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1.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(1): 7-12, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1281052

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la programación fetal ofrece nuevas perspectivas sobre el origen de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, relacionando su aparición con factores perinatales. Objetivo: exponer evidencia que vincule las alteraciones gestacionales con las enfermedades cardiovasculares en la vida adulta del feto. Metodología: búsqueda en las bases de datos EBSCO, COCHRANE, MEDLINE, PROQUEST y SciELO de los artículos de revisión e investigaciones originales en inglés publicados en los últimos diez años. Se utilizaron términos MeSH para búsqueda controlada y se evaluaron los estudios con STROBE y PRISMA según correspondía. Resultados: los hallazgos sugieren que nacer con menos de 2600 k guarda relación con diabetes mellitus (OR de 1.607 IC 95% 1.324-1.951), hipertensión arterial (OR de 1.15 IC 95% 1.043-1.288) y menor función endotelial (1.94+0.37 vs 2.68+0.41, p: 0.0001) en la adultez. La prematuridad se asocia con mayores presiones arteriales sistólicas (4.2 mmHg IC 95%; 2.8 - 5.7 p 0.001) y diastólicas (2.6 mmHg IC 95%; 1.2-4.0; p 0.001). Las alteraciones nutricionales maternas y la diabetes gestacional aumentan el riesgo de síndrome metabólico (OR 1.2 IC 95% 0.9-1.7) y sobrepeso en la edad escolar (OR 1.81 IC 95% 1.18 - 2.86). Conclusión: los resultados adversos en la gestación están relacionados con el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en la vida adulta del feto expuesto.


Introduction: fetal programming offers new perspectives on the origin of cardiovascular diseases, relating their appearance with perinatal factors. Objective: to show the evidence associating gestational alterations with cardiovascular diseases in the offspring in adult life. Methodology: an EBSCO, COCHRANE, MEDLINE, PROQUEST and SciELO databases search of original review and research articles published in English in the last ten years was conducted. MeSH terms were used to perform a controlled search. The studies were analyzed accordingly using the STROBE and PRISMA reporting guidelines. Results:The findings suggest that a birth weight of less than 2600 kg is related with diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.607, 95% CI 1.324 to 1.951), hypertension (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.043 to 1.288) and impaired endothelial function (1.94+0.37 vs 2.68+0.41, p: 0.0001) in adulthood. Prematurity is related with higher systolic blood pressure (4.2 mmHg 95% CI; 2.8 to 5.7 p 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (2.6 mmHg 95% CI; 1.2 to 4.0; p 0.001). Maternal nutritional alterations and gestational diabetes increase the risk of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.2 95% CI 0.9 to 1.7) and overweight in school-age (OR = 1.81 95% CI 1.18 to 2.86). Conclusion: adverse results during pregnancy are related with the development of cardiovascular diseases in the exposed fetus in adult life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Fetal Development , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , Birth Weight , Nutritional Status , Diabetes, Gestational , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Obstetric Labor, Premature
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1819-1827, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Twin pregnancies continue to increase worldwide; however, the current clinical prenatal evaluation for the intrauterine growth of twins still relies on the growth standards of singletons. We attempted to establish a set of fetal biometric references for Chinese twin pregnancies, stratified by chorionicity and conception mode as spontaneously conceived monochorionic diamniotic (SC-MCDA), spontaneously conceived dichorionic diamniotic (SC-DCDA), and assisted reproductive technology dichorionic diamniotic (ART-DCDA) twins.@*METHODS@#From 2016 to 2019, the ultrasonographic fetal biometric measurements were longitudinally collected in pregnant women, including fetal weight, biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length, and humerus length. The linear mixed models were used to test the difference of growth patterns between groups, and the growth curve of each biometric parameter was modeled by a generalized additive model for location scale and shape.@*RESULTS@#A total of 929 twin pregnant women and 2019 singleton pregnant women, met the inclusion criteria. Among twin pregnancies, 148 were SC-MCDA, 215 were SC-DCDA, and 566 were ART-DCDA twins. Overall, SC-DCDA twins grew faster than SC-MCDA twins, while slower than ART-DCDA twins (all P < 0.05), and all of the three groups showed significant differences comparing with singletons, especially during the third trimester. Hence, the customized fetal growth charts of each fetal biometric parameter were, respectively, constructed for SC-MCDA, SC-DCDA, and ART-DCDA twins.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The fetal biometric trajectories demonstrated characteristic patterns according to chorionicity and conception mode. To fill the gap, we modeled fetal biometric parameters for Chinese SC-MCDA, SC-DCDA, and ART-DCDA twin pregnancies, hoping to provide a reference for the further establishment of fetal growth reference values for Chinese twin fetuses.


