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1.
Gac. méd. espirit ; 25(2): [14], ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514149

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: Las alteraciones del estado nutricional materno generalmente se relacionan con desviaciones del crecimiento fetal, que pueden detectarse por los parámetros biofísicos fetales e identifican la posible condición trófica al nacer. Objetivo: Determinar la posible relación entre los parámetros biométricos fetales, la condición trófica al nacer y el producto de acumulación de los lípidos. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio transversal en el Policlínico Chiqui Gómez Lubian del municipio Santa Clara, durante el año 2019, en una población de 253 gestantes normopeso supuestamente sanas al inicio de la gestación. La muestra no probabilística fue de 144 gestantes. Las variables de estudio fueron: producto de acumulación de los lípidos, biometría fetal y condición trófica al nacer. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos, empíricos y estadísticos. Resultados: En el segundo trimestre ningún parámetro biométrico coincidió con la condición al nacer de pequeño, mientras que para el grande coincidieron las circunferencias cefálica y abdominal. En el tercer trimestre la longitud del fémur y la circunferencia abdominal coinciden en la identificación del pequeño y del grande. El PAL se correlacionó con la circunferencia abdominal del tercer trimestre y con el peso al nacer; presentando mayor frecuencia de valores en el tercer tertil para los nacimientos grandes. Conclusiones: La circunferencia abdominal fue el parámetro biométrico con mayor coincidencia con la condición trófica al nacer, la que se asoció con valores en el tercer tertil del PAL para la detección de nacimientos grandes, relacionándose el fenotipo normopeso metabólicamente obeso con el crecimiento fetal por exceso.


Background: Maternal nutritional status disorders are usually related to fetal growth deviations, which can be detected by fetal biophysical parameters and identify the possible trophic condition at birth. Objective: To determine the possible relationship between fetal biometric parameters, the birth trophic state and lipid accumulation product. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Chiqui Gómez Lubian Polyclinic in Santa Clara municipality, during 2019, in a population of 253 normal-weight pregnant women who were apparently healthy at the beginning of their gestation. The non-probability sample was made up of 144 pregnant women. Study variables were: lipid accumulation product, fetal biometry and trophic condition at birth. Theoretical, empirical and statistical methods were used. Results: In the second trimester, none of the biometric parameters matched the condition at birth as a small child, while in the large one the head and abdominal circumferences matched. In the third trimester, femoral length and abdominal circumference coincide in identifying the small one and the large one. LAP correlated with third trimester abdominal circumference and birth weight, presenting higher frequency of values in the third tertile for large births. Conclusions: Abdominal circumference was the biometric parameter with the highest coincidence with trophic condition at birth, associated with values in the third tertile of the LAP for detecting large births, relating the metabolically obese normal weight phenotype with excessive fetal growth.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Biometry , Gestational Age , Fetal Weight , Fetal Development , Lipid Accumulation Product
3.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22(1): 893, 30 Junio 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451326

ABSTRACT

Los movimientos fetales son uno de los primeros signos de vitalidad fetal. Durante la gestación, éstos van apareciendo progresivamente. La adecuada adquisición y mantenimiento de los mismos durante la gestación indica un correcto desarrollo neuromuscular, así como de bienestar fetal1. La percepción materna de una Disminución de los Movimientos Fetales (DMF) constituye un motivo de consulta frecuente en los Servicios de Urgencias Obstétricas; toda paciente embarazada debe vigilar los movimientos fetales, mediante un conteo subjetivo de los movimientos del feto, a partir de las 24 semanas de gestación. La DMF constituye el 5 ­ 15% de motivos de consulta en los servicios de Urgencias en el tercer trimestre del embarazo. Hasta un 25% de fetos que presentan una DMF presentarán alguna complicación perinatal (malformaciones, retraso de crecimiento, parto prematuro, hemorragia fetomaterna, y éxitus fetal) incluso en población de bajo riesgo. El manejo inadecuado de la DMF representa un 10-15% de las muertes evitables a término1-3. Es por esto que ninguna paciente que consulte por Disminución de Movimientos Fetales debe ser dada de alta sin asegurarse del adecuado bienestar fetal.


Fetal movements are one of the first signs of fetal vitality. During gestation, they appear progressively. Adequate acquisition and maintenance of fetal movements during gestation indicates correct neuromuscular development, as well as fetal well-being1. Maternal perception of decreased fetal movements (DMP) is a frequent reason for consultation in Obstetric Emergency Departments; every pregnant patient should monitor fetal movements by subjectively counting fetal movements, starting at 24 weeks of gestation. FMD constitutes 5-15% of the reasons for consultation in the emergency department in the third trimester of pregnancy. Up to 25% of fetuses with FMD will present some perinatal complication (malformations, growth retardation, premature delivery, fetomaternal hemorrhage, and fetal death) even in low-risk populations. Inadequate management of FMD accounts for 10-15% of preventable deaths at term1-3. This is why no patient who consults for decreased fetal movements should be discharged without ensuring adequate fetal well-being.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy , Fetal Development , Fetal Monitoring , Fetal Movement , Obstetrics , Heart Rate, Fetal , Oximetry , Cardiotocography , Parturition , Ecuador , Emergency Medical Services , Fetal Death
5.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 26(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405647

