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1.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534855

ABSTRACT

La deficiencia de zinc puede ser un factor mediador en los trastornos del crecimiento fetal en la descendencia de la gestante diabética. Se persiguió como objetivo determinar la influencia de un suplemento con zinc sobre la morfometría externa corporal y craneofacial en fetos de ratas diabéticas con hiperglucemias moderadas. Durante la gestación, ratas diabéticas y controles fueron suplementadas por vía oral con sulfato de zinc (50 mg/kg-pc) o no recibieron tratamiento. Los fetos descendientes del grupo diabético suplementado presentaron niveles similares a los controles en las variables de crecimiento somático determinadas. La suplementación con zinc a ratas diabéticas favoreció el crecimiento intrauterino en los fetos. Los resultados de esta investigación constituyen aportes para dilucidar los requerimientos de zinc que permitan prevenir los trastornos del crecimiento fetal en la descendencia de gestantes diabéticas.


Zinc deficiency may be a mediating factor in fetal growth disorders in the offspring of diabetic pregnant women. The objective was to determine the influence of a zinc supplement on external body and craniofacial morphometry in diabetic rat fetuses with moderate hyperglycemia. During gestation, diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg bw) or received no treatment. The fetuses descendants of the supplemented diabetic group had levels similar to the control ones in the determined somatic growth variables. Zinc supplementation to diabetic rats favoured intrauterine growth in fetuses. The results of this research constitute a contribution to elucidate zinc requirements that allow preventing fetal growth disorders in the offspring of diabetic pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Zinc , Fetal Growth Retardation
2.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(5): 225-234, May 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449740

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To evaluate the performance of Intergrowth-21 st (INT) and Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) curves in predicting perinatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes in newborns weighing below the 3rd percentile. Methods Pregnant women with a single fetus aged less than 20 weeks from a general population in non-hospital health units were included. Their children were evaluated at birth and in the second or third years of life. Newborns (NB) had their weight percentiles calculated for both curves. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the ROC curve (ROC-AUC) for perinatal outcomes and neurodevelopmental delay were calculated using birth weight < 3rd percentile as the cutoff. Results A total of 967 children were evaluated. Gestational age at birth was 39.3 (± 3.6) weeks and birth weight was 3,215.0 (± 588.0) g. INT and FMF classified 19 (2.4%) and 49 (5.7%) newborns below the 3rd percentile, respectively. The prevalence of preterm birth, tracheal intubation >24 hours in the first three months of life, 5th minute Apgar <7, admission to a neonatal care unit (NICU admission), cesarean section rate, and the neurodevelopmental delay was 9.3%, 3.3%, 1.3%, 5.9%, 38.9%, and 7.3% respectively. In general, the 3rd percentile of both curves showed low sensitivity and PPV and high specificity and NPV. The 3rd percentile of FMF showed superior sensitivity for preterm birth, NICU admission, and cesarean section rate. INT was more specific for all outcomes and presented a higher PPV for the neurodevelopmental delay. However, except for a slight difference in the prediction of preterm birth in favor of INT, the ROC curves showed no differences in the prediction of perinatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Conclusion Birth weight below the 3rd percentile according to INT or FMF alone was insufficient for a good diagnostic performance of perinatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The analyzes performed could not show that one curve is better than the other in our population. INT may have an advantage in resource contingency scenarios as it discriminates fewer NB below the 3rd percentile without increasing adverse outcomes.


Resumo Objetivos Avaliar o desempenho das curvas de Intergrowth-21 st (INT) e Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) na predição de resultados perinatais e de neurodesenvolvimento de recém-nascidos com peso abaixo do percentil 3. Métodos Foram incluídas gestantes de feto único com idade inferior a 20 semanas de uma população geral em unidades de saúde não hospitalares. Seus filhos foram avaliados ao nascimento e no segundo ou terceiro anos de vida. Os recém-nascidos tiveram seus percentis de peso calculados para ambas as curvas. Sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) e negativo (VPN) e área sob a curva ROC (ROC-AUC) foram calculados para desfechos perinatais e atraso de neurodesenvolvimento considerando o peso ao nascimento menor que o percentil 3 como ponto de corte. Resultados Um total de 967 crianças foram avaliadas ao nascimento e no segundo ou terceiro anos de vida. A idade gestacional ao nascer foi de 39,3 (±3,6) semanas e o peso ao nascimento foi de 3.215,0 (±588,0) g. INT e FMF classificaram 19 (2,4%) e49 (5,7%) recém-nascidos abaixo do percentil 3, respectivamente. A prevalência de parto prétermo, intubação traqueal > 24 horas nos primeiros três meses de vida, Apgar de 5° minuto < 7, internação em unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal (internação em UTIN), taxa de cesariana e atraso de neurodesenvolvimento foi 9,3%, 3,3%, 1,3%, 5,9%, 38,9% e 7,3% respectivamente. Em geral, o percentil 3 de ambas as curvas apresentou baixa sensibilidade e VPP e alta especificidade e VPN. O percentil 3 de FMF mostrou sensibilidade superior para parto prematuro, internação em UTIN e taxa de cesariana. INT foi mais específico para todos os desfechos e apresentou maior VPP para o atraso do neurodesenvolvimento. Entretanto, exceto por uma pequena diferença na predição de parto pré-termo em favor de INT, as curvas ROC não mostraram diferenças na predição de resultados perinatais e de desenvolvimento neurológico. Conclusão O peso ao nascer abaixo do percentil 3 segundo INT ou FMF isoladamente foi insuficiente para um bom desempenho diagnóstico de desfechos perinatais e de neurodesenvolvimento. As análises realizadas não puderam mostrar que uma curva é melhor que a outra em nossa população. INT pode ter vantagem em cenários de contingência de recursos, pois discrimina menos recém-nascidos abaixo do percentil 3 sem aumentar os desfechos adversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Fetal Growth Retardation , Neurodevelopmental Disorders
3.
FEMINA ; 51(5): 292-296, 20230530.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512407

