635

ABSTRACT

En el beneficiado del cacao se producen una gran cantidad de residuos, las mazorcas generalmente son desechadas dentro de los mismos cultivos y genera problemáticas como la proliferación de insectos y microorganismos patógenos. De estos desechos las cáscaras son las de mayor relevancia. La Escuela de Ingeniería Química de ITCA-FEPADE evaluó añadirle valor a este subproducto, incorporando desechos de cáscara de cacao en la formulación de un sustrato para el cultivo de plántulas de hortalizas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue obtener un sustrato orgánico que sirva de soporte material y nutritivo a partir de cáscaras de cacao criollo. La biomasa vegetal se caracterizó teniendo en cuenta parámetros como el porcentaje de humedad, pH, porcentaje de cenizas, contenido de potasio, nitrógeno y fósforo. Se ejecutaron pruebas comparativas de formulación del sustrato, siembra, cultivo y crecimiento de las plántulas de hortalizas de tomate y pepino, obteniendo como resultado la fórmula óptima de un sustrato y abono orgánico y el mejor medio de desarrollo. De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que, a partir de un adecuado procesamiento y aprovechamiento de las cáscaras de cacao, se puede transformar este desecho en un producto biomaterial alternativo que genera una opción de bioprospección agroindustrial. Los valores obtenidos en la caracterización fisicoquímica de las cáscaras de las mazorcas, dependen de condiciones como el tipo de suelo, variables agrometeorológicas, calidad de agua, abono y especie de la planta de cacao. El escenario de siembra condiciona el desarrollo óptimo de las plántulas; los factores como requerimiento de agua, distribución de nutrientes y estabilidad de las plántulas, se ven afectados por la relación del espacio de germinación. Como resultado de la caracterización fisicoquímica, se obtuvo: pH de 5.7, cenizas 18.83%, humedad 73.56%, celulosa 21.39%, lignina 39.81%, nitrógeno total 0.02%, fósforo total 0.02% y ausencia de potasio.


In the cacao beneficiation, a large amount of waste is produced, generally, the cacao pods are discarded within the same crops and generate problems such as the proliferation of insects and pathogenic microorganisms. The shell are the most relevant this waste. In Escuela de Ingeniería Química of ITCA-FEPADE the incorporation of cacao shell waste in the formulation of a substrate for growing vegetables was evaluated because the giving benefit to these by-products. The objective of this research was to obtain a substrate that serves as material and nutritional support for vegetable seedlings, from creole cacao shells. The vegetal biomass was characterized taking into account parameters such as moisture percentage, pH, ash percentage, potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus content. Subsequently, comparative tests of formulation, planting and growth of vegetable tomato and cucumber seedlings were carry out, obtaining as result, the optimal formula for the substrate and the best development environment. It concludes that, through an adequate processing and use of the cacao shell, it is possible to transform a waste into an alternative biomaterial product that generates an agro industrial bioprospecting option. The values obtained in the physicochemical characterization of the shells of cacao pods depend on conditions such as soil type, agrometeorological variables, water quality, fertilizer and cacao plant species. The planting environment determines the optimal development of the seedlings, factors such as water requirement, nutrient distribution and seedling stability seems affected because relation of the germination space. The results of the characterization were a pH of 5.7, ashes 18.83%, humidity 73.56%, cellulose 21.39%, lignin 39.81%, total nitrogen 0.02%, total phosphorus 0.02%, and total phosphorus 0.02% and an absence of potassium.


Subject(s)
Cacao/chemistry , Composting/methods , Garbage , Waste Products , Nutrients , Fertilizers , Bioprospecting
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235612, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153466

ABSTRACT

Abstract The experiment was carried out on mango cv. Dusehri to investigate the effect of N, P and K fertilizers on vegetative, reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality. Eight different fertilizer combinations such as T1 (control), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) and T8 (NPK) were used. Individual or combine fertilizer application of N (1000 g), P (750 g) and K (750 g) were applied during growing season in February and August. All the treatments significantly influenced on vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting, yield and other physiochemical attributes of mango as compared to control. Least effect was observed with individual fertilizer application while combine fertilizer treatments enhanced most of the investigated parameters. Especially, qualitative traits showed non-significant differences between treated and untreated mango trees. However, among the different treatments T8 (NPK) showed significance for fruiting aspects such as maximum size of growth flushes (177.51 mm), total number of panicles/tree (845), total number of flowers/panicle (974), sex ratio (69.18%), fruit retention (13.85%), total number of fruits/tree (379), yield (82 kg/tree), fruit weight (197.5 g), pulp weight (135.5 g) and physiochemical parameters namely TSS (24.53), Vit. C (57.63 mg/100 mL) and total sugar (20.84%). In general, combine application of NPK (T8) were the most effective in enhancing fruiting aspects, yield, physiochemical characteristics as well as improved fruit quality of mango trees.


