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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879111


The study is aimed through field experiments to study the effect of combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers on the growth and quality of Salvia miltiorrhiza, provide ideas for reducing fertilization while increasing the efficiency as well as improving the quality of produces. The experiment included 6 treatments viz., no fertilization(CK), full application of chemical fertilizer(F), 25% orga-nic fertilizer with 75% chemical fertilizer(M25), 50% organic fertilizer with 50% chemical fertilizer(M50), 75% organic fertilizer with 25% chemical fertilizer(M75), and fully apply organic fertilizer(M100). The results showed that:(1)from the perspective of yield and economic benefits, M75 was the best and M100 second;(2)for effective components, the combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers increased the content of main water-soluble components and the total content of effective components, among which M25 and M50 were better.

Agriculture , Fertilizers/analysis , Nitrogen , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Soil
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190536, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142500


Abstract Swine manure is applied in agricultural fields as a source of nutrients for plant growth, however, excessive application over the years can promote soil phosphorus (P) accumulation. The objective of this study was to establish the environmental soil P threshold based on the degree of P saturation (DPS), as well, to evaluate the soil P storage capacity. The experiment was carried out in an Oxisol (sandy clay loam texture), under no-tillage and crop rotation. Treatments consisted of four annual doses of liquid swine manure (0, 100, 200, and 300 m3 ha-1 year-1), and three doses of mineral fertilizer (0, 50, and 100% of the crop nutrients requirement), in a randomized block with split-plot design (four replications). Soil P content was analyzed by PMehlich-1, PCaCl2, water-soluble P (WSP) and total P. The application of swine manure and mineral fertilizer increased soil P contents mainly at 0-10 cm depth. The DPS corresponding to the change point was 14.9% at depth 0-10 and 8.6% at depth 0-20 cm with WSP and 18.7% at 0-10 cm and 8.9% at 0-20 cm depth with PCaCl2. The lowest change point value was DPS 8.6% which corresponds to 43 mg kg-1 of PMehlich-1, so, in practical terms, we suggest this value as the environmental soil P threshold. The soil P storage capacity indicated negative values with the higher doses of swine manure and mineral fertilizer which increases the vulnerability of P loss by surface and subsurface hydrological transfer pathway.

Animals , Phosphorus/analysis , Soil/chemistry , Fertilizers/analysis , Manure/analysis , Potassium/analysis , Swine , Crop Rotation , Models, Theoretical , Nitrogen/analysis
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2049-2056, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055135


This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on tillering dynamics of Alexandergrass (Urochloa plantaginea (Link) Hitch) grazed by beef heifers in a rotational stocking grazing method. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design following a repeated measure arrangement, three levels of nitrogen (Zero, 150 and 300kg ha-1) and two area repetition. The classification of tillers into categories (basal and axillary) showed a greater number of basal tillers, due to their higher appearance rate, in the absence of nitrogen fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization promoted higher axillary tiller density. The use of nitrogen promotes the renewal of axillary tillers of Alexandergrass, without compromising the stability of the tiller population.(AU)

Esse estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da fertilização nitrogenada no perfilhamento do Papuã (Urochloa plantaginea (Link) Hitch) pastejado por novilhas de corte em um método de lotação rotacionada. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com arranjo de medidas repetidas, três níveis de nitrogênio (Zero, 150 e 300kg ha -1 ) e duas repetições de área. A classificação dos perfilhos em categorias (basais e axilares) mostrou um maior número de perfilhos basais, devido à sua maior taxa de aparecimento, na ausência de adubação nitrogenada. A fertilização nitrogenada promoveu maior densidade de perfilhos axilares. O uso de nitrogênio promove renovação dos perfilhos axilares no Papuã, sem comprometer a estabilidade da população de plantas.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Pasture/methods , Fertilizers/analysis , Poaceae/chemistry , Nitrogen/administration & dosage
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 15-21, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984006


Abstract Resource amendments commonly promote plant invasions, raising concerns over the potential consequences of nitrogen (N) deposition; however, it is unclear whether invaders will benefit from N deposition more than natives. Growth is among the most fundamental inherent traits of plants and thus good invaders may have superior growth advantages in response to resource amendments. We compared the growth and allocation between invasive and native plants in different N regimes including controls (ambient N concentrations). We found that invasive plants always grew much larger than native plants in varying N conditions, regardless of growth- or phylogeny-based analyses, and that the former allocated more biomass to shoots than the latter. Although N addition enhanced the growth of invasive plants, this enhancement did not increase with increasing N addition. Across invasive and native species, changes in shoot biomass allocation were positively correlated with changes in whole-plant biomass; and the slope of this relationship was greater in invasive plants than native plants. These findings suggest that enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants retain a growth advantage in high N conditions relative to natives, and also highlight that future N deposition may increase the risks of plant invasions.