Subject(s)
China , Female , Fetal Development , Growth Charts , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Twin , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06650, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250482

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to obtain echobiometric values for the most important canine maternal-fetal tissues using high-definition ultrasonography (HDUS) trying to update the formulas for predicting gestational age. Twelve healthy bitches of brachycephalic breeds weighing 7-13kg and aged one to four years were included. The fetuses were analyzed every day using conventional and high-definition ultrasonography from the eighth day after artificial insemination until the day of delivery, using the ACUSON S2000/SIEMENS ultrasound equipment and specific software. Embryonic and fetal structures; diameter of the embryonic vesicle; length of the embryo; biparietal diameter, abdominal length and kidney height; length of the femur, humerus, scapula, radius, and tibia; thickening of the stomach wall; adrenal length; and cardiac size were measured. These variables were correlated with gestational and adjusted tested according to regression models. The results obtained (P<0.001) for: lateral diameter of the gestational sac (R2=81.8%); length of the embryo (R2=85.7%); biparietal (R2=99.1%) and abdominal diameter (R2=97.2%); thickness of the gastric wall (R2=86.9%); length of the femur (R2=96.6%), radius (R2=97.5%), humerus (R2=96.5%), scapula (R2=95.8%) and tibia (R2=97.3%); kidney length (R2=95.8%) and height (R2=96.0%); adrenal length (R2=89.6%); heart length (R2=93.0%) and height (R2=91.5%) of the canine fetuses showed significant correlation with gestational days. This allowed monitoring fetal growth and estimation of age with high accuracy in different gestational periods.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi obter valores ecobiométricos para os tecidos materno-fetais caninos, usando a ultrassonografia de alta definição (HDUS), desenvolvendo fórmulas para prever a idade gestacional das cadelas. Doze cadelas saudáveis de raças braquicefálicas pesando 7-13kg e com idades entre um e quatro anos foram incluídas. Os fetos foram analisados diariamente com ultrassonografia convencional e de alta definição, do oitavo dia após a inseminação artificial até o dia do parto, utilizando o equipamento de ultrassom ACUSON S2000/SIEMENS e software específico. Estruturas embrionárias e fetais; diâmetro da vesícula embrionária; comprimento do embrião; diâmetro biparietal, comprimento abdominal e altura renal; comprimento do fêmur, úmero, escápula, rádio e tíbia; espessamento da parede do estômago; comprimento adrenal; e tamanho cardíaco foram medidos. Essas variáveis foram correlacionadas com o teste gestacional e ajustado de acordo com os modelos de regressão. Os resultados obtidos (P<0,001) para: diâmetro lateral do saco gestacional (R2=81,8%); comprimento do embrião (R2=85,7%); diâmetro biparietal (R2=99,1%) e abdominal (R2=97,2%); espessura da parede gástrica (R2=86,9%); comprimento do fêmur (R2=96,6%), rádio (R2=97,5%), úmero (R2=96,5%), escápula (R2=95,8%) e tíbia (R2=97,3%); comprimento do rim (R2=95,8%) e altura (R2=96,0%); comprimento adrenal (R2=89,6%); o comprimento do coração (R2=93,0%) e a altura (R2=91,5%) dos fetos caninos apresentaram correlação significativa com os dias gestacionais. Isso permitiu monitorar o crescimento fetal e estimar a idade com alta precisão em diferentes períodos gestacionais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Biometry/methods , Ultrasonography , Craniosynostoses , Cuspid , Fetal Development , Insemination, Artificial , Parturition
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 991-998, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921304

ABSTRACT

Placenta is the only link between the pregnant woman and fetus, and the basis for maintaining the normal pregnancy process and fetal development. Maternal stress is the maternal physiological and psychological changes caused by various factors, characterized by the increased level of glucocorticoid, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-target gland axis and regulates the expression of target genes. Maternal stress also changes the weight, metabolism and nutrient transportation of the placenta, which will substantially influence the development of fetus. This paper will firstly summarize the characteristics of maternal stress and its influence on offspring. Then, the changes in the body under maternal stress will be described. Finally, we will clarify the proven mechanisms underlying maternal stress and raise some important problems that have not been clarified in this area. The study of maternal stress on fetus and its underlying mechanisms will serve as theoretical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of the stress-related pregnant diseases and disorders.


Subject(s)
Female , Fetal Development , Fetus , Humans , Placenta , Pregnancy
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1356-1364, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134448

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Studies in humans showed that prenatal exposure to urban air pollution (AP) influences fetal development, and increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and some diseases in postnatal life. However, most of these were performed in environments where the main source of environmental particulate matters (PM) emission is diesel combustion by motor vehicles and industries, thereby ignoring the effects produced by wood smoke pollution. We hypothesized that morphological changes in the placenta could contribute to the reduction in fetal size associated with different periods of exposure to AP produced by wood smoke pollution prior to and during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to investigate the quantitative effects of long-term exposure to environmental levels of wood smoke pollution on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the placenta in rats. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution in indoor and outdoor environments. At 19 days of gestation, the placentas were obtained by caesarean and were prepared for histological, planimetric and stereological analysis. The volume and proportions of the placental compartments were estimated. In addition, stereological estimators in fetal capillaries were calculated in the labyrinth region. Crown rump length, fetus weight and litter weight were influenced by pregestational and gestational exposure periods. Exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregestational period has significant effect on the volume of the placenta, and consequently on fetal height. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that long-term outdoor exposure to wood smoke pollution from residential heating affects fetal health, decreasing the absolute volume of the entire placenta and the placental interface between the mother and fetus, decreasing the total volume of blood vessels present in the labyrinth region ofthe placenta and affecting the size of the fetus.


