Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 381
Filter
1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190323, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285545

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Brachiaria decumbens pasture associated with kudzu Pueraria phaseloides legume represents an alternative for higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Higher lime doses presented high rates of AMF and improved soil chemical properties (SCP). Higher lime doses were the most influential technological factor than the type of pasture and the N, P, K fertilizer sources on AMF.


Abstract In order to improve the sustainability of livestock systems at Cumaral, Meta, under tropical conditions of Colombia, implementation of different Brachiaria decumbens production technologies can be beneficial for a better soil fertility. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two pastures type (Factor A): (a) Brachiaria decumbens grass (B1) and Brachiaria decumbens grass associated with kudzu Pueraria phaseloides legume (B2); (b) Factor B: Four lime (CaCO3) doses: L0 = 0 tons ha-1, L1 = 1.1 tons ha-1, L2 = 2.2 tons ha-1 and L3 = 3.3 tons ha-1; and (c) Factor C: three N, P, K fertilizers sources: 100 kg ha-1 Urea, 200 kg ha-1 triple superphosphate (TSP) and 100 kg ha-1 potassium chloride (PCl) on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and soil chemical properties (SCP). Cluster analysis showed that B2*L3, L2*Urea, TSP, PCl increased the number of AMF spores per g soil and improved soil chemical properties (SCP), as B1*L3*Urea, TSP, PCl, in cluster 1, higher lime doses were the most influential factor, indistinctly pasture type, as N, P, K fertilizer sources showed low effect in cluster conformation. Farmers in the area can implement these B. decumbens technological practices that help improve the sustainability of livestock systems at tropical zones.


Subject(s)
Soil Biology/methods , Brachiaria , Agriculture/methods , Fertilizers
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879111

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed through field experiments to study the effect of combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers on the growth and quality of Salvia miltiorrhiza, provide ideas for reducing fertilization while increasing the efficiency as well as improving the quality of produces. The experiment included 6 treatments viz., no fertilization(CK), full application of chemical fertilizer(F), 25% orga-nic fertilizer with 75% chemical fertilizer(M25), 50% organic fertilizer with 50% chemical fertilizer(M50), 75% organic fertilizer with 25% chemical fertilizer(M75), and fully apply organic fertilizer(M100). The results showed that:(1)from the perspective of yield and economic benefits, M75 was the best and M100 second;(2)for effective components, the combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers increased the content of main water-soluble components and the total content of effective components, among which M25 and M50 were better.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Fertilizers/analysis , Nitrogen , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Soil
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879107

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen is one of the most frequently used fertilizers in growth of Chinese medicinal plants(CMP). As in many other ecosystems, CMP ecosystem is also composed of plant-herbivore-natural enemy(tritrophic) interactions. Nitrogen fertilizer influences the growth and reproduction of CMP, and it is also able to heavily shape the ecosystem functions of CMP ecosystem through bottom-up forces. Understanding the specific effects of nitrogen fertilizer towards each trophic level will be beneficial to improve the resistance of CMP to herbivore and enhance the control efficiency of nature enemies to herbivore, and eventually, maximize the yield and quality of CMP. Most papers published on nitrogen use in plants focused mainly on the impact of nitrogen fertilization on CMP yield and quality. Influences of nitrogen application on CMP ecosystem get little attention at present. Therefore, this review summed up the potential effects of nitrogen fertilization on CMP ecosystem from perspectives of soil and tritrophic interactions. First of all, nitrogen fertilizer might decrease soil microbial biomass and altered the community structures of soil bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were found on biodiversity of soil bacteria and protozoa. Different fungi species respond differently to nitrogen fertili-zers. Nitrogen deposition can also decrease the soil pH. Decreases in soil microbial diversity and soil acidification can cause negative effects on CMP growth. In addition, nitrogen fertilizer could regulate the pest resistance of CMP including constitutive and inducible resistance. Both positive and negative effects of nitrogen application were found on pest resistance of CMP. Moreover, the development and predation of natural enemies were influenced by nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen influences natural enemies in many ways including plant volatiles, plant nutrient and structure and the supplementary food quality. Nectar and honeydew of plants and preys serve as important food source for natural enemies especially in early season when preys are still not available. Finally, the interactions between herbivores and their natural enemies were also shaped by nitrogen fertilizer in many aspects like increasing the nutritional content of prey and changing control efficiency of natural enemies. Some herbivores have evolved a strategy to sequester secondary metabolites which they absorbed from plant during their feeding. Studies showed that sequestration efficiency of secondary metabolites in prey could also be regulated by nitrogen. Parasitic, emergence, reproduction rate and longevity of parasites were found positively correlated with nitrogen deposition. Hopefully this study will shed light on practicable and economical application of nitrogen in cultivation of CMP.