Resumo O experimento foi realizado em manga cv. Dusehri para investigar o efeito dos fertilizantes N, P e K no crescimento vegetativo, reprodutivo, produtividade e de qualidade do fruto. Foram utilizadas oito combinações diferentes de fertilizantes: T1 (controle), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) e T8 (NPK). Cada tratamento de N (1.000 g), P (750 g) e K (750 g) foi aplicado duas vezes durante a estação de crescimento em fevereiro e agosto. Todos os tratamentos influenciaram significativamente o crescimento vegetativo, floração, frutificação, produtividade e outros atributos físico-químicos da manga em relação ao controle. Menos efeito foi observado com a aplicação individual de fertilizante, enquanto os tratamentos combinados aumentaram a maioria dos parâmetros investigados. Especialmente as características qualitativas mostraram diferenças não significativas entre mangueiras tratadas e não tratadas. No entanto, entre os diferentes tratamentos, T8 (NPK) apresentou significância para aspectos de frutificação, como tamanho máximo de folgas de crescimento (177,51 mm), número total de panículas/árvore (845), número total de flores/panícula (974), razão sexual (69,18%), retenção de frutos (13,85%), número total de frutos/árvore (379), produção (82 kg/árvore), peso do fruto (197,5 g) e peso da polpa (135,5 g), além de parâmetros físico-químicos, como TSS (24,53), vitamina C (57,63 mg/100 mL) e açúcar total (20,84%). Em geral, a aplicação combinada de NPK (T8) foi a mais eficaz no aprimoramento dos aspectos de frutificação, produtividade, características físico-químicas, além da melhoria da qualidade dos frutos das mangueiras.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mangifera , Trees , Birds , Fertilizers , Fruit
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240133, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278516

ABSTRACT

Abstract A field study was carried out to determine the influence of foliage applied plant growth promoter and retardant in improving soil applied sulphur fertilizer use efficiency in cotton during two consecutive summers 2014 and 2015. Experimental trial comprised of three different sources of sulphur (ammonium sulphate, potassium sulphate and elemental sulphur) and foliar spray of plant growth promoter and growth retardant including tap water was taken as control. Among treatments soil applied ammonium sulphate with foliage applied amino acid produced maximum plant height, sympodial branches, pods per plant, seed cotton yield, fiber yield, biological yield, protein contents, oil contents and leaf nitrogen uptake as compared to the other treatments. Whereas, soil applied potassium sulphate with foliar spray of mepiquat chloride on cotton significantly improved the boll weight and leaf potassium uptake. We conclude that soil applied ammonium sulphate and foliage spray of amino acid was more effective in improving the productivity and quality attributes of cotton.


Resumo Foi realizado um estudo de campo para determinar a influência do promotor de crescimento das plantas e retardador da folhagem em algodão, para melhora da eficiência do uso de fertilizantes à base de enxofre aplicados no solo durante dois verões consecutivos (2014 e 2015). O ensaio experimental foi composto de três fontes diferentes de enxofre (sulfato de amônio, sulfato de potássio e enxofre elementar) e pulverização foliar do promotor de crescimento de plantas e retardador de crescimento, incluindo água da torneira que foi tomada como controle. Entre os tratamentos, o sulfato de amônio aplicado no solo com aminoácido aplicado na folhagem produziu o máximo na altura da planta, ramos simodiais, capulhos por planta, rendimento de algodão em caroço, rendimento de fibra, rendimento biológico, conteúdo de proteínas, conteúdo de óleo e absorção de nitrogênio nas folhas quando comparado a outros tratamentos. Enquanto o solo fertilizado com sulfato de potássio e aplicação foliar de cloreto de mepiquat no algodão melhorou, significativamente, o peso do capulho e a absorção de potássio nas folhas. Sulfato de amônio aplicado no solo e a aplicação foliar de aminoácidos foram mais eficazes na melhora dos atributos de produtividade e qualidade do algodão.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Nitrogen , Soil , Fertilizers , Ammonium Sulfate
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e256277, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364494

ABSTRACT

The wax apple or jambu madu, is a non-climacteric tropical fruit from Myrtaceae family and widely cultivated in South East Asia. The limited availability of good quality seedlings of wax apple is the main problem to development of flourish it's market share in the current fruit industry. Therefore, in order to produce good quality planting materials, a study aimed at optimizing propagation and adventitious rooting technique and survivability of wax apple air layer was conducted. In this study, four different levels of Indole-3-Butyric Acid (IBA) concentration (0, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg L-1) and three rooting media (sphagnum moss, vermicompost and garden soil) were applied after removal of bark (phloem) on the shoot to determine the effect on rooting and survivability of the wax apple air layer under field conditions. The results showed that the wax apple shoots treated with 2000 mg L-1 IBA produced the significantly higher number of roots, increased length of root, diameter of branch, length of branch, number of leaf and leaf area of air layers. In addition, the highest chlorophyll content and stomatal aperture were recorded in 2000 mg L-1 IBA treatment compared to other treatments including control. Vermicompost medium was better than garden soil and sphagnum moss in respect of rooting and survivability of air layers. The results showed that the combination of 2000 mg L-1 IBA and vermicompost as rooting media give the best combination to root initiation, root number, root length and survival rate (100%) of wax apple air layers. From this study, it can be concluded that 2000 mg L-1 IBA and vermicompost treatment enhance the root initiation, early establishment and survivability of wax apple air layered under field conditions.