Resumo As alterações de recursos geralmente promovem invasões de plantas, suscitando preocupações quanto às conseqüências potenciais da deposição de nitrogênio (N); No entanto, não está claro se os invasores se beneficiarão da deposição de N mais do que com os nativos. O crescimento é um dos traços inerentes mais fundamentais das plantas e, portanto, os bons invasores podem ter vantagens de crescimento superiores em resposta a alterações de recursos. Comparamos o crescimento e a alocação entre plantas invasivas e nativas em diferentes regimes de N, incluindo controles (concentrações ambientais de N). Descobrimos que as plantas invasivas sempre cresceram muito mais do que as plantas nativas em diferentes condições de N, independentemente das análises baseadas em crescimento ou filogenia, e que o primeiro atribuiu mais biomassa aos rebentos do que o segundo. Embora N aumentou o crescimento de plantas invasivas, esse aumento não aumentou com o aumento da adição de N. Através das espécies invasivas e nativas, as mudanças na alocação da biomassa do extrato foram correlacionadas positivamente com as mudanças na biomassa da planta inteira; e a inclinação desse relacionamento foi maior em plantas invasivas do que plantas nativas. Essas descobertas sugerem que o aumento do investimento em lançamentos faz com que as plantas invasivas mantenham uma vantagem de crescimento em altas condições de N em relação aos nativos, e também destacar que a futura deposição de N pode aumentar os riscos de invasões de plantas.

Soil/chemistry , Magnoliopsida/growth & development , Introduced Species , Nitrogen/analysis , China , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Fertilizers/analysis
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 15-24, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974338


Abstract This study was aimed to investigate the effect of bio-organic phosphate either alone or in combination with phosphorus solubilizing bacteria strain (Bacillus MWT-14) on the growth and productivity of two wheat cultivars (Galaxy-2013 and Punjab-2011) along with recommended (150-100 NP kg ha−1) and half dose (75-50 NP kg ha−1) of fertilizers. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and the phosphorous solubilizing bacteria strain at either fertilizer level significantly improved the growth, yield parameters and productivity of both wheat cultivars compared to non-inoculated control treatments. The cultivar Punjab-2011 produced the higher chlorophyll contents, crop growth rate, and the straw yield at half dose of NP fertilizer; while Galaxy-2013, with the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria under recommended NP fertilizer dose. Combined over both NP fertilizer levels, the combined use of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria enhanced the grain yield of cultivar Galaxy-2013 by 54.3% and that of cultivar Punjab-2011 by 83.3%. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria also increased the population of phosphorous solubilizing bacteria, the soil organic matter and phosphorous contents in the soil. In conclusion, the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria offers an eco-friendly option to harvest the better wheat yield with low fertilizer input under arid climate.

Phosphates/pharmacokinetics , Phosphorus/metabolism , Bacillus/metabolism , Triticum/growth & development , Fertilizers/analysis , Crop Production/methods , Phosphates/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Soil Microbiology , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology , Climate
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 705-716, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886665


ABSTRACT Decision support for nutrient application remains an enigma if based on soil nutrient analysis. If the crop could be used as an auxiliary indicator, the plant nutrient status during different growth stages could complement the soil test, improving the fertilizer recommendation. Nutrient absorption and partitioning in the plant are here studied and described with mathematical models. The objective of this study considers the temporal variation of the nutrient uptake rate, which should define crop needs as compared to the critical content in soil solution. A uniform maize crop was grown to observe dry matter accumulation and nutrient content in the plant. The dry matter accumulation followed a sigmoidal model and the macronutrient content a power model. The maximum nutrient absorption occurred at the R4 growth stage, for which the sap concentration was successfully calculated. It is hoped that this new approach of evaluating nutrient sap concentration will help to develop more rational ways to estimate crop fertilizer needs. This new approach has great potential for on-the-go crop sensor-based nutrient application methods and its sensitivity to soil tillage and management systems need to be examined in following studies. If mathematical model reflects management impact adequately, resources for experiments can be saved.