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Las tablas de crecimiento y la ecografía de rutina son el estándar de oro para valorar adecuadamente al feto. Se consideran óptimas y adecuadas las tablas de biometría fetal que se crean con datos propios de cada población con el fin de usarlas como referencia, para identificar oportunamente malformaciones, o desviaciones del crecimiento. Objetivo: Identificar desviaciones de la norma de incremento en variables biométricas: diámetro biparietal, circunferencia cefálica, circunferencia abdominal y longitud del fémur. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación con diseño analítico longitudinal retrospectivo en la provincia Villa Clara, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2013 a diciembre de 2017. La población de estudio estuvo conformada por 6050 gestantes. La selección de la muestra se realizó a través de un muestreo no probabilístico intencional por criterios y quedó constituida por 3910 gestantes. Se obtuvieron datos de libros de registros de consultas de genética de áreas de salud seleccionadas. Se utilizaron medidas de resumen para variables cuantitativas, medias y percentiles (10, 50 y 90). Resultados: En el diámetro biparietal, la circunferencia cefálica y longitud del fémur, los valores reales obtenidos fueron inferiores a Hadlock en la mayoría de las semanas; la circunferencia abdominal cambió el comportamiento que llevaban las variables, ya que en esta predominaron los valores superiores entre los reales obtenidos, sobre todo en el percentil 10. Conclusiones: Los percentiles bajos de todas las variables en las primeras semanas, presentaron valores superiores a los de la tabla de Hadlock, pero en la circunferencia abdominal fetal, la muestra local tiene valores superiores mayoritarios a través de las semanas.


ABSTRACT Introduction: growth charts and routine ultrasound are the gold standard to adequately assess the fetus. Fetal biometry tables, created with data from each population, are considered optimal and appropriate in order to use them as a reference and to timely identify malformations or growth deviations. Objective: to identify deviations from the increase norm in the following biometric variables: biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length. Methods: a retrospective, longitudinal and analytical study was conducted in Villa Clara province between January 2013 and December 2017. The study population consisted of 6050 pregnant women. The selection of the sample was carried out through an intentional non-probabilistic sampling and was made up of 3910 pregnant women who meet the criteria established for the study. Data were obtained from genetic consultation record books from selected health areas. Summary measures were used for quantitative variables, means and percentiles (10, 50 and 90). Results: the real values obtained in the biparietal diameter, head circumference and femur length were lower than Hadlock in most weeks; abdominal circumference changed the behavior of the variables, since in this the superior values prevailed between the real ones obtained, mainly in the10th percentile. Conclusions: low percentiles of all variables in the first weeks had higher values than those of the Hadlock table, but in the fetal abdominal circumference, the local sample had higher values throughout the weeks.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Trimesters , Biometry/methods , Fetal Development
6.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 73(2): 184-193, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1394962

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: determinar el desempeño predictivo de la definición de retardo de crecimiento fetal (RCF) de ultrasonografía de la Sociedad de Medicina Materno Fetal (SMMF), consenso Delphi (CD) y Medicina Fetal de Barcelona (MFB) respecto a resultados adversos perinatales en cada una, e identificar si hay asociación entre diagnóstico de RCF y resultados adversos perinatales. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron gestantes con embarazo único de 24 a 36 semanas con 6 días, quienes fueron atendidas en la unidad de medicina materna fetal con evaluación ecográfica de crecimiento fetal y atención de parto en una institución hospitalaria pública de referencia ubicada en Popayán, Colombia. Se excluyeron embarazos con hallazgos ecográficos de anomalías congénitas. Muestreo por conveniencia. Se midieron variables sociodemográficas y clínicas de las gestantes al ingreso, la edad gestacional, el diagnóstico de RCF y el resultado adverso perinatal compuesto. Se analizó la capacidad predictiva de tres criterios diagnósticos de restricción de crecimiento fetal para malos resultados perinatales y la asociación entre el diagnóstico de RCF y mal resultado periantal. Resultados: se incluyeron 228 gestantes, cuya edad media fue de 26,8 años, la prevalencia de RCF según los tres criterios fue de 3,95 %, 16,6 % y 21,9 % para CD, MFB y SMMF respectivamente. Ningún criterio aportó área bajo la curva aceptable para predicción de resultado neonatal adverso compuesto, el diagnóstico de RCF por CD y SMMF se asoció a resultados adversos perinatales con RR de 2,6 (IC 95 %: 1,5-4,3) y 1,57 (IC 95 %: 1,01-2,44), respectivamente. No se encontró asociación por MFB RR: 1,32 (IC 95 %: 0,8-2,1). Conclusiones: ante un resultado positivo para RCF, el método Delphi se asocia de manera más importante a los resultados perinatales adversos.Los tres métodos tienen una muy alta proporción de falsos negativos en la predicción de mal resultado perinatal. Se requieren estudios prospectivos que reduzcan los sesgos de medición y datos ausentes.


