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1.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(2): 631-637, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340663

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fetal tricuspid valve regurgitation (TR) during the third trimester of low-risk pregnancies and to assess its clinical significance on neonates. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study including 330 singleton fetuses referred for routine fetal echocardiography during 3rd trimester in a fetal medicine center in Recife, Brazil. The presence and degree of tricuspid regurgitation were analyzed. Whenever TR was identified on fetal echocardiography, postnatal data, including the results of postnatal echocardiography were reviewed. Results: the prevalence of tricuspid regurgitation was 10.0% (n=33) in the study population. Regarding regurgitation degree, 90.9% (n=30) presented mild regurgitation and none presented important TR. Postnatal data was obtained from 21 neonates. Twenty of them were discharged without any complications, and one presented respiratory distress due to prematurity. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 66.7% (n=14) of the neonates and it was normal in 92.9% (n=13) of them. One neonate, 7.1%, persisted with tricuspid regurgitation, but had no other findings. Conclusions: tricuspid regurgitation in fetuses with normal cardiac anatomy during the 3rd trimester is a common condition in low-risk pregnancies, and is not associated with cardiac abnormalities or need for neonatal intervention.


Resumo Objetivos: determinar a prevalência da regurgitação tricúspide (RT) em fetos no terceiro trimestre de gestações de baixo risco e investigar sua repercussão clínica nos recémnascidos. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo transversal incluindo 330 fetos encaminhados para realização de ecocardiograma fetal de rotina no terceiro trimestre da gestação num centro de medicina fetal em Recife, Brasil. A presença e o grau de insuficiência tricúspide foram estudados. Quando RT estava presente ao ecocardiograma fetal dados pós-natais, incluindo ecocardiograma, também foram analisados. Resultados: a prevalência de RT foi de 10,0% na população estudada, sendo que 90,9% (n=30) dos casos foram classificados como RT leve, e nenhum caso de RT importante foi identificado. Foram obtidos dados pós-natais de 21 recém-nascidos. Destes, 20 receberam alta hospitalar sem nenhuma complicação, enquanto 1 apresentou desconforto respiratório associado à prematuridade. Ecocardiograma transtorácico foi realizado em 66.7% (n=14) dos recém-nascidos avaliados, e foi normal em 92.9% (n=13) deles. Apenas 1 recém-nascido, 7.1%, persistiu com RT mas sem outros achados significativos. Conclusões: a RT em fetos com anatomia cardíaca normal é comum no terceiro trimestre de gestações de baixo risco e não parece associar-se a anomalias cardíacas ou necessidade de intervenção no período neonatal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/epidemiology , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Fetus/abnormalities , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Heart Defects, Congenital , Postnatal Care , Prenatal Diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Infant, Premature , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cardiovascular Abnormalities
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921966

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the application value of whole exome sequencing technology in fetuses with congenital structural abnormalities.@*METHODS@#The chromosomal abnormalities of 1147 families were analyzed. According to the follow-up results, the data of fetuses with new phenotypes in late pregnancy or after birth were reanalyzed. Subgroups were divided according to the organs involved and whether single malformation or not. The gene regulatory network map was drawn by using string database and Cytoscape software. Fisher exact probability method was used to compare the difference of the diagnostic rate of pathogenic genes among the groups.@*RESULTS@#A total of 160 fetal cases received positive molecular diagnosed, involving 178 variant sites of 125 pathogenic genes, including 8 cases (4.9%, 8/163) by data reanalysis, and the overall positive diagnosis rate was 13.9%. Diagnostic rate was highest in the group of skeletal malformation (31.5%, 39/124) and lowest in that with thoracic malformation (0, 0/32). The gene clusters of fetal edema and intrauterine growth restriction were independent, and were not associated with the major structural malformations. The probability of each parent carrying the same recessive gene variant was 0.03 (39/1146) and 0.08 (4/53) with positive family history.@*CONCLUSION@#For fetuses with congenital structural abnormalities that are negative for conventional genetic tests, 13.9% of phenotypic associated pathogenic/likely pathogenic genetic variants can be detected by whole exome sequencing technology. Its application value for prenatal diagnosis varies in fetus with different organs involved. Reanalysis of sequencing data for cases with new phenotypes in late pregnancy or after birth can further improve the molecular diagnosis rate. Further investigations are needed to explore the related genetic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Female , Fetal Diseases , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Technology , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Whole Exome Sequencing
3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(5): 289-296, May 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137828