Crops, Agricultural/growth & development , Zea mays/growth & development , Fertilizers/analysis , Biomass , Models, Biological
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1): 67-73, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780033


RESUMO O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) atualmente encontra-se distribuído por todos os continentes e foi introduzido no Brasil com a chegada da colonização italiana. As principais partes utilizadas para comercialização no Brasil são as folhas frescas ou secas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de doses da adubação nitrogenada, durante o cultivo na primavera e outono, nas características produtivas e na produtividade de manjericão, Alfavaca basilicão vermelho, em casa de vegetação. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 6 x 2, com cinco repetições, onde o primeiro fator foi constituído de cinco doses de nitrogênio e uma testemunha (0,0; 45,0; 90,0; 135,0; 180,0 e 225,0 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio) e o segundo, pelas épocas de cultivo (primavera e outono). Para as características produtivas da cultivar de manjericão Alfavaca Basilicão vermelho, verificou-se que as doses de nitrogênio entre 90,0 a 135,0 kg ha-1 foram mais adequadas, elevando todas as características produtivas avaliadas, do cultivo de primavera. Quando observado o cultivo no outono, teve-se ajuste apenas para a projeção de copa, massa fresca de parte aérea e área foliar. Quando se obteve ajuste significativo, a dose de aproximadamente 110,0 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio foi a que promoveu maior desenvolvimento da cultura. Em relação às épocas de cultivo na primavera recomenda-se o uso de adubação mineral nitrogenada, porém quando esse cultivo é realizado outono, a adubação nitrogenada não é responsiva.

ABSTRACT The basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) currently is distributed to all continents and was introduced in Brazil with the arrival of Italian colonization. The main parts used for commercialization in Brazil are the fresh or dried leaves. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of doses of nitrogen fertilization for cultivation in spring and fall, the yield characteristics and the productivity of basil, Basil red in the greenhouse. The experimental design was a randomized block, in a factorial 2 x 6 with five replications, where the first factor constituent of five nitrogen doses and one control (0.0; 45.0; 90.0; 135.0; 180.0 and 225.0 kg ha-1 of nitrogen) and by the second, the growing seasons (Spring and Autumn). For the productive characteristics of the cultivar red Basil, it was found that the nitrogen rates between 90.0 to 135.0 kg ha-1 were better, bringing all tested productive characteristics, the spring crop. When observed growing in the autumn, was only fit for the crown projection, fresh weight of shoot and leaf area. When there was significant adjustment, the dose of approximately 110.0 kg ha-1 of nitrogen was that promoted further development of culture. Regarding the growing seasons in the spring we recommended the use of mineral nitrogen fertilization, but when this crop is performed autumn, nitrogen fertilization is not responsive.

Manure/analysis , Ocimum basilicum/classification , Seasons , Agricultural Cultivation , Efficiency/classification , Fertilizers/analysis
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(4): 335-343, dic. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843139


It has been established that a decrease in the population of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus associated with sugarcane occurs after nitrogen fertilization. This fact could be due to a direct influence of NH4NO3 on bacterial cells or to changes in plant physiology after fertilizer addition, affecting bacterial establishment. In this work, we observed that survival of G. diazotrophicus was directly influenced when 44.8 mM of NH4NO3 (640 mg N/plant) was used for in vitro experiments. Furthermore, micropropagated sugarcane plantlets were inoculated with G. diazotrophicus and used for split root experiments, in which both ends of the system were fertilized with a basal level of NH4NO3 (0.35 mM; 10 mg N/plant). Twenty days post inoculation (dpi) one half of the plants were fertilized with a high dose of NH4NO3 (6.3 mM; 180 mg N/plant) on one end of the system. This nitrogen level was lower than that directly affecting G. diazotrophicus cells; however, it caused a decrease in the bacterial population in comparison with control plants fertilized with basal nitrogen levels. The decrease in the population of G. diazotrophicus was higher in pots fertilized with a basal nitrogen level when compared with the corresponding end supplied with high levels of NH4NO3 (100 dpi; 80 days post fertilization) of the same plant system. These observations suggest that the high nitrogen level added to the plants induce systemic physiological changes that affect the establishment of G. diazotrophicus.