Objectives: To determine the predictive performance of fetal growth restriction by Maternal Fetal Medicine Society (MFMS) definition of ultrasound, the Delphi consensus (DC) and the Barcelona Fetal Medicine (BFM) criteria for adverse perinatal outcomes, and to identify whether there is an association between the diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR) and adverse perinatal outcomes. Material and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted including women with singleton pregnancies between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation seen at the maternal fetal medicine unit for ultrasound assessment of fetal growth and delivery care in a public referral hospital in Popayán, Colombia. Pregnancies with ultrasound findings of congenital abnormalities were excluded. Convenience sampling was used. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were measured on admission; additional variables were gestational age, FGR diagnosis and adverse composite perinatal outcome. The predictive ability of three fetal growth restriction diagnostic criteria for poor perinatal outcomes was analyzed and asociation between FGR and adverse perinatlal outcomes. Results: Overall, 228 pregnant women with a mean age of 26.8 years were included; FGR prevalence according to the three criteria was 3.95 %, 16.6 % and 21.9 % for DC, BFM and MFMS, respectively. None of the criteria resulted in an acceptable area under the curve for the prediction of the composite adverse neonatal outcome; FGR diagnosis by DC and MFMS were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes with a RR of 2.6 (95 % CI: 1.5-4.3) and 1.57 (95 % CI: 1.01-2.44) respectively. No association was found for BFM RR: 1.32 (95 % CI: 0.8-2.1). Conclusions: Given a positive result for FGR, the Delphi method is significantly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. The proportion of false negative results for a poor perinatal outcome is high for the three methods. Prospective studies that reduce measurement and attrition bias are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Fetal Growth Retardation , Forecasting , Negative Results , Ultrasonography , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnant Women , Fetal Development , Perinatal Death
7.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 432-436, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929072

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is common during pregnancy, with the prevalence reaching as high as 31.0% in some European regions (McIntyre et al., 2019). Dysfunction of the glucose metabolism in pregnancy can influence fetal growth via alteration of the intrauterine environment, resulting in an increased risk of abnormal offspring birth weight (McIntyre et al., 2019). Infants with abnormal birth weight will be faced with increased risks of neonatal complications in the perinatal period and chronic non-communicable diseases in childhood and adulthood (Mitanchez et al., 2015; McIntyre et al., 2019). Therefore, accurate estimation of birth weight for neonates from women with GDM is crucial for more sensible perinatal decision-making and improvement of perinatal outcomes. Timely antenatal intervention, with reference to accurately estimated fetal weight, may also decrease the risks of adverse long-term diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Birth Weight , Diabetes, Gestational , Fetal Development , Neural Networks, Computer
8.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 24-24, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There are only limited numbers of reviews on the association of maternal-child genetic polymorphisms and environmental and lifestyle-related chemical exposure during pregnancy with adverse fetal growth. Thus, this article aims to review: (1) the effect of associations between the above highlighted factors on adverse fetal growth and (2) recent birth cohort studies regarding environmental health risks.@*METHODS@#Based on a search of the PubMed database through August 2021, 68 epidemiological studies on gene-environment interactions, focusing on the association between environmental and lifestyle-related chemical exposure and adverse fetal growth was identified. Moreover, we also reviewed recent worldwide birth cohort studies regarding environmental health risks.@*RESULTS@#Thirty studies examined gene-smoking associations with adverse fetal growth. Sixteen maternal genes significantly modified the association between maternal smoking and adverse fetal growth. Two genes significantly related with this association were detected in infants. Moreover, the maternal genes that significantly interacted with maternal smoking during pregnancy were cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 3 (XRCC3), interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ alpha 1 (HLA-DQA1), HLA DQ beta 1 (HLA-DQB1), and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Fetal genes that had significant interactions with maternal smoking during pregnancy were glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) and fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO). Thirty-eight studies examined the association between chemical exposures and adverse fetal growth. In 62 of the 68 epidemiological studies (91.2%), a significant association was found with adverse fetal growth. Across the studies, there was a wide variation in the analytical methods used, especially with respect to the genetic polymorphisms of interest, environmental and lifestyle-related chemicals examined, and the study design used to estimate the gene-environment interactions. It was also found that a consistently increasing number of European and worldwide large-scale birth cohort studies on environmental health risks have been conducted since approximately 1996.@*CONCLUSION@#There is some evidence to suggest the importance of gene-environment interactions on adverse fetal growth. The current knowledge on gene-environment interactions will help guide future studies on the combined effects of maternal-child genetic polymorphisms and exposure to environmental and lifestyle-related chemicals during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO , Fetal Development , Gene-Environment Interaction , Life Style , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Polymorphism, Genetic
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1108-1116, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405227

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Letrozole is mainly used for the treatment of unexplained infertility, breast cancer and polycystic ovarian syndrome, with secondary use in ovarian stimulation. In cases of unexpected or unknown pregnancy during the use of letrozole, letrozole may cause a teratogenic effect on the fetus. In this reason, in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of letrozole on fetal bone development. In this study, 32 pregnant Wistar albino rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: Control (saline) and high; 0.3 mg/kg, medium; 0.03 mg/kg, low; 0.003 mg/ kg letrozole. Saline and letrozole were administered in 100 mL solutions by intraperitonaly from day 11 to day 15 of pregnancy. The skeletal system development of fetuses was examined with double skeletal staining, immunohistochemical staining methods and mineral density scanning electron microscopy. A total of 100 fetuses from female rats, 25 in each group, were included in the study. As a result of that, ossification rates were observed to decrease depending on the dose of letrozole in the forelimb limb (scapula, humerus, radius, ulna) and hindlimb (femur, tibia, fibula) limb bones. As a result of the statistical analysis, a statistically significant decrease was found in the ossification rates of all bones between the control group and low, medium, high letrozole groups (p<0.001). Exposure to letrozole during pregnancy adversely affected ossification and bone growth. However, the teratogenic effects of letrozole are unclear. Therefore, it needs to be investigated more extensively.