ABSTRACT

Abstract Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with poor perinatal prognosis and a higher risk of stillbirth, neonatal death, and cerebral palsy. Its detection and the evaluation of its severity by new Doppler velocimetric parameters, such as aortic isthmus (AoI), are of great relevance for obstetrical practice. The AoI is a vascular segment that represents a point of communication between the right and left fetal circulations. It is considered to be a functional arterial shunt that reflects the relationship between the systemic and cerebral impedances, and has recently been proposed as a tool to detect the status of hemodynamic balance and prognosis of IUGR in fetuses. In the present review, we noticed that in healthy fetuses, the AoI net flow is always antegrade, but in fetuses with IUGR the deterioration of placental function leads to progressive reduction in its flow until it becomes mostly retrograde; this point is associated with a drastic reduction in oxygen delivery to the brain. The more impaired the AoI flow is, the greater is the risk of impairment in the Doppler velocimetry of other vessels; and the alterations of the AoI Doppler seem to precede other indicators of severe hypoxemia. Although there seems to be an association between the presence of retrograde flow in the AoI and the risk of long-term neurologic disability, its role in the prediction of perinatal morbi-mortality remains unclear. The AoI Doppler seems to be a promising tool in the management of fetuses with IUGR, but more studies are needed to investigate its employment in clinical practice.


Resumo O crescimento intrauterino restrito (CIUR) está associado a um prognóstico perinatal adverso, com maior risco de óbito intrauterino e neonatal, bem como de paralisia cerebral. Assim, sua detecção e a determinação de sua gravidade por novos parâmetros Dopplervelocimétricos, como o istmo aórtico (IAo), são de fundamental importância na prática obstétrica. O IAo é um segmento vascular que representa um ponto de comunicação entre os sistemas circulatórios fetais esquerdo e direito. É considerado um shunt arterial funcional, capaz de refletir a relação entre as impedâncias dos circuitos cerebral e sistêmico, e foi proposto como uma ferramenta para detecção do status do equilíbrio hemodinâmico e do prognóstico de fetos com CIUR. Na presente revisão, observou-se que, em fetos saudáveis, o fluxo predominante no IAo é sempre anterógrado; mas em fetos com CIUR a deterioração do estágio de insuficiência placentária acarreta reduções progressivas no fluxo ístmico até este apresentar sentido predominantemente retrógrado e levar a uma drástica redução no aporte de oxigênio ao sistema nervoso central. Quanto mais alterado estiver o fluxo no IAo, maior a chance de haver alteração na Dopplervelocimetria de outros vasos; e as alterações no Doppler do IAo parecem preceder outros indicadores de hipoxemia severa. Embora o fluxo retrógrado no IAo pareça se correlacionar com maior risco de alteração no desenvolvimento neurológico a longo prazo, ainda não está claro o seu papel na predição de morbimortalidade perinatal. O Doppler do IAo parece ser um parâmetro promissor no manejo do CIUR; entretanto, mais estudos são necessários para avaliar seu emprego na prática clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnostic imaging , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Aorta, Thoracic/physiopathology , Blood Flow Velocity , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Fetal Growth Retardation/physiopathology , Fetus/blood supply
4.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(4): 188-193, Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137822