RESUMEN: Estudios en humanos demostraron que la exposición prenatal a la polución del aire urbano influye en el desarrollo fetal y aumenta la incidencia de resultados adversos de la gestación y algunas enfermedades postnatales. Sin embargo, la mayoría de ellos fueron realizados en entornos donde la principal fuente de emisión de material particulado, fue la combustión de petróleo por vehículos a motor e industrias, ignorando los efectos producidos por el humo de leña producido por la calefacción intradomiciliaria. Hipotetizamos respecto a que los cambios de la placenta contribuirían a la disminución del tamaño fetal relacionado a los períodos de exposición al humo de leña durante los periodos pregestacional y gestacional. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos cuantitativos de la exposición al humo de leña sobre la morfología macroscópica y microscópica en placenta de ratas. Para probar esto, ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña en ambientes interiores y exteriores. A los 19 días de gestación, las placentas fueron obtenidas por cesárea y fueron preparadas para un análisis histológico, planimétrico y estereológico. Fue estimado el volumen absoluto y las proporciones de los compartimentos placentarios. Además, fueron calculados estimadores estereológicos en capilares fetales del laberinto y trofoblasto. La longitud, el peso del feto y el peso de la camada fueron influenciados por los períodos de exposición pregestacional y gestacional. La exposición a la contaminación por humo de leñá durante el período pregestacional tuvo un efecto significativo en el volumen de la placenta y, en consecuencia, en la altura del feto. En conclusión, este estudio demostró que la exposición a largo plazo al humo de leña afecta la salud del feto, disminuyendo el volumen absoluto de la placenta, además, afecta la interfaz placentaria entre la madre y feto, disminuyendo el volumen total de vasos sanguíneos presentes en la región del laberinto placentario y por consecuente afectando el tamaño del feto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Placenta/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Wood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Combustion/adverse effects , Body Size , Fetal Development/drug effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter
6.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 214, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103446

ABSTRACT

El término Origen Temprano de las Enfermedades del Adulto explica la aparición temprana de las condiciones anormales cardiovasculares y metabólicas en la vida adulta, mayor riesgo de morbilidad y muerte asociados a factores ambientales, especialmente nutricionales, que actúan en las primeras etapas de la vida. Estas respuestas programadas dependen de la naturaleza del estímulo o noxa, del tiempo de exposición y del momento de ocurrencia de la noxa, pudiendo un solo genotipo original varios fenotipos y estarían condicionadas por criterios críticos en los cuales se desarrollarían cambios a largo plazo pudiendo ser reversibles o no. La Programación Fetal explica que respuestas adaptativas embrionarias y fetales en un ambiente subóptimo genera consecuencias adversas permanentes. La desnutrición, así como la sobrenutrición fetal aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar alteraciones en el peso y composición corporal fetal, y posteriormente obesidad, síndrome metabólico, incremento en la adiposidad, alteración en el metabolismo de la glucosa y / o insulina, alteración del metabolismo lipídico, alteraciones hepáticas y de las cifras tensionales. La impronta genómica es esencial para el desarrollo y defectos en la misma puede originar alteraciones de la identidad parental transmisibles a las siguientes generaciones. Esta programación fetal puede ser explicada por la epigenética, definida como la serie de alteraciones hereditarias de la expresión genética a través de modificaciones del ADN y las histonas centrales sin cambios en la secuencia de ADN. Estas modificaciones epigenéticas alteran la estructura y condensación de la cromatina, afectando la expresión del genotipo y fenotipo. Este artículo desarrolla los aspectos involucrados en la Programación Fetal y los posibles mecanismos sobre la misma(AU)


The term Early Origin of Adult Diseases explains the early onset of abnormal cardiovascular and metabolic conditions in adult life, increased risk of morbidity and death associated with environmental factors, especially nutritional factors, that act in the early stages of life. These programmed responses depend on the nature of the stimulus or noxa, the time of exposure and the moment of occurrence of the noxa, with a single original genotype being able to have several phenotypes and would be conditioned by critical criteria in which long-term changes could develop, reversibles or not. Fetal Programming explains that embryonic and fetal adaptive responses in a suboptimal environment generate permanent adverse consequences. Fetal malnutrition as overnutrition increases the risk of developing alterations in fetal body weight and composition, and subsequently obesity, metabolic syndrome, increased adiposity, impaired glucose and / or insulin metabolism, impaired lipid metabolism, liver disorders and altered blood pressure. The genomic imprint is essential for development and defects in it can cause alterations of the parental identity and are transmitted to the following generations. This fetal programming can be explained by epigenetics, defined as the series of inherited alterations of genetic expression through modifications of DNA and central histones without changes in the DNA sequence. These epigenetic modifications alter the structure and condensation of chromatin, affecting the expression of the genotype and phenotype. This article develops the aspects involved in Fetal Programming and the possible mechanisms on it(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Fetal Nutrition Disorders , Fetal Development , Noxae , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Body Composition , Hypothalamus/anatomy & histology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1313-1320, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131486

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se a maturidade pulmonar de cabritos no líquido amniótico de suas mães pela coloração de Shor, pelo azul de Nilo e pela contagem de corpos lamelares, bem como a vitalidade e os níveis de glicose e lactato séricos em cabritos nascidos a termo e prematuros. Para tanto, foram utilizados 32 cabritos, divididos em três grupos, a saber: grupo I: cabritos nascidos de cesarianas com 149 dias de gestação; grupo II: cabritos nascidos de cesarianas com 143 dias de gestação; e grupo III: cabritos nascidos de cesarianas com 143 dias de gestação, oriundos de mães que receberam, por via intramuscular, 20mg/cabra de dexametasona, 36 horas antes da cirurgia eletiva. A coloração de Shorr e a contagem de corpos lamelares demonstraram ser métodos diagnósticos promissores para a avaliação da maturidade pulmonar em neonatos caprinos. Contudo, a administração de dexametasona nas cabras no período antenatal não influenciou a maturidade fetal. Constatou-se, entretanto, que a avaliação física do paciente, logo após o nascimento, também se mostra fundamental no que tange à percepção da vitalidade e da viabilidade de cabritos recém-nascidos.(AU)