ABSTRACT

PONTOS-CHAVE • A incidência de câncer durante a gestação tem aumentado devido à tendência das mulheres em postergar a gravidez. O câncer de colo de útero é a terceira neoplasia mais comumente diagnosticada durante o período gestacional. • O rastreamento e o diagnóstico devem se dar como nas pacientes não gestantes; a citologia oncótica cervical é o exame obrigatório do pré-natal, e a colposcopia com biópsia pode ser realizada em qualquer período da gestação. • A gestação complicada pelo diagnóstico de um câncer deve sempre ser conduzida em centro de referência e por equipe multidisciplinar. • A interrupção da gestação em situações específicas, para tratamento-padrão, é respaldada por lei. • A quimioterapia neoadjuvante é uma alternativa segura de tratamento durante a gestação, para permitir alcançar a maturidade fetal. Apresenta altas taxas de resposta, sendo relatada progressão neoplásica durante a gestação em apenas 2,9% dos casos. O risco de malformações fetais decorrentes da quimioterapia é semelhante ao da população geral. Contudo, a quimioterapia está associada a restrição de crescimento intraútero, baixo peso ao nascer e mielotoxicidade neonatal. • Na ausência de progressão de doença, deve-se levar a gestação até o termo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Women's Health , Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic/prevention & control , Prenatal Diagnosis , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Congenital Abnormalities/embryology , Bone Marrow/abnormalities , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Colposcopy/methods , Conization/methods , Neoadjuvant Therapy/adverse effects , Fetal Growth Retardation , Watchful Waiting/methods , Trachelectomy/methods , Abdomen/diagnostic imaging
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1508249

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El crecimiento y el desarrollo son fenómenos biológicos que implican aumento de masa celular y diferenciación de forma o función, respectivamente. En beneficio del diagnóstico, se utilizan las bondades del ultrasonido en la evolución biométrica del crecimiento fetal. Objetivo: Determinar mensuraciones biométricas fetales más asociadas a la restricción del crecimiento fetal en infantes que sufrieron restricción del crecimiento intrauterino. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal descriptivo y retrospectivo de gestantes captadas en dos áreas de salud del municipio Santa Clara, que terminaron su embarazo entre septiembre del 2013 y octubre del 2018 y cuyos recién nacidos experimentaron restricción del crecimiento. La muestra se clasificó al nacimiento en pequeños y adecuados, según condición trófica y en cada grupo se estudió relación con valores percentilares de variables biométricas en los dos últimos trimestres. Resultados: Predominaron en todas las biometrías y en los dos trimestres los valores por debajo del décimo percentil. En la totalidad de los infantes y durante todo el período fetal, la circunferencia abdominal estuvo por debajo del percentil 10. En las variables largo del fémur y circunferencia cefálica los percentiles más altos se encontraron en el tercer trimestre y desde el segundo en la variable diámetro biparietal, posiblemente relacionado con restricciones asimétricas del crecimiento. Conclusiones: La variable biométrica circunferencia abdominal desde el segundo trimestre es fiable en la detección de restricciones del crecimiento intrauterino y su existencia por debajo del décimo percentil debe servir como certeza de su existencia, aun cuando la condición trófica del recién nacido parezca revelar otra realidad(AU)


Introduction: Growth and development are biological phenomenons involving cell mass increase and differentiation of form or function, respectively. For diagnostic purposes, the benefits of ultrasound are used for the biometric evolution of fetal growth. Objective: To determine fetal biometric measurements mostly associated with fetal growth restriction in infants who suffered intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: A descriptive and retrospective longitudinal study was carried out with pregnant women from two health areas of Santa Clara Municipality, who finished their pregnancy between September 2013 and October 2018 and whose newborns experienced growth restriction. The sample was classified at birth into small and adequate, according to trophic condition; and, in each group, the relationship with percentile values of biometric variables in the last two trimesters was studied. Results: Values below the tenth percentile predominated in all biometrics and in the two trimesters. In all infants and during the whole fetal period, abdominal circumference was below the tenth percentile. In the variables femur length and cephalic circumference, the highest percentiles were found in the third trimester; while, from the second trimester on, the same occurred in the variable biparietal diameter, possibly related to asymmetric growth restrictions. Conclusions: The biometric variable abdominal circumference is, from the second trimester on, reliable in the detection of intrauterine growth restrictions; its existence below the tenth percentile should serve as certainty of its existence, even when the trophic condition of the newborn seems to reveal another reality(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Biometry/methods , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Ultrasonography/methods
5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(3): 127-133, Mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449712