A maçã de cera, ou jambu madu, é uma fruta tropical não climatérica da família Myrtaceae e amplamente cultivada no Sudeste Asiático. A disponibilidade limitada de mudas de macieira de boa qualidade é o principal problema para o desenvolvimento de sua participação de mercado na fruticultura atual. Portanto, com o objetivo de produzir materiais de plantio de boa qualidade, foi realizado um estudo visando otimizar a técnica de propagação e enraizamento adventício e a sobrevivência da camada aérea da cera de macieira. Neste estudo, quatro diferentes níveis de concentração de ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB) (0, 1000, 1500 e 2000 mg L-1) e três meios de enraizamento (musgo esfagno, vermicomposto e solo de jardim) foram aplicados após a remoção da casca (floema) na parte aérea para determinar o efeito no enraizamento e capacidade de sobrevivência da camada de ar da macieira em condições de campo. Os resultados mostraram que os brotos de macieira tratados com 2000 mg L-1 de AIB produziram significativamente maior número de raízes, maior comprimento de raiz, diâmetro de galho, comprimento de galho, número de folhas e área foliar das camadas aéreas. Além disso, o maior teor de clorofila e abertura estomática foram registrados no tratamento 2000 mg L-1 IBA em comparação com outros tratamentos, incluindo o controle. O meio de vermicomposto foi melhor do que o solo de jardim e o musgo esfagno em relação ao enraizamento e capacidade de sobrevivência das camadas aéreas. Os resultados mostraram que a combinação de 2000 mg L-1 de AIB e vermicomposto como meio de enraizamento proporciona a melhor combinação para iniciação radicular, número de raízes, comprimento radicular e taxa de sobrevivência (100%) das camadas aéreas de macieira. A partir deste estudo, pode-se concluir que 2.000 mg L-1 de AIB e tratamento com vermicomposto melhoram a iniciação radicular, o estabelecimento precoce e a capacidade de sobrevivência de macieiras em camadas de ar em condições de campo.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Cultivation , Plant Roots/growth & development , Malus/growth & development , Fertilizers
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927905

ABSTRACT

Carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality have become hot issues of political and economic activities in China and abroad. The structure and development of various industries in China will be profoundly affected in the process of accomplishing "Dual Carbon" goals. Eco-agriculture of Chinese medicine(EACM) highlights the balance and sustainable development of the ecosystem while producing high-quality medicinal materials. With chemically synthesized fertilizers, pesticides, and growth regulators prohibited, EACM emphasizes the recycling of agricultural and sideline products and the reduction of waste output, which results in the minimal negative impact on the ecological environment. Therefore, it is typical agriculture with low-carbon sources and high-carbon sinks. This study reviewed the mechanism and potential of EACM in carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality, analyzed the specific ways of EACM in reducing carbon sources and increasing carbon sinks based on the typical ecological planting pattern, and proposed the point of view to strengthen EACM as well as the "Dual Carbon" theory and research methods, so as to direct low-carbon and efficient deve-lopment. Furthermore, this study advocated to comprehensively promote the transformation of Chinese medicine production from chemical agriculture to eco-agriculture to improve the comprehensive benefits of contribution rate of carbon neutrality, explore and establish carbon sink compensation mechanism to ensure the sustainable and healthy development of EACM, and strengthen the training of EACM and "Dual Carbon" theory and technologies to continuously improve the capacity of EACM in sustainable development. This study is expected to provide a reference for the development of ecological functions in EACM and the development of economic functions through ecological functions.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Carbon Dioxide , China , Ecosystem , Fertilizers , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
8.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 20(2/3): 16-23, June 4, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396355

ABSTRACT

The application of synthetic fertilizers reduces the natural fertility of the soil and contaminates groundwater. Some photosynthesis inhibitors at ultra-high dilution (UHD) increase photosynthesis, growth, and yield of crops. A weedicide Paraquat at UHD enhanced the growth and yield of potatoes in fields. The objective is to see whether the UHD of Paraquat is also effective on rice. This weedicide was serially diluted with distilled water and manually succussed in 30 steps following the preparation of homeopathic dilutions called potencies. In this way, the 30thpotency of Paraquat called Paraquat 30 cH was prepared and preserved in 90 % ethanol. Paraquat 30 cH was diluted with water 1:1000 (v/v) and sprayed on rice plants in a field measuring 0.3125 acres. The control plot of the same area was situated 300 meters away from the test plot. Three treatments were given at an interval of 7 days. The treated plot showed increased growth, chlorophyll content, and rice yield significantlycompared to control. The UHD of the weedicide produced precisely the opposite effect of the crude material on plants. The increased growth and yield of rice by Paraquat 30 cH may be due to the enhancement of photosynthesis of treated plants. The UHD of Paraquat increased the yield of rice by 19.35% over the control.