Pulmonary maturity of goats in their amniotic fluid was evaluated by Shor, Nile blue staining, and lamellar body count, as well as vitality and serum glucose and lactate levels in term and premature goats. Twenty-four kids were divided into three groups: group I: comprised of eight animals born by cesarean section with 149 days of gestation; group II: comprised of eight animals born by cesarean section with 143 days of gestation; and group III: comprised of eight animals born by cesarean section with 143 days of gestation, in which the does received intramuscular dexamethasone (20mg/goat) 36 hours prior to elective cesarean section. Shorr staining and lamellar body count have shown to be promising diagnostic methods for the assessment of lung maturity in goat neonates. However, the administration of dexamethasone to goats during antenatal period did not influence fetal maturity. It was verified that the physical evaluation of the patient, shortly after birth, is fundamental for the perception of vitality and viability of newborn goats.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ruminants/growth & development , Ruminants/physiology , Lung/growth & development , Infant, Premature , Fetal Development/physiology , Amniotic Fluid
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 719-728, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128887

ABSTRACT

Este estudo investigou a toxicidade pré-natal do inseticida piriproxifeno em ratos Wistar, de forma a detectar possíveis alterações no desenvolvimento fetal da progênie exposta durante o período organogênico. Três doses de piriproxifeno (100, 300 e 500mg.kg-1) foram administradas por via oral às progenitoras, do sexto ao 15º dia de gestação. Os fetos foram submetidos à técnica de diafanização modificada descrita por Taylor e Van Dyke, para avaliação de malformações e alterações esqueléticas. Os resultados não demonstraram a ocorrência de toxicidade materna sistêmica ou alterações nos índices reprodutivos avaliados. Malformações ou alterações teratogênicas não foram detectadas, no entanto alterações esqueléticas sugestivas de retardo no desenvolvimento foram observadas especialmente nas doses mais altas testadas (300mg.kg-1 e 500mg.kg-1). Considerando-se a situação complexa de risco para a saúde humana, mostra-se importante a execução de investigações adicionais, de modo a contribuir para a adequada avaliação de risco do piriproxifeno em água potável.(AU)


This study investigated the prenatal toxicity of the insecticide pyriproxyfen in Wistar rats to detect the possible changes in the fetal development of the progeny exposed during the organogenic period. Three doses of pyriproxyfen (100, 300, and 500mg.kg-1) were administered orally to the progenitors, from day 6 to 15 of gestation. The fetuses were processed using the Taylor and Van Dyke modified diaphanization technique to evaluate malformations and skeletal changes. The results did not demonstrate the occurrence of systemic maternal toxicity or changes in the reproductive indexes evaluated. Malformations or teratogenic changes were not detected, however, skeletal changes suggestive of developmental delay were observed, especially in the highest doses tested (300 mg.kg-1 and 500 mg.kg-1). Owing to the potentially complex situation regarding its risk to human health, it is important that further studies be performed to contribute to the risk assessment of the addition of pyriproxyfen in drinking water.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pesticides/adverse effects , Pyridines , Teratogens/analysis , Fetal Development/drug effects , Rats, Wistar/embryology , Zika Virus , Microcephaly/veterinary
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 278-282, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130884

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The hair follicle is a unique structure, one of the most dynamic structures in mammalians, which can reproduce in every new cycle all the mechanism involved in its fetal development. Although a lot of research has been made about the human hair follicle much less has been discovered about the importance of the cytokeratins (CKs) in its development. Objective: Study the immunohistochemical pattern of epithelial CKs during human hair follicle development. Methods: We performed an immunohistochemical study using fresh post-mortem skin biopsies of human fetuses between 4 and 25 weeks of gestational age to study the expression of cytokeratins (CKs): CK1, CK10, CK13, CK14, CK16 and CK20 during human hair follicle fetal development. Study limitations: Restrospective study with a good number of makers but with a small population. Results/conclusion: We found that, the CKs were expressed in an intermediate time during follicular development. The epithelial CKs (CK1, CK14, CK10, CK13) and the epithelial CKs with a proliferative character such as CK16 were expressed first, as markers of cellular maturation and follicular keratinization. At a later phase, CK20 was expressed in more developed primitive hair follicles as previously discussed in literature.


Subject(s)
Hair Follicle/surgery , Hair Follicle/growth & development , Keratins, Hair-Specific/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Gestational Age , Fetal Development , Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis
11.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 224-230, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115492

ABSTRACT

Las alteraciones durante la vida prenatal tienen diversos efectos en los organismos. La restricción alimentaria materna ocasiona modificaciones en la conducta alimentaria como hiperfagia y su exacerbación ante la exposición a una dieta hiperlipídica. La evidencia experimental indica que aun cuando existe una preferencia por los alimentos altos en grasa, cuando las ratas realizan actividad física, esta preferencia disminuye o se elimina. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de la restricción alimentaria materna sobre el consumo de una dieta suplementada con nuez pecana y cómo influye la actividad física. El experimento incluyó 22 ratas, 11 del grupo experimental y 11 del grupo control. De los cuales 6 realizaron actividad y 5 permanecieron sedentarias en cada grupo (machos y hembras). El experimento duró 114 días, de los cuales 42 días tuvieron disponible la rueda de actividad. Los resultados mostraron que la restricción alimentaria materna no modificó el comportamiento alimentario, sin embargo, cuando incrementaron la actividad por la disponibilidad de la rueda de actividad, los sujetos experimentales aumentaron su consumo de nuez pecana. Los resultados se consideran contradictorios con respecto a la literatura, ya que muestran ausencia de hiperfagia e incremento en el consumo a la par del incremento en actividad física.