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the frequency of structural congenital anomalies (CAs) in the midwest of Brazil and its association with maternal risk factors. Methods This was a prospective, observational, case-control study based on a hospital population. Pregnant women attended at a fetal medicine service in Brazil were analyzed in the period from October 2014 to February 2016.A total of 357 pregnant women were included, 223 of whom had fetuses with structural anomalies (group case), and 134 of whom had structurally normal fetuses (control group). The clinical history was made previous to prenatal consultation, and the diagnosis of the structural CA was performed through ultrasound. Results A frequency of 64.27% (n = 223) of pregnant women with fetuses with structural anomalies was observed. The most frequent structural CAs were those of the central nervous system (30.94%), followed by anomalies of the genitourinary system (23.80%), and, finally, by multiple CAs (16.60%). The background of previous children with CAs (odds ratio [OR]: 3.85; p = 0.022), family history (OR: 6.03; p = < 0.001), and consanguinity between the progenitors (OR: 4.43; p = 0.034) influenced the occurrence of structural CA. Conclusion The most frequent CAs are those of the central nervous system, followed by those of the genitourinary system, and then multiple anomalies. The maternal risk factors that may have influenced the occurrence of structural CA were previous children with CA, family history, and consanguinity among the parents.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a frequência de anomalias congênitas (ACs) estruturais no centro-oeste brasileiro e a associação com fatores de risco maternos. Métodos Estudo prospectivo, observacional, caso-controle, baseado em uma população hospitalar. Foram analisadas gestantes atendidas em um serviço de medicina fetal no Brasil, no período de outubro de 2014 a fevereiro de 2016. Foram analisadas 357 gestantes, dentre as quais 223 tiveram fetos com ACs estruturais (grupo controle) e 134 tiveram fetos estruturalmente normais (grupo controle). A história clínica foi feita antes da consulta de pré-natal, e o diagnóstico da AC estrutural foi realizado por ultrassonografia. Resultados Observou-se uma frequência de 64,27% (n = 223) de gestantes com fetos com ACs estruturais. As ACs estruturais mais frequentes foram as do sistema nervoso central (30,94%), seguidas das anomalias do sistema gênito-urinário (23,80%), e, por fim, das ACs múltiplas (16,60%). Antecedentes de crianças com AC (razão de probabiliade [RP]: 3,85; p = 0,022), antecedentes familiares (RP: 6,03; p = < 0,001), e consanguinidade entre os grupos progenitores (RP: 4,43; p = 0,034) influenciaram a ocorrência de AC estrutural. Conclusão As ACs mais frequentes foram as do sistema nervoso central, as do sistema gênito-urinário, e as ACs múltiplas. Os fatores de risco maternos que podem ter influenciado a ocorrência de AC estrutural foram antecedentes de crianças com AC, história familiar, e a consanguinidade entre os pais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Congenital Abnormalities/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Fetus/diagnostic imaging
5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(4): 181-187, Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137821