La población de Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus asociada a la caña de azúcar disminuye después de la fertilización nitrogenada, lo cual podría ocurrir por la influencia directa del NH4NO3 sobre la supervivencia bacteriana, o por cambios en la fisiología de las plantas, que impiden el establecimiento bacteriano. En el presente trabajo se observó que en experimentos in vitro la supervivencia de G. diazotrophicus fue influenciada por 44,8 mM de NH4NO3 (640 mg N/plant). Además, G. diazotrophicus fue inoculado en plántulas micropropagadas de caña de azúcar, que fueron usadas para realizar experimentos de raíz dividida, en las que ambos extremos de los sistemas se fertilizaron con un nivel basal de NH4NO3 (0,35 mM; 10 mg N/planta). A los 20 días posteriores a la inoculación (dpi), la mitad de plantas fueron fertilizadas en uno de sus extremos con una dosis elevada de NH4NO3 (6,3 mM; 180 mg of N/plant). Este nivel fue menor al que afectó directamente a las células de G. diazotrophicus; sin embargo, provocó una disminución de la población bacteriana en comparación con plantas testigo fertilizadas con niveles basales de nitrógeno. La disminución de la población fue mayor para raíces fertilizadas con un nivel basal de nitrógeno en comparación con las raíces fertilizadas con altos niveles del mismo sistema de plantas (100 dpi; 80 días posfertilización). Estas observaciones indican que el alto nivel de nitrógeno añadido a las plantas inducen cambios fisiológicos sistémicos que afectan el establecimiento de G. diazotrophicus.

Plant Physiological Phenomena , Gluconacetobacter/drug effects , Fertilizers/adverse effects , Plant Physiological Phenomena , Saccharum/growth & development , Saccharum/physiology , Fertilizers/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4): 796-803, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768212


Abstract Current study investigates the effect of two alternative media NPK (20-5-20) fertilizer and NPK plus macrophyte (M+NPK) compared to the commercial medium (WC) under growth rate and physiological parameters in batch culture mode (2-L), and verifies whether the use of fertilizer (NPK) and macrophyte (Eichhornia crassipes) would be a good tool for Haematococcus pluvialis culture in the laboratory. The highest number of cells of H. pluvialis has been reported in NPK medium (5.4 × 105cells.mL–1) on the 28th day, and in the M+NPK and WC media (4.1 × 105 cells.mL–1 and 2.1 × 105 cells.mL–1) on the 26th day, respectively. Chlorophyll-a contents were significantly higher (p<0.05) in NPK medium (41-102 µg.L–1) and lower in WC and M+NPK media (14-61 µg.L–1). The astaxanthin content was less than 0.04 mg.L–1. Production cost of 10-L of H. pluvialis was low in all media, and NPK and M+NPK media had a cost reduction of 65% and 82%, respectively when compared with commercial medium (WC). The use of a medium based on commercial fertilizer and macrophyte (E. crassipes) produced a new medium formulation that proved to be efficient, at least in batch culture mode, in promoting high density culture of H. pluvialis. NPK and macrophyte (E. crassipes) medium seems to be an adequate alternative to replace the conventional one (WC).

Resumo O presente estudo investigou o efeito de dois meios alternativos, NPK (20-5-20) e NPK mais macrófita (M+NPK), em relação ao meio comercial (WC) para avaliar a taxa de crescimento e parâmetros fisiológicos em cultivo estático (2-L), a fim de verificar se o fertilizante (NPK) e a macrófita (Eichhornia crassipes) podem ser utilizados no cultivo de Haematococcus pluvialis em laboratório. O maior número de células de H. pluvialis foi observado no meio NPK (5,4 × 105 células.mL–1) no vigésimo oitavo dia, e nos meios M+NPK e WC foi de 4,1 × 105 células.mL–1 e 2,1 × 105.celulas.mL–1 no vigésimo sexto dia, respectivamente. Os teores de clorofila-a foram significativamente maiores (p<0,05) em meio NPK (41-102 g.L–1) quando comparado aos meios WC e M+NPK (14-61 g.L–1). O teor de astaxantina foi menor que 0,04 mg.L–1. O custo de produção de 10-L de H. pluvialis foi baixo em todos os meios sendo que os meios NPK e M+NPK apresentaram uma redução de custos de 65% e 82%, respectivamente, quando comparados ao meio comercial. O meio contendo fertilizante e o de macrófita (E. crassipes) obtiveram resultados eficientes em cultivo estático, com alta densidade celular de H. pluvialis. O meio NPK e o de macrófita (E. crassipes) demonstraram ser uma alternativa adequada para substituir o meio comercial (WC).