Alterations during prenatal life have various effects on organisms. Maternal food restriction causes changes in feeding behavior such as hyperphagia and its exacerbation when exposed to a hyperlipidic diet. Experimental evidence indicates that even when there is a preference for high-fat foods, when rats do physical activity, this preference decreases or is eliminated. Objective: to evaluate the effect of maternal dietary restriction on the consumption of a diet supplemented with pecan nuts and how physical activity influences this relationship. The experiment included 22 rats, 11 experimental and 11 controls. Of these, 6 performed physical activity and 5 remained sedentary in each group (males and females). The experiment lasted 114 days; the activity wheel was available on 42 days. The results showed that maternal food restriction did not modify eating behavior, however, when rats increased physical activity, experimental subjects increased their consumption of pecan nuts. The results are contradictory with respect to the literature, as they show an absence of hyperphagia and an increase in consumption along with an increase in physical activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Animals, Newborn , Behavior, Animal , Body Weight , Rats, Wistar , Caloric Restriction , Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Fetal Development , Diet, High-Fat , Food Deprivation , Food Preferences , Nuts
12.
Coluna/Columna ; 19(1): 8-12, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089646

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum to the sacrum in the human fetus at the beginning of the 2nd quarter. However, the medullary cone is located at or above the level of the second lumbar vertebra at birth. The objective is to determine the difference between the rates of longitudinal growth of the spinal cord and the spine in human fetuses from the 13th to the 22nd week of gestation (WoG) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Descriptive observational cross-sectional study of 24 stillbirths (13 ♂, 11 ♀), between the 13th and 22nd WoG, using spinal MRI. We recorded spine and spinal cord lengths in millimeters from the foramen magnum to the coccyx for the former and to the medullary cone for the latter. We identified the position of the medullary cone according to vertebral level and its correlation with the gestational age and the literature. Results The spinal cord increased in length from 50 to 93 mm, the spine from 57 to 137 mm, and the medullary cone rose from S1 to L2. The rate of growth was 1.2 mm/day for the spine and 0.6 mm/day for the spinal cord. Conclusions Discordance in the rate of normal longitudinal growth of the spine and spinal cord caused the medullary cone to rise from S1 level to L2 in the second trimester of pregnancy. These results allow an understanding of normal development and certain congenital malformations. Level of evidence IV; Case series.


RESUMO Objetivo A medula espinhal (ME) estende-se desde o forame magno até o sacro no feto humano no início do 2º trimestre. No entanto, ao nascimento, o cone medular localiza-se no nível da segunda vértebra lombar ou acima. O objetivo é determinar as diferenças na taxa de crescimento longitudinal da ME e da coluna vertebral (CV) em fetos humanos da 13a à 22a semana de gestação (SG) por meio de ressonância magnética (RM). Métodos Estudo observacional transversal descritivo em 24 natimortos (13 ♂, 11 ♀), com idades entre 13ª e 22ª SG, por RM da CV. O comprimento da CV e da ME foi registrado em milímetros, desde o forame magno até o cóccix na CV e até o cone na ME. Identificou-se a posição do cone de acordo com o nível vertebral, sua correlação com a idade gestacional e com literatura. Resultados O comprimento da ME aumentou de 50 para 93 mm, a CV de 57 para 137 mm e o cone medular subiu de S1 para L2. O ritmo de crescimento foi de 1,2 mm/dia para a CV e de 0,6 mm/dia para a ME. Conclusões A discordância no ritmo do crescimento longitudinal normal da CV e da ME fez com que o cone medular subisse do nível de S1 até L2 no segundo trimestre de gravidez. Os resultados permitem compreender o desenvolvimento normal e certas malformações congênitas. Nível de evidência IV; Série de casos.


RESUMEN Objetivo La médula espinal (ME) se extiende desde el foramen magnum hasta el sacro en el feto humano al inicio del 2º trimestre. Sin embargo, el cono medular se ubica a nivel de la segunda vertebral lumbar o por encima en el momento del nacimiento. El objetivo es determinar las diferencias en el ritmo de crecimiento longitudinal de la ME y columna vertebral (CV) en fetos humanos desde la 13ª hasta la 22ª semana de gestación (SG) mediante resonancia magnética (RM). Métodos Estudio descriptivo observacional transversal en 24 mortinatos (13 ♂, 11 ♀), con edades entre la 13ª y 22ª SG, mediante RM de CV. Se registró la longitud de CV y ME, en milímetros, desde el foramen mágnum al coxis en la primera y hasta el cono en la segunda. Se identificó la posición del cono según el nivel vertebral y su correlación con edad gestacional y literatura. Resultados La ME incrementó su longitud de 50 a 93 mm, la CV de 57 a 137 mm y el cono medular ascendió desde S1 hasta L2. El ritmo de crecimiento fue de 1.2 mm/día para la CV y de 0.6 mm/día para la ME. Conclusiones La discordancia en el ritmo de crecimiento longitudinal normal de la CV y ME determinó que el cono medular ascienda desde el nivel S1 hasta L2 en el segundo trimestre de gestación. Los resultados permiten comprender el desarrollo normal y ciertas malformaciones congénitas. Nivel de evidencia IV, serie de casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Cord , Spine , Fetal Development
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828999