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the ability of the pubic arch angle (PAA) as measured by transperineal ultrasonography during labor to predict the delivery type and cephalic pole disengagement mode. Methods The present prospective cross-sectional study included 221 women in singleton-gestational labor ≥ 37 weeks with cephalic fetuses who underwent PAA measurement using transperineal ultrasonography. These measurements were correlated with the delivery type, cephalic pole disengagement mode, and fetal and maternal characteristics. Results Out of the subjects, 153 (69.2%) had spontaneous vaginal delivery, 7 (3.2%) gave birth by forceps, and 61 (27.6%) delivered by cesarean section. For the analysis, deliveries were divided into two groups: vaginal and surgical (forceps and cesarean). The mean PAA was 102 ± 7.5º (range, 79.3-117.7º). No statistically significant difference was observed in delivery type (102.6 ± 7.2º versus 100.8 ± 7.9º, p = 0.105). The occipitoanterior position was seen in 94.1% of the fetuses and the occipitoposterior position in 5.8%. A narrower PAA was found in the group of surgical deliveries (97.9 ± 9.6º versus 102.6 ± 7.3º, p = 0.049). Multivariate regression analysis showed that PAA was a predictive variable for the occurrence of head disengagement in occipital varieties after birth (odds ratio, 0.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.99; p = 0.026). Conclusion Ultrasonographic measurement of the PAA was not a predictor of delivery type, but was associated with the persistence of occipital varieties after birth.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a medida do ângulo do arco púbico (AAP) por ultrassonografia transperineal durante trabalho de parto em predizer tipo de parto e modo de desprendimento do polo cefálico. Métodos Um estudo prospectivo transversal foi conduzido com 221 mulheres em trabalho de parto com gestação única ≥ 37 semanas, com fetos em apresentação cefálica, foram submetidas à avaliação ultrassonográfica por via transperineal para aferição do AAP. Correlações com tipo de parto, modo de desprendimento do polo cefálico e características fetais e maternas foram realizadas. Resultados Um total de 153 (69,2%) mulheres apresentaram parto vaginal espontâneo, 7 (3,2%) parto a fórceps e 61 (27,6%) parto cesárea. Para fins de análise, dividiu-se os partos em dois grupos: partos vaginais e cirúrgicos (fórceps e cesáreas). A média do AAP foi 102 ± 7,5º (variação: 79,3-117,7º). Não foi observada significância estatística do AAP em relação ao tipo de parto (102,6 ± 7,2º versus 100,8 ± 7,9º; p = 0,105). Um total de 94,1% dos fetos desprenderam em variedade de posição occipito anterior e 5,8% em occipito posterior. Encontrou-se AAP mais estreitado no grupo de partos cirúrgicos (97,9 ± 9,6º versus 102,6 ± 7,3º; p = 0,049). A análise de regressão multivariada demonstrou que AAP foi uma variável de proteção para a ocorrência de desprendimento da cabeça em variedades occipito posteriores ao nascimento (odds ratio [OR]= 0,9; índice de confiança (IC) 95%: 0,82-0,99; p = 0,026). Conclusão A medida ultrassonográfica do AAP não foi preditora do tipo de parto, porém demonstrou associação com persistência de variedades occipito posteriores ao nascimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pelvis/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Cesarean Section , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Cephalopelvic Disproportion/epidemiology , Fetus/diagnostic imaging
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore strategies of prenatal genetic testing for fetuses featuring abnormal skeletal development.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 17 fetuses with skeletal dysplasia was collected. The results of genetic testing and outcome of pregnancy were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#For 12 fetuses, the femur-to-foot length ratio was less than 0.9. Thirteen fetuses had a positive finding by genetic testing. One fetus was diagnosed with chromosomal aneuploidy, three were diagnosed with microdeletion/microduplications, and nine were diagnosed with hereditary bone diseases due to pathological variants of FGFR3, COL1A2, GPX4 or ALPL genes.@*CONCLUSION@#For fetuses with skeletal dysplasia characterized by short femur, in addition to chromosomal karyotyping and microarray analysis, sequencing of FGFR3 and other bone disease-related genes can improve the diagnostic rate.


Subject(s)
Bone Diseases, Developmental/genetics , Female , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Genetic Testing , Humans , Karyotyping , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3/genetics , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 391-400, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059105

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The prevalence of congenital abnormalities in general populations is approximately 3-5%. One of the most important applications of obstetric ultrasound is in detection of fetal structural defects. OBJECTIVE: To assess fetal structural anomalies diagnosed using ultrasound in the three trimesters of pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study at the Mário Palmério University Hospital of the University of Uberaba (Universidade de Uberaba, UNIUBE), from March 2014 to December 2016. METHODS: Ultrasound data at gestational weeks 11-13 + 6, 20-24 and 32-36 were recorded to identify fetal anomalies in each trimester and in the postnatal period. The primary outcome measurements were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for detection of fetal anomalies and their prevalence. RESULTS: The prevalence of anomalies detected using ultrasound was 2.95% in the prenatal period and 7.24% in the postnatal period. The fetal anomalies most frequently diagnosed using ultrasound in the three trimesters were genitourinary tract anomalies, with a prevalence of 27.8%. Cardiac anomalies were diagnosed more often in the postnatal period, accounting for 51.0% of all cases. High specificity, negative predictive value and accuracy of ultrasound were observed in all three trimesters of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound is safe and has utility for detecting fetal anomalies that are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. However, the low sensitivity of ultrasound for detecting fetal anomalies in unselected populations limits its utility for providing reassurance to examiners and to pregnant women with normal results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Congenital Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods , Fetal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Fetus/abnormalities , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Congenital Abnormalities/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Fetus/diagnostic imaging
8.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 16(1): 6-12, abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-998405

ABSTRACT

Los tumores cardiacos primarios fetales representan una entidad de baja incidencia en la práctica clínica. La gran mayoría corresponde a lesiones benignas, siendo el rabdomioma el tipo más común. Si bien, es frecuente la regresión espontánea de este tipo de lesiones durante el embarazo, los tumores cardiacos fetales pueden asociarse a complicaciones como obstrucción del flujo cardíaco, insuficiencia valvular, arritmias, insuficiencia cardíaca e hidrops fetal, pudiendo conducir incluso a la muerte fetal. El mayor desarrollo de técnicas imagenológicas ha permitido un aumento en el número y precisión de los diagnósticos prenatales de tumores cardiacos, generando al mismo tiempo, nuevos desafíos y alternativas en relación al abordaje terapéutico. El objetivo del presente artículo de revisión es exponer la evidencia actual en relación al diagnóstico prenatal, manejo, complicaciones y condiciones asociadas de los tumores cardiacos fetales más frecuentes.