Subject(s)
China , Ecosystem , Fertilizers , Nitrogen , Plants, Medicinal , Soil
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879106

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen fertilizer has been the long-lasting crucial component in cultivation of Chinese materia medica(CMM) and crops for its profound effects on enhancing the productivity. In consideration of its role in better production, intensive and excessive application of N fertilizer is often found in CMM cultivation. Therefore, firstly, this review summarized various concentrations of N application with regards to different CMM and districts from the literatures published in the last two decades. The recommended concentration of nitrogen application of forty seven CMM species were covered in this review. We found that the optimum rates of nitrogen fertili-zer for different medicinal plants species were varied in the range between 0-1 035.55 kg·hm~(-2). Most of the optimum rates of nitrogen fertilizer for CMM in published researches fell between 100-199 kg·hm~(-2). The optimum rate of nitrogen fertilizer is not only related to amount of nitrogen required for different medicinal plants but also to soil fertilities of different fields. In addition, we outlined the diffe-rent effects of proper and excessive nitrogen deposition on yield of CMM. Proper nitrogen deposition benefits the yield of CMM, howe-ver, excessive nitrogen use accounts for a decrease in CMM yield. We elucidated that nutritional content, water use efficiencies, and photosynthesis capacity were major influencing factors. Researches showed that proper nitrogen fertilizer could promote the water use efficiencies of plants and boost photosynthesis. Consequently, the yield of CMM can be enhanced after nitrogen deposition. However, negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were also found on plant including producing toxic substances to the soil and causing severe pest damages. Lastly we analyzed the impact of N fertilizer application on secondary metabolites which accounts for a large part of active pharmaceutical ingredients of CMM. It usually caused an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. The potential underlying mechanisms are the different synthetic pathways of these metabolites and the plant nutritional status. Synthesis of non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites like phenols can be inhibited after nitrogen application because of the competition of the same precursor substances between metabolites synthesis and plant growth. To sum up, impacts and mechanisms of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality enhancement of CMM were discussed in this review. Negative effects of excessive nitrogen application on CMM should be paid special attention in CMM cultivation and prescription fertilization based on the field soil quality is strongly recommended. Overall, this review aims to provides insights on improving the proper application of N fertilizer in the cultivation of CMM.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Fertilizers , Materia Medica , Nitrogen/analysis , Soil
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878972