Chlorophyta/growth & development , Culture Media/analysis , Eichhornia , Fertilizers/analysis , Eichhornia/growth & development
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.1): 97-107, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768243


Abstract In Southeastern Brazil tilapia culture is conducted in extensive and semi-intensive flow-through earthen ponds, being water availability and flow management different in the rainy and dry seasons. In this region lettuce wastes are a potential cheap input for tilapia culture. This study examined the ecological processes developing during the rainy and dry seasons in three extensive flow-through earthen tilapia ponds fertilized with lettuce wastes. Water quality, plankton and sediment parameters were sampled monthly during a year. Factor analysis was used to identify the ecological processes occurring within the ponds and to construct a conceptual graphic model of the pond ecosystem functioning during the rainy and dry seasons. Processes related to nitrogen cycling presented differences between both seasons while processes related to phosphorus cycling did not. Ecological differences among ponds were due to effects of wind protection by surrounding vegetation, organic loading entering, tilapia density and its grazing pressure on zooplankton. Differences in tilapia growth among ponds were related to stocking density and ecological process affecting tilapia food availability and intraspecific competition. Lettuce wastes addition into the ponds did not produce negative effects, thus this practice may be considered a disposal option and a low-cost input source for tilapia, at least at the amounts applied in this study.

Resumo No sudeste do Brasil, a criação extensiva e semi-intensiva de tilápias é realizada em viveiros escavados com fluxo contínuo, com a disponibilidade e manejo do fluxo de água diferentes nas épocas chuvosa e seca. Na região, os resíduos de alface são um recurso potencialmente de baixo custo para a tilapicultura. Este estudo examinou os processos ecológicos ocorrendo em três viveiros escavados com fluxo contínuo fertilizados com restos de alface para criação extensiva de tilápias durante as épocas chuvosa e seca. Parâmetros de qualidade de água, plâncton e sedimento foram amostrados mensalmente durante um ano. A análise de fator foi utilizada para identificar os processos ecológicos nos viveiros e elaborar um modelo gráfico do funcionamento do ecossistema dos viveiros durante as duas épocas. Os processos relacionados ao ciclo do nitrogênio mostraram diferenças entre as duas épocas, enquanto que os processos relacionados com o ciclo do fósforo não foram influenciados pela época. As diferenças ecológicas entre os viveiros foram principalmente devido aos efeitos do vento, adição de material orgânico e densidade de estocagem. Diferenças no crescimento das tilápias entre os viveiros relacionaram-se com a densidade de estocagem e os processos ecológicos afetando a disponibilidade de alimento e a competição intraespecífica. A adição dos restos de alface nos viveiros não resultou em efeitos negativos, assim esta prática pode ser considerada um destino alternativo e um recurso de baixo custo para a criação extensiva de tilápias, pelo menos nas quantidades investigadas neste estudo.

Animals , Aquaculture , Ecosystem , Lettuce/chemistry , Ponds , Tilapia/growth & development , Brazil , Fertilizers/analysis , Seasons , Water Quality
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(1): 35-42, 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-582760


Lippia gracilis Schauer popularmente conhecida como alecrim-de-tabuleiro possui moderada atividade antibacteriana, antimicrobiana e antiséptica. Objetivando avaliar o efeito de doses de fertilizante mineral, calcário, substratos e recipientes na produção de mudas de dois genótipos de alecrim-de-tabuleiro realizou-se experimentos com estacas de dois genótipos de L. gracilis. No experimento 1, foram utilizadas estacas apicais distribuídas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido de 128 células com o substrato pó-de-coco + areia (1:1), três repetições e oito estacas por repetição. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4x2x2, sendo quatro doses do fertilizante (6-24-12+micronutrientes) (1, 2, 3 e 4 g L-1), duas doses de calcário (0 e 1 g L-1) e dois genótipos (LGRA106 e LGRA201). Aos 35 após plantio, foram avaliadas a sobrevivência ( por cento), enraizamento ( por cento), comprimento de raiz (cm) e massa seca de raiz (mg). No experimento 2, foram utilizadas três repetições com oito estacas por repetição. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas onde foram testados nas parcelas dois recipientes (bandeja de poliestireno expandido de 128 alvéolos e tubetes de 110 cm³, na sub parcela foram testadas as combinações de quatro substratos (PC - pó de coco; PCA (1:1) - pó de coco + areia (1:1); PCA (2:1) - pó de coco + areia (2:1) e PCA (3:1) - pó de coco + areia (3:1) e dois genótipos (LGRA106 e LGRA201). Aos 35 dias após o plantio foram analisadas as mesmas variáveis do experimento 1, além de altura de parte aérea (cm) e massa seca de parte aérea (mg). A utilização de 1 g L-1 do fertilizante na ausência de calcário foi efetivo para sobrevivência de plantas e enraizamento de estacas de alecrim-de-tabuleiro. Com base nesses experimentos, concluiu-se que o genótipo LGRA106 é superior ao LGRA201 nas variáveis analisadas e recomenda-se a bandeja de poliestireno expandido para produção de mudas de L. gracilis via estaquia.