Fetal primary cardiac tumors represent a low incidence entity in clinical practice. The vast majority corresponds to benign lesions, with rhabdomyoma being the most common type. Although spontaneous regression of this type of lesions during pregnancy is frequent, fetal cardiac tumors can be associated with complications such as obstruction of cardiac flow, valvular insufficiency, arrhythmias, heart failure and fetal hydrops, which can even lead to fetal death. The greater development of imaging techniques has allowed an increase in the number and precision of prenatal diagnoses of cardiac tumors, generating at the same time, new challenges and alternatives in relation to the therapeutic approach. The objective of this review article is to present the current evidence regarding the prenatal diagnosis, management, complications and associated condition s of the most frequent fetal cardiac tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Heart Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Rhabdomyoma/diagnostic imaging , Teratoma/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Fibroma/diagnostic imaging , Heart Neoplasms/therapy , Myxoma/diagnostic imaging
9.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(1): 59-61, Jan. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003522

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lithopedion (lithos = rock and paidion = child) is a rare condition that only occurs in 1.5 to 1.8% of extrauterine pregnancies and in 0.00045% of all pregnancies. It consists of an ectopic pregnancy in which the fetus dies but cannot be reabsorbed by the mother's body, which then coats it in a calcium-rich substance.We present the case of a 77-year-old woman with an incidental diagnosis of a lithopedion, which had been retained in her left pelvis for presumably 40 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Incidental Findings
10.
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 44(2): 1-9, abr.-jun. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1003946

ABSTRACT

Los quistes ováricos fetales son el tumor abdominal más frecuente en las recién nacidas. Es la tercera causa de quistes intrabdominales, después de los de sistemas renal y gastrointestinal. Se puede sospechar su presencia en la ecografía cuando se observa una tumoración de aspecto quístico de estructura regular localizado en la parte inferior y lateral del abdomen, del tracto intestinal o urinario en un feto femenino sin anomalías. Presentan complicaciones agudas y a largo plazo. La más frecuente es la torsión anexial que presenta dificultades diagnósticas en la etapa neonatal. El diagnóstico prenatal es fundamental para el manejo oportuno de las pacientes. Existen diferentes alternativas terapéuticas donde la cirugía mínimamente invasiva y conservadora juega un importante rol. El objetivo del trabajo es demostrar que el diagnóstico temprano de los tumores fetales interviene en el resultado exitoso. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 37 años primigesta, a la que durante la evaluación ecográfica; se observó la presencia de una tumoración de apariencia blanda en la parte inferior derecha del abdomen correspondiente a un quiste ovárico fetal claramente identificado y separado de la vejiga fetal. La paciente fue sometida a cesárea en la que se obtuvo una recién nacida femenina. Dos días después, la neonata fue intervenida quirúrgicamente por mínimo acceso y se resolvió exitosamente gracias a un manejo multidisciplinario(AU)


Fetal ovarian cysts are the most frequent abdominal tumor in newborns. It is the third cause of intra-abdominal cysts, after those of renal and gastrointestinal systems. Its presence can be suspected on ultrasound when a cystic-like tumor of regular structure located in the lower and lateral part of the abdomen, intestinal tract or urinary tract is observed in a female fetus with no anomalies. They present acute and long-term complications. The most frequent is adnexal torsion that presents diagnostic difficulties in the neonatal stage. Prenatal diagnosis is essential for the timely management. There are different therapeutic alternatives where minimally invasive and conservative surgery are important. The objective of the work is to demonstrate that the early diagnosis of fetal tumors intervenes in the successful outcome. We present the case of a 37-year-old primiparous patient, who had a soft-appearing tumor in the lower right part of the abdomen observed by ultrasound. This corresponded to a clearly identified fetal ovarian cyst and it was separated from the fetal bladder. The patient underwent cesarean section in which a female newborn was obtained. Two days later, the neonatal was minimal-access surgically treated successfully thanks to multidisciplinary management(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Prenatal Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Ovarian Cysts/diagnostic imaging
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(10): 703-710, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888253