ABSTRACT

In this study, 24 copies of samples of Chrysanthemum morifolium and soil from two main production towns in Macheng city were collected, and the contents of 13 mineral elements, 5 effective components and 14 soil nutrient factors in Ch. morifolium were determined. The enrichment characteristics of available soil nutrients by mineral elements were analyzed and the dominant factors affecting the effective components of Ch. morifolium were screened. The results showed that the content of mineral elements and soil nutrients and effective components are very different, and variation of soil fertility was much greater than that of inorganic elements in chrysanthemum plants. In general, the level of element content in Ch. morifolium from different producing areas is K>N>P>Mg>Ca>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd. The content of K, N and Mg is higher than that of common crops, and the content of Cu, Cd and Pb in Ch. morifolium from various producing areas does not exceed the relevant standards. The N, P and K enrichment capacity in soil was stronger than that of other elements, and the Ca enrichment ability was the worst. The content of AvCu in the soil was positively correlated with the contents of N, Mg, K, Fe and Cu elements in Ch. morifolium. The contents of chlorogenic acid, luteolin, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid reached the pharmacopoeia standard. The percentage of chlorogenic acid and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid in Ch. morifolium that from Huangtugang town in the active components were generally higher than that from Futianhe town, and the diffe-rences of luteolin contents in the two producing areas were relatively small. The correlation and regression analysis showed that the contents of Cu, Zn and Cr in Ch. morifolium were positively correlated with the active components, while the contents of Fe, Mn and Ni were negatively correlated with the contents of AvP, AvK, TK, AvMn and AvCu in soil. In general, Zn and Ca fertilizer should be added to the ecological planting of Ch. morifolium, K fertilizer should be added, and N and P fertilizer should be applied appropriately.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , Fertilizers , Minerals , Nutrients , Soil
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 13-22, nov. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a large amount of industrial wastewater produced by the mushroom industry during the canning processing each year, which could provide abundant carbon, nitrogen and inorganic salts for microbial growth. The aim of this study was to optimize the culture conditions for Bacillus licheniformis cultured in the Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater to produce the agricultural microbial fertilizer. RESULTS: In this work, the maximal biomass of B. licheniformis could be obtained under the following culture conditions: 33.7°C, pH 7.0, 221 rpm shaking speed, 0.5% wastewater, 2 (v:v, %) inoculum dose, loading liquid of 60 mL/250 mL and a culture time of 24 h, and the average experimental value obtained was 1.35 ± 0.04 × 109 Obj/mL, which was within the 95% confidence interval of the predicted model (1.29­1.38 × 109 Obj/mL), and met the national microbial fertilizers' standard in China. Furthermore, the field experiment results showed that the fermentation broth of B. licheniformis could significantly improve the yield of Anoectochilus roxburghii. CONCLUSIONS: Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater can be used to produce agricultural microbial fertilizer.


Subject(s)
Orchidaceae/physiology , Fertilizers/microbiology , Bacillus licheniformis/physiology , Agaricus , Fermentation , Waste Water , Flow Cytometry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Industrial Waste
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(5): 1528-1534, 01-09-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147795

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen (N) is one of the nutrients absorbed in great quantity by maize crop. Also, N fertilizers are of high costs and subject to large losses into the agricultural environment. There are various categories of fertilizers known as fertilizers of improved efficiency that can minimize such N losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different sources and doses of N in maize agronomic performance. The experiment was installed in randomized blocks, with four replications, designed as a factorial 5 x 5 + 1, constituted by five N sources (urea, urea polymerized, urea with NBPT, organomineral with and without NBPT), five N doses (40, 80, 120, 160, 200 kg ha-1) plus a control (no N supply). The chlorophyll contents and grain yield were evaluated. The results showed no differences for the different N sources, indicating that the organomineral sources are as efficient as the mineral sources. The addition of N fertilizers in increasing doses, regardless of the source tested, has increased the levels of chlorophylls and grain yiled.


O nitrogênio (N) é um dos nutrientes absorvidos em grande quantidade pela cultura do milho. Além disso, os fertilizantes nitrogenados são de alto custo e sujeitos a grandes perdas no ambiente agrícola. Existem várias categorias de fertilizantes, conhecidas como fertilizantes de maior eficiência, que podem minimizar essas perdas de N. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes e doses de N no desempenho agronômico do milho. O experimento foi instalado em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, delineadas como fatorial 5 x 5 + 1, constituído por cinco fontes de N (uréia, uréia polimerizada, uréia com NBPT, organomineral com e sem NBPT), cinco doses de N (40, 80, 120, 160, 200 kg ha-1) mais um controle (sem fornecimento de N). O conteúdo de clorofila e o rendimento de grãos foram avaliados. Os resultados não mostraram diferenças para as diferentes fontes de N, indicando que as fontes organomineral são tão eficientes quanto as fontes minerais. A adição de fertilizantes N em doses crescentes, independentemente da fonte testada, aumentou os níveis de clorofilas e rendimento de grãos