Commonly known as "alecrim-de-tabuleiro", Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae) has moderate antibacterial, antimicrobial and antiseptic activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of doses of mineral fertilizer, limestone, substrates and containers on seedling production of two "alecrim-de-tabuleiro" genotypes, using cuttings. In experiment 1, apical cuttings were distributed on expanded polystyrene trays of 128 cells containing coir + sand (1:1), using three replicates of eight cuttings each. Experimental design was in randomized blocks, in a 4x2x2 factorial arrangement, i.e. four doses of fertilizer (6-24-12 + micronutrients) (1, 2, 3 and 4 g L-1), two doses of limestone (0 and 1 g L-1) and two genotypes (LGRA106 and LGRA201). At 35 days after planting, we evaluated survival ( percent), rooting ( percent), root length (cm) and root dry matter (mg). In experiment 2, three replicates of eight cuttings each were used. Experimental design was in randomized blocks, in a split-plot scheme. In the plots, we tested two containers (expanded polystyrene tray of 128 cells and 110 cm³ tubets). In the subplots, we tested four substrate combinations [coir, coir + sand (1:1), coir + sand (2:1) and coir + sand (3:1)] and two genotypes (LGRA106 and LGRA201). At 35 days after planting, the same variables of experiment 1 were evaluated, besides shoot length (cm) and shoot dry matter (mg). The use of 1 g L-1 fertilizer without limestone was effective for plant survival and cutting rooting. Based on these experiments, the genotype LGRA106 is superior to LGRA201 as to the evaluated variables and the expanded polystyrene tray is recommended for the production of L. gracilis seedlings through cuttings.

Plant Shoots/anatomy & histology , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Shoots/genetics , Rosmarinus/anatomy & histology , Rosmarinus/growth & development , Rosmarinus/genetics , Fertilizers/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Calcareous Soils/analysis , Calcareous Soils/methods
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(4): 439-446, 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-611448


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produção da carobinha (Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata) cultivada ex situ sob dois arranjos de plantas, sem ou com cama-de-frango semidecomposta. O trabalho foi desenvolvido sob condições de campo, no Horto de Plantas Medicinais (HPM), da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD) em solo tipo Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. Estudaram-se os arranjos em fileiras simples e duplas e o uso ou não de cama-de-frango de corte semidecomposta em cobertura, dispostos como fatorial 2 x 2, no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. As maiores alturas máximas das plantas (61,3 cm planta-1) aos 555 dias após o transplante foram daquelas cultivadas sob fileira dupla com cama-de-frango. Os números médios de folhas e de ramificações por planta ao longo do ciclo foram de onze e duas, respectivamente. O diâmetro médio do caule de plantas cultivadas em fileiras simples foi de 8,3 mm, enquanto sob fileiras duplas, foi de 10,8 mm, ambos aos 552 dias de ciclo. As características avaliadas, na colheita, aos 555 dias após o transplante não foram influenciadas pela interação entre arranjos de plantas e o uso da cama-de-frango nem pelos fatores isoladamente. Dessa forma, concluiu-se que o cultivo em fileiras duplas foi favorável à produtividade da carobinha, por possibilitar maior produção por área.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the development and yield of "carobinha" (Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata) cultivated ex situ under two plant arrangements, with or without semi-decomposed chicken manure. This study was carried out under field conditions at the Medicinal Plant Garden (HPM), Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD), in Distroferric Red Latossol. Arrangements with simple and double rows and the use or not of semi-decomposed chicken manure as covering were studied as 2 x 2 factorial arrangement in a randomized block experimental design, with six replicates. The highest maximum heights (61.3 cm plant-1) at 555 days after transplant were obtained by plants cultivated under double rows with chicken manure. The mean numbers of leaves and branches per plant during the cycle were eleven and two, respectively. The mean stem diameter of plants that were cultivated in simple rows was 8.3 mm, while that of plants cultivated in double rows was 10.8 mm, both at 552 days of the cycle. The evaluated characteristics, in the harvest at 555 days after transplant, were not influenced by the interaction between plant arrangements and use of chicken manure or by factors in an isolated way. Thus, cultivation in double rows was favorable to "carobinha" yield for allowing the highest yield per area.