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The new epidemic of Zika virus infection raises grave concerns, especially with the increasingly-recognized link between emerging cases of microcephaly and this infectious disease. Besides small cranial dimensions, there are striking morphologic anomalies in the fetal brain. Key anomalies include cortical developmental malformations and a peculiar distribution of pathologic calcifications. These potentially indicate a new pattern of congenital central nervous system infection. Methods: Eight women underwent fetal MRI. Four infants also underwent postnatal CT. Five of the women underwent amniocentesis. Results: All neonates were born with microcephaly. On fetal MRI, ventriculomegaly, marked reduction of white matter thickness, severe sylvian fissure simplification, abnormal sulcation, and diffuse volumetric loss of cerebellar hemispheres were consistently seen. On postnatal CT, diffuse subcortical and basal ganglia calcifications were observed. The Zika virus was detected in two amniocenteses by polymerase chain reaction assays. Conclusion: We hope to assist the medical community in recognizing the spectrum of encephalic changes related to congenital Zika virus infection.


RESUMO Os novos casos epidêmicos de infecção pelo vírus Zika suscitam grande preocupação, sobretudo com o crescente reconhecimento da ligação entre casos emergentes de microcefalia e esta doença infecciosa. Além da cabeça de pequenas dimensões, existem profundas alterações morfológicas no encéfalo fetal. Anomalias mais típicas incluem malformações do desenvolvimento cortical e uma distribuição peculiar de calcificações patológicas. Estes dados potencialmente indicam um novo padrão de infecção congênita do sistema nervoso central. Métodos: Oito mulheres foram submetidas a RM fetal. Quatro crianças também realizaram TC pós-natal. Cinco mulheres foram submetidas a amniocentese. Resultados: Todos os neonatos nasceram com microcefalia. Na RM fetal, ventriculomegalia, acentuada redução da espessura da substância branca, acentuada simplificação da fissura sylviana, sulcação anormal e redução volumétrica difusa dos hemisférios cerebelares foram constantes. Na TC pós-natal, calcificações difusas subcorticais e nos núcleos da base foram observadas. O vírus Zika foi detectado por PCR em duas amniocenteses. Conclusão: Esperamos dar suporte à comunidade médica em reconhecer este padrão de imagem potencialmente específico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Zika Virus Infection/diagnostic imaging , Microcephaly/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Microcephaly/virology
12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 134(4): 355-358, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792822

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Umbilical cord thrombosis is related to greater fetal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is usually associated with umbilical cord abnormalities that lead to mechanical compression with consequent vascular ectasia. Its correct diagnosis and clinical management remains a challenge that has not yet been resolved. CASE REPORT: This study reports a case of umbilical artery thrombosis that occurred in the second half of a pregnancy. The umbilical cord was long, thin and overly twisted and the fetus presented severe intrauterine growth restriction. The clinical and histopathological findings from this case are described. CONCLUSIONS: This case report emphasizes the difficulty in diagnosing and clinically managing abnormalities of intrauterine life with a high chance of perinatal complications.


RESUMO: CONTEXTO: A trombose do cordão umbilical está relacionada com o aumento da morbimortalidade fetal e perinatal. É geralmente associada a alterações do cordão umbilical que levam à compressão mecânica com consequente ectasia vascular. Seu correto diagnóstico e manejo clínico é um desafio que não está ainda bem esclarecido. RELATO DE CASO: Neste relato se descreve caso de trombose da artéria umbilical de ocorrência na segunda metade da gravidez associada a cordão umbilical longo, fino, excessivamente retorcido, associado a feto com restrição de crescimento intrauterino grave. São descritos seus achados clínicos e histopatológicos correlacionados. CONCLUSÃO: Este relato de caso reforça a dificuldade diagnóstica e de manejo clínico em alteração da vida intrauterina com grande possibilidade de complicações perinatais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Umbilical Arteries/blood supply , Umbilical Arteries/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Fetus/abnormalities , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Prenatal Diagnosis , Umbilical Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy Outcome , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Fetal Growth Retardation/etiology , Fetus/diagnostic imaging
14.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 5(2): 21-31, dic. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-884856