Subject(s)
Urea , Zea mays , Fertilizers
8.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0902018, 2020. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1100113

ABSTRACT

Organic agriculture is distinguished by practices that benefit the environment and support sustainable agriculture. In the present study, leafy kale, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., was submitted to chemical and organic (castor bean cake and bovine manure) fertilization treatments aiming to verify the influence of these fertilizers on the occurrence of insect pests and natural enemies. The insects were sampled by visual examination of plants and pitfall traps. Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were the phytophagous insects that occurred more significantly in kale, under chemical rather than organic fertilization, whereas Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) were abundant in kale under organic fertilizer. The study showed that castor bean cake and bovine manure as leafy kale fertilizers can reduce the use of insecticides and provide quality food.(AU)


A agricultura orgânica destaca-se pelo emprego de práticas que beneficiam o meio ambiente e aumentam a sustentabilidade na agricultura. No presente estudo, a couve-de-folha, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., foi submetida a tratamentos de adubação química e orgânica à base de torta de mamona e esterco bovino para se verificar a influência dos fertilizantes na ocorrência de insetos pragas e inimigos naturais. Os insetos foram amostrados por meio de exame visual de plantas e armadilhas tipo alçapão. Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) e Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) foram os insetos fitófagos que ocorreram significativamente em maior número em couve sob adubação química que orgânica, enquanto Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) e aranhas (Arachnida: Araneae) foram abundantes em couve sob adubo orgânico. O estudo evidenciou que o uso de torta de mamona e esterco bovino como adubo de couve-de-folha pode reduzir o uso de inseticidas e fornecer alimentos de qualidade.(AU)


Subject(s)
Brassica , Pest Control/methods , Pest Control, Biological , Fertilizers , Sustainable Agriculture , Organic Agriculture , Insecta
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190537, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142508

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main destination of manure is the application to croplands near livestock farms as nutrient source to enhance crop production. The aim of this study was to define the dairy liquid manure (DLM) dose, complementary to the mineral fertilizer, for higher crops yield, in rotation black oat-maize-wheat-soybean, and to identify the soil chemical variables improved by the manure that most affect the yield, in long-term. The experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2015, in no-tillage system, at Paraná State, Brazil. The soil was a Latossolo Bruno Distrófico típico, clayey texture. The treatments consisted by doses of DLM (0, 60, 120 and 180 m3 ha-1 year-1), complementary to the mineral fertilizer (applied in the same amount for all DLM doses). Crops yield and soil chemical variables were evaluated at six depths (0-10; 10-20; 20-30; 30-40; 40-50 and 50-60 cm). The DLM application increased the yield of all crops, but not in all harvests. The DLM even applied at soil surface improved the soil chemical variables in deep layers, resulting in high positive correlation between yield and exchange bases, P, Zn and Mn contents, and high negative correlation with Ca/Mg ratio and potential acidity at depth 0-10 cm. The DLM dose, complementary to the mineral fertilization, that provided higher soybean and wheat yield was about 130 m3 ha-1 year-1, while for maize this dose was equal to or greater than 180 m3 ha-1 year-1. This effect was not attributed to a single chemical variable but the improvement of all chemical variables evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Soil/chemistry , Fertilizers , Crop Production/methods , Manure , Phosphorus/analysis , Soybeans , Triticum , Carbon/analysis , Avena , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays , Farms , Minerals/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190063, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142506