Agricultural Cultivation , Manure/analysis , Bignoniaceae/anatomy & histology , Bignoniaceae/growth & development , Fertilizers/analysis , Soil Characteristics , Analysis of Variance , Plants, Medicinal/growth & development
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 12(2): 103-115, dic. 2010. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-590777


Con el objetivo de incrementar y acelerar el proceso de germinación de las semillas y obtener una alta producción y homogeneidad de plántulas de Carica papaya variedad Maradol en vivero, se evaluó el efecto de tres biofertilizantes aplicados solos o en combinación (Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense y Glomus intraradices), y un biorregulador del crecimiento vegetal, el ácido giberélico (AG3), en la germinación y el crecimiento vegetal. Se realizó un experimento bajo un diseño completamente al azar con ocho tratamientos y tres repeticiones. A las semillas se les aplicó un pretratamiento germinativo con alternancia de temperatura para superar la dormancia. Los tratamientos simples con A. chroococcum y A. brasilense, incrementaron el porcentaje de germinación a 90,28 y 88,89% respectivamente. Además, con la aplicación de los biofertilizantes y el AG3, la velocidad de germinación se incrementó y el tiempo medio de germinación se redujo. La doble aplicación en semillas y foliar de los biofertilizantes y el AG3 en plántulas mejoró el crecimiento vegetal. La población de A. chroococcum fue mayor cuando se inoculó en combinación con G. intraradices. La prevalencia de colonización de las plántulas inoculadas con G. intraradices varió de 18,53 a 26,67%, con el mayor valor registrado para el tratamiento combinado con A. brasilense. Finalmente, aplicando esta metodología se logró acelerar la germinación, obteniéndose una mayor homogeneidad en la emergencia de las plántulas, disminuyendo así el tiempo de permanencia en el vivero.

In order to increase and accelerate the process of seed germination and obtain a high yield and homogeneity of papaya seedlings cv. Maradol in nurseries, we evaluated the effect of three biofertilizers applied single or in combination (Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intraradices) and a plant growth bioregulator, the gibberellic acid 3 (AG3), on the germination and subsequent growth of papaya seedlings. An experimental design completely random with eight treatments and three replications were used. The application of a pre-germinal treatment with alternating temperature had to be applied to seeds to overcome dormancy. Single biofertilization with A. chroococcum and A. brasilense, promoted the germination percentage 90.28 y 88.89% respectively. Germination rate could be enhanced and the mean germination time was reduced with the application of biofertilizer and AG3. Both applications on seeds and leaves of biofertilizers and AG3, had a positive effect on plant growth. The population of A. chroococcum was higher in the combined inoculation with G. intraradices. The prevalence of colonization of plants inoculated with G. intraradices ranged from 18.53 to 26.67%, with the greatest values recorded for the treatment involving combined inoculation with A. brasilense. Finally, with the application of this methodology the seed germination rate was improved, as well as the uniformity of seedlings emergence...

Carica/growth & development , Carica/embryology , Carica/physiology , Carica/genetics , Carica/microbiology , Carica/chemistry , Fertilizers/analysis , Fertilizers/adverse effects , Fertilizers/microbiology , Azospirillum brasilense/isolation & purification , Azospirillum brasilense/growth & development , Azospirillum brasilense/physiology , Azospirillum brasilense/genetics , Azospirillum brasilense/immunology , Azospirillum brasilense/chemistry
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 79(4): 767-776, Dec. 2007. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-470046


The use of the 15N label for agronomic research involving nitrogen (N) cycling and the fate of fertilizer-N is well established, however, in the case of long term experimentation with perennial crops like citrus, coffee and rubber tree, there are still shortcomings mainly due to large plant size, sampling procedures, detection levels and interferences on the system. This report tries to contribute methodologically to the design and development of 15N labeled fertilizer experiments, using as an example a coffee crop fertilized with 15N labeled ammonium sulfate, which was followed for two years. The N of the plant derived from the fertilizer was studied in the different parts of the coffee plant in order to evaluate its distribution within the plant and the agronomic efficiency of the fertilizer application practice. An enrichment of the fertilizer-N of the order of 2 percent 15N abundance was sufficient to study N absorption rates and to establish fertilizer-N balances after one and two years of coffee cropping. The main source of errors in the estimated values lies in the inherent variability among field replicates and not in the measurements of N contents and 15N enrichments of plant material by mass-spectrometry.