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the maternal blood levels of fatty acids (FAs) in pregnancies with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included pregnant women with gestational age between 26 and 37 + 6 weeks with FGR and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses. The levels of saturated, trans, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated FAs were measured using centrifugation and liquid chromatography. The Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney test, and general linear model, with gestational age and maternal weight as covariants, were used to compare FA levels and the FGR and AGA groups. The Chi-square was used to evaluate the association between groups and studied variables. Results: Maternal blood sample was collected from 64 pregnant women, being 24 FGR and 40 AGA. A weak positive correlation was found between the palmitoleic acid level and maternal weight (r = 0.285, p = 0.036). A weak negative correlation was found between the gamma-linoleic acid level and gestational age (r = −0.277, p = 0.026). The median of the elaidic acid level (2.3 vs. 4.7ng/ml, p = 0.045) and gamma-linoleic acid (6.3 vs. 6.6ng/ml, p = 0.024) was significantly lower in the FGR than the AGA group. The palmitoleic acid level was significantly higher in the FGR than AGA group (50.5 vs. 47.6ng/ml, p = 0.033). Conclusion: Pregnant women with FGR had lower elaidic acid and gamma-linoleic acid levels and higher palmitoleic acid levels than AGA fetuses.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis sanguíneos maternos de ácidos graxos (AGs) em gestações com restrição de crescimento fetal (RCF). Métodos: Este estudo prospectivo transversal incluiu gestantes com idade gestacional entre 26 e 37 semanas e 6 dias com RCF e fetos adequados para a idade gestacional (AIG). Os níveis de ácidos graxos saturados, trans, monoinsaturados e poliinsaturados foram medidos usando centrifugação e cromatografia líquida. O teste t-Student, o teste de Mann-Whitney e o modelo linear geral, com idade gestacional e peso materno como covariantes, foram utilizados para comparar os níveis de AGs e os grupos RCF e AIG. O teste Qui-quadrado foi utilizado para avaliar a associação entre os grupos e as variáveis estudadas. Resultados: Amostra de sangue materno foi coletada de 64 gestantes, sendo 24 RCF e 40 AIG. Uma correlação positiva fraca foi encontrada entre o nível de ácido palmitoleico e o peso materno (r = 0,285, p = 0,036). Uma correlação negativa fraca foi encontrada entre o nível de ácido gama-linoleico ea idade gestacional (r = −0,277, p = 0,026). A mediana do nível de ácido elaídico (2,3 vs. 4,7 ng/ml, p = 0,045) e ácido gama-linoleico (6,3 vs. 6,6 ng/ml, p = 0,024) foram significativamente menores no grupo RCF do que no grupo AIG. O nível de ácido palmitoleico foi significativamente maior no grupo RCF do que no grupo AIG (50,5 vs. 47,6 ng/ml, p = 0,033). Conclusão: Gestantes com RCF apresentaram níveis mais baixos de ácido elaídico e ácido gama-linoleico e níveis mais elevados de ácido palmitoleico do que os fetos AIG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Fatty Acids , Fetal Growth Retardation
6.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(2): 96-103, Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449706

ABSTRACT

Abstract This comprehensive review compares clinical protocols of important entities regarding the management of fetal growth restriction (FGR), published since 2015. Five protocols were chosen for data extraction. There were no relevant differences regarding the diagnosis and classification of FGR between the protocols. In general, all protocols suggest that the assessment of fetal vitality must be performed in a multimodally, associating biophysical parameters (such as cardiotocography and fetal biophysical profile) with the Doppler velocimetry parameters of the umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus. All protocols reinforce that the more severe the fetal condition, the more frequent this assessment should be made. The timely gestational age and mode of delivery to terminate the pregnancy in these cases can vary much between the protocols. Therefore, this paper presents, in a didactic way, the particularities of different protocols for monitoring FGR, in order to help obstetricians to better manage the cases.


Resumo Esta revisão compreensiva compara protocolos clínicos de entidades importantes em relação ao manejo da restrição de crescimento fetal (RCF), publicados desde 2015. Cinco protocolos foram escolhidos para a extração de dados. Não houve diferenças relevantes quanto ao diagnóstico e classificação da RCF entre os protocolos. Em geral, todos os protocolos sugerem que a avaliação da vitalidade fetal deve ser realizada de forma multimodal, associando parâmetros biofísicos (como cardiotocografia e perfil biofísico fetal) aos parâmetros dopplervelocimétricos da artéria umbilical, artéria cerebral média e ducto venoso. Todos os protocolos reforçam que quanto mais grave a condição fetal, mais frequente essa avaliação deve ser feita. A idade gestacional oportuna e o modo de parto para interromper a gravidez nesses casos podem variar muito entre os protocolos. Portanto, este trabalho apresenta, de forma didática, as particularidades de diferentes protocolos de acompanhamento de RCF, a fim de auxiliar os obstetras no melhor manejo dos casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Cardiotocography , Laser-Doppler Flowmetry , Guidelines as Topic , Fetal Growth Retardation
7.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 714-726, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007786