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las cardiopatías congénitas (CC) son los defectos congénitos graves más frecuentes y una de las tres principales causas de mortalidad prenatal y perinatal. Objetivos: determinar la sensibilidad y especificidad de la ecocardiografía fetal prenatal como prueba diagnóstica de CC. Metodología: se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico de prueba diagnóstica, temporalmente retrospectivo, en mujeres de 15 y 47 años, gestantes del tercer trimestre y sus recién nacidos, internadas en la Cátedra y Servicio de Ginecología y Obstetricia, FCM-UNA, desde enero del 2006 a diciembre del 2012. Todos fueron sometidos a estudios ecococardiográficos con el ecógrafo General Electric® modelo P5 con sonda convexa C3 multifrecuencia. Resultados: se encontraron 36 casos (43,3%) de cardiopatía congénita diagnosticada por ecocardiografía fetal y 47 casos (56,6%) de cardiopatía diagnosticada por ecocardiografía en recién nacidos. Las CC más frecuentes fueron la comunicación interventricular y la comunicación interauricular. Al comparar el diagnóstico prenatal (presencia o ausencia de anomalías) con el diagnóstico postnatal (gold standard), se encontró una sensibilidad de 83,7% (IC 95% 71,5-95,9) y especificidad de 100% (IC 95% 98,7-100), respectivamente. Conclusiones: la ecocardiografía prenatal tiene una sensibilidad de 83,7% y especificidad de 100%.


Introduction: congenital heart disease (CHD ) are the most common serious birth defects and one of the three leading causes of prenatal and perinatal mortality. Objectives: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of prenatal fetal echocardiography as a diagnostic test. Method: we conducted an observational analitic study of diagnostic test, temporarily retrospective, in women aged 15 to 47 years, pregnant women in the third trimester and infants hospitalized in the Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, FCM- UNA, since January 2006 to December 2012. All patients underwent ultrasound studies with a General Electric® model C3 P5 multifrequency convex probe ecocardiograph. Results: we found 36 cases (43.3%) of congenital heart disease diagnosed by fetal echocardiography and 47 cases (56.6%) of cardiac disease diagnosed by echocardiography in neonates. The most frequent CHD were interventricular and interauricular communication. Comparing prenatal diagnosis (presence or absence of anomalies) with postnatal diagnosis (gold standard) we found a sensitivity of 83.7% (95% CI 71.5 to 95.9) and specificity of 100% (95% CI 98.7 to 100), respectively. Conclusions: prenatal echocardiography has a sensitivity of 83.7% and specificity of 100%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/diagnostic imaging
16.
Tunisie Medicale [La]. 2009; 87 (10): 712-715
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-134771

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital pulmonary anomaly that can be diagnosed in utero. Report a New case: ln this case report of extralobar pulmonary sequestration, the authors report a case revealed by hydrothorax and describe this disease appearance in different imaging technique [Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and postnatal multislice CT angiography]


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Hydrothorax/diagnosis , Hydrothorax/etiology , Prenatal Diagnosis , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Fetus/diagnostic imaging
17.
Saudi Medical Journal. 1997; 18 (3): 252-4
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-114721

ABSTRACT

To find out how consistent or variable is the understanding and practice of radiation protection procedures for women in the child bearing age at a multispeciality tertiary hospital. Riyadh Military Hospital Study. Design: Non-clustered population survey. A questionnaire was distributed during grand rounds, mid-day clinics and a radiology conference. Questions included which radiation protection rule does the respondent use for females, whether he or she is familiar with those rules and what is his or her source of reference. Further questions were about the radiation dangers to the fetus. Response was 95 [100%]. Fifty-seven [60%] were males and 38 [40%] were females. The majority 50 [53%] were Saudis, 16 [17%] Western and 29 [30%] were other nationals. Sixty-two [65%] followed the old rule 10-day rule; 17 [18%] followed the new 28-day rule and 16 [17%] didn't know which rule to follow. None of those who followed the 28-day rule indicated hospital policy as their reference. The understanding and practice of radiation protection guidelines for females is inconsistent. There is significant unfamiliarity with the radiation protection rules among our hospital practitioners