ABSTRACT

Abstract System fertilization is characterized by partial or total fertilizer application at the predecessor crop; and it can be a viable practice to soybean crop. This study aimed to determine the fertilizer management and fertilizer levels for black oat-soybean cropping system, in high fertility soils and no-tillage system. The field trial was conducted in a bifactorial scheme, consisting of six environments, by combination of locations (Bom Sucesso do Sul - Paraná, Itapejara d'Oeste - Paraná) and fertilization management (all fertilization in black oat; splitting with 50% in black oat and 50% in soybean, all fertilization in soybean), and four fertilizer levels (0, 100, 200 and 300%) defined according to soil analysis and production expected. The evaluated traits were dry mass production, N, P and K nutrient accumulation of straw, dry mass remaining of black oat crop; and plant height, number of pods per plant, thousand grain weight, grain yield for soybean crop. Higher black oat dry mass production was observed at higher fertilization level. The fertilizer anticipation in black oat crop had better performance. Phosphorus and potassium accumulation increased linearly with fertilizer level increase. For N, the highest accumulated value occurred at the 200%, decreasing at the 300% of fertilizer level. The soybean crop had no influence in grain yield considering fertilization management, anticipation or splitting, and fertilizer levels. Thus, the system fertilization can be a viable practice, and favor black oat dry mass production and soybean development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soybeans/growth & development , Soil Analysis , Avena/growth & development , Fertilizers , Phosphorus/analysis , Potassium/analysis , Crop Production/methods , Nitrogen/analysis
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190433, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142501

ABSTRACT

Abstract Improper management degrades the soil, decreases corn productivity and is reflected in the cost of production. The objective of this research was to evaluate the soil recovery in non-conservationist treatments after the change of management and cultivation to the conservation condition direct sowing, and compare these systems to consolidated direct seeding; This evaluation was based on the soil responsiveness to crop production and water erosion control, and based on the financial cost of soil recovery and corn production when soil management was converted from non-conservationist (tillage rotation - RT, minimum tillage - MT, conventional tillage - CT and bare soil - BS) to no-tillage (NT) condition, in a Humic Cambisol. The transition from managements to no-tillage occurred in 2015 year, after 27 years of conducting the preexisting managements. The chemical recovery was carried out with the application of limestone, phosphorus, and potassium. At the end of the research the yield of the corn crop, the cost of recovering the soil fertility and the cost of crop production were evaluated. Previous soil management influenced the cost of soil chemical recovery. The cost of production showed a financial loss for the previous treatments CT and BS, on the average of the three corn crops.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus/administration & dosage , Potassium/administration & dosage , Soil Treatment/methods , Zea mays/growth & development , Fertilizers , Calcium Carbonate/administration & dosage , Soil Treatment/economics , Hydric Erosion/prevention & control , Costs and Cost Analysis , Crop Rotation , Land Conservation/economics , Land Conservation/methods , Fertilizers/economics , Crop Production/economics
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190536, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142500

ABSTRACT

Abstract Swine manure is applied in agricultural fields as a source of nutrients for plant growth, however, excessive application over the years can promote soil phosphorus (P) accumulation. The objective of this study was to establish the environmental soil P threshold based on the degree of P saturation (DPS), as well, to evaluate the soil P storage capacity. The experiment was carried out in an Oxisol (sandy clay loam texture), under no-tillage and crop rotation. Treatments consisted of four annual doses of liquid swine manure (0, 100, 200, and 300 m3 ha-1 year-1), and three doses of mineral fertilizer (0, 50, and 100% of the crop nutrients requirement), in a randomized block with split-plot design (four replications). Soil P content was analyzed by PMehlich-1, PCaCl2, water-soluble P (WSP) and total P. The application of swine manure and mineral fertilizer increased soil P contents mainly at 0-10 cm depth. The DPS corresponding to the change point was 14.9% at depth 0-10 and 8.6% at depth 0-20 cm with WSP and 18.7% at 0-10 cm and 8.9% at 0-20 cm depth with PCaCl2. The lowest change point value was DPS 8.6% which corresponds to 43 mg kg-1 of PMehlich-1, so, in practical terms, we suggest this value as the environmental soil P threshold. The soil P storage capacity indicated negative values with the higher doses of swine manure and mineral fertilizer which increases the vulnerability of P loss by surface and subsurface hydrological transfer pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phosphorus/analysis , Soil/chemistry , Fertilizers/analysis , Manure/analysis , Potassium/analysis , Swine , Crop Rotation , Models, Theoretical , Nitrogen/analysis
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190302, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132249