ABSTRACT

Preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the fetus are the two most common pregnancy complications worldwide, affecting 5%-10% of pregnant women. Preeclampsia is associated with significantly increased maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Hypoxia-induced uteroplacental dysfunction is now recognized as a key pathological factor in preeclampsia and IUGR. Reduced oxygen supply (hypoxia) disrupts mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function. Hypoxia has been shown to alter mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and induce ER stress. Hypoxia during pregnancy is associated with excessive production of ROS in the placenta, leading to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress occurs in a number of human diseases, including high blood pressure during pregnancy. Studies have shown that uterine placental tissue/cells in preeclampsia and IUGR show high levels of oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both the complications. This review summarizes the role of hypoxia-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and ER stress in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia/IUGR and discusses the potential therapeutic strategies targeting oxidative stress to treat both the pregnancy complications.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Placenta , Fetal Growth Retardation/etiology , Pre-Eclampsia/pathology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Hypoxia/pathology , Pregnancy Complications/pathology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
8.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1066-1071, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009848

ABSTRACT

With the increase in the survival rate of very preterm infants, the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of such infants have attracted more and more attention. Very preterm infants tend to develop movement disorders and psychological and behavioral problems, including cerebral palsy, developmental coordination disorders, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, specific learning disorders, and intellectual developmental disorders. It is of vital importance to improve the long-term prognosis of very preterm infants, and early comprehensive intervention measures can minimize disability and achieve optimal parenting outcomes. This article provides a review of the research progress on the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Infant , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Infant, Extremely Premature , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Intellectual Disability , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Fetal Growth Retardation
9.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1016-1021, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the left heart structure and functional characteristics of term neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).@*METHODS@#This study included 86 term neonates with IUGR admitted to the Neonatal Ward of Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2019 to January 2022 as the IUGR group, as well as randomly selected 86 term neonates without IUGR born during the same period as the non-IUGR group. The clinical data and echocardiographic data were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The analysis of left heart structure and function showed that compared with the non-IUGR group, the IUGR group had significantly lower left ventricular mass, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, left ventricular end-systolic diameter, left atrial diameter, end-diastolic interventricular septal thickness, left ventricular posterior wall thickness, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, left ventricular end-systolic volume, and stroke volume (P<0.05) and significantly higher ratio of end-diastolic interventricular septal thickness to left ventricular posterior wall thickness, proportion of neonates with a mitral peak E/A ratio of ≥1, and cardiac index (P<0.05). The Spearman correlation analysis suggested that stroke volume was positively correlated with birth weight and body surface area (rs=0.241 and 0.241 respectively; P<0.05) and that the ratio of end-diastolic interventricular septal thickness to left ventricular posterior wall thickness was negatively correlated with birth weight and body surface area (rs=-0.229 and -0.225 respectively; P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The left ventricular systolic function of neonates with IUGR is not significantly different from that of neonates without IUGR. However, the ventricular septum is thicker in neonates with IUGR. This change is negatively correlated with birth weight and body surface area. The left ventricular diastolic function may be impaired in neonates with IUGR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Birth Weight , Echocardiography , Fetal Growth Retardation , Heart , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Left
10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1461-1465, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic analysis for a fetus with confined placental mosaicism (CPM) for trisomy 2 (T2) in conjunct with fetal uniparental disomy (UPD).@*METHODS@#Amniocentesis and chromosomal karyotyping was carried out for a pregnant woman with a high risk for chromosome 2 anomalies indicated by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) and trio-whole exome sequencing (Trio-WES) were carried out. Ultrasonography was used to closely monitor the fetal growth. Multifocal sampling of the placenta was performed after delivery for copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq).@*RESULTS@#The fetus was found to have a normal chromosomal karyotype. SNP-array has revealed multiple regions with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 2. Trio-WES confirmed the presence of maternal UPD for chromosome 2. Ultrasonography has revealed intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios. Intrauterine fetal demise had occurred at 23+4 weeks of gestation. Pathological examination had failed to find salient visceral abnormality. The placenta was proved to contain complete T2 by CNV-seq.@*CONCLUSION@#T2 CPM can cause false positive result for NIPT and may be complicated with fetal UPD, leading to adverse obstetric outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction, oligohydramnios and intrauterine fetal demise.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Amniocentesis , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Fetal Death , Fetal Growth Retardation/genetics , Fetus , Mosaicism , Oligohydramnios , Placenta , Trisomy/genetics , Uniparental Disomy/genetics
11.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 886-892, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010145