Subject(s)
Paraquat/administration & dosage , Oryza , Fertilizers , Weed Control
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190323, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285545

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Brachiaria decumbens pasture associated with kudzu Pueraria phaseloides legume represents an alternative for higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Higher lime doses presented high rates of AMF and improved soil chemical properties (SCP). Higher lime doses were the most influential technological factor than the type of pasture and the N, P, K fertilizer sources on AMF.


Abstract In order to improve the sustainability of livestock systems at Cumaral, Meta, under tropical conditions of Colombia, implementation of different Brachiaria decumbens production technologies can be beneficial for a better soil fertility. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two pastures type (Factor A): (a) Brachiaria decumbens grass (B1) and Brachiaria decumbens grass associated with kudzu Pueraria phaseloides legume (B2); (b) Factor B: Four lime (CaCO3) doses: L0 = 0 tons ha-1, L1 = 1.1 tons ha-1, L2 = 2.2 tons ha-1 and L3 = 3.3 tons ha-1; and (c) Factor C: three N, P, K fertilizers sources: 100 kg ha-1 Urea, 200 kg ha-1 triple superphosphate (TSP) and 100 kg ha-1 potassium chloride (PCl) on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and soil chemical properties (SCP). Cluster analysis showed that B2*L3, L2*Urea, TSP, PCl increased the number of AMF spores per g soil and improved soil chemical properties (SCP), as B1*L3*Urea, TSP, PCl, in cluster 1, higher lime doses were the most influential factor, indistinctly pasture type, as N, P, K fertilizer sources showed low effect in cluster conformation. Farmers in the area can implement these B. decumbens technological practices that help improve the sustainability of livestock systems at tropical zones.


Subject(s)
Soil Biology/methods , Brachiaria , Agriculture/methods , Fertilizers
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 484-494, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153343

ABSTRACT

Cotton crop, plays a significant role in Pakistan's economy by ruling a prominent place in edible oil and local textile industry. Phosphorus (P) inaccessibility and deficiency of soil organic matter are the key restraints for low crop productivity in cotton. Therefore, a two years field study was designed during 2014-15, to explore the influence of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), farmyard manure (FYM), poultry manure (PM) and inanimate sources of P on various physiological, growth, yield and quality parameters of cotton crop at CCRI Multan. Field responses of seeds inoculated with two distinctive phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) strains viz. S0 = control, S1 =strain-1, S2 = strain-2 and eight organic, inorganic P sources viz., P0= control, P1 = 80 kg ha-1 P from inorganic source, P2 = 80 kg ha-1 P from FYM, P3 = 80 kg ha-1 P from PM, P4 = 40 kg ha-1 P from FYM + 40 kg ha-1 P from inorganic source, P5 = 40 kg ha-1 P from PM + 40 kg ha-1 P from inorganic source, P6 = 80 kg ha-1 P from FYM + 40 kg ha-1 P from inorganic source, P7 = 80 kg ha-1 P from PM + 40 kg ha-1 P from inorganic source and P8 = 40 kg ha-1 P from FYM + 40 kg ha-1 P from PM were evaluated. Results revealed that inoculation of seeds with PSB and collective use of inorganic and organic sources of P had considerably increased the yield contributing attributes in cotton. However, the treatment P7 (80 kg P ha-1 from PM + 40 kg P ha-1 from inorganic source) in coincidence with seeds inoculated with PSB (S1) produced taller plant, maximum boll weight, significantly higher LAI and CGR. Significantly higher seed cotton yield, lint yield, fiber length and maximum BCR of 1.95 and 1.81 was also obtained from the P7 treatment during both crop-growing seasons. In conclusion, combined use of 80 kg P ha-1 from PM + 40 kg P ha-1 from inorganic source and cotton seeds inoculated with strain-1 improved phosphorus uptake ensuing in greater consumption of photo-assimilates for maximum growth and yield.


