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2.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e601, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280184

ABSTRACT

Abstract The new coronavirus 2019-nCov or SARS-Cov-2 is responsible for the most important pandemic in the 21st century: the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The 2019-nCov infection elicits a hyper-coagulable state, conditioning a worse outcome in these patients. The pathophysiology of the exaggerated coagulation activation in these patients is still unknown, and probably involves several mechanisms, different from those involved in sepsis-associated coagulopathy. This article discusses the case of a patient with no remarkable medical history, who after 7 days of fever, diarrhea and epigastric pain was diagnosed with COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia, further aggravated by severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. In this context, the patient experienced a massive acute pulmonary thromboembolism accompanied by an acute thrombus in the heart's right ventricle, leading to hemodynamic instability. For the first time in our center in these patients, systemic fibrinolysis was successfully performed, with resolution of the intracavitary thrombus and the acute hemodynamic shock.


Resumen El nuevo coronavirus 2019-nCov o SARS-Cov-2 es responsable de la pandemia más importante del siglo XXI: la enfermedad del coronavirus (COVID-19). La infección por 2019-nCov produce un estado de hipercoagulabilidad, que promueve peores desenlaces en estos pacientes. La fisiopatología de la exagerada activación de la coagulación en estos pacientes aún se desconoce y posiblemente involucre varios mecanismos, diferentes a los participan en la coagulopatía asociada a sepsis. El presente artículo presenta el caso de un paciente sin antecedentes médicos y quien luego de 7 días de fiebre, diarrea y dolor epigástrico, fue diagnosticado con neumonía bilateral por COVID-19, agravada por la presencia de Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria Aguda. En este contexto, el paciente desarrolla un tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo masivo, acompañado de un trombo agudo en el ventrículo derecho, produciéndole inestabilidad hemodinámica. Por primera vez en nuestro centro, se realizó exitosamente una fibrinólisis sistémica, con resolución del trombo intracavitario y del shock hemodinámico agudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation , Pandemics , Fibrinolysis , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Heart Ventricles , Hemodynamics , Infections
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 15-25, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285243

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A intervenção coronária percutânea primária é considerada o "padrão-ouro" para reperfusão coronária. Entretanto, quando não disponível, a estratégia fármaco-invasiva é método alternativo, e o eletrocardiograma (ECG) tem sido utilizado para identificar sucesso na reperfusão. Objetivos Nosso estudo teve como objetivo examinar alterações no segmento-ST pós-lise e seu poder de prever a recanalização, usando os escores angiográficos TIMI e blush miocárdio (MBG) como critério de reperfusão ideal. Métodos Foram estudados 2.215 pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supra-ST submetidos à fibrinólise [(Tenecteplase)-TNK] e encaminhados para angiografia coronária em até 24 h pós-fibrinólise ou imediatamente encaminhados à terapia de resgate. O ECG foi realizado pré-TNK e 60 min-pós. Os pacientes foram categorizados em dois grupos: aqueles com reperfusão ideal (TIMI-3 e MBG-3) e aqueles com reperfusão inadequada (fluxo TIMI <3). Foi definido o critério de reperfusão do ECG pela redução do segmento ST >50%. Consideramos p-valor <0,05 para as análises, com testes bicaudais. Resultados O critério de reperfusão pelo ECG apresentou valor preditivo positivo de 56%; valor preditivo negativo de 66%; sensibilidade de 79%; e especificidade de 40%. Houve fraca correlação positiva entre a redução do segmento-ST e os dados angiográficos de reperfusão ideal (r = 0,21; p <0,001) e baixa precisão diagnóstica, com AUC de 0,60 (IC-95%; 0,57-0,62). Conclusão Em nossos resultados, a redução do segmento-ST não conseguiu identificar com precisão os pacientes com reperfusão angiográfica apropriada. Portanto, mesmo pacientes com reperfusão aparentemente bem-sucedida devem ser encaminhados à angiografia brevemente, a fim de garantir fluxo coronário macro e microvascular adequados.