RESUMEN: Letrozol se usa principalmente para el tratamiento de la infertilidad inexplicable, el cáncer de mama y el síndrome de ovario poliquístico, con estimulación ovárica de uso secundario. En casos de embarazo inesperado o desconocido durante el uso de letrozol, puede causar un efecto teratogénico en el feto. Por esta razón, en este estudio, nuestro objetivo fue determinar el efecto de letrozol en el desarrollo óseo fetal. Se utilizaron 32 ratas albinas Wistar preñadas las cuales se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos: Control (solución salina) y alta; 0,3 mg/kg, medio; 0,03 mg/kg, bajo; 0,003 mg/kg de letrozol. Se administró solución salina y letrozol en soluciones de 100 mL por vía intraperitoneal desde el día 11 hasta el día 15 de la preñez. El desarrollo del sistema esquelético de los fetos se examinó con tinción esquelética doble, métodos de tinción inmunohistoquímica y microscopía electrónica de barrido de densidad mineral. Se incluyeron en el estudio un total de 100 fetos de ratas hembra, 25 en cada grupo. Como resultado, se observó que las tasas de osificación disminuían dependiendo de la dosis de letrozol en los huesos de los miembros torácicos (escápula, húmero, radio, ulna) y de las miembros pélvicos (fémur, tibia, fíbula). Se encontró una disminución estadísticamente significativa en las tasas de osificación de todos los huesos entre el grupo control y los grupos de letrozol bajo, medio y alto (p<0,001). La exposición a letrozol durante la preñez afectó negativamente la osificación y el crecimiento óseo. Sin embargo, los efectos teratogénicos del letrozol no están claros por lo que debe ser investigado más extensamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Teratogens/pharmacology , Bone Development/drug effects , Fetal Development/drug effects , Letrozole/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Staining and Labeling/methods , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Letrozole/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
10.
Rev. Assoc. Méd. Rio Gd. do Sul ; 65(3): 01022105, Jul-Set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373518

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O divertículo de Kommerell é uma alteração rara que ocorre mais comumente com arco aórtico à esquerda e origem anômala de artéria subclávia direita (0,5%-2,0%). Em geral é assintomático, com sintomas relacionados a cardiopatias congênitas quando presentes. PALAVRA-CHAVE: Ultrassonagrafia pré-natal, desenvolvimento fetal, anormalidades congênitas


ABSTRACT Kommerell's diverticulum is a rare disorder that most commonly occurs with a left aortic arch and anomalous origin of the right subclavian artery (0.5%- 2.0%). It is usually asymptomatic, with symptoms related to congenital heart disease when present. KEYWORDS: Prenatal ultrasonography, fetal development, congenital abnormalities


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Congenital Abnormalities , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Fetal Development
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 327-334, feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385298

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Rodents are animals extensively used in biomedical and nutrition research, a necessary step before the research in humans. The composition and type of administration of the experimental diets are relevant and should be thought, considering each type of animal used in the research. It is particularly important to consider, among others, the metabolic differences between species and food needs in macro- and micronutrients to avoid possible bias. The American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) made recommendations for rodents, adapted to the period of growth (AIN-93G), which are pivotal in fetal programming studies. The experiments can be compared among different studies and better translated into humans, considering these limitations in the nutrition of parents and offspring. The review addresses different compositions of experimental food for rodents during development with the ability to induce fetal programming in the offspring and chronic diseases in adulthood due to the nutrition of the mother and father. The 'developmental origins of health and disease' (DOHaD) concept due to maternal nutrition is commented considering the protein restriction, vitamin D restriction, obesity, and intake of fructose or fish-oil. The 'paternal origins of health and disease transmission' (POHaD), because of the nutritional state of the father, were also analyzed in the review, primarily considering the obesity of the father. The review proposes some diet compositions to experimental research considering varied nutritional situations, hoping to assist young researchers or researches not familiar with experimental diet manipulations in the elaboration of the projects.


RESUMEN: Los roedores son animales utilizados frecuentemente en la investigación biomédica y nutricional, un paso necesario antes de la investigación en humanos. La composición y el tipo de administración de las dietas experimentales son relevantes y se debe considerar cada tipo de animal utilizado en los estudios. Es particularmente importante considerar las diferencias metabólicas entre las especies y las necesidades alimentarias de macro y micronutrientes para evitar posibles sesgos. El Instituto Americano de Nutrición (AIN) estableció recomendaciones para los roedores, adaptadas al período de crecimiento (AIN-93G), que son fundamentales en los estudios de programación fetal. Los experimentos se pueden comparar entre diferentes estudios y aplicar en humanos, considerando estas limitaciones en la nutrición de padres e hijos. La revisión aborda diferentes composiciones de alimentos para estudios experimentales en roedores durante su desarrollo, con la capacidad de inducir programación fetal en la descendencia y enfermedades crónicas en la adultez, considerando la nutrición de los padres. El concepto de 'orígenes del desarrollo de la salud y la enfermedad' (DOHaD) debido a la nutrición materna se comenta considerando la restricción de proteínas, la restricción de vitamina D, la obesidad y la ingesta de fructosa o aceite de pescado. Los 'orígenes paternos de la salud y transmisión de enfermedades' (POHaD), debido al estado nutricional del padre, también fueron analizados considerando principalmente la obesidad del padre. La revisión propone algunas composiciones dietéticas a la investigación experimental considerando situaciones nutricionales variadas, con la esperanza de ayudar a jóvenes investigadores o investigadores no familiarizados con las manipulaciones experimentales de la dieta en la elaboración de los proyectos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Parenteral Nutrition , Fetal Development
12.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 991-998, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921304