A safra de algodão, desempenha um papel significativo na economia do Paquistão, ao ocupar um lugar de destaque no óleo comestível e na indústria têxtil local. A inacessibilidade e a deficiência de fósforo (P) da matéria orgânica do solo são as principais restrições para a baixa produtividade das culturas em algodão. Portanto, um estudo de campo de dois anos foi desenvolvido durante 2014-15, para explorar a influência de bactérias solubilizantes de fosfato (PSB), esterco de capoeira (FYM), esterco de aves (PM) e fontes inanimadas de P sobre vários fatores fisiológicos, crescimento, rendimento e parâmetros de qualidade da cultura do algodão no CCRI Multan. Respostas de campo de sementes inoculadas com duas cepas distintas de bactérias solubilizantes de fosfato (PSB) viz. S0 = controle, S1 = cepa-1, S2 = cepa-2 e oito fontes orgânicas de P inorgânicas viz., P0 = controle, P1 = 80 kg ha-1 P de fonte inorgânica, P2 = 80 kg ha-1 P de FYM, P3 = 80 kg ha-1 P de PM, P4 = 40 kg ha-1 P de FYM + 40 kg ha-1 P de fonte inorgânica, P5 = 40 kg ha-1 P de PM + 40 kg ha-1 P de fonte inorgânica, P6 = 80 kg ha-1 P de FYM + 40 kg ha-1 P de fonte inorgânica, P7 = 80 kg ha-1 P de PM + 40 kg ha-1 P de fonte inorgânica e P8 = 40 Foram avaliados kg ha-1 P da FYM + 40 kg ha-1 P da PM. Os resultados revelaram que a inoculação de sementes com PSB e o uso coletivo de fontes inorgânicas e orgânicas de P aumentaram consideravelmente os atributos que contribuem para a produtividade no algodão. No entanto, o tratamento P7 (80 kg P ha-1 da PM + 40 kg P ha-1 da fonte inorgânica) em coincidência com sementes inoculadas com PSB (S1) produziu planta mais alta, peso máximo de cápsula, IAF e CGR significativamente maiores. Produtividade significativamente maior do algodão, rendimento de fiapos, comprimento da fibra e BCR máximo de 1,95 e 1,81 também foi obtida a partir do tratamento P7 durante as duas épocas de cultivo. Em conclusão, o uso combinado de 80 kg P ha-1 de PM + 40 kg P ha-1 de fonte inorgânica e sementes de algodão inoculadas com a cepa-1 melhoraram a captação de fósforo, resultando em maior consumo de foto assimilados para obter crescimento e produtividade máximos.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus/administration & dosage , Soil/chemistry , Phosphorus Compounds/analysis , Fertilizers , Pakistan , Crop Production , Manure
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879111

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed through field experiments to study the effect of combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers on the growth and quality of Salvia miltiorrhiza, provide ideas for reducing fertilization while increasing the efficiency as well as improving the quality of produces. The experiment included 6 treatments viz., no fertilization(CK), full application of chemical fertilizer(F), 25% orga-nic fertilizer with 75% chemical fertilizer(M25), 50% organic fertilizer with 50% chemical fertilizer(M50), 75% organic fertilizer with 25% chemical fertilizer(M75), and fully apply organic fertilizer(M100). The results showed that:(1)from the perspective of yield and economic benefits, M75 was the best and M100 second;(2)for effective components, the combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers increased the content of main water-soluble components and the total content of effective components, among which M25 and M50 were better.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Fertilizers/analysis , Nitrogen , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Soil
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879107

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen is one of the most frequently used fertilizers in growth of Chinese medicinal plants(CMP). As in many other ecosystems, CMP ecosystem is also composed of plant-herbivore-natural enemy(tritrophic) interactions. Nitrogen fertilizer influences the growth and reproduction of CMP, and it is also able to heavily shape the ecosystem functions of CMP ecosystem through bottom-up forces. Understanding the specific effects of nitrogen fertilizer towards each trophic level will be beneficial to improve the resistance of CMP to herbivore and enhance the control efficiency of nature enemies to herbivore, and eventually, maximize the yield and quality of CMP. Most papers published on nitrogen use in plants focused mainly on the impact of nitrogen fertilization on CMP yield and quality. Influences of nitrogen application on CMP ecosystem get little attention at present. Therefore, this review summed up the potential effects of nitrogen fertilization on CMP ecosystem from perspectives of soil and tritrophic interactions. First of all, nitrogen fertilizer might decrease soil microbial biomass and altered the community structures of soil bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were found on biodiversity of soil bacteria and protozoa. Different fungi species respond differently to nitrogen fertili-zers. Nitrogen deposition can also decrease the soil pH. Decreases in soil microbial diversity and soil acidification can cause negative effects on CMP growth. In addition, nitrogen fertilizer could regulate the pest resistance of CMP including constitutive and inducible resistance. Both positive and negative effects of nitrogen application were found on pest resistance of CMP. Moreover, the development and predation of natural enemies were influenced by nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen influences natural enemies in many ways including plant volatiles, plant nutrient and structure and the supplementary food quality. Nectar and honeydew of plants and preys serve as important food source for natural enemies especially in early season when preys are still not available. Finally, the interactions between herbivores and their natural enemies were also shaped by nitrogen fertilizer in many aspects like increasing the nutritional content of prey and changing control efficiency of natural enemies. Some herbivores have evolved a strategy to sequester secondary metabolites which they absorbed from plant during their feeding. Studies showed that sequestration efficiency of secondary metabolites in prey could also be regulated by nitrogen. Parasitic, emergence, reproduction rate and longevity of parasites were found positively correlated with nitrogen deposition. Hopefully this study will shed light on practicable and economical application of nitrogen in cultivation of CMP.