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To verify the health advisory for short-term exposure to phenol.@*Methods@#The method of this validation experiment was the same as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for toxicology experiments used to determine phenol drinking water equivalent level (DWEL). Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered phenol in distilled water by gavage at daily doses of 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) from implantation (the 6th day post-mating) to the day prior to the scheduled caesarean section (the 20th day of pregnancy). The following information was recorded: general behavior; body weight; number of corpus luteum, live birth, fetus, stillbirth, and implantation; fetal gender; body weight; body length; tail length; and abnormalities and pathomorphological changes in the dams.@*Results@#In the 60 mg/kg b.w. dose group, the mortality of pregnant rats increased with increasing doses, suggesting maternal toxicity. Fetal and placental weights decreased as phenol dose increased from 30 mg/kg b.w., and were significantly different compared those in the vehicle control group, which suggested developmental toxicity in the fetuses. However, the phenol-exposed groups showed no significant change in other parameters compared with the vehicle control group ( > 0.05).@*Conclusion@#Despite using the same method as the US EPA, a different NOEAL of 15 mg/(kg·d) was obtained in this study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Environmental Pollutants , Toxicity , Female , Fetal Development , Phenol , Toxicity , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Toxicity Tests, Acute
15.
Medisan ; 23(6)nov.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1091151

ABSTRACT

La hipoxia es un factor importante que regula el desarrollo placentario y estimula la invasión del trofoblasto y la diferenciación, la angiogénesis y la vasculogénesis. Cuando ocurre la fecundación, la hipoxia a la que está expuesta el blastocisto regula su crecimiento, a la vez que limita el número de células del trofoblasto y el desarrollo placentario posterior, lo cual es clave en el transporte de nutrientes y oxígeno al feto en desarrollo; sin embargo, la hipoxia crónica fetoplacentaria conduce a disfunción vascular placentaria y a la programación intrauterina de enfermedades vasculares y metabólicas, ya que regula, a largo plazo, la expresión de enzimas relacionadas con la vía L-arginina/óxido nítrico en células endoteliales de diferentes lechos vasculares, incluyendo la placenta. Teniendo en cuenta los planteamientos anteriores en la presente investigación se describen los efectos de la hipoxia como noxa durante la vida intrauterina y su influencia en el origen temprano de la obesidad y sus complicaciones.


Hypoxia is an important factor that regulates the placental development and stimulates the invasion of trophoblast as well as differentiation, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. At the moment of fertilization, hypoxia to which the blastocyte is exposed, regulates its growth, at the same time that it limits the number of trophoblast cells and the posterior placental development, that is essential in the transport of nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus; however, chronic fetus-placental hypoxia leads to vascular placental dysfunction and to intra-uterine programming of vascular and metabolic diseases, since it regulates, at long term, the expression of enzymes related to the L-arginine/nitric oxide way in endothelial cells of different vascular beds, including placenta. Taking this into account the effects of hypoxia as noxa during intra-uterine life and its influence in the early origin of obesity and its complications are described in the present investigation.


Subject(s)
Fetal Development , Hypoxia , Noxae , Pediatric Obesity
16.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 20(2): 43-46, diciembre 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116487

ABSTRACT

Los Inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina II (IECAs) y antagonistas de los receptores de angiotensina II (ARA II) son drogas usadas comúnmente en el manejo de hipertensión arterial, sin embargo, su uso en el embarazo está asociado con toxicidad fetal.1, 2 La acción de la angiotensina II requiere su unión a dos receptores; AT1, involucrado en el control de la tensión arterial y AT2, probablemente encargado del crecimiento fetal. 2 La angiotensina II es esencial en la hemodinamia sistémica y la filtración glomerular fetal y neonatal. La disminución de la perfusión placentaria por efecto hipotensor en el bloqueo del sistema renina angiotensina aldosterona materno puede determinar hipotensión fetal sistémica, disminución de la filtración glomerular, oligoamnios e insuficiencia renal, anormalidades tubulares, hipoplasia craneal y alto riesgo de muerte perinatal. 2 Reportamos el caso de prematuro de 30 semanas con oligohidramnios severo y exposición materna a olmesartan. Al nacimiento presentó dificultad respiratoria; imposibilidad de mantener una adecuada tensión arterial a pesar de los esfuerzos para conseguir mejorar su tono vascular; anuria sin respuesta a diuréticos; alteraciones craneales; alteraciones metabólicas severas con consecuencias fatales. El tratamiento de hipertensión materna con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina II y los antagonistas de los receptores de angiotensina II está asociada con toxicidad fetal por lo que su uso debe ser evitado durante el embarazo.


Angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) are drugs for general use in the management of arterial hypertension, however their use in gestational hypertension is related to the Fetal toxicity. 1, 2 The action of angiotensin II requires its binding to two receptors; AT1, involved in the control of blood pressure and AT2, probably responsible for fetal growth.2 Angiotensin II is essential in systemic hemodynamics and fetal and neonatal glomerular filtration. The decrease in placental perfusion due to hypotensive effect in the blockade of the maternal rennin angiotensin aldosterone system can determine systemic fetal hypotension, decreased glomerular filtration, oligohydramnios and renal insufficiency, tubular abnormalities, cranial hypoplasia and high risk of perinatal death. 2 We report the case of prematurity of 30 weeks with a history of severe oligohydramnios and maternal exposure to olmesartan. At birth the patient presented in particular respiratory distress; inability to maintain adequate blood pressure despite efforts to improve your vascular tone; anuria without response to diuretics; cranial alterations; metabolic alterations with fatal consequences. The treatment of maternal hypertension with inhibitors of the angiotensin II convective enzyme and angiotensin II receptor antagonists is associated with fetal toxicity and should therefore be avoided during pregnancy


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Oligohydramnios , Premature Birth , Renal Insufficiency , Angiotensin II , Maternal Exposure , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Fetal Development , Toxicity , Hypotension
17.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(3): 291-296, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041339

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the concentration of alpha-tocopherol in umbilical cord serum of full-term and preterm newborns, in order to assess the nutritional status of both groups in relation to the vitamin and its possible correlation with intrauterine growth. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study conducted with 140 newborns, of which 64 were preterm and 76 were full-term. They did not have any malformations, they came from healthy mothers, who were nonsmokers, and delivered a single baby. Intrauterine growth was evaluated by weight-to-gestational age at birth, using Intergrowth-21st. Thealpha-tocopherol levels of umbilical cord serum were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Results: The mean concentration of alpha-tocopherol in umbilical cord serum for preterm and full-term infants was 263.3±129.5 and 247.0±147.6 µg/dL (p=0.494). In the preterm group, 23% were small for gestational age, whereas in the full-term group, this percentage was only 7% (p=0.017). Low levels of vitamin E were found in 95.3% of preterm infants and 92.1% of full-term infants. There was no correlation between alpha-tocopherol levels and weight to gestational age Z score (p=0.951). Conclusions: No association was found between alpha-tocopherol levels and weight to gestational age at birth. Intrauterine growth restriction was more frequent in preterm infants and most infants had low levels of vitamin E at the time of delivery.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a concentração de alfatocoferol em soro de cordão umbilical de recém-nascidos a termo e pré-termo, a fim de avaliar o estado nutricional de ambos os grupos com relação a essa vitamina e sua possível correlação sobre o crescimento intrauterino. Métodos: Estudo observacional de caráter transversal realizado com 140 recém-nascidos, 64 pré-termo e 76 a termo, sem malformações, oriundos de mães saudáveis, não fumantes e com parto de concepto único. O crescimento intrauterino foi avaliado pelo índice peso por idade gestacional ao nascer, utilizando a Intergrowth-21st. Os níveis de alfatocoferol do soro do cordão umbilical foram analisados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Resultados: A concentração média de alfatocoferol no soro do cordão umbilical para recém-nascidos pré-termo e a termo foi de, respectivamente, 263,3±129,5 e 247,0±147,6 µg/dL (p=0,494). Baixos níveis de vitamina E foram encontrados em 95,3% dos prematuros e em 92,1% dos neonatos a termo. Nogrupo pré-termo, 23% eram pequenos para a idade gestacional, enquanto no grupo a termo esse percentual foi de apenas 7% (p=0,017). Não houve correlação entre os níveis de alfatocoferol e o escore Z de peso para idade gestacional (p=0,951). Conclusões: Não foi encontrada associação entre os níveis de alfatocoferol e a adequação do peso à idade gestacional ao nascer. A restrição do crescimento intrauterino foi mais frequente nos nascidos pré-termo, e a maioria dos recém-nascidos apresentou níveis baixos de vitamina E no momento do parto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Vitamin E/blood , alpha-Tocopherol/blood , Fetal Development/physiology , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Infant, Premature , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Gestational Age
18.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 959-978, jul.-ago. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094101

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La ontogenia humana está basada en fundamentos genéticos y epigenéticos. Con el objetivo de estructurar los referentes teóricos sobre el papel relevante de la epigenética en la ontogenianormal y defectuosa que contribuyan a la promoción de salud y prevención de enfermedad, se realizó la revisión de 37 referencias bibliográficas. La epigenética es el conjunto de procesos químicos dependientes del ambiente que modifican la expresión del ácido desoxirribonucleico, sin alterar su secuencia. Su acción está presente durante toda la vida, especialmente en la prenatal cuando, por modificaciones ambientales intraútero ocurre la programación epigenética que hace al humano susceptible a defectos en la ontogenia, incluso a padecer ulteriormente de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Se han reportado factores ambientales inductores de marcas epigenéticas, entre ellos: alimentación, hábitos tóxicos, estrés, consumo inadecuado de ácido fólico y técnicas de reproducción asistida, todos modificables; su conocimiento constituye un baluarte inestimable en la promoción de salud y prevención de enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Human ontogeny is based in genetic and epigenetic fundaments. 37 bibliographic references were reviewed with the objective of structuring the theoretical referents on the relevant role of epigenetics in normal and defective ontogeny to contribute to health promotion and disease prevention. Epigenetics is the whole of chemical processes depending from the environment that modify the deoxyribonucleic acid expression without modifying its sequence. Its action is present during all lifetime, especially at pre-natal times; when due to intrauterine environmental modifications the epigenetic programming takes place, making humans susceptible to defects in ontogeny, even to subsequently suffer non-communicable chronic diseases. Environmental factors inducing epigenetic marks have been reported: food, toxic habits, stress, folic acid inadequate intake and assisted reproduction techniques, all modifiable. Its knowledge is an invaluable bulkward in health promotion and disease prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Preventive Health Services , Fetal Development/genetics , Disease Prevention , Epigenomics , Human Genetics , Genetics, Medical , Health Promotion , Impacts on Health , Environmental Hazards , Genetic Code
19.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(4): 256-263, Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013601