Abstract Background Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is considered the "gold standard" for coronary reperfusion. However, when not available, the drug-invasive strategy is an alternative method and the electrocardiogram (ECG) has been used to identify reperfusion success. Objectives Our study aimed to assess ST-Segment changes in post-thrombolysis and their power to predict recanalization and using the angiographic scores TIMI-flow and Myocardial Blush Grade (MBG) as an ideal reperfusion criterion. Methods 2,215 patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) undergoing fibrinolysis [(Tenecteplase)-TNK] and referred to coronary angiography within 24 h post-fibrinolysis or immediately referred to rescue therapy were studied. The ECG was performed pre- and 60 min-post-TNK. The patients were categorized into 2 groups: those with ideal reperfusion (TIMI-3 and MBG-3) and those with inadequate reperfusion (TIMI and MBG <3). The ECG reperfusion criterion was defined by the reduction of the ST-Segment >50%. A p-value <0.05 was considered for the analyses, with bicaudal tests. Results The ECG reperfusion criterion showed a positive predictive value of 56%; negative predictive value of 66%; sensitivity of 79%; and specificity of 40%. There was a weak positive correlation between ST-Segment reduction and ideal reperfusion angiographic data (r = 0.21; p <0.001) and low diagnostic accuracy, with an AUC of 0.60 (95%CI: 0.57-0.62). Conclusion The ST-Segment reduction was not able to accurately identify patients with adequate angiographic reperfusion. Therefore, even patients with apparently successful reperfusion should be referred to angiography soon, to ensure adequate macro and microvascular coronary flow.


Subject(s)
Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography , Electrocardiography , Fibrinolysis
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 454-457, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346484

ABSTRACT

Resumen La flegmasia cerulea dolens es una complicación rara y poco frecuente de la trombosis venos a profunda. Los principales factores predisponentes son los procesos neoformativos, estados de hiper coagulabilidad, insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva, embarazo, inmovilización prolongada y cirugías. Se caracteriza por edema masivo, dolor intenso y cianosis. Sin tratamiento evoluciona con isquemia, necrosis y amputación del miembro comprometido. No existe consenso en su tratamiento, pero éste debe ser rápido, multidisciplinario y agresivo. La anticoagulación con heparina, la fibrinólisis sistémica, la trombectomía percutánea con fibrinólisis local, la trombectomía quirúrgica, la fasciotomía, la colocación de filtro de vena cava inferior y la amputación son algunos de los tratamientos propuestos.


Abstract Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (FCD) is a rare complication of deep vein thrombosis. Its cause is unknown. The main predisposing factors for the disease are neoformative processes, hypercoagulable states, congestive heart failure, pregnancy, prolonged immobilization, and surgeries on the affected limb. FCD is characterized by massive edema, severe pain, and cyanosis. The diagnosis is clinical. It is associated in most cases with pulmonary embolism and can lead to loss of the compromised limb if not treated in time. So far there is no consensus on its treatment. In clinical practice the use of anticoagulation with heparin, local thrombolysis, systemic fibrinolysis, surgical thrombectomy, fasciotomy, and inferior vena cava filter are described. In irreversible cases amputation is required. We present the case of a patient with FCD, the treatment performed and the evolution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombophlebitis/drug therapy , Thrombophlebitis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Heparin , Thrombectomy , Fibrinolysis
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 6-10, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287234