Subject(s)
China , Ecosystem , Fertilizers , Nitrogen , Plants, Medicinal , Soil
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879106

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen fertilizer has been the long-lasting crucial component in cultivation of Chinese materia medica(CMM) and crops for its profound effects on enhancing the productivity. In consideration of its role in better production, intensive and excessive application of N fertilizer is often found in CMM cultivation. Therefore, firstly, this review summarized various concentrations of N application with regards to different CMM and districts from the literatures published in the last two decades. The recommended concentration of nitrogen application of forty seven CMM species were covered in this review. We found that the optimum rates of nitrogen fertili-zer for different medicinal plants species were varied in the range between 0-1 035.55 kg·hm~(-2). Most of the optimum rates of nitrogen fertilizer for CMM in published researches fell between 100-199 kg·hm~(-2). The optimum rate of nitrogen fertilizer is not only related to amount of nitrogen required for different medicinal plants but also to soil fertilities of different fields. In addition, we outlined the diffe-rent effects of proper and excessive nitrogen deposition on yield of CMM. Proper nitrogen deposition benefits the yield of CMM, howe-ver, excessive nitrogen use accounts for a decrease in CMM yield. We elucidated that nutritional content, water use efficiencies, and photosynthesis capacity were major influencing factors. Researches showed that proper nitrogen fertilizer could promote the water use efficiencies of plants and boost photosynthesis. Consequently, the yield of CMM can be enhanced after nitrogen deposition. However, negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were also found on plant including producing toxic substances to the soil and causing severe pest damages. Lastly we analyzed the impact of N fertilizer application on secondary metabolites which accounts for a large part of active pharmaceutical ingredients of CMM. It usually caused an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. The potential underlying mechanisms are the different synthetic pathways of these metabolites and the plant nutritional status. Synthesis of non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites like phenols can be inhibited after nitrogen application because of the competition of the same precursor substances between metabolites synthesis and plant growth. To sum up, impacts and mechanisms of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality enhancement of CMM were discussed in this review. Negative effects of excessive nitrogen application on CMM should be paid special attention in CMM cultivation and prescription fertilization based on the field soil quality is strongly recommended. Overall, this review aims to provides insights on improving the proper application of N fertilizer in the cultivation of CMM.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Fertilizers , Materia Medica , Nitrogen/analysis , Soil
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878972

ABSTRACT

In this study, 24 copies of samples of Chrysanthemum morifolium and soil from two main production towns in Macheng city were collected, and the contents of 13 mineral elements, 5 effective components and 14 soil nutrient factors in Ch. morifolium were determined. The enrichment characteristics of available soil nutrients by mineral elements were analyzed and the dominant factors affecting the effective components of Ch. morifolium were screened. The results showed that the content of mineral elements and soil nutrients and effective components are very different, and variation of soil fertility was much greater than that of inorganic elements in chrysanthemum plants. In general, the level of element content in Ch. morifolium from different producing areas is K>N>P>Mg>Ca>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd. The content of K, N and Mg is higher than that of common crops, and the content of Cu, Cd and Pb in Ch. morifolium from various producing areas does not exceed the relevant standards. The N, P and K enrichment capacity in soil was stronger than that of other elements, and the Ca enrichment ability was the worst. The content of AvCu in the soil was positively correlated with the contents of N, Mg, K, Fe and Cu elements in Ch. morifolium. The contents of chlorogenic acid, luteolin, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid reached the pharmacopoeia standard. The percentage of chlorogenic acid and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid in Ch. morifolium that from Huangtugang town in the active components were generally higher than that from Futianhe town, and the diffe-rences of luteolin contents in the two producing areas were relatively small. The correlation and regression analysis showed that the contents of Cu, Zn and Cr in Ch. morifolium were positively correlated with the active components, while the contents of Fe, Mn and Ni were negatively correlated with the contents of AvP, AvK, TK, AvMn and AvCu in soil. In general, Zn and Ca fertilizer should be added to the ecological planting of Ch. morifolium, K fertilizer should be added, and N and P fertilizer should be applied appropriately.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , Fertilizers , Minerals , Nutrients , Soil
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 13-22, nov. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a large amount of industrial wastewater produced by the mushroom industry during the canning processing each year, which could provide abundant carbon, nitrogen and inorganic salts for microbial growth. The aim of this study was to optimize the culture conditions for Bacillus licheniformis cultured in the Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater to produce the agricultural microbial fertilizer. RESULTS: In this work, the maximal biomass of B. licheniformis could be obtained under the following culture conditions: 33.7°C, pH 7.0, 221 rpm shaking speed, 0.5% wastewater, 2 (v:v, %) inoculum dose, loading liquid of 60 mL/250 mL and a culture time of 24 h, and the average experimental value obtained was 1.35 ± 0.04 × 109 Obj/mL, which was within the 95% confidence interval of the predicted model (1.29­1.38 × 109 Obj/mL), and met the national microbial fertilizers' standard in China. Furthermore, the field experiment results showed that the fermentation broth of B. licheniformis could significantly improve the yield of Anoectochilus roxburghii. CONCLUSIONS: Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater can be used to produce agricultural microbial fertilizer.