O uso do traçador 15N em pesquisas agronômicas que envolvem o ciclo do nitrogênio (N) e o destino do N do fertilizante está bem estabelecido, entretanto, para o caso de experimentação com plantas perenes como citrus, café e seringueira, ainda existem limitações devidas ao porte das plantas, à amostragem, aos níveis de detecção e à interferência no sistema. Este estudo procura contribuir metodologicamente no delineamento experimental e no desenvolvimento desse tipo de experimentação, em condições de campo, fazendo uso, por dois anos, do experimento de uma cultura de café adubada com fertilizante marcado com 15N. O N da planta derivado do fertilizante foi estudado nas diferentes partes da planta de café para determinar sua distribuição dentro dela e a eficiência agronômica da prática de adubação. Um enriquecimento do N do fertilizante da ordem de 2 por cento em abundância de 15N foi suficiente para estudar taxas de absorção de N e estabelecer balanços do N do fertilizante depois de um e dois anos de cultivo. A principal fonte de erros dos valores estimados está na variabilidade agronômica das repetições e não na precisão das medidas de conteúdo de N e de enriquecimento em 15N por espectrometria de massa.

Coffee/metabolism , Fertilizers/analysis , Nitrogen Isotopes , Nitrogen/metabolism , Biological Availability , Chemistry, Agricultural , Mass Spectrometry
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 78(4): 731-747, Dec. 2006. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-438573


In many parts of the world food security is at risk. One of the biophysical root causes of falling per-capita food production is the declining quality and quantity of soils. To reverse this trend and increase soil fertility soil and plant nutrients have to be replenished. This review provides a literature survey of experiences of using multi-nutrient rock fertilizers for soil fertility enhancement from temperate and tropical environments. Advantages and limitations of the application of rock fertilizers are discussed. Examples are provided from two successful nutrient replenishment projects in Africa where locally available rock fertilizers are used on highly leached acid soils. The potential of combining organic materials alongside rock fertilizers in soil fertility replenishment strategies is stressed.

Em muitas partes do mundo a segurança alimentar está em risco. A raiz de uma das causas biofísicas da queda da produção alimentar per capita é o declínio da qualidade e quantidade de solos. Para reverter essa tendência e aumentar a fertilidade, ambos solo e nutrientes para as plantas precisam ser repostos. Este artigo aborda uma pesquisa bibliográfica de experiências na utilização de rochagem com multi-nutrientes para intensificação da fertilização do solo em ambientes temperados e tropicais. As vantagens e as limitações na aplicação de pó de rocha são discutidas. São apresentados dois projetos bem sucedidos de substituição de nutrientes na Africa, onde as rochas disponíveis no local são utilizados em solos ácidos altamente lixiviados. É enfatizado o potencial da combinação de materiais orgânicos juntamente com pó de rocha nas estratégias de reposição da fertilidade dos solos.

Humans , Agriculture , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Fertilizers/analysis , Geologic Sediments/chemistry , Soil/analysis , Agriculture/economics , Conservation of Natural Resources/economics , Fertilizers/economics , Tropical Climate
Ciênc. cult. (Säo Paulo) ; 49(1/2): 121-3, jan.-abr. 1997. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-198304


The effects of six calcium sources (dolomitic lime, calcitic lime, hydrated lime, silicated lime, calcium sufate (phosphogypsum) and calcium chloride) on the production of mature apple trees were evaluated in a field experiment. The soil was an inceptisol with low pH and Ca, and high Al contents in both top and subsoil. Fruit yields increased with dolomite, silicate, calcite and sulfate calcium sources. Hydrated lime had no effect and calcium chloride reduced yields. Positive residual effects were obtained with dolomite, calcite, silicate and phosphogypsum treatments. A very close negative relationship was found between yields and the concentration of exchange-able Al for all sources, except for the phosphogypsum treatment.

Calcium/chemistry , Fertilizers/analysis , Fruit , Soil Acidity