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1.
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 375-383, 202112.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353532

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La preeclampsia es la primera causa de muerte materna directa en Colombia y la segunda a nivel mundial. El desarrollo de estrategias de predicción y prevención puede disminuir las complicaciones y secuelas ocasionadas por dicha enfermedad. El Doppler de arterias uterinas entre las semanas 11 y 13+6 como prueba independiente o en combinación con factores maternos o pruebas bioquímicas permite tasas de detección de preeclampsia temprana ≥ 90% a partir de la implementación de distintos cribados. La validez de dicha prueba diagnóstica presenta una sensibilidad del 47.8% y especificidad del 92.1% para la detección de preeclampsia temprana; con una sensibilidad del 26.4% y especificidad del 93.4% para predecir preeclampsia en cualquier etapa. División de los temas tratados. En esta revisión de tema se aborda la utilidad de esta medición, se habla de la realización de la técnica en cuestión y, por último, se revisan las herramientas estandarizadas que están disponibles en la actualidad junto con su accesibilidad y precisión. Conclusiones. La evidencia empírica que respalda la validez de las herramientas disponibles hoy en día para el tamizaje de preeclampsia a través de la evaluación por ultrasonografía Doppler de las arterias uterinas es significativa. Al ser Colombia un país que presenta una prevalencia alta de preeclampsia, conocer la utilidad de esta medición favorece una vigilancia temprana y oportuna, lo que disminuye los posibles desenlaces desfavorables para las maternas.


Introduction. Preeclampsia is the primary cause of direct maternal death in Colombia and the second globally. The development of prediction and prevention strategies can reduce complications and consequences caused by this disease. The uterine arteries Doppler between weeks 11 and 13+6 as an independent test or in combination with maternal factors or biochemical tests allows for early detection rates for preeclampsia of ≥90% from the implementation of different sieving. The validity of this diagnostic test has a sensitivity of 47.8% and specificity of 92.1% for the early detection of preeclampsia; with a sensitivity of 26.4% and specificity of 93.4% to predict preeclampsia at any stage. Division of Covered Topics. This topic review covers the usefulness of this measurement. It discusses the performance of the technique in question and, lastly, the standardized tools currently available are reviewed together with the accessibility and accuracy. Conclusions. The empirical evidence that supports the validity of the tools available today for the screening of preeclampsia via Doppler ultrasound evaluation of the uterine arteries is significant. As Colombia is a country with a high prevalence of preeclampsia, knowing the usefulness of this measurement favors early and timely surveillance, which reduces possible unfavorable outcomes for mothers.


Introdução. A pré-eclâmpsia é a principal causa de morte materna direta na Colômbia e a segunda no mundo. O desenvolvimento de estratégias de predição e prevenção pode reduzir as complicações e sequelas causadas pela doença. O Doppler da artéria uterina entre as semanas 11 e 13+6 como um teste independente ou em combinação com fatores maternos ou testes bioquímicos permite taxas de detecção de pré-eclâmpsia precoce≥90% a partir da implementação de diferentes exames. A validade desse teste diagnóstico tem sensibilidade de 47,8% e especificidade de 92,1% para a detecção de pré-eclâmpsia precoce; com uma sensibilidade de 26,4% e especificidade de 93,4% para prever pré-eclâmpsia em qualquer fase. Divisão dos tópicos abordados. Esta revisão de tópicos aborda a utilidade desta medição, discute a realização da técnica em questão e, por fim, são revisadas as ferramentas padronizadas que estão disponíveis atualmente, juntamente com sua acessibilidade e precisão. Conclusões. A evidência empírica que apoia a validade das ferramentas disponíveis atualmente para rastreamento de pré-eclâmpsia por meio da avaliação de ultrassom Doppler das artérias uterinas é significativa. Como a Colômbia é um país com alta prevalência de pré-eclâmpsia, conhecer a utilidade dessa medição favorece a vigilância precoce e oportuna, o que reduz possíveis resultados desfavoráveis para mulheres maternas.


Subject(s)
Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Pre-Eclampsia , Prenatal Care , Prenatal Diagnosis , Ultrasonography , Uterine Artery , Fetal Growth Retardation , Noninvasive Prenatal Testing
2.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(10): 743-748, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357058

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To assess maternal serum levels of vitamin D in fetuses appropriate for gestational age (AGA), small for gestational age (SGA), and with fetal growth restriction (FGR) according to estimated fetal weight (EFW). Methods This cross-sectional study included 87 pregnant women between 26 and 36 weeks of gestation: 38 in the AGA group, 24 in the SGA group, and 25 in the FGR group. Maternal serum vitamin D levels were assessed using the chemiluminescence method. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the results between the groups. Results The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of maternal age (years) and body mass index (kg/m2) in the AGA, SGA, and FGR groups were 25.26 8.40 / 26.57 ± 4.37; 25.04 ± 8.44 / 26.09 ± 3.94; and 25.48 ± 7.52 / 26.24 ± 4.66, respectively (p > 0.05). The maternal serum vitamin D levels (mean ± SD) of the AGA, SGA, and FGR groups were 22.47 ± 8.35 ng/mL, 24.80 ± 10.76 ng/mL, and 23.61 ± 9.98 ng/mL, respectively, but without significant differences between the groups (p = 0.672). Conclusion Maternal serum vitamin D levels did not present significant differences among pregnant women with AGA, SGA, or FGR fetuses between 26 and 36 weeks of gestation according to EFW.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o nível sérico materno de vitamina D em fetos adequados para idade gestacional (AIG), pequenos para idade gestacional (PIG) e com restrição de crescimento (RCF) de acordo com a estimativa de peso fetal (EPF). Métodos Realizou-se um estudo transversal envolvendo 87 gestantes entre 26 e 36 semanas, sendo: 38 do grupo AIG, 24 do grupo PIG e 25 do grupo RCF. A dosagem sérica materna de vitamina D foi realizada pelo método de quimiluminescência. Para as comparações entre os grupos, utilizou-se o teste exato de Fisher. Resultados A média ± desvio-padrão (DP) da idade materna (anos) e do índice de massa corporal (kg/m2) nos grupos AIG, PIG e RCF foram 25,26 ± 8,40 / 26,57 ± 4,37; 25,04 ± 8,44 / 26,09 ± 3,94; e 25,48 ± 7,52 / 26,24 ± 4,66, respectivamente (p>0,05). A concentração sérica materna de vitamina D (médias ± desvios-padrão) dos grupos AIG, PG e RCF foram 22,47±8,35 ng/ml; 24,80_10,76 ng/ml; e 23,61 ± 9,98 ng/ml, respectivamente, contudo, sem diferenças significativas entre os grupos (p=0,672). Conclusão A concentração sérica materna de vitamina D não apresentou diferenças significantes entre gestantes com fetos AIG, PIG ou RCF entre 26 e 36 semanas de acordo com a EPF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnant Women , Fetal Growth Retardation , Vitamin D , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Gestational Age
3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(3): 493-503, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345399

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. En la actualidad, la diabetes mellitus representa una de las condiciones médicas que complica el embarazo con mayor frecuencia, lo que afecta el crecimiento y el desarrollo fetal. Objetivo. Determinar las malformaciones esqueléticas y alteraciones en el crecimiento en fetos de ratas Wistar diabéticas. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó un modelo de diabetes moderada inducida neonatalmente con estreptozotocina (STZ 100 mg/kg de peso corporal, por vía subcutánea) en ratas Wistar. En la adultez, las ratas sanas y diabéticas se aparearon con machos sanos de la misma edad y cepa. El día 20 de gestación se practicó la cesárea bajo anestesia. Se extrajeron los fetos, se pesaron y clasificaron como pequeños (PAG), adecuados (AEG) o grandes (GEG) para la edad gestacional. Los fetos seleccionados se procesaron para el análisis de anomalías esqueléticas y sitios de osificación. Resultados. En la descendencia de las ratas diabéticas, hubo un mayor porcentaje de fetos clasificados como pequeños o grandes y un menor porcentaje de fetos con peso adecuado; el promedio de peso fetal fue menor y había menos sitios de osificación. Se observaron alteraciones en la osificación de cráneo, esternón, columna vertebral, costillas y extremidades anteriores y posteriores; y también, hubo una correlación directa entre el peso y el grado de osificación fetal. Hubo malformaciones congénitas asociadas con la fusión y bifurcación de las costillas, así como cambios indicativos de hidrocefalia, como la forma de domo del cráneo, una amplia distancia entre los parietales y la anchura de las fontanelas anterior y posterior. Conclusión. La diabetes moderada durante la gestación altera el crecimiento y el desarrollo fetal, que se ve afectado tanto por macrosomía y la restricción del crecimiento intrauterino como por malformaciones esqueléticas.


Abstract Introduction: Currently, diabetes mellitus represents one of the medical conditions that more frequently complicates pregnancy affecting the fetus's growth and development. Objective: To determine the skeletal malformations and growth alterations in fetuses of diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and methods: We used a neonatally streptozotocin-induced mild diabetes model (STZ 100 mg/kg body weight - subcutaneously) in Wistar rats. In adulthood, healthy and diabetic rats were mated with healthy males of the same age and strain. On day 20 of gestation, a cesarean was performed under anesthesia. Fetuses were removed, weighed, and classified as small (SPA), adequate (APA), and large (LPA) for the gestational age. Selected fetuses were processed for skeletal anomaly and ossification sites analysis. Results: In the offspring of diabetic rats, there was a higher percentage of fetuses classified as small or large and a lower percentage of fetuses with adequate weight; the fetal weight mean was lower and there were fewer sites of ossification. Alterations were observed in the ossification of the skull, sternum, spine, ribs and fore and hind limbs; and also, there was a direct correlation between fetal weight and ossification degree There were congenital malformations associated with fusion and bifurcation of the ribs, as well as changes indicative of hydrocephaly, such as the dome shape of the skull, a wide distance between parietals, and the width of the anterior and posterior fontanels. Conclusion: Moderate diabetes during pregnancy alters fetal growth and development with macrosomia and intrauterine growth restriction, as well as skeletal malformations.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Fetal Growth Retardation , Congenital Abnormalities , Fetal Macrosomia , Teratogenesis
4.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(7): 545-559, July 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347249

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fetal growth restriction (FGR) occurswhen the fetus does not reach its intrauterine potential for growth and development as a result of compromise in placental function. It is a condition that affects 5 to 10% of pregnancies and is the second most common cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Children born with FGR are at risk of impaired neurological and cognitive development and cardiovascular or endocrine diseases in adulthood. The purpose of the present revision is to perform a literature search for evidence on the detection and assessment by ultrasound of brain injury linked to FGR during fetal life. Using a systematic approach and quantitative evaluation as study methodology, we reviewed ultrasound studies of the fetal brain structure of growth-restricted fetuses with objective quality measures. A total of eight studies were identified. High quality studies were identified for measurement of brain volumes; corpus callosum; brain fissure depth measurements, and cavum septi pellucidi width measurement. A low-quality study was available for transverse cerebellar diameter measurement in FGR. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to understand the changes that occur in the brain of fetuseswith restricted growth, as well as their correlation with the changes in cognitive development observed.


Resumo A restrição do crescimento fetal (RCF) ocorre quando umfeto não consegue atingir seu potencial de crescimento intrauterino, na maioria das vezes por compromisso da função placentária. É uma condição que afeta de 5 a 10% das gravidezes e é a segunda causa mais comum de morbidade e mortalidade perinatal. Crianças nascidas com RCF incorrem em maior risco de atraso no desenvolvimento neurológico e cognitivo, bem como de doenças cardiovasculares e/ou endócrinas, na idade adulta. O objetivo desta revisão foi o de pesquisar na literatura evidência sobre o diagnóstico pré-natal por ecografia de lesões cerebrais relacionadas com a RCF. Utilizando uma abordagem sistemática, avaliamos de forma quantitativa a metodologia dos oito estudos que preencheram os critérios de inclusão e foram, assim, incluídos nesta revisão. Foram identificados estudos de alta qualidade para a medição dos volumes cerebrais;medição do corpo caloso; medição da profundidade das incisuras cerebrais emedição do cavum do septo pelúcido. Os autores identificaram um estudo de qualidade inferior sobre a medição transversal do diâmetro transcerebelar em fetos com RCF. Mais estudos prospectivos randomizados são necessários para perceber quais as alterações que ocorrem no cerébro dos fetos com restrição do seu crescimento, bem como, a sua correlação com as alterações do desenvolvimento cognitivo observadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adult , Placenta , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Biometry , Gestational Age , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnostic imaging , Fetus
5.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(1): 1-12, Abril 30, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222372

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer un modelo predictivo de mor-talidad en recién nacidos de alto riesgo. Métodos: el presente es un estudio epidemiológico, observacional y transversal, realizado en el Hospital Ginecológico Isidro Ayora, Quito, Ecuador, en 2019, incluyó 220 recién nacidos de alto riesgo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 220 Recién nacidos de alto riesgo. No existen asociaciones significativas con factores prenatales, pero sí una relación estadística con el peso, la edad gestacional, el puntaje de APGAR, las necesidades de reanimación y la presencia de anomalías congénitas; también, con shock, hemorragia pulmonar, hiperglucemia, acidosis y estancia hospitalaria. no existen asociaciones significativas con factores prenatales, pero sí una relación estadística con el peso, la edad gestacional, el puntaje de APGAR, las necesidades de reanimación y la presencia de anomalías congénitas; también, con shock, hemorragia pulmonar, hiperglucemia, acidosis y estancia hospitalaria. Conclusión: La presencia de mayor exceso de bases, mínima FiO2, choque séptico, al menos un defecto congénito, con pequeño para la edad gestacional, determina un 80% de probabilidad de muerte. Si el exceso de bases es superior a -12 mEq/L, el lactante tiene 13 veces más probabilidades de morir, y si requiere una FiO2 mínima superior al 29%, tiene 4.2 veces más probabilidades de morir. La fiabilidad del aumento de bases en exceso predice un 76,3% más de riesgo de muerte.


Introduction: The aim of this study was to establish a predictive model of mortality in high-risk newborns. Methods: An epidemiological, observational, and cross-sectional study was carried out at the Isidro Ayora Gynecological Hospital, Quito, Ecuador in 201. The study included 220 high-risk newborns. Results: No significant associations with prenatal factors were found, but a statistical rela-tionship with weight, gestational age, Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration (APGAR) score, resuscitation needs, and the presence of congenital anomalies in addition to shock, pulmonary hemorrhage, hyperglycemia, acidosis, and hospital stay was noted. Conclusion: The presence of a more significant base excess, minimum fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), septic shock, and at least one congenital defect with small gestational age determined an 80% probability of death. If the base excess was > −12 mEq/L, the infant was 13 times more likely to die, and if the infant required a minimum FiO2 > 29%, the newborn was 4.2 times more likely to die. The reliability of the excess base increase predicted a 76.3% higher risk of death.


Subject(s)
Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Infant Mortality , Bayes Theorem , Congenital Abnormalities , Acidosis , Fetal Growth Retardation , Lung Diseases
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10465, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153508

ABSTRACT

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is related to a higher risk of neonatal mortality, minor cognitive deficit, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In previous studies, genetic variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) and PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) genes have been associated with metabolic disease, body mass index, and obesity among other outcomes. We studied the association of selected FTO (rs1421085, rs55682395, rs17817449, rs8043757, rs9926289, and rs9939609) and PPARγ (rs10865710, rs17036263, rs35206526, rs1801282, rs28763894, rs41516544, rs62243567, rs3856806, and rs1805151) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with IUGR, through a case-control study in a cohort of live births that occurred from June 1978 to May 1979 in a Brazilian city. We selected 280 IUGR cases and 256 controls for analysis. Logistic regression was used to jointly analyze the SNPs as well as factors such as maternal smoking, age, and schooling. We found that the PPARγ rs41516544 increased the risk of IUGR for male offspring (OR 27.83, 95%CI 3.65-212.32) as well as for female offspring (OR=8.94, 95%CI: 1.96-40.88). The FTO rs9939609 TA genotype resulted in a reduced susceptibility to IUGR for male offspring only (OR=0.47, 95%CI: 0.26-0.86). In conclusion, we demonstrated that PPARγ SNP had a positive effect and FTO SNP had a negative effect on IUGR occurrence, and these effects were gender-specific.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , PPAR gamma/genetics , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Fetal Growth Retardation/genetics , Genotype
7.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 99 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342174

ABSTRACT

Introdução - As elevadas taxas de mortalidade neonatal e a prevalência de bebês nascidos pequenos para idade gestacional (PIG) ainda apresentadas por regiões de baixa e média renda indicam a necessidade de investigação sobre fatores que influenciam o crescimento fetal. Medidas biométricas fetais

Introduction Elevated rates of neonatal mortality and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) babies in low- and middle-income regions indicate the need to investigate factors associated with fetal growth. Fetal biometric measurements below the 10th percentile for gestational age (GA) reflect failure in achieving growth potential and provide opportunities for prenatal interventions. Objective To investigate factors associated with fetal biometric measurements below the 10th percentile assessed at early third trimester among pregnant women in the MINA-Brazil study. Methods This was a prospective analysis of pregnant women living in the urban area of Cruzeiro do Sul (AC), followed up since the antenatal period. Screening of participants took place from February 2015 to January 2016. A sociodemographic and health history interview was carried out along with two clinical assessments, scheduled between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, to collect data on lifestyle factors and complications during pregnancy, anthropometric evaluation, blood collection, and ultrasound scan assessing fetal biometric measurements of head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femoral length (FL). Poisson regression models with hierarchical selection of variables were fitted for factors associated with occurrence of fetal measurements below the 10th percentile at early third trimester. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated. Results Among 426 participants (mean age 25 years (SD 6.4) and gestational age 27.8 weeks (SD 1.7)), 11.3%, 8.9% e 9.4% had fetuses with HC, AC, FL below the 10th percentile at early third trimester. Fetal biometric measurements below the 10th percentile were negatively associated with higher maternal education level, which denoted over 50% of protection (HC: PR 0.47, 95%CI 0.28; 0.81; AC: PR 0.48, 95%CI 0.26; 0.87; and FL: PR 0.48, 95%CI 0.27; 0.86). Adjusted for maternal education level, nulliparity (PR 1.94, 95%CI 1.10; 3.43), higher pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) (PR 1.06, 95%CI 1.01; 1.11), and pre-gestational alcohol consumption (PR 1.80, 95%CI 0.98; 3.30) were associated with HC measurements below the 10th percentile. Maternal height (p for trend 0.039) and pre-gestational alcohol consumption (PR 2.55, 95%CI 1.31; 4.96) were also associated with AC measurements below the 10th percentile. Association between higher average screen time per day during antenatal follow-up and FL measurements below the 10th percentile were observed as well (p for trend 0.031). Higher maternal education level, which may provide better material and non-material conditions, seems to protect fetal growth from failure to reach potential fetal size for GA. Positive associations observed with obstetric and antenatal conditions may be mediated by biological factors or gestational dysfunctions to incur in fetal measurements below the 10th percentile. Conclusion The occurrence of fetal biometric measurements below the 10th percentile for GA and their associated factors corroborate pre-pregnancy and antenatal care improvements anchored in equity policies, and for new strategies prior to birth that optimize the window of opportunity in the first thousand days of life.


Subject(s)
Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Cephalometry , Biometry , Abdominal Circumference , Femur/growth & development , Fetal Growth Retardation , Fetus
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922408

ABSTRACT

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is caused by many factors, and most newborns with IUGR are small for gestational age (SGA). SGA infants have a relatively high risk of death and disease in the perinatal period, and the nervous system already has structural changes in the uterus, including the reduction of brain volume and gray matter volume, accompanied by abnormal imaging and pathological changes. IUGR fetuses undergo intrauterine blood flow redistribution to protect brain blood supply, and there are still controversies over the clinical effect of brain protection mechanism. SGA infants have a relatively high risk of abnormal cognitive, motor, language, and behavioral functions in the neonatal period and childhood, and preterm infants tend to have a higher degree of neurological impairment than full-term infants. Early intervention may help to improve the function of the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Brain , Child , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Pregnancy
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical features of fetuses with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome(WHS) and explore the diagnostic methods and prenatal ultrasound characteristics and provide evidence for prenatal genetic counseling.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed 5 cases of WHS fetuses diagnosed from March 2016 to February 2020, and analyzed the results of chromosomal karyotype analysis and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) of the fetuses.@*RESULTS@#Five cases of WHS were detected by CMA, four cases were detected by karyotype analysis. Prenatal ultrasound revealed 4 abnormalities, of which 3 had intrauterine growth restriction, and only 1 had abnormalities of the maxillofacial region. The sequence of the fragments was 4p16.3p16.1 with a loss of 6.5 Mb, 4p16.3p15.32 with a loss of 15.6 Mb combined with 2p25.3 increased by 906kb, 4p16.3p15.31 with a loss of 20.4 Mb, 4p16.p15.1 with a loss of 35 Mb and 4p16.3p14 with a loss of 37 Mb.@*CONCLUSION@#Fetal growth restriction may be one of the early manifestations of WHS. Absence of fetal facial abnormality by prenatal ultrasound screening cannot exclude WHS. Karyotype analysis may miss the diagnosis of WHS, while combined CMA techniques can improve the diagnostic accuracy.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4/genetics , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation/genetics , Humans , Karyotyping , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome/genetics
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877630

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Zusanli" (ST 36) in pregnant rats on lung dysplasia of newborn rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) induced by maternal food restriction.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four female SD rats were randomly divided into a control group, a control+EA group, a model group and a model+EA group, 6 rats in each group. From the 10th day into pregnancy to the time of delivery, the rats in the model group and the model+EA group were given with 50% dietary restriction to prepare IUGR model. From the 10th day into pregnancy to the time of delivery, the rats in the control+EA group and the model+EA group were treated with EA at bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36), once a day. The body weight of offspring rats was measured at birth, and the body weight and lung weight of offspring rats were measured on the 21st day after birth. The lung function was measured by small animal lung function detection system; the lung tissue morphology was observed by HE staining; the content of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in lung tissue was detected by ELISA.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the body weight at birth as well as the body weight, lung weight, lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn) and PPARγ at 21 days after birth in the model group were significantly decreased (@*CONCLUSION@#EA at "Zusanli" (ST 36) may protect the lung function and lung histomorphology changes by regulating the level of PPARγ of lung in IUGR rats induced by maternal food restriction.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation/therapy , Lung , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 71(3): 286-296, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144391

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: reportar un caso de mola parcial con feto vivo y realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre las complicaciones maternas y fetales asociadas a esta condición. Materiales y métodos: se presenta el reporte de un caso de mola parcial y feto vivo de 33 semanas, complicado por restricción de crecimiento intrauterino, oligoamnios y preeclampsia severa. Después de seguimiento del recién nacido a un año reportamos un resultado satisfactorio materno-fetal. Se realiza una búsqueda de la literatura en Medline vía PubMed, Lilacs, OVID, Uptodate y Google Scholar, con los siguientes términos MESH: "hiditadiform mole", "partial mole", "live fetus", "coexisting live fetus". Se seleccionaron estudios de series de caso y reportes de caso de gestantes con coexistencia de mola parcial y feto vivo al momento del diagnóstico, y se extrajo información sobre el pronóstico materno-fetal. Resultados: se identificaron inicialmente 129 títulos relacionados, de los cuales 29 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión, 4 artículos fueron excluidos por no obtener acceso al texto completo. Se analizaron 31 casos reportados, 9 casos terminaron en aborto, 8 terminaron en óbito o muerte perinatal y 14 (45 %) casos terminaron con un recién nacido vivo. La complicación materna más frecuente fue preeclampsia, en 6 (19,35 %) casos. Conclusión: la coexistencia de mola parcial con feto vivo presenta un riesgo alto de resultado perinatal adverso y preeclampsia. Se requiere más información sobre esta rara condición para determinar de mejor manera posibles intervenciones en los casos de fetos euploides y dar una adecuada asesoría en la práctica clínica, por lo que es importante el reporte de estos casos para tener suficiente evidencia sobre el comportamiento natural de la enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Objective: To report the case of a partial molar pregnancy with live fetus and conduct a review of the literature regarding maternal and fetal complications associated to this condition. Materials and methods: Case report of a partial mole with a 33 weeks live fetus complicated by intrauterine growth restriction, oligohydramnios and severe preeclampsia. We report satisfactory maternal and neonatal outcomes and 1-year follow-up. A search was conducted in the Medline via Pubmed, Lilacs, Ovid, Uptodate and Google Scholar databases using the following MESH terms: hiditadiform mole, partial mole, live fetus, coexisting live fetus. Case series and case reports of pregnant women with coexisting partial mole and live fetus at the time of diagnosis were selected and information regarding maternal and fetal prognosis was extracted Results: Initially, 129 related titles were identified. Of these, 29 met the inclusion criteria, and 4 articles were excluded due to failed access to the full text. Overall, 31 reported cases were included; 9 ended in miscarriage, 8 in fetal demise or perinatal death, and 14 (45 %) resulted in a live neonate. The most frequent maternal complication was preeclampsia in 6 (19.35 %) cases. Conclusion: The coexistence of a partial mole with a live fetus poses a high risk of adverse perinatal outcomes and preeclampsia. The volume of information regarding this rare condition must be increased in order to better determine potential interventions in cases of euploid fetuses and to provide adequate counseling in clinical practice. Therefore, reporting these cases is important to build sufficient evidence about the natural course of this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Hydatidiform Mole , Fetus , Pre-Eclampsia , Fetal Growth Retardation
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): e258-e264, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1116915

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Silver-Russell se caracteriza por retraso del crecimiento intrauterino asimétrico, con circunferencia craneal normal, barbilla pequeña y puntiaguda, que proporciona un aspecto de rostro triangular. Puede, además, presentar asimetría corporal, entre otros. Tiene una incidencia mundial estimada de 1 en 30 000-100 000 nacimientos, aunque este número es, probablemente, subestimado. En alrededor del 60 % de los casos, se puede identificar una causa molecular y la principal es la hipometilación del alelo paterno en la región de control de impresión 1 localizado en 11p15.5-p15.4. Realizar el diagnóstico de esta entidad, excluir los diagnósticos diferenciales y conocer las correlaciones (epi)genotipo-fenotipo son necesarios para realizar el adecuado seguimiento, brindar las opciones terapéuticas disponibles y el oportuno asesoramiento genético familiar. El objetivo del presente artículo es mostrar el estado actual del síndrome de Silver-Russell, un ejemplo de trastorno de impronta genómica.


Silver-Russell syndrome is characterized by asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation, with normal head circumference and small, pointed chin, which results in a triangular face. It can also include body asymmetry, among other characteristics. Its global incidence is estimated at 1 in 30 000-100 000 births, even though this figure may be underestimated. In approximately 60 % of cases, a molecular cause can be identified, and the main one is hypomethylation of the paternal allele at the imprinting control region 1 located at 11p15.5-p15.4. It is necessary to make the diagnosis of this entity, exclude differential diagnoses, and know (epi)genotype-phenotype correlations in order to ensure an adequate follow-up, provide available therapeutic options, and offer a timely family genetic counseling. The objective of this article is to describe the current status of the Silver-Russell syndrome, a model of genomic imprinting disorder.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Silver-Russell Syndrome/physiopathology , Phenotype , Genomic Imprinting , Diagnosis, Differential , Silver-Russell Syndrome/diagnosis , Silver-Russell Syndrome/therapy , Fetal Growth Retardation , Genetic Counseling , Genotype
13.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(5): 289-296, May 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137828

ABSTRACT

Abstract Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with poor perinatal prognosis and a higher risk of stillbirth, neonatal death, and cerebral palsy. Its detection and the evaluation of its severity by new Doppler velocimetric parameters, such as aortic isthmus (AoI), are of great relevance for obstetrical practice. The AoI is a vascular segment that represents a point of communication between the right and left fetal circulations. It is considered to be a functional arterial shunt that reflects the relationship between the systemic and cerebral impedances, and has recently been proposed as a tool to detect the status of hemodynamic balance and prognosis of IUGR in fetuses. In the present review, we noticed that in healthy fetuses, the AoI net flow is always antegrade, but in fetuses with IUGR the deterioration of placental function leads to progressive reduction in its flow until it becomes mostly retrograde; this point is associated with a drastic reduction in oxygen delivery to the brain. The more impaired the AoI flow is, the greater is the risk of impairment in the Doppler velocimetry of other vessels; and the alterations of the AoI Doppler seem to precede other indicators of severe hypoxemia. Although there seems to be an association between the presence of retrograde flow in the AoI and the risk of long-term neurologic disability, its role in the prediction of perinatal morbi-mortality remains unclear. The AoI Doppler seems to be a promising tool in the management of fetuses with IUGR, but more studies are needed to investigate its employment in clinical practice.


Resumo O crescimento intrauterino restrito (CIUR) está associado a um prognóstico perinatal adverso, com maior risco de óbito intrauterino e neonatal, bem como de paralisia cerebral. Assim, sua detecção e a determinação de sua gravidade por novos parâmetros Dopplervelocimétricos, como o istmo aórtico (IAo), são de fundamental importância na prática obstétrica. O IAo é um segmento vascular que representa um ponto de comunicação entre os sistemas circulatórios fetais esquerdo e direito. É considerado um shunt arterial funcional, capaz de refletir a relação entre as impedâncias dos circuitos cerebral e sistêmico, e foi proposto como uma ferramenta para detecção do status do equilíbrio hemodinâmico e do prognóstico de fetos com CIUR. Na presente revisão, observou-se que, em fetos saudáveis, o fluxo predominante no IAo é sempre anterógrado; mas em fetos com CIUR a deterioração do estágio de insuficiência placentária acarreta reduções progressivas no fluxo ístmico até este apresentar sentido predominantemente retrógrado e levar a uma drástica redução no aporte de oxigênio ao sistema nervoso central. Quanto mais alterado estiver o fluxo no IAo, maior a chance de haver alteração na Dopplervelocimetria de outros vasos; e as alterações no Doppler do IAo parecem preceder outros indicadores de hipoxemia severa. Embora o fluxo retrógrado no IAo pareça se correlacionar com maior risco de alteração no desenvolvimento neurológico a longo prazo, ainda não está claro o seu papel na predição de morbimortalidade perinatal. O Doppler do IAo parece ser um parâmetro promissor no manejo do CIUR; entretanto, mais estudos são necessários para avaliar seu emprego na prática clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnostic imaging , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Aorta, Thoracic/physiopathology , Blood Flow Velocity , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Fetal Growth Retardation/physiopathology , Fetus/blood supply
15.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 36(1): 85-92, mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1094229

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Los síndromes obstétricos de parto de pretérmino (PP) y restricción de crecimiento fetal (RCIU) comparten mecanismos etiopatogénicos y fisiopatológicos que muchas veces interactúan y se retroalimentan. Desde el punto de vista etiológico, las condiciones específicas que los generan esquemáticamente se pueden clasificar en inflamación, estrés materno, déficit en las condiciones socioeconómicas y vulnerabilidad de derechos, actuación de disruptores endocrinos, alteraciones de la dieta y de la microbiota y afecciones vasculares. Estas condiciones, actuando aislada o más frecuentemente combinadamente, generan un entorno materno desfavorable para el desarrollo del embarazo provocando efectos específicos como son la reacción inmune materna, mediada o no por la presencia de infecciones, la activación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal, la disminución de la acción de la progesterona, las disbiosis, tanto intestinales como vaginales, y la disfunción por envejecimiento placentario. El entorno desfavorable así generado impactará en la unidad útero-placento-fetal, produciendo, bien el PP o bien el RCIU, de acuerdo a la primacía de diferentes respuestas; independientemente de cuál de las respuestas sindromáticas predomine, ambos, el PP y el RCIU, tienen en común el desarrollo del feno-genotipo ahorrador, imprescindible para la sobrevida fetal. El costo de esta modulación epigenética es el aumento de las enfermedades crónicas del adulto, que conceptualmente son enfermedades transmisibles por la vulnerabilidad social donde se desarrolla el ciclo de vida de esas personas.


Summary: Preterm birth and growth restriction are obstetric syndromes which share etiopathogenic and pathophysiological mechanisms that often interact and feed from each other. Etiologically, they may be classified into inflammation, maternal stress, low socio-economic background and vulnerability of rights, endocrine disruptors, diet and microbiota alterations and vascular conditions, depending on specific conditions. These conditions, either in isolation or more often combined, create an unfavorable environment for the development of pregnancy, causing specific effects such as maternal immune response that may be mediated by infections, the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, drop in progesterone levels, dysbiosis, both intestinal and vaginal, and placental dysfunction caused by ageing. The unfavorable environment has an impact on the utero-feto-placental unit resulting in either preterm birth of growth restriction, depending on the predominance of the different responses. Regardless of the prevailing syndromic response, both preterm birth and growth restriction share the development of the thrifty pheno-genotype, essential for fetal survival. The cost of this epigenetic modulation is an increase in chronic adult diseases, which, conceptually, are transmissible diseases due to social vulnerability where these people live.


Resumo: As síndromes obstétricas de parto de pré-termo (PP) e de restrição do crescimento fetal (RCIU) compartem mecanismos etiopatogênicos e fisiopatológicos, que muitas vezes interagem e se retroalimentam. Do ponto de vista da etiologia, as condições específicas que as geram podem ser classificadas esquematicamente em inflamação, estresse materno, déficit nas condições socio econômicas e vulnerabilidade de direitos, ação de disruptores endócrinos, alterações da dieta e da microbiota e afecções vasculares. Estas condições, agindo de forma isolada ou mais frequentemente combinada, geram um ambiente materno desfavorável para o desenvolvimento da gravidez provocando efeitos específicos como a reação imune materna, mediada ou não pela presença de infecções, a ativação do eixo hipotálamo - hipófiso - adrenal, a diminuição da ação da progesterona, as disbioses, tanto intestinais como vaginais e a disfunção por envelhecimento placentário. Esse ambiente desfavorável impactará na unidade útero-placento-fetal, produzindo PP ou RCIU, de acordo com a preferência de diferentes respostas. Independentemente de qual das respostas sindromáticas predomine, ambos PP e RCIU, têm em comum o desenvolvimento do feno-genótipo poupador, imprescindível para a sobrevida fetal. O custo desta modulação epigenética é o aumento das doenças crônicas do adulto, que conceitualmente, são patologias transmissíveis pela vulnerabilidade social na qual o ciclo de vida dessas pessoas se desenvolve.


Subject(s)
Fetal Growth Retardation , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Socioeconomic Factors , Chronic Disease , Risk Factors
16.
Medisan ; 24(1)ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1091164

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ecografía Doppler de las arterias uterinas es una técnica propuesta para predecir el riesgo de preeclampsia, retardo del crecimiento intrauterino y otras alteraciones perinatales adversas. Objetivos: Determinar la frecuencia de gestantes con alteración en las arterias uterinas durante el primer trimestre e identificar la presencia de preeclampsia/eclampsia, así como sus principales características clínicas. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y longitudinal de 168 gestantes en el primer trimestre de embarazo, pertenecientes al municipio de Tercer Frente en Santiago de Cuba, evaluadas en una pesquisa de Genética realizada en el Policlínico Docente Cruce de los Baños, de abril a noviembre de 2018. A todas se les realizó ecografía Doppler para calcular el índice de pulsatilidad de las arterias uterinas. Resultados: En la casuística, 16 pacientes presentaron alterado el índice de pulsatilidad y, de ellas, solo en 3 se desarrolló preeclampsia, para 18,7 %; la edad promedio en estas últimas fue de 29 años y 2 eran nulíparas (66,6 %). Respecto al índice de pulsatilidad, el promedio fue de 2,5. Conclusiones: Se mantuvo un estrecho seguimiento, hasta el parto, de las pacientes con resultados patológicos, y se destacó la importancia de estudiar el índice de pulsatilidad de las arterias uterinas durante el primer trimestre del embarazo, sobre todo en las nulíparas.


Introduction: The Doppler echography of the uterine arteries is a technique suggested to predict the risk of pre-eclampsia, the intrauterine growth retardation and other adverse perinatal disorders. Objectives: To determine the frequency of pregnant women with disorder in the uterine arteries during the first trimester and to identify the pre-eclampsia/eclampsia presence, as well as their main clinical characteristics. Methods: A descriptive and longitudinal study of 168 pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy, belonging to the Tercer Frente municipality in Santiago de Cuba was carried out, they were evaluated by investigation of Genetics in Cruce de los Baños Teaching Polyclinic from April to November, 2018. To determine the pulsatility index of the uterine arteries, a Doppler echography was carried out. Results: In the case material 16 patients presented this parameter altered and just 3 pregnant women presented pre-eclampsia, for 18.7 %; the average age of these last ones was of 29 years and 2 were nonparous (66.6 %). Regarding the pulsatility index, the average was of 2.5. Conclusions: There was a close follow up of the patients with pathological results, until the childbirth, and the importance of studying the pulsatility index of the uterine arteries in the first trimester of the pregnancy, mainly in the nonparous, was emphasized.


Subject(s)
Pre-Eclampsia/diagnostic imaging , Pulsatile Flow , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Eclampsia/diagnostic imaging , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy
17.
In. Briozzo Colombo, Leonel; Grenno Troitiño, Analía Alondra; Tarigo Galo, Josefina; Gallino Font, María Verónica; Viroga Espino, Stephanie; Greif Waldman, Diego; Firpo, María Noel; Gómez, Fernanda; Ben Carli, Sebastián Nicolás; Quevedo, Carolina; Citrín, Estela; Fiol Lepera, Verónica Juana; Nozar Cabrera, María Fernanda. Integrando los derechos sexuales y reproductivos en la clínica desde el compromiso profesional de conciencia: derechos sexuales en la práctica clínica. Montevideo, Udelar, 2020. p.184-222.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1343273
18.
San Salvador; s.n; 2020. 56 p.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1128247

ABSTRACT

La restricción del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU) es una patología de origen multifactorial que puede estar originada por varios componentes que pueden influir en su desarrollo, como son: patologías a nivel materno, fetal o placentario, y que representa altas tasas de morbimortalidad materna y perinatal. La restricción del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU) es una patología de causas multifactoriales y manejo complejo para el obstetra. Para un feto el no alcanzar su potencial de crecimiento representa un aumento significativo del riesgo de morbimortalidad perinatal. Como no es posible determinar el potencial de crecimiento fetal, para su definición se utilizan tablas de crecimiento intrauterino, aceptándose como crecimiento normal el peso para la edad gestacional entre los percentiles 10 y 90. Es por ello que es importante definir adecuadamente un RCIU y realizar un adecuado diagnostico a partir de un buen control prenatal, para así poder identificar probables factores de riesgo y de esta manera realizar intervenciones que nos ayuden con un diagnóstico temprano y certero de esta patología con el fin de llevar a cabo un enfoque de seguimiento y de manejo que pueda disminuir todas las complicaciones asociadas a la enfermedad. Una vez identificada la sospecha clínica de RCIU se debe complementar su diagnóstico, en nuestro medio por medio de la ultrasonografía fetal más flujometría Doppler, y de esta manera poder clasificar que tipo de RCIU es, a fin de dar seguimiento adecuado y oportuno para cada caso, ya sea a nivel de segundo nivel o tercer nivel de atención. Ya que esta patología a largo plazo tiene impacto adverso en el desarrollo infantil presentándose alteraciones en el tono muscular, coeficientes intelectuales menores que aquellos infantes con peso adecuado, trastornos del comportamiento y emocionales, y en la vida adulta se relaciona con disminución de la productividad económica y bajo peso al nacer de los hijos. Por lo que es necesario realizar una clasificación, diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento adecuado a fin de sopesar los resultados adversos.


Subject(s)
Fetal Growth Retardation , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital
19.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 653-660, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826575

ABSTRACT

To investigate the incidence and risk factors of extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI). This prospective, multicenter observational cohort study was conducted based on Shandong Neonatal Network (SNN). The clinical data of the VLBWI (=1 051), who were admitted to 27 neonatal intensive care units from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018, were collected and analyzed. According to the weight at discharge or 36 weeks of postmenstrual age, all the enrolled VLBWI were assigned into EUGR group and non-EUGR group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to detect the risk factors for EUGR in preterm small for gestational age (SGA) and non-SGA infants. A total of 1 051 VLBWI were enrolled, with 51.7% (543/1 051) male. The incidence of EUGR in the whole group was 60.7% (638/1 051), and were 78.3% (90/115) and 46.9% (53/113) in extremely low birth weight infant (ELBWI) and extremely preterm infants (EPI), respectively. The incidence of EUGR in SGA and non-SGA infants were 87.6% (190/217) and 53.7% (448/834), respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that, withholding feeds (1.531, 1.237, 95: 1.180-1.987, 1.132-1.353, both <0.01) and time to achieve full enteral feeding (1.090, 1.023, 95: 1.017-1.167, 1.002-1.045, 0.014, 0.034) were independent risk factors of EUGR in both SGA and non-SGA infants. For SGA infants, cesarean delivery was an independent risk factor for EUGR (8.147, 95: 2.127-31.212, 0.002); while for non-SGA infants, hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (2.572, 95: 1.496-4.421, 0.001) and the duration of invasive ventilation (1.050, 95: 1.009 - 1.092, 0.016) were independent risk factors of EUGR. Besides, moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (2.241, 95: 1.173-4.281, 0.015), necrotizing enterocolitis (5.633, 95: 1.333-23.796, 0.019) and retinopathy of prematurity (2.219, 95: 1.268-3.885, 0.005) were associated with EUGR. The incidence of weight-defined EUGR is high in VLBWI, especially in preterm SGA infants. Avoiding delaying feeds after birth and achieving full enteral feeding early may reduce the incidence of EUGR.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , China , Epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation , Epidemiology , Gestational Age , Growth Disorders , Humans , Infant , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Male , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
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