Subject(s)
Orchidaceae/physiology , Fertilizers/microbiology , Bacillus licheniformis/physiology , Agaricus , Fermentation , Waste Water , Flow Cytometry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Industrial Waste
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(5): 1528-1534, 01-09-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147795

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen (N) is one of the nutrients absorbed in great quantity by maize crop. Also, N fertilizers are of high costs and subject to large losses into the agricultural environment. There are various categories of fertilizers known as fertilizers of improved efficiency that can minimize such N losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different sources and doses of N in maize agronomic performance. The experiment was installed in randomized blocks, with four replications, designed as a factorial 5 x 5 + 1, constituted by five N sources (urea, urea polymerized, urea with NBPT, organomineral with and without NBPT), five N doses (40, 80, 120, 160, 200 kg ha-1) plus a control (no N supply). The chlorophyll contents and grain yield were evaluated. The results showed no differences for the different N sources, indicating that the organomineral sources are as efficient as the mineral sources. The addition of N fertilizers in increasing doses, regardless of the source tested, has increased the levels of chlorophylls and grain yiled.


O nitrogênio (N) é um dos nutrientes absorvidos em grande quantidade pela cultura do milho. Além disso, os fertilizantes nitrogenados são de alto custo e sujeitos a grandes perdas no ambiente agrícola. Existem várias categorias de fertilizantes, conhecidas como fertilizantes de maior eficiência, que podem minimizar essas perdas de N. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes e doses de N no desempenho agronômico do milho. O experimento foi instalado em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, delineadas como fatorial 5 x 5 + 1, constituído por cinco fontes de N (uréia, uréia polimerizada, uréia com NBPT, organomineral com e sem NBPT), cinco doses de N (40, 80, 120, 160, 200 kg ha-1) mais um controle (sem fornecimento de N). O conteúdo de clorofila e o rendimento de grãos foram avaliados. Os resultados não mostraram diferenças para as diferentes fontes de N, indicando que as fontes organomineral são tão eficientes quanto as fontes minerais. A adição de fertilizantes N em doses crescentes, independentemente da fonte testada, aumentou os níveis de clorofilas e rendimento de grãos


Subject(s)
Urea , Zea mays , Fertilizers
17.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 67(1): 72-87, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1127014

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Soil carbon sequestration refers to the process of transferring carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere into the soil. The objective of this research was to do a simulation of how soil management factors in pastures can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing soil CO2-eq emissions due to increases of soil organic carbon.In livestock systems of Cumaral (Meta), Colombia, IPCC Tier 2 methodology was used to compare changes in soils C stocks under (a) two pasture types: Brachiaria decumbens grass pastures (B1) and Brachiaria decumbens grass pastures associated with Pueraria phaseloides legume (B2); (b) four increasing doses of CaCO?: 0, 1.1, 2.2, 3.3 tons ha-1; (c) three sources of N, P, K fertilizers: 100 kg ha-1 Urea, 200 kg ha-1 Triple Superphosphate and 100 kg ha-1 Potassium Chloride. The statistical design was a randomized complete block in factorial arrangement 2 x 4 x 3. Tukey test indicated that the inclusion of kudzú in B. decumbens pasture (B2), 2.2 and 3.3 tons CaCO3 ha-1 in both pastures, and the fertilization of B1 with Urea and B2 with Triple Superphosphate presented a greater benefit in soil C accumulation and CO2-eq emissions neutralization. Adittional cluster analysis showed that B2 liming with higher lime doses regardless of the type of fertilizer used presented major soil C stored grouped in Cluster 1. We concluded that these soil management factors should be feasible to implement in pastures, that can help offset the negative effects of global climate change on livestock systems at tropical zones.


RESUMEN El secuestro de carbono en el suelo se refiere al proceso de transferencia de dióxido de carbono (CO2) de la atmósfera al suelo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue hacer una simulación de cómo los factores de manejo del suelo en pasturas, pueden contribuir a mitigar el cambio climático al reducir las emisiones de CO2-eq del suelo debido a los aumentos de acumulación de carbono orgánico en el suelo. En sistemas ganaderos de Cumaral (Meta), Colombia, se utilizó la metodología Tier 2 del Panel Intergubernamental sobre Cambio Climático (IPCC) para comparar los cambios en las existencias de C del suelo en (a) dos tipos de pasturas: pasturas de pasto Brachiaria decumbens (Bl) y pasturas del pasto Brachiaria decumbens asociadas con leguminosa de Pueraria phaseloi-des (B2); cuatro dosis crecientes de CaCO?: 0, l.l, 2.2, 3.3 tons ha1; y (c) tres fuentes de fertiliantes N, P, K: 100 kg ha-1 Urea, 200 kg ha-1 Superfosfato triple y 100 kg ha-1 Cloruro de potasio. El diseño estadístico fue un bloques completos al azar en arreglo factorial 2 x 4 x 3. El test de Tukey indicó que la inclusión de la leguminosa en la pastura (B2), la aplicación de 2.2 y 3.3 tons CaCO3 ha-1 en ambas pasturas y la fertilización de B1 con Urea y de B2 con Superfosfato triple presentaron un mayor beneficio en la acumulación de C del suelo y la neutralización de las emisiones de CO2-eq. El análisis de cluster adicional mostró que B2 encalada con más altas dosis de cal indistintamente del tipo de fertilizante usado presentaron mayor almacenamiento de C del suelo agrupados en el Cluster 1. Nosotros concluimos que estos factores de manejo de suelos deberían ser factibles de implementar en pasturas, lo que puede ayudar a compensar los efectos negativos del cambio climático global en los sistemas ganaderos de zonas tropicales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Soil , Climate Change , Carbon , Carbon Dioxide , Brachiaria , Fertilizers , Carbon Sequestration , Potassium Chloride , Research , Urea , Pasture , Simulation Exercise , Dosage
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190492, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142514

ABSTRACT

Abstract Soil management influences organic matter decomposition rates as well soil microbial community functional behavior. No-till (NT) is the most used management system by farmers due to its conservation practices and high productivity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of surface-applied lime, nitrogen (N) application, and black oat residues on soil microbial community of a Typic Hapludox under continuous NT. Therefore, soil chemical attributes, microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration, metabolic quotient, most probable number of diazotrophs, as well as bacterial functional analysis were performed. The effect of liming and N fertilization amendments inputs were saw in soil respiration and metabolic quotient measurements, showing them to be good indicators of soil quality. Further studies should be carried out in order to molecularly identify microbial communities present in soils with different liming and N fertilization management to evaluate the behavior of specific bacterial taxa under such conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Soil Quality , Calcium Compounds/administration & dosage , Fertilizers , Nitrogen/administration & dosage , Soil Analysis , Microbiota
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190520, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142513

ABSTRACT

Abstract Conservation agriculture practices can contribute to changes in soil nutrient dynamics over time. This experiment evaluated the changes in total stocks and distribution of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur concentrations in soil, during 60 months, in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) due to anticipated fertilization of sources and doses phosphates applied in soil surface. The experiment was conducted over a period of five years, under Typic Dystrudept, using a randomized block design, in an incomplete factorial scheme (3×3+1), with four replications. Treatments consisted of three sources of P [triple superphosphate (TSP), rock phosphate - Arad (RP) and magnesium thermophosphate (MTP)], along with four doses of P (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 P2O5 total). Samples of soil were collected in 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm layers at 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after beggining of experiment where the following chemical attributes were evaluated: (i) total organic carbon (TOC); (ii) total nitrogen Kjeldahl (TNK); (iii) available P by ion exchange resin method (P-IER); and (iv) available S-SO4 2-. The ICLS conditions provided increased total stocks and concentrations of TOC, TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- over time. The applications of different phosphates had no influence on soil TOC concentrations during the five years of experimentation. The concentrations of TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- showed an increase in different layers of soil, with the application of sources and doses of P. The P fertilization practice that was anticipated can consist of an efficient management of soil fertility, using properly managed conservation systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Phosphates/administration & dosage , Soil/chemistry , Agricultural Cultivation , Soil Analysis , Fertilizers , Animal Husbandry , Phosphorus/analysis , Sulfur/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
20.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190603, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142511

ABSTRACT

Abstract The no-tillage system associated with crops rotation affects the dynamics of soil organic matter, influencing the formation, reorganization and stabilization of aggregates and the carbon content (C) into soil aggregates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of crop rotations under no-tillage system on C content and soil aggregation. The experiment was conducted at the Paraná Agronomic Institute in Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil. The treatments consisted of six crop rotations, in a 3-year cycle, arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Soil samples were collected at layers of 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm. The aggregate classification was determined by the wet sieving methodology, and the Weighted Mean Diameter (WMD), Geometric Mean Diameter (GMD) and Aggregate Stability Index (ASI) were calculated. The C content in the aggregates was determined by wet oxidation. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no difference among crop rotations for aggregate classes and aggregation indexes, but were higher in surface, decreasing in depth. The carbon content in the aggregates did not differ among crop rotations, but presented stratification in the soil profile, decreasing in depth. The cycle of three years with crop rotation was insufficient to express possible changes in soil C content and aggregation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soil/chemistry , Carbon/chemistry , Sustainable Agriculture , Fertilizers , Brazil , Crops, Agricultural , Models, Theoretical
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