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the association of isolated thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) positive in the first trimester with fetal growth.@*METHODS@#A total of 16 446 pregnant women were included in the birth cohort study, whose last menstrual period was between May 2016 and April 2019 and with singleton pregnancy. Maternal serum samples were collected when they firstly came for prenatal care in the first trimester. The pregnant women were consecutively seen and followed in the hospital and the information of pregnant women was extracted from the electronic medical information system. The pregnant women were divided into isolated TPOAb positive group (n=1 654) and euthyroid group (n=14 792). Three fetal ultrasound examinations were scheduled during the routine prenatal visits at the hospital and were performed by trained sonographers. All fetal growth indicators were quantified as gestational age- and gender- adjusted standard deviation score (Z-score) using the generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Fetal growth indicators included estimated fetal weight (EFW), abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL) and head circumference (HC). Fetal growth restriction (FGR) was defined as AC or EFW Z-score<3rd centile based on clinical consensus. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis was applied to assess the association of maternal isolated TPOAb positive with fetal growth. The generalized linear model was further used to analyze the association between isolated TPOAb positive and fetal growth indicator at different gestational ages when the fetal growth indicator was significantly associated with isolated TPOAb positive in the GEE mo-del.@*RESULTS@#The median gestational age at three ultrasound measurements was 23.6 (23.3, 24.1), 30.3 (29.7, 30.9), 37.3 (37.0, 37.7) weeks, respectively. The BPD Z-score was higher in isolated TPOAb positive women, compared with the euthyroid pregnant women after adjustment (β=0.057, 95%CI: 0.014-0.100, P=0.009). The generalized linear model showed the BPD Z-score was higher in the isolated TPOAb positive women at the end of 21-25 weeks (β=0.052, 95%CI: 0.001-0.103, P=0.044), 29-32 weeks (β=0.055, 95%CI: 0.004-0.107, P=0.035) and 36-40 weeks (β=0.068, 95%CI: 0.011-0.125, P=0.020), compared with the euthyroid pregnant women. There was no difference in other fetal growth indicators (EFW, AC, FL and HC) and FGR between the isolated TPOAb positive and euthyroid pregnant women.@*CONCLUSION@#The BPD Z-score was slightly increased in the isolated TPOAb positive pregnant women in the first trimester, while other fetal growth indicators were not changed. The reproducibility and practical significance of this result need to be confirmed.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Iodide Peroxidase , Cohort Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Fetal Development , Fetal Weight , Fetal Growth Retardation , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
12.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 733-736, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981817

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a Chinese pedigree with 6q26q27 microduplication and 15q26.3 microdeletion.@*METHODS@#A fetus with a 6q26q27 microduplication and a 15q26.3 microdeletion diagnosed at the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University in January 2021 and members of its pedigree were selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the fetus was collected. The fetus and its parents were analyzed by G-banding karyotyping and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), and its maternal grandparents were also subjected to G-banding karyotype analysis.@*RESULTS@#Prenatal ultrasound had indicated intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus, though no karyotypic abnormality was found with the amniotic fluid sample and blood samples from its pedigree members. CMA revealed that the fetus has carried a 6.6 Mb microduplication in 6q26q27 and a 1.9 Mb microdeletion in 15q26.3, and his mother also carried a 6.49 duplication and a 1.867 deletion in the same region. No anomaly was found with its father.@*CONCLUSION@#The 6q26q27 microduplication and 15q26.3 microdeletion probably underlay the intrauterine growth retardation in this fetus.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , East Asian People , Fetal Growth Retardation/genetics , Karyotype , Pedigree , Prenatal Diagnosis , Sequence Deletion , Chromosome Duplication
13.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 582-587, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981793

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of a fetus with Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS).@*METHODS@#A fetus with MNS diagnosed at Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital in November 2020 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data was collected. Pathogenic variant was screened by using trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES). Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Prenatal ultrasonography of the fetus had shown multiple anomalies including intrauterine growth retardation, bilateral femur curvature, omphalocele, single umbilical artery, and oligohydramnios. Trio-WES revealed that the fetus has harbored hemizygous c.3562G>A (p.A1188T) missense variant of the FLNA gene. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the variant was maternally derived, whilst its father was of a wild type. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the variant was predicted to be likely pathogenic (PS4+PM2_Supporting+PP3+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The hemizygous c.3562G>A (p.A1188T) variant of the FLNA gene probably underlay the structural abnormalities in this fetus. Genetic testing can facilitate accurate diagnosis of MNS and provide a basis for genetic counseling for this family.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Fetal Growth Retardation , Fetus , Filamins/genetics , Genetic Counseling , Mutation , Osteochondrodysplasias
14.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441829

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En la aparición de las enfermedades crónicas durante las edades pediátricas y la adolescencia, la restricción del crecimiento intrauterino se considera un factor clave. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre la restricción del crecimiento intrauterino y las enfermedades no trasmisibles durante las edades pediátricas. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión narrativa con búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed, SciELO, LILACS y Google académico en los últimos cinco años sobre el tema que se trata. Se examinaron artículos originales, de revisión y capítulos de libros. Se utilizaron las palabras clave: retardo del crecimiento fetal, factores de riesgo cardiometabólicoy atención integrada a las enfermedades prevalentes de la infancia. Se descartaron aquellos artículos no pertinentes o que tuvieran deficiencias metodológicas notables. Análisis y síntesis de la información: Se expusieron las definiciones de pequeño para la edad gestacional y restricción del crecimiento intrauterino, se mostró la clasificación más actualizada, se mencionaron las enfermedades que aparecen en la infancia en estos recién nacidos de riesgo y se señalaron sus mecanismos. Conclusiones: El antecedente de restricción del crecimiento intrauterino se relaciona con alteraciones del crecimiento pondoestatural, del neurodesarrollo; el síndrome metabólico; las afecciones cardiovasculares; las enfermedades endocrinas, hepáticas, respiratorias, del sistema inmunológico y renales, los trastornos auditivos y de la visión. Estas afecciones se presentan en etapas tempranas de la vida como la infancia y la adolescencia(AU)