ABSTRACT

Resumen La fibrinólisis intravenosa con activador del plasminógeno tisular recombinante (rTPA) y la utilización de unidades cerradas, demostraron disminuir sustancialmente la morbimortalidad en pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular isquémico (ACVi). Sin embargo, los datos publicados en Argentina son escasos. Describimos la experiencia en la utilización de fibrinólisis en pacientes con ACVi agudo antes y después de la implementación de una unidad cerebrovascular (UCV) en un Centro Integral de Neurología Vascular de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante 17 años. Se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de pacientes consecutivos tratados con rTPA entre enero 2003 y diciembre 2019. Se evaluaron tiempos de tratamiento, de internación, complicaciones post tratamiento y discapacidad a 3 meses. Para su análisis se evaluaron los períodos pre y post apertura de la UCV, período 1 (P1 de 2003-2011) y P2 (2012 -2019). Se realizó fibrinolisis intravenosa en 182 pacientes. La apertura de UCV resultó en aumento del porcentaje de fibrinólisis sobre el total de los ACVi ingresados (4% en P1 vs. 10% en P2, p < 0.001), acortamiento del tiempo puerta-aguja (75 minutos en P1 vs. 53 minutos en P2, p < 0.00001) y mayor proporción de pacientes tratados dentro de los 60 minutos del ingreso hospitalario (36% en P1 vs. 76% en P2, p < 0.00001). Además, hubo reducción de la mediana de internación de 9 días en P1 a 5 días en P2 (p < 0.00001). En conclusión, la UCV parece optimizar la utilización de fibrinólisis en el ACVi agudo, aumentando el porcentaje de pacientes tratados, reduciendo el tiempo puerta-aguja y disminuyendo el de internación.


Abstract Intravenous fibrinolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) and use of stroke units improve morbidity and mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, data published in Argentina are scarce. We describe the experience in the use of fibrinolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) before and after the implementation of a stroke unit in a Comprehensive Stroke Center in Buenos Aires during the last 17 years. Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients treated with rTPA between January 2003 and December 2019. Treatment times, hospitalization time, post-treatment complications and disability at 3 months were evaluated. For the analysis, the pre and post opening periods of the stroke unit were evaluated, Period 1 (P1, from 2003 to 2011) and Period 2 (P2, from 2012 to 2019). Intravenous fibrinolysis was performed in 182 patients. Opening of the stroke unit resulted in an increase in the percentage of fibrinolysis over the total number of admitted strokes (4% in P1 vs. 10% in P2, p < 0.001), shortening of the door-to-needle time (75 minutes in P1 vs. 53 minutes in P2, p < 0.00001) and higher proportion of patients treated within 60 minutes of hospital admission (36% in P1 vs. 76% in P2, p < 0.00001). In addition, there was a reduction in the median hospital stay from 9 days in P1 to 5 days in P2 (p < 0.00001). In conclusion, stroke units seem to optimize the use of fibrinolysis in acute stroke, increasing the percentage of patients treated, reducing door-to-needle time, and reducing hospitalization time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Stroke/drug therapy , Argentina , Thrombolytic Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Fibrinolysis , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 385-390, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126176

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: El Sangrado Menstrual Excesivo (SME) es un problema frecuente en la adolescencia. La prevalencia de trastornos hereditarios de la coagulación (THC) como causa del SME no está bien establecida y la participación de defectos de la vía fibrinolítica ha sido poco explorada. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de THC y defectos de la fibrinólisis en adolescentes con SME. Pacientes y Método: Se incluyeron 93 adolescentes, edad 11 a 18 años. Los antecedentes personales y familiares de sangra do se obtuvieron con un cuestionario estandarizado. Se controló exámenes: tiempo de protrom- bina (TP), tiempo de tromboplastina parcial activada (TTPa), estudio del factor Von Willebrand, recuento y función plaquetaria. Los pacientes que no fueron diagnosticados como THC, se evaluaron adicionalmente con el tiempo de lisis del coágulo. Resultados: 41 pacientes (44%) fueron diagnos ticados como THC: Enfermedad de Von Willebrand n = 28, defectos de la función plaquetaria n = 8, hemofilia leve n = 5. Se confirmó disminución del tiempo de lisis del coágulo en 31 pacientes. El 54% de pacientes diagnosticado como THC, tuvo SME como la primera manifestación hemorrágica. Conclusión: Estos resultados apoyan la necesidad de evaluación de la coagulación, incluyendo la vía fibrinolítica, en el estudio de adolescentes con SME.