ABSTRACT

Abstract The hypothesis of fetal origins to adult diseases proposes that metabolic chronic disorders, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension originate in the developmental plasticity due to intrauterine insults. These processes involve an adaptative response by the fetus to changes in the environmental signals, which can promote the reset of hormones and of the metabolism to establish a "thrifty phenotype". Metabolic alterations during intrauterine growth restriction can modify the fetal programming. The present nonsystematic review intended to summarize historical and current references that indicated that developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) occur as a consequence of altered maternal and fetal metabolic pathways. The purpose is to highlight the potential implications of growth factors and adipokines in "developmental programming", which could interfere in the development by controlling fetal growth patterns. These changes affect the structure and the functional capacity of various organs, including the brain, the kidneys, and the pancreas. These investigations may improve the approach to optimizing antenatal as well as perinatal care aimed to protect newborns against long-termchronic diseases.


Resumo A hipótese das origens fetais de doenças em adultos propõe que distúrbios crônicos metabólicos, incluindo doenças cardiovasculares, diabetes e hipertensão, se originam na plasticidade do desenvolvimento devido a insultos intrauterinos. Estes processos envolvem uma resposta adaptativa do feto amudanças nos sinais ambientais que podem promover a redefinição dos hormônios e do metabolismo para estabelecer um "fenótipo poupador". Alteraçõesmetabólicas durante a restrição de crescimento intrauterino podem modificar a programação fetal. A presente revisão não-sistemática pretendeu resumir referências históricas e atuais que indicassem que as origens desenvolvimentistas da saúde e doença (DOHaD, na sigla em inglês) ocorrem como consequência de alterações nas vias metabólicas materna e fetal. O propósito é destacar as potenciais implicações de fatores de crescimento e adipocinas na "programação do desenvolvimento", que poderia interferir no desenvolvimento, controlando os padrões de crescimento fetal. Estas alterações afetam a estrutura e a capacidade funcional de inúmeros órgãos, incluindo o cérebro, os rins e o pâncreas. Estas investigações podemmelhorar a abordagempara otimizar os cuidados prénatais e perinatais, como objetivo de proteger os recém-nascidos contra doenças crônicas em longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Fetal Growth Retardation/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases , Chronic Disease , Longitudinal Studies , Fetal Development , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fetal Growth Retardation/blood
20.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(1): 24-30, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003521

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate whether exposure to different environmental lighting conditions affects the reproductive parameters of pregnant mice and the development of their offspring. Methods Fifteen pregnant albino mice were divided into three groups: light/dark, light, and dark. The animalswere euthanized on day 18 of pregnancy following the Brazilian Good Practice Guide for Euthanasia of Animals.Maternal and fetal specimens weremeasured and collected for histological evaluation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used for comparison of the groups considering p ≤ 0.05 to be statistically significant. Results There was no significant difference in the maternal variables between the three groups. Regarding fetal variables, significant differences were observed in the anthropometric measures between the groups exposed to different environmental lighting conditions, with the highest mean values in the light group. The histological evaluation showed the same structural pattern of the placenta in all groups, which was within the normal range. However, evaluation of the uterus revealed a discrete to moderate number of endometrial glands in the light/dark and light groups, which were poorly developed in most animals. In the fetuses, pulmonary analysis revealed morphological features consistent with the transition from the canalicular to the saccular phase in all groups. Conclusion Exposure to different environmental lighting conditions had no influence on the reproductive parameters of female mice, while the offspring of mothers exposed to light for 24 hours exhibited better morphometric features.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar se a exposição a diferentes luminosidades no ambiente afeta parâmetros reprodutivos de camundongos fêmeas prenhas e o desenvolvimento de sua prole. Métodos Foram selecionados para o estudo 15 camundongos fêmeas albinas prenhas. Os camundongos foram separados em grupos: luz/escuro, luz e escuro. As fêmeas foram eutanasiadas no 18° dia de gestação, seguindo as recomendações do Guia Brasileiro de Boas Práticas para a Eutanásia de animais. Tanto peças maternas como fetais foram mensuradas e coletadas para avaliação histológica. Foi utilizado o teste de Análise de variantes (Anova) para comparação dos grupos, considerando estatisticamente significativo o valor de p ≤ 0,05. Resultados Ao comparar as variáveis maternas entre os três grupos, não foi encontrada diferença estatística significativa. Em relação às variáveis fetais, houve diferenças estatísticas entre as medidas de antropometria dos grupos submetidos a diferentes luminosidades do ambiente, com melhores valores médios no grupo luz. Histologicamente, a avaliação placentária evidenciou em todos os grupos o mesmo padrão estrutural, com todos dentro da normalidade. No entanto, a avaliação de úteros, tanto do grupo luz/escuro quanto do grupo luz,mostrou quantidade discreta amoderada de glândulas endometriais, com pouco desenvolvimento na maioria dos animais. Nos fetos, análise pulmonar evidenciou características morfológicas compatíveis com a transição da fase canalicular para sacular em todos os grupos. Conclusão As exposições a diferentes luminosidades no ambiente não influenciaram nos parâmetros reprodutivos das fêmeas, entretanto, a ninhada das mães que receberam luz em todo período apresentou melhores medidas morfométricas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Lighting/methods , Pregnancy Outcome , Time Factors , Fetal Development/radiation effects , Light , Animals, Newborn/growth & development
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