Introduction: In the occurrence of chronic diseases during pediatric ages and adolescence, intrauterine growth restriction is considered a key factor. Objective: To determine the relationship between intrauterine growth restriction and noncommunicable diseases during pediatric ages. Methods: A narrative review was performed with a literature search in Pubmed, SciELO, LILACS and Google Scholar in the last five years on the topic under discussion. Original articles, review articles and book chapters were examined. The keywords used were: fetal growth retardation, cardiometabolic risk factors, integrated care for prevalent childhood diseases. Articles that were not relevant or had notable methodological deficiencies were discarded. Analysis and synthesis of the information: The definitions of small for gestational age and intrauterine growth restriction were exposed, the most updated classification was shown, the diseases that appear during infancy in these at-risk newborns were mentioned and their mechanisms were pointed out. Conclusions: The history of intrauterine growth restriction is related to alterations of pondoestatural growth, neurodevelopment, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular conditions, endocrine, hepatic, respiratory, immune system, renal, hearing and vision disorders. These conditions surface in early stages of life such as infancy and adolescence(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Risk Factors , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Fetal Growth Retardation , Noncommunicable Diseases , Information Products and Services
15.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507323

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objectives: to determine the prevalence of pathological findings according to the type of chorionicity in pregnancies in two institutions in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: descriptive, retrospective, cohort study. Biometric variables were calculated, and pathological findings were evaluated according to the type of chorionicity in multiple pregnancies. Statistical characterization was performed with absolute frequencies, calculation of relative frequencies in qualitative variables, standard deviation measures, median and interquartile range. In addition, a descriptive analysis of the information was carried out. Results: 528 studies were carried out in 141 pregnant women, 98.5% (n = 139) twins and 1.4% (n = 2) triplets. A prevalence of 35.4% of fetal complications was calculated. The most frequent was fetal growth restriction (p=0.37). According to each type of chorionicity, fetal growth restriction was presented in 50% (1/2) of the trichorionics, 16.6% (7/42) of the monochorionics, and 11.3% (11/97) of the dichorionics. Conclusion: fetal growth restriction was the most common finding, both in trichorionics, monochorionics and dichorionics pregnancies.


Resumen Objetivos: el objetivo del estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de los hallazgos patológicos ecográficos en embarazos múltiples de acuerdo con la corionicidad en dos instituciones en Bogotá-Colombia. Métodos: estudio de cohorte, descriptivo, retrospectivo. Las variables biométricas realizadas y los hallazgos patológicos se evaluaron de acuerdo con el tipo de embarazo gemelar. Se realizó caracterización estadística con frecuencias absolutas, cálculo de frecuencias relativas en variables cualitativas, medidas de desviación estándar, mediana y rango intercuartílico. Además, se realizó análisis descriptivo de la información. Resultados: se realizaron 528 estudios en 141 gestantes, encontrando 98,5% (n=139) gemelares y 1,4% (n=2) triples. Se calculó una prevalencia de 35,4% de complicaciones fetales siendo más frecuente la restricción del crecimiento fetal (p=0,37). Según la corionicidad, esta complicación se presentó en 50% (1/2) de los tricoriónicos, 16,6% (7/42) de los monocoriónicos y 11,3% (11/97) de los dicoriónicos. Conclusión: la restricción del crecimiento fetal fue el hallazgo más común en los embarazos múltiples en la población estudiada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy, Multiple , Pregnancy, Triplet , Pregnancy, Twin , Biometry/methods , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods , Colombia/epidemiology , Diseases in Twins , Fetal Growth Retardation
16.
Clin. biomed. res ; 43(1): 39-46, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435949

ABSTRACT

Introduction: To analyze the factors (socio-demographic, clinical, prenatal care, delivery, postpartum data and anthropometric measures) associated with the birth of small for gestational age newborns.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 15 years old or younger postpartum adolescents divided into small-for-gestational-age newborn (SGA) and non-small-for-gestational age newborn groups (NSGA). Socio-demographic, clinical, prenatal care, delivery, postpartum data and anthropometric measures (triceps skinfold (TS), and mid-arm circumference, (MAC)) were collected.Results: 8,153 women gave birth at the obstetric ward and 364 (4.46%) ≤ 15 years old adolescents were enrolled in the study. The proportion of SGA newborns was 34.61%. The SGA group attended fewer prenatal visits (p = 0.037), had a higher prevalence of nutritional status classified as "very low weight" (p < 0.001) and vaginal delivery (p = 0.023), compared to the NSGA group. The nutritional status and vaginal delivery remained significant even after adjustment for confounders. The prevalence risk for SGA birth was 30% higher in the group of mothers with nutritional status classified as "very low weight" (odds ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.50) (p < 0.001).Conclusions: 15.4% of adolescents ≤ 15 years of age had an arm circumference compatible with the "very low weight" condition, demonstrating the high prevalence of poor maternal nutritional status in this group. The birth of SGA among adolescents ≤ 15 years of age is independently associated with maternal nutritional status classified as "very low weight" by the mid-arm circumference measures (MAC).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Nutritional Status , Adolescent Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Infant, Small for Gestational Age/growth & development , Fetal Growth Retardation/etiology
17.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 23: e20210293, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449160