Abstract: Introduction: Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (EMB) is a frequent problem in adolescence. The prevalence of inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) as a cause of EMB is not well established and the involvement of fibri nolytic pathway defects has been poorly explored. Objective: To determine the prevalence of IBD and fibrinolysis defects in adolescents with EMBs. Patients and Method: 93 adolescents (11 to 18 years old) were included. Personal and family history of bleeding were obtained through a standard ized questionnaire. The following lab tests were performed: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), von Willebrand factor quantification, and platelet count and function. Those patients who were not diagnosed with IBD were further evaluated with clot lysis time assay. Results: 41 patients (44%) were diagnosed as IBD (Von Willebrand disease n = 28, platelet func tion defects n=8, mild hemophilia n = 5. Decreased clot lysis time was found in 31 patients. 54% of patients diagnosed with IBD had EMB as the first hemorrhagic manifestation. Conclusion: These results support the need to evaluate the coagulation process, including the fibrinolytic pathway in the study of adolescents with EMB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited/diagnosis , Fibrinolysis , Menorrhagia/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Tests , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited/epidemiology
8.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(1): 55-65, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1138755

ABSTRACT

Resumen En los pacientes con trombosis arterial o venosa, in situ o por embolia, el uso de fibrinolíticos (como el rtPA) administrados directamente en el trombo a través de un catéter selectivo en el sitio de la oclusión, permite una resolución más rápida de la oclusión trombótica o embólica con menos dosis total del agente fibrinolítico y por ende con menos complicaciones hemorrágicas que con el uso sistémico. Las indicaciones en las cuales se puede considerar la fibrinólisis selectiva con catéter son básicamente la isquemia aguda de una extremidad por oclusión arterial, la tromboembolia pulmonar, la trombosis venosa profunda iliofemoral (proximal), la trombosis venosa profunda proximal axilo-subclavia, la trombosis de los accesos venosos para diálisis y en los pacientes pediátricos en los casos de trombosis o embolia arterial con extremidad isquémica y en casos seleccionados de trombosis venosa profunda proximal de extremidades. En este consenso describirá cada una de las indicaciones a través de un protocolo para el manejo con rtPA en cada situación, cómo monitorizar su uso y cómo tartar las complicaciones hemorrágicas.


Abstract In patients with arterial or venous thrombosis, in situ or due to an embolism, the use of fibrinolytics (such as recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, rtPA) administered directly into the clot through a selective catheter into the occlusion site. This can lead to a more rapid resolution of the thrombotic or embolic occlusion with a lower dose of the fibrinolytic agent, and therefore with less problems with haemorrhages than with systemic use. The situations in which selective fibrinolysis with a catheter can be considered are mainly, acute ischaemia of a limb due to a blocked artery, pulmonary thromboembolism, proximal ileo-femoral deep venous thrombosis, proximal axillo-subclavian deep venous thrombosis, and in the thrombosis of the venous access for dialysis It is also indicated in paediatric patients in cases of arterial thrombosis or embolisms with an ischaemic limb, and in selective cases of proximal deep venous thrombosis of the limbs. In this consensus, a description will be given of each one of the indications, with a protocol for the management with rtPA in each one of them, as well as monitoring its use and the management of haemorrhage complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pulmonary Embolism , Thromboembolism , Fibrinolysis , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Venous Thrombosis , Catheters
9.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(3): 218-224, dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058067

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El tratamiento del Infarto Agudo del Miocardio con supradesnivel del segmento ST debe iniciarse en el escenario prehospitalario, en el sitio del primer contacto médico. El diagnóstico electrocardiográfico precoz debe ser realizado, idealmente, dentro de los primeros 10 min después de la consulta y confirmado por un especialista. A este respecto, la teletransmisión del electrocardiograma a un centro de llamados atendido por especialistas en horario 24/7 es un modelo muy eficiente, idealmente como parte de una red de tratamiento. El control del dolor y la administración de agentes antiplaquetarios son imperativos y si la intervención coronaria percutánea (angioplastia primaria) no es factible dentro de las ventanas de tiempo universalmente recomendadas, se debiera realizar un tratamiento fibrinolítico, seguido por angioplastia diferida.


ABSTRACT: Treatment of acute myocardial infarction should be initiated in the prehospital scenario at the site of first medical contact. Prompt electrocardiographic diagnosis should be performed ideally within 10min after consultation and diagnosis confirmed by a specialist. Teletransmission of the electrocardiogram to a call center staffed with specialists on a 24/7 basis is a very efficient model, ideally as part of a network of treatment. Pain control and administration of antiplatelets agents are mandatory and if primary percutaneous intervention is not feasible within time limits universally recommended, prehospital fibrinolyisis should be performed followed by deferred angioplasty.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Remote Consultation/methods , Electrocardiography , Prehospital Services , Fibrinolysis
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 327-334, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013461

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The main goal of our study was to assess the impact of vascular procedures on the activity of hemostatic and fibrinolytic pathways. Methods: We enrolled 38 patients with ≥ 45 years old undergoing surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm or peripheral artery disease under general or regional anesthesia and who were hospitalized at least one night after the procedure. Patients undergoing carotid artery surgery and those who had acute bypass graft thrombosis, cancer, renal failure defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 ml/min/1.73m2, venous thromboembolism three months prior to surgery, or acute infection were excluded from the study. We measured levels of markers of hemostasis (factor VIII, von Willebrand factor:ristocetin cofactor [vWF:CoR], antithrombin), fibrinolysis (D-dimer, tissue plasminogen activator [tPA], plasmin-antiplasmin complexes), and soluble cluster of differentiation 40 ligand (sCD40L) before and 6-12h after vascular procedure. Results: Significant differences between preoperative and postoperative levels of factor VIII (158.0 vs. 103.3, P<0.001), antithrombin (92.1 vs. 74.8, P<0.001), D-dimer (938.0 vs. 2406.0, P=0.005), tPA (10.1 vs. 12.8, P=0.002), and sCD40L (9092.9 vs. 1249.6, P<0.001) were observed. There were no significant differences between pre- and postoperative levels of vWF:CoR (140.6 vs. 162.8, P=0.17) and plasmin-antiplasmin complexes (749.6 vs. 863.7, P=0.21). Conclusion: Vascular surgery leads to significant alterations in hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems. However, the direction of these changes in both pathways remains unclear and seems to be different depending on the type of surgery. A study utilizing dynamic methods of coagulation and fibrinolysis assessment performed on a larger population is warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Postoperative Period , Reference Values , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/blood , Pilot Projects , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Preoperative Period
12.
Acta méd. colomb ; 44(1): 17-24, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1019292

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: en pacientes con tromboembolia pulmonar (TEP) aguda, la fibrinólisis arterial local puede tener una relación muy favorable entre beneficios y riesgos. Objetivo: caracterizar las condiciones epidemiológicas y clínicas de los pacientes con TEP agudo de riesgo intermedio que han recibido terapia fibrinolítica urgente dirigida por catéter. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de una serie de casos de pacientes atendidos en la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia (período 2012-2016) con diagnóstico de TEP de riesgo intermedio llevados a terapia fibrinolítica mediante catéter pulmonar. Resultados: se incluyeron 27 casos (26 pacientes, 57±20 años, 52% mujeres). La confirmación de embolia pulmonar aguda se realizó mediante angiotomografía. El 85% de los casos mostró signos ecocardiográficos de disfunción ventricular derecha, 74% elevación de troponinas, y 82% elevación de BNP o pro-BNP. El tiempo puerta-aguja desde el diagnóstico hasta la fibrinólisis fue de 29±31 horas (máx-min, 2-120). El tratamiento endovascular incluyó alteplasa (dosis total, 47±18 mg) y fragmentación-aspiración mecánica mediante catéter pulmonar. El 78% de los pacientes mostró disminuciones en la PAPm >10% del valor inicial [i.e