ABSTRACT

Placenta is the only link between the pregnant woman and fetus, and the basis for maintaining the normal pregnancy process and fetal development. Maternal stress is the maternal physiological and psychological changes caused by various factors, characterized by the increased level of glucocorticoid, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-target gland axis and regulates the expression of target genes. Maternal stress also changes the weight, metabolism and nutrient transportation of the placenta, which will substantially influence the development of fetus. This paper will firstly summarize the characteristics of maternal stress and its influence on offspring. Then, the changes in the body under maternal stress will be described. Finally, we will clarify the proven mechanisms underlying maternal stress and raise some important problems that have not been clarified in this area. The study of maternal stress on fetus and its underlying mechanisms will serve as theoretical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of the stress-related pregnant diseases and disorders.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Fetal Development , Fetus , Placenta
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1819-1827, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Twin pregnancies continue to increase worldwide; however, the current clinical prenatal evaluation for the intrauterine growth of twins still relies on the growth standards of singletons. We attempted to establish a set of fetal biometric references for Chinese twin pregnancies, stratified by chorionicity and conception mode as spontaneously conceived monochorionic diamniotic (SC-MCDA), spontaneously conceived dichorionic diamniotic (SC-DCDA), and assisted reproductive technology dichorionic diamniotic (ART-DCDA) twins.@*METHODS@#From 2016 to 2019, the ultrasonographic fetal biometric measurements were longitudinally collected in pregnant women, including fetal weight, biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length, and humerus length. The linear mixed models were used to test the difference of growth patterns between groups, and the growth curve of each biometric parameter was modeled by a generalized additive model for location scale and shape.@*RESULTS@#A total of 929 twin pregnant women and 2019 singleton pregnant women, met the inclusion criteria. Among twin pregnancies, 148 were SC-MCDA, 215 were SC-DCDA, and 566 were ART-DCDA twins. Overall, SC-DCDA twins grew faster than SC-MCDA twins, while slower than ART-DCDA twins (all P < 0.05), and all of the three groups showed significant differences comparing with singletons, especially during the third trimester. Hence, the customized fetal growth charts of each fetal biometric parameter were, respectively, constructed for SC-MCDA, SC-DCDA, and ART-DCDA twins.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The fetal biometric trajectories demonstrated characteristic patterns according to chorionicity and conception mode. To fill the gap, we modeled fetal biometric parameters for Chinese SC-MCDA, SC-DCDA, and ART-DCDA twin pregnancies, hoping to provide a reference for the further establishment of fetal growth reference values for Chinese twin fetuses.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , China , Fetal Development , Growth Charts , Pregnancy, Twin , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06650, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250482

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to obtain echobiometric values for the most important canine maternal-fetal tissues using high-definition ultrasonography (HDUS) trying to update the formulas for predicting gestational age. Twelve healthy bitches of brachycephalic breeds weighing 7-13kg and aged one to four years were included. The fetuses were analyzed every day using conventional and high-definition ultrasonography from the eighth day after artificial insemination until the day of delivery, using the ACUSON S2000/SIEMENS ultrasound equipment and specific software. Embryonic and fetal structures; diameter of the embryonic vesicle; length of the embryo; biparietal diameter, abdominal length and kidney height; length of the femur, humerus, scapula, radius, and tibia; thickening of the stomach wall; adrenal length; and cardiac size were measured. These variables were correlated with gestational and adjusted tested according to regression models. The results obtained (P<0.001) for: lateral diameter of the gestational sac (R2=81.8%); length of the embryo (R2=85.7%); biparietal (R2=99.1%) and abdominal diameter (R2=97.2%); thickness of the gastric wall (R2=86.9%); length of the femur (R2=96.6%), radius (R2=97.5%), humerus (R2=96.5%), scapula (R2=95.8%) and tibia (R2=97.3%); kidney length (R2=95.8%) and height (R2=96.0%); adrenal length (R2=89.6%); heart length (R2=93.0%) and height (R2=91.5%) of the canine fetuses showed significant correlation with gestational days. This allowed monitoring fetal growth and estimation of age with high accuracy in different gestational periods.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi obter valores ecobiométricos para os tecidos materno-fetais caninos, usando a ultrassonografia de alta definição (HDUS), desenvolvendo fórmulas para prever a idade gestacional das cadelas. Doze cadelas saudáveis de raças braquicefálicas pesando 7-13kg e com idades entre um e quatro anos foram incluídas. Os fetos foram analisados diariamente com ultrassonografia convencional e de alta definição, do oitavo dia após a inseminação artificial até o dia do parto, utilizando o equipamento de ultrassom ACUSON S2000/SIEMENS e software específico. Estruturas embrionárias e fetais; diâmetro da vesícula embrionária; comprimento do embrião; diâmetro biparietal, comprimento abdominal e altura renal; comprimento do fêmur, úmero, escápula, rádio e tíbia; espessamento da parede do estômago; comprimento adrenal; e tamanho cardíaco foram medidos. Essas variáveis foram correlacionadas com o teste gestacional e ajustado de acordo com os modelos de regressão. Os resultados obtidos (P<0,001) para: diâmetro lateral do saco gestacional (R2=81,8%); comprimento do embrião (R2=85,7%); diâmetro biparietal (R2=99,1%) e abdominal (R2=97,2%); espessura da parede gástrica (R2=86,9%); comprimento do fêmur (R2=96,6%), rádio (R2=97,5%), úmero (R2=96,5%), escápula (R2=95,8%) e tíbia (R2=97,3%); comprimento do rim (R2=95,8%) e altura (R2=96,0%); comprimento adrenal (R2=89,6%); o comprimento do coração (R2=93,0%) e a altura (R2=91,5%) dos fetos caninos apresentaram correlação significativa com os dias gestacionais. Isso permitiu monitorar o crescimento fetal e estimar a idade com alta precisão em diferentes períodos gestacionais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Biometry/methods , Ultrasonography , Craniosynostoses , Cuspid , Fetal Development , Insemination, Artificial , Parturition
15.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(1): 7-12, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | COLNAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1281052

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la programación fetal ofrece nuevas perspectivas sobre el origen de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, relacionando su aparición con factores perinatales. Objetivo: exponer evidencia que vincule las alteraciones gestacionales con las enfermedades cardiovasculares en la vida adulta del feto. Metodología: búsqueda en las bases de datos EBSCO, COCHRANE, MEDLINE, PROQUEST y SciELO de los artículos de revisión e investigaciones originales en inglés publicados en los últimos diez años. Se utilizaron términos MeSH para búsqueda controlada y se evaluaron los estudios con STROBE y PRISMA según correspondía. Resultados: los hallazgos sugieren que nacer con menos de 2600 k guarda relación con diabetes mellitus (OR de 1.607 IC 95% 1.324-1.951), hipertensión arterial (OR de 1.15 IC 95% 1.043-1.288) y menor función endotelial (1.94+0.37 vs 2.68+0.41, p: 0.0001) en la adultez. La prematuridad se asocia con mayores presiones arteriales sistólicas (4.2 mmHg IC 95%; 2.8 - 5.7 p 0.001) y diastólicas (2.6 mmHg IC 95%; 1.2-4.0; p 0.001). Las alteraciones nutricionales maternas y la diabetes gestacional aumentan el riesgo de síndrome metabólico (OR 1.2 IC 95% 0.9-1.7) y sobrepeso en la edad escolar (OR 1.81 IC 95% 1.18 - 2.86). Conclusión: los resultados adversos en la gestación están relacionados con el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en la vida adulta del feto expuesto.


Introduction: fetal programming offers new perspectives on the origin of cardiovascular diseases, relating their appearance with perinatal factors. Objective: to show the evidence associating gestational alterations with cardiovascular diseases in the offspring in adult life. Methodology: an EBSCO, COCHRANE, MEDLINE, PROQUEST and SciELO databases search of original review and research articles published in English in the last ten years was conducted. MeSH terms were used to perform a controlled search. The studies were analyzed accordingly using the STROBE and PRISMA reporting guidelines. Results:The findings suggest that a birth weight of less than 2600 kg is related with diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.607, 95% CI 1.324 to 1.951), hypertension (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.043 to 1.288) and impaired endothelial function (1.94+0.37 vs 2.68+0.41, p: 0.0001) in adulthood. Prematurity is related with higher systolic blood pressure (4.2 mmHg 95% CI; 2.8 to 5.7 p 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (2.6 mmHg 95% CI; 1.2 to 4.0; p 0.001). Maternal nutritional alterations and gestational diabetes increase the risk of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.2 95% CI 0.9 to 1.7) and overweight in school-age (OR = 1.81 95% CI 1.18 to 2.86). Conclusion: adverse results during pregnancy are related with the development of cardiovascular diseases in the exposed fetus in adult life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Fetal Development , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , Birth Weight , Nutritional Status , Diabetes, Gestational , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Obstetric Labor, Premature
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1356-1364, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134448

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Studies in humans showed that prenatal exposure to urban air pollution (AP) influences fetal development, and increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and some diseases in postnatal life. However, most of these were performed in environments where the main source of environmental particulate matters (PM) emission is diesel combustion by motor vehicles and industries, thereby ignoring the effects produced by wood smoke pollution. We hypothesized that morphological changes in the placenta could contribute to the reduction in fetal size associated with different periods of exposure to AP produced by wood smoke pollution prior to and during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to investigate the quantitative effects of long-term exposure to environmental levels of wood smoke pollution on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the placenta in rats. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution in indoor and outdoor environments. At 19 days of gestation, the placentas were obtained by caesarean and were prepared for histological, planimetric and stereological analysis. The volume and proportions of the placental compartments were estimated. In addition, stereological estimators in fetal capillaries were calculated in the labyrinth region. Crown rump length, fetus weight and litter weight were influenced by pregestational and gestational exposure periods. Exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregestational period has significant effect on the volume of the placenta, and consequently on fetal height. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that long-term outdoor exposure to wood smoke pollution from residential heating affects fetal health, decreasing the absolute volume of the entire placenta and the placental interface between the mother and fetus, decreasing the total volume of blood vessels present in the labyrinth region ofthe placenta and affecting the size of the fetus.


RESUMEN: Estudios en humanos demostraron que la exposición prenatal a la polución del aire urbano influye en el desarrollo fetal y aumenta la incidencia de resultados adversos de la gestación y algunas enfermedades postnatales. Sin embargo, la mayoría de ellos fueron realizados en entornos donde la principal fuente de emisión de material particulado, fue la combustión de petróleo por vehículos a motor e industrias, ignorando los efectos producidos por el humo de leña producido por la calefacción intradomiciliaria. Hipotetizamos respecto a que los cambios de la placenta contribuirían a la disminución del tamaño fetal relacionado a los períodos de exposición al humo de leña durante los periodos pregestacional y gestacional. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos cuantitativos de la exposición al humo de leña sobre la morfología macroscópica y microscópica en placenta de ratas. Para probar esto, ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña en ambientes interiores y exteriores. A los 19 días de gestación, las placentas fueron obtenidas por cesárea y fueron preparadas para un análisis histológico, planimétrico y estereológico. Fue estimado el volumen absoluto y las proporciones de los compartimentos placentarios. Además, fueron calculados estimadores estereológicos en capilares fetales del laberinto y trofoblasto. La longitud, el peso del feto y el peso de la camada fueron influenciados por los períodos de exposición pregestacional y gestacional. La exposición a la contaminación por humo de leñá durante el período pregestacional tuvo un efecto significativo en el volumen de la placenta y, en consecuencia, en la altura del feto. En conclusión, este estudio demostró que la exposición a largo plazo al humo de leña afecta la salud del feto, disminuyendo el volumen absoluto de la placenta, además, afecta la interfaz placentaria entre la madre y feto, disminuyendo el volumen total de vasos sanguíneos presentes en la región del laberinto placentario y por consecuente afectando el tamaño del feto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Placenta/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Wood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , /adverse effects , Body Size , Fetal Development/drug effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1313-1320, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131486

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se a maturidade pulmonar de cabritos no líquido amniótico de suas mães pela coloração de Shor, pelo azul de Nilo e pela contagem de corpos lamelares, bem como a vitalidade e os níveis de glicose e lactato séricos em cabritos nascidos a termo e prematuros. Para tanto, foram utilizados 32 cabritos, divididos em três grupos, a saber: grupo I: cabritos nascidos de cesarianas com 149 dias de gestação; grupo II: cabritos nascidos de cesarianas com 143 dias de gestação; e grupo III: cabritos nascidos de cesarianas com 143 dias de gestação, oriundos de mães que receberam, por via intramuscular, 20mg/cabra de dexametasona, 36 horas antes da cirurgia eletiva. A coloração de Shorr e a contagem de corpos lamelares demonstraram ser métodos diagnósticos promissores para a avaliação da maturidade pulmonar em neonatos caprinos. Contudo, a administração de dexametasona nas cabras no período antenatal não influenciou a maturidade fetal. Constatou-se, entretanto, que a avaliação física do paciente, logo após o nascimento, também se mostra fundamental no que tange à percepção da vitalidade e da viabilidade de cabritos recém-nascidos.(AU)


Pulmonary maturity of goats in their amniotic fluid was evaluated by Shor, Nile blue staining, and lamellar body count, as well as vitality and serum glucose and lactate levels in term and premature goats. Twenty-four kids were divided into three groups: group I: comprised of eight animals born by cesarean section with 149 days of gestation; group II: comprised of eight animals born by cesarean section with 143 days of gestation; and group III: comprised of eight animals born by cesarean section with 143 days of gestation, in which the does received intramuscular dexamethasone (20mg/goat) 36 hours prior to elective cesarean section. Shorr staining and lamellar body count have shown to be promising diagnostic methods for the assessment of lung maturity in goat neonates. However, the administration of dexamethasone to goats during antenatal period did not influence fetal maturity. It was verified that the physical evaluation of the patient, shortly after birth, is fundamental for the perception of vitality and viability of newborn goats.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ruminants/growth & development , Ruminants/physiology , Lung/growth & development , Infant, Premature , Fetal Development/physiology , Amniotic Fluid
18.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 214, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103446

ABSTRACT

El término Origen Temprano de las Enfermedades del Adulto explica la aparición temprana de las condiciones anormales cardiovasculares y metabólicas en la vida adulta, mayor riesgo de morbilidad y muerte asociados a factores ambientales, especialmente nutricionales, que actúan en las primeras etapas de la vida. Estas respuestas programadas dependen de la naturaleza del estímulo o noxa, del tiempo de exposición y del momento de ocurrencia de la noxa, pudiendo un solo genotipo original varios fenotipos y estarían condicionadas por criterios críticos en los cuales se desarrollarían cambios a largo plazo pudiendo ser reversibles o no. La Programación Fetal explica que respuestas adaptativas embrionarias y fetales en un ambiente subóptimo genera consecuencias adversas permanentes. La desnutrición, así como la sobrenutrición fetal aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar alteraciones en el peso y composición corporal fetal, y posteriormente obesidad, síndrome metabólico, incremento en la adiposidad, alteración en el metabolismo de la glucosa y / o insulina, alteración del metabolismo lipídico, alteraciones hepáticas y de las cifras tensionales. La impronta genómica es esencial para el desarrollo y defectos en la misma puede originar alteraciones de la identidad parental transmisibles a las siguientes generaciones. Esta programación fetal puede ser explicada por la epigenética, definida como la serie de alteraciones hereditarias de la expresión genética a través de modificaciones del ADN y las histonas centrales sin cambios en la secuencia de ADN. Estas modificaciones epigenéticas alteran la estructura y condensación de la cromatina, afectando la expresión del genotipo y fenotipo. Este artículo desarrolla los aspectos involucrados en la Programación Fetal y los posibles mecanismos sobre la misma(AU)


The term Early Origin of Adult Diseases explains the early onset of abnormal cardiovascular and metabolic conditions in adult life, increased risk of morbidity and death associated with environmental factors, especially nutritional factors, that act in the early stages of life. These programmed responses depend on the nature of the stimulus or noxa, the time of exposure and the moment of occurrence of the noxa, with a single original genotype being able to have several phenotypes and would be conditioned by critical criteria in which long-term changes could develop, reversibles or not. Fetal Programming explains that embryonic and fetal adaptive responses in a suboptimal environment generate permanent adverse consequences. Fetal malnutrition as overnutrition increases the risk of developing alterations in fetal body weight and composition, and subsequently obesity, metabolic syndrome, increased adiposity, impaired glucose and / or insulin metabolism, impaired lipid metabolism, liver disorders and altered blood pressure. The genomic imprint is essential for development and defects in it can cause alterations of the parental identity and are transmitted to the following generations. This fetal programming can be explained by epigenetics, defined as the series of inherited alterations of genetic expression through modifications of DNA and central histones without changes in the DNA sequence. These epigenetic modifications alter the structure and condensation of chromatin, affecting the expression of the genotype and phenotype. This article develops the aspects involved in Fetal Programming and the possible mechanisms on it(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Fetal Nutrition Disorders , Fetal Development , Noxae , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Body Composition , Hypothalamus/anatomy & histology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 719-728, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128887

ABSTRACT

Este estudo investigou a toxicidade pré-natal do inseticida piriproxifeno em ratos Wistar, de forma a detectar possíveis alterações no desenvolvimento fetal da progênie exposta durante o período organogênico. Três doses de piriproxifeno (100, 300 e 500mg.kg-1) foram administradas por via oral às progenitoras, do sexto ao 15º dia de gestação. Os fetos foram submetidos à técnica de diafanização modificada descrita por Taylor e Van Dyke, para avaliação de malformações e alterações esqueléticas. Os resultados não demonstraram a ocorrência de toxicidade materna sistêmica ou alterações nos índices reprodutivos avaliados. Malformações ou alterações teratogênicas não foram detectadas, no entanto alterações esqueléticas sugestivas de retardo no desenvolvimento foram observadas especialmente nas doses mais altas testadas (300mg.kg-1 e 500mg.kg-1). Considerando-se a situação complexa de risco para a saúde humana, mostra-se importante a execução de investigações adicionais, de modo a contribuir para a adequada avaliação de risco do piriproxifeno em água potável.(AU)


This study investigated the prenatal toxicity of the insecticide pyriproxyfen in Wistar rats to detect the possible changes in the fetal development of the progeny exposed during the organogenic period. Three doses of pyriproxyfen (100, 300, and 500mg.kg-1) were administered orally to the progenitors, from day 6 to 15 of gestation. The fetuses were processed using the Taylor and Van Dyke modified diaphanization technique to evaluate malformations and skeletal changes. The results did not demonstrate the occurrence of systemic maternal toxicity or changes in the reproductive indexes evaluated. Malformations or teratogenic changes were not detected, however, skeletal changes suggestive of developmental delay were observed, especially in the highest doses tested (300 mg.kg-1 and 500 mg.kg-1). Owing to the potentially complex situation regarding its risk to human health, it is important that further studies be performed to contribute to the risk assessment of the addition of pyriproxyfen in drinking water.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pesticides/adverse effects , Pyridines , Teratogens/analysis , Fetal Development/drug effects , Rats, Wistar/embryology , Zika Virus , Microcephaly/veterinary
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 278-282, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130884

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The hair follicle is a unique structure, one of the most dynamic structures in mammalians, which can reproduce in every new cycle all the mechanism involved in its fetal development. Although a lot of research has been made about the human hair follicle much less has been discovered about the importance of the cytokeratins (CKs) in its development. Objective: Study the immunohistochemical pattern of epithelial CKs during human hair follicle development. Methods: We performed an immunohistochemical study using fresh post-mortem skin biopsies of human fetuses between 4 and 25 weeks of gestational age to study the expression of cytokeratins (CKs): CK1, CK10, CK13, CK14, CK16 and CK20 during human hair follicle fetal development. Study limitations: Restrospective study with a good number of makers but with a small population. Results/conclusion: We found that, the CKs were expressed in an intermediate time during follicular development. The epithelial CKs (CK1, CK14, CK10, CK13) and the epithelial CKs with a proliferative character such as CK16 were expressed first, as markers of cellular maturation and follicular keratinization. At a later phase, CK20 was expressed in more developed primitive hair follicles as previously discussed in literature.


Subject(s)
Hair Follicle/surgery , Hair Follicle/growth & development , Keratins, Hair-Specific/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Gestational Age , Fetal Development , Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis
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