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Diagnostic Imaging , Radiography , Reproduction/physiology , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
Journal of the Saudi Heart Association. 1996; 8 (2): 114-118
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-41536

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to evaluate prospectively the accuracy of fetal echocardiography performed at a tertiary referral center [Aramco Dhahran Health Center] in defining the exact anatomic features of various cardiac lesions in fetuses with congenital heart disease. Fetal echocardiography has been used to plan the appropriate course of care for high-risk pregnancies and in the immediate neonatal period. This includes a team of obstetrician, radiologist, pediatric cardiologist, and neonatologist. A sample of 65 consecutive fetal echocardiograms and their matching neonatal echo/Doppler studies were compared. The referral sequence was initiated by the obstetrician to the radiologist, then to the pediatric cardiologist, and the neonatologist. Four groups of fetuses/neonates were identified in this study based on their fetal cardiac examination: [1] normal cardiac anatomy and performance [n = 30]: none had any significant cardiac lesion on postnatal echocardiogram; [2] fetal arrhythmia [n = 12]: premature atrial beats and bigeminy were found in 9 fetuses and disappeared in the immediate neonatal period. Atrial tachycardia [atrial rate 400's - ventricular rate 200's] was seen in 3 fetuses and required maternal and neonatal treatment with digoxin in one; [3] nonimmune hydrops fetalis was diagnosed in 8 fetuses: it was mild and resolved in 7 patients shortly after birth. One fetus died in utero with severe hydrops; and [4] complex congenital cardiac lesions were found in 11 fetuses [18%]. Some minor anatomic findings could not be defined prenatally in 7 of them. Four cases were excluded due to lack of correlation between pre- and postnatal studies. We conclude that [1] fetal echocardiography, as an intimate part of a comprehensive fetal assessment, is highly sensitive and specific in detecting congenital heart disease in the fetuses; [2] appropriate management of high-risk pregnancies and neonates can be significantly improved when the exact pathophysiology of the unborn fetus is known by fetal echo/Doppler; and [3] fetal echocardiography is extremely safe and reliable throughout the three trimesters


Subject(s)
Humans , Fetal Heart/diagnosis , Prospective Studies/methods , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Fetus/diagnostic imaging
19.
Revue Maghrebine de Pediatrie [La]. 1996; 6 (2): 93-96
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-43249
20.
PJMR-Pakistan Journal of Medical Research. 1995; 34 (3): 136-151
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-95891

ABSTRACT

New high-resolution real-time ultrasound cross-sectional imaging systems have enabled us to demonstrate detailed fetal cardiac anatomy in the second half of pregnancy. We studied fetal cardiac anatomy qualitatively and quantitatively by echocardiography in the second half of the pregnancy in 23 normal pregnancies in healthy mothers. The estimated gestational ages were 20-41 weeks of pregnancy. Nine new horns were also examined within 24 hours of birth. To evaluate fetal cardiac anatomy, we reproduced commonly used cross-sectional views of the heart. The four chamber and short axis great artery views have been most successful for cardiac evaluation in the fetus. Measurements of the right and left ventricle [RV, LV] at the atrioventricular valve level were taken from four chamber plane images of the heart before and after birth and measurements of the aorta and left atrium were taken in the long axis view. Physiologic changes in the circulation at birth affected RV size considerably compared with measurements before birth. The RV/LV dimensional ratio was 1.28 +/- 0.17 before birth and decreased to 0.70 +/- 0.17 within 24 hours of birth. The aorta to left atrial dimensional ratio did not change significantly after birth. Our findings about cardiac growth and the major adjustments of the circulatory system for extrauterine life are similar to those previously reported in humans and animals. One case of single ventricle, atrioventricular canal and transposition of the great arteries was present in the cases examined. It appears from our study that the diagnosis of major congenital heart defects should be possible before birth


Subject(s)
Humans , Echocardiography/methods , Pregnancy , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , /diagnosis
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