ABSTRACT

Abstract In a climate change context, the buildup of CO2 will affect plant communities worldwide. This study evaluated the effects of CO2 enrichment on the development and defense of two Cerrado native species Baccharis dracunculifolia and B. platypoda and their associated endophytic fungi richness. The study took place in Open-Top Chambers, two with ambient CO2 concentration (~400 ppm) and two in an enriched environment (~800 ppm). Baccharis platypoda developed 20% more leaves under enriched CO2 conditions, whereas B. dracunculifolia was 30% taller and showed 27% more leaves than those under ambient conditions. In both species, leaf polyphenol concentration did not differ between treatments. Nevertheless, polyphenol content had a positive correlation with plant height on both species' individuals grown under CO2 enriched conditions. Endophytic fungi richness and colonization rate on both plant species did not differ between ambient and enriched conditions. Our results show the positive effect of CO2 fertilizer in at least one of the measured growth parameters. An important new finding was a synergistic increase in growth and chemical defense in both studied species under enriched CO2 conditions, suggesting higher carbon assimilation and accumulation. This study suggests that the effects on primary productivity and secondary metabolites of Baccharis species will potentially reflect on the diversity and distribution of Cerrado plants and their associated animal communities.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide/pharmacology , Baccharis/growth & development , Fertilizers , Endophytes/growth & development , Polyphenols/biosynthesis , Baccharis/microbiology , Baccharis/chemistry
14.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190492, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142514

ABSTRACT

Abstract Soil management influences organic matter decomposition rates as well soil microbial community functional behavior. No-till (NT) is the most used management system by farmers due to its conservation practices and high productivity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of surface-applied lime, nitrogen (N) application, and black oat residues on soil microbial community of a Typic Hapludox under continuous NT. Therefore, soil chemical attributes, microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration, metabolic quotient, most probable number of diazotrophs, as well as bacterial functional analysis were performed. The effect of liming and N fertilization amendments inputs were saw in soil respiration and metabolic quotient measurements, showing them to be good indicators of soil quality. Further studies should be carried out in order to molecularly identify microbial communities present in soils with different liming and N fertilization management to evaluate the behavior of specific bacterial taxa under such conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Soil Quality , Calcium Compounds/administration & dosage , Fertilizers , Nitrogen/administration & dosage , Soil Analysis , Microbiota
15.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190520, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142513

ABSTRACT

Abstract Conservation agriculture practices can contribute to changes in soil nutrient dynamics over time. This experiment evaluated the changes in total stocks and distribution of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur concentrations in soil, during 60 months, in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) due to anticipated fertilization of sources and doses phosphates applied in soil surface. The experiment was conducted over a period of five years, under Typic Dystrudept, using a randomized block design, in an incomplete factorial scheme (3×3+1), with four replications. Treatments consisted of three sources of P [triple superphosphate (TSP), rock phosphate - Arad (RP) and magnesium thermophosphate (MTP)], along with four doses of P (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 P2O5 total). Samples of soil were collected in 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm layers at 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after beggining of experiment where the following chemical attributes were evaluated: (i) total organic carbon (TOC); (ii) total nitrogen Kjeldahl (TNK); (iii) available P by ion exchange resin method (P-IER); and (iv) available S-SO4 2-. The ICLS conditions provided increased total stocks and concentrations of TOC, TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- over time. The applications of different phosphates had no influence on soil TOC concentrations during the five years of experimentation. The concentrations of TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- showed an increase in different layers of soil, with the application of sources and doses of P. The P fertilization practice that was anticipated can consist of an efficient management of soil fertility, using properly managed conservation systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Phosphates/administration & dosage , Soil/chemistry , Agricultural Cultivation , Soil Analysis , Fertilizers , Animal Husbandry , Phosphorus/analysis , Sulfur/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190603, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142511