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the relationship between the ductus venosus (DV) and the variables of fetal growth in the first trimester in a Colombian pregnant population. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with secondary data obtained from a multicenter study.526 patients were included between weeks 11 and 14 for gestational ultrasound follow-up attended in three health care institutions in Bogotá, Colombia, between May 2014 and October 2018. A bivariate descriptive analysis was carried out where the relationship between the characteristics of the DV in the first trimester and ultrasound findings. Results: the flow wave of the DV in the first trimester was normal in the entire sample, with a pulsatility index of the ductus venosus (DVPI) of 0.96±0.18. In addition, a negative correlation was found between the crown-rump length (CRL) and the DVPI (p<0.05). Conclusion: there is a relationship between the DVPI regarding the CRL, indicating an interest in this early marker in relation to fetal growth alterations; however, more studies are required to determine the usefulness of this variable with respect to fetal growth.


Resumen Objetivos: evaluar la relación entre el ductus venoso (DV) y las variables del crecimiento fetal en primer trimestre en una población de gestantes colombianas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo con datos secundarios obtenidos de un estudio multicéntrico. Se incluyeron 526 pacientes entre las semanas 11 a 14 para seguimiento ecográfico gestacional atendidas en tres instituciones prestadoras de salud en Bogotá, Colombia, entre mayo del 2014 y octubre del 2018. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo bivariado donde se evaluó la relación entre las características del DV en primer trimestre y los hallazgos ecográficos. Resultados: la onda de flujo del DV en primer trimestre fue normal en la totalidad de la muestra, con un índice medio de pulsatilidad del ductus venoso (IPDV) de 0,96±0.18. Se encontró una correlación negativa entre la longitud cefalocaudal (LCC) y el IPDV (p<0.05). Conclusión: existe una relación entre el IPDV respecto a la LCC, señalando un interés de este marcador temprano en relación con las alteraciones del crecimiento fetal, sin embargo, se requieren más estudios para determinar la utilidad entre esta variable respecto al crecimiento fetal


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Placental Insufficiency , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Crown-Rump Length , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnostic imaging , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia
18.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(1): 71-83, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431756

ABSTRACT

El hipospadias es la localización anormal del meato urinario y es la malformación de genitales externos más frecuentemente diagnosticada. El diagnóstico prenatal es posible mediante ecografía sistemática desde la semana 20 de gestación, siendo más fácil su diagnóstico en el tercer trimestre. Las formas leves suelen ser aisladas, familiares o asociadas a disfunción placentaria o restricción de crecimiento intrauterino, mientras que las formas más graves presentan hasta un 30% de asociación a defectos fetales, anomalías cromosómicas/genéticas o anomalías del desarrollo sexual. La tríada para el diagnóstico ecográfico prenatal consiste en curvatura ventral del pene, anomalía del prepucio dorsal y punta del pene roma. La valoración de la uretra durante la micción y el aspecto del chorro miccional son de gran utilidad para clasificar el defecto. Cuando se diagnostica hipospadias peneano o escrotal es aconsejable realizar una amniocentesis para estudio genético fetal y valorar otros signos de adecuada virilización, como el descenso testicular a partir de la semana 27. El seguimiento tras el parto debe ser multidisciplinario, incluyendo urólogo y endocrinólogo infantil. En hipospadias leves el pronóstico es bueno con reparación quirúrgica en el primer año de vida, pero las formas graves pueden presentar un reto mayor para su corrección funcional y estética.


Hypospadias refers to the abnormal location of the meatus; it is the most common genital malformation detected in the fetus and newborn. Prenatal diagnosis is feasible from 20 weeks onwards with routine ultrasound; however, it is easier to diagnose during the third trimester of pregnancy. Mild defects are usually isolated, familiar o related to placental disfunction or intrauterine growth restriction, while the severe hypospadias are associated to other fetal defects, genetic or chromosomal abnormalities or disorders of sex development. In about 30% of cases. The triad of ultrasound findings prenatally is ventral curvature of the penis, redundant dorsal foreskin and blunt distal penis. The identification of the urethra during the micturition and the direction of the urinary stream help in the classification of the defect. When severe hypospadias is detected, the recommendation is to perform genetic amniocentesis and search for other ultrasound findings related to poor virilization in the fetus, as testicular descent after 27 weeks of gestation. Postnatal follow up should be multidisciplinary including infantile urologist and endocrinologist. The prognosis in distal hypospadias is usually good following surgical repair, however in severe cases surgical interventions may be more challenging in order to obtain satisfactory outcome in terms of function and esthetic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Hypospadias/diagnostic imaging , Prenatal Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Fetal Growth Retardation , Hypospadias/surgery , Hypospadias/classification , Hypospadias/etiology
19.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 425-433, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985886

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish the reference values and growth curves of length for weight and head circumference for weight among Chinese newborns in order to provide a reference for the assessment of body proportionality at birth. Methods: A cross-sectional design was applied. A total of 24 375 singleton live birth newborns with gestational ages at birth of 24+0 to 42+6 weeks were recruited from June 2015 to November 2018 from 13 cities including Beijing, Harbin, Xi'an, Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Fuzhou, Kunming, Tianjin, Shenyang, Changsha, and Shenzhen, excluding those with maternal or newborn conditions that may impact the establishment of the reference values. The generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape was employed to establish reference values in terms of percentile and growth curves of length for weight and head circumference for weight for male and female newborns. The random forest machine learning method was employed to analyze the importance of variables between the established reference values in this study and the previous published weight/length, body mass index (BMI), ponderal index (PI), weight/head circumference, length/head circumference in the assessment of symmetrical and asymmetrical small for gestational age (SGA) newborns. Results: A total of 24 375 newborns with 13 197 male infants (preterm birth 7 042 infants and term birth 6 155 infants) and 11 178 female infants (preterm birth 5 222 infants and term birth 5 956 infants) were included in this study. The reference values in terms of percentile (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P97) and growth curves of length for weight and head circumference for weight were obtained for male and female newborns with gestational ages of 24+0 to 42+6 weeks. The median birth lengths corresponding to the birth weights of 1 500, 2 500, 3 000, and 4 000 g were 40.4, 47.0, 49.3 and 52.1 cm for males and 40.4, 47.0, 49.2, and 51.8 cm for females, respectively; the median birth head circumferences were 28.4, 32.0, 33.2 and 35.2 cm for males and 28.4, 32.0, 33.1, and 35.1 cm for females, respectively. The differences of length for weight between males and females were minimum, with the difference range of -0.3 to 0.3 cm at P50; the differences of head circumference for weight between males and females were minimum, with the difference range of 0 to 0.2 cm at P50. Based on the match between birth length and birth weight for classifying symmetrical and asymmetrical SGA, length for weight and PI contributed the most, accounting for 0.32 and 0.25, respectively; based on the match between birth head circumference and birth weight, head circumference for weight and weight/head circumference contributed the most, accounting for 0.55 and 0.12, respectively; based on the match between birth length or head circumference with birth weight, head circumference for weight and length for weight contributed the most, accounting for 0.26 and 0.21, respectively. Conclusion: The establishment of the new standardized growth reference values and growth curves of length for weight and head circumference for weight among Chinese newborns are useful for clinical practice and scientific research.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Birth Weight , Body Height , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , East Asian People , Fetal Growth Retardation , Gestational Age , Premature Birth , Reference Values
20.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 495-500, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985669

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the ultrasonic manifestations, clinical features, high risk factors and key points of pregnancy management in prenatal diagnosis of umbilical artery thrombosis (UAT). Methods: The data of 31 pregnant women of UAT diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography and confirmed after birth from July 2017 to July 2022 at the Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine were retrospectively analyzed, including the maternal characteristics, pregnancy outcomes and fetal complications. In addition, the baseline data and pregnancy outcomes were compared in 21 patients who continued pregnancy after diagnosis of UAT. Of the 21 UAT cases that continued pregnancy, 10 cases were treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; LMWH treatment group), while the other 11 patients had expectant treatment(expectant treatment group). Results: The age of the 31 pregnant women was (30.2±4.7) years, of which 5 cases (16%,5/31) were advanced age pregnant women. The gestational age at diagnosis was (32.9±4.0) weeks, and the gestational age at termination of pregnancy was (35.6±2.9) weeks. In 31 fetuses with UAT, 15 cases (48%) had fetal distress, 11 cases (35%) had fetal growth restriction, and 3 cases (10%) had intrauterine stillbirth. There were 28 cases of live births, including 26 cases by cesarean section and 2 cases by vaginal delivery. There were also 3 stillbirths, all delivered vaginally. Four neonates had mild asphyxia and two newborns had severe asphyxia. Among the 31 cases, 10 cases were terminated immediately after diagnosis, the gestational age at diagnosis was (35.9±2.9) weeks. Another 21 pregnancies continued, and their gestational age at diagnosis was (31.4±3.7) weeks. The median prolonged gestational age in LMWH treatment group was 7.9 weeks (4.6-9.4 weeks), and all were live births. The median prolonged gestational age in the expectant treatment group was 0.6 weeks (0.0-1.0 weeks), and 2 cases were stillbirths. There was a statistically significant difference in prolonged gestational age (P=0.002). Conclusions: Ultrasound is the preferred method for prenatal detection of UAT. Clinicians need to be vigilant for UAT when a newly identified single umbilical artery is detected by ultrasound in the second or third trimesters. The decision to continue or terminate the pregnancy depends on the gestational age and the condition of fetus. Attention should be paid to fetal movements as the pregnancy continues. The treatment of LMWH as soon as possible after diagnosis of UAT may improve the pregnancy outcome.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Adult , Infant , Stillbirth , Cesarean Section , Umbilical Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Asphyxia , Retrospective Studies , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Pregnancy Outcome , Fetal Growth Retardation/therapy , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods , Gestational Age
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