ABSTRACT

Abstract The no-tillage system associated with crops rotation affects the dynamics of soil organic matter, influencing the formation, reorganization and stabilization of aggregates and the carbon content (C) into soil aggregates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of crop rotations under no-tillage system on C content and soil aggregation. The experiment was conducted at the Paraná Agronomic Institute in Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil. The treatments consisted of six crop rotations, in a 3-year cycle, arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Soil samples were collected at layers of 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm. The aggregate classification was determined by the wet sieving methodology, and the Weighted Mean Diameter (WMD), Geometric Mean Diameter (GMD) and Aggregate Stability Index (ASI) were calculated. The C content in the aggregates was determined by wet oxidation. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no difference among crop rotations for aggregate classes and aggregation indexes, but were higher in surface, decreasing in depth. The carbon content in the aggregates did not differ among crop rotations, but presented stratification in the soil profile, decreasing in depth. The cycle of three years with crop rotation was insufficient to express possible changes in soil C content and aggregation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soil/chemistry , Carbon/chemistry , Crop Rotation , Fertilizers , Brazil , Crops, Agricultural , Models, Theoretical
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190495, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142509

ABSTRACT

Abstract The occupation of sandy soils in Brazil has occurred with poor adoption of management technology, which has caused its degradation. The recovery of organic matter, particularly when growing annual plants and cover crops, with mulch residue allows the maintenance of the productive potential of these soils. Thus, the shoot dry mass production (SDMP) of winter cover crops was evaluated in an Ultisol under no-tillage system and in rotation with soybean and maize using 0, 2, 4 and 8 t ha-1 year-1 of poultry litter, mineral fertilizer exclusively and 2 t ha-1 year-1 of poultry litter associated with a half-dose of mineral fertilizer. The experimental design included randomized blocks with four replicates. The use of poultry litter increased the SDMP of the cover crops; the production was relatively high when high doses of poultry litter were applied; on the other hand, the yield of SDMP and grain was limited by the exclusive use of mineral fertilizer. Organic matter and nutrient status improvement by cover crops were one of the reasons for the increase in soybean and maize grain yields.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Nutrients , Sandy Soils/analysis , Agriculture/methods , Organic Matter , Fertilizers , Minerals , Soybeans , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827980

ABSTRACT

In this study, the infection of root arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF of Panax quinquefolium in Shandong province was investigated, and the distribution characteristics and infection regularity of AMF were found out. The AMF of P. quinquefolium roots in different habitats was examined by alkali dissociation-trypickin blue staining method to study the infection rate and infection intensity. The contents of ginsenoside(Rb_1, Re, Rg_1, Rb_2, Rd and Rh_1) in the roots of P. quinquefolium was determined by HPLC. The experimental data were SPSS 17.0 statistical software for One-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and correlation analysis. The results showed that the AMF infection in roots of P. quinquefolium, and there were obvious structures such as hyphae, arbuscular branches and vesicles, and the AMF infection rate and infection intensity showed obvious spatial and temporal heterogeneity with the growth age and origin of P. quinquefolium. The infection rate of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolium from 1 to 3 years increased significantly with the increase of growth years(P<0.05). The infection intensity and infection rate of P. quinquefolium showed a similar change trend, the AMF infection rate and infection intensity reached the highest level in the third year. Cluster analysis showed that the infection rates of roots of P. quinquefolium in similar geographical locations could be clustered together. Correlation analysis showed that the AMF infection rate of P. quinquefolium root was significantly positively correlated with the infection intensity, and the AMF infection rate and infection intensity were significantly positively correlated with the contents of ginsenoside Rg_1, Re and Rb_1. This study explored the distribution characteristics and regularity of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolium under the protected cultivation conditions, and provided basic data for ecological cultivation of P. quinquefolium and research and development of biological bacterial fertilizer.


Subject(s)
Fertilizers , Fungi , Ginsenosides , Mycorrhizae , Panax , Plant Roots
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2644-2656, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878518

ABSTRACT

Continuous planting of muskmelon and excessive application of chemical fertilizers have caused a series of problems, such as imbalance of the soil micro-ecological environment, serious soil-borne diseases and yield loss. Application of Bacillus subtilis agent is an important way to improve soil micro-ecological environment, prevent soil-borne diseases, and promote plant growth. In this study, B. subtilis was used as experimental agent to analyze the effects of different application methods on the soil microbial diversity and growth of muskmelon in greenhouse. The number of culturable microorganisms in soil was measured by dilution-plate method. The diversity of soil uncultivated microorganisms was determined by Illumina Miseq sequencing technology. The yield of muskmelon was measured by weighing method. The number of culturable bacteria in the root irrigation, hole application and dipping root application groups was higher than that of the control in different muskmelon growth stages, but there was no significant difference among the three different application methods. The number of soil fungi from B. subtilis agent treatment groups in flowering stage was significantly lower in comparison to the control group. However, B. subtilis agent treatment did not cause significant difference on soil fungi number at the fruiting and pulling stage. Diversity analysis of uncultured microorganisms showed that the Shannon index values of bacteria were higher and Simpson index values were lower respectively in the three B. subtilis treatment groups than that in the control. Moreover, the dipping root treatment produced the lowest Shannon index value and the highest Simpson index value of fungi. NMDS and cluster analysis showed that B. subtilis agents dipping root treatment significantly affected the bacterial and fungal flora, both of which were clustered into one independent branch. The application of B. subtilis agents, especially dipping root treatment, significantly decreased the abundance of Bacteroidetes, increased the abundance of Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. The B. subtilis agent treatment didn't produce significant effect on the diversity of fungal flora except Chytridiomycota. The height, stem diameter and leaf area of muskmelon increased by applying B. subtilis agents, and dipping root treatment produced the most significant effect. As a new type of environmental protection fertilizer, B. subtilis agent can increase the number of soil culturable microorganisms, improve soil microbial diversity, and promote growth and yield. This study would provide a scientific basis for the rational application of B. subtilis.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Fertilizers , Fungi , Soil , Soil Microbiology
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2049-2056, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1055135

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on tillering dynamics of Alexandergrass (Urochloa plantaginea (Link) Hitch) grazed by beef heifers in a rotational stocking grazing method. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design following a repeated measure arrangement, three levels of nitrogen (Zero, 150 and 300kg ha-1) and two area repetition. The classification of tillers into categories (basal and axillary) showed a greater number of basal tillers, due to their higher appearance rate, in the absence of nitrogen fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization promoted higher axillary tiller density. The use of nitrogen promotes the renewal of axillary tillers of Alexandergrass, without compromising the stability of the tiller population.(AU)


Esse estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da fertilização nitrogenada no perfilhamento do Papuã (Urochloa plantaginea (Link) Hitch) pastejado por novilhas de corte em um método de lotação rotacionada. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com arranjo de medidas repetidas, três níveis de nitrogênio (Zero, 150 e 300kg ha -1 ) e duas repetições de área. A classificação dos perfilhos em categorias (basais e axilares) mostrou um maior número de perfilhos basais, devido à sua maior taxa de aparecimento, na ausência de adubação nitrogenada. A fertilização nitrogenada promoveu maior densidade de perfilhos axilares. O uso de nitrogênio promove renovação dos perfilhos axilares no Papuã, sem comprometer a estabilidade da população de plantas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Pasture/methods , Fertilizers/analysis , Poaceae/chemistry , Nitrogen/administration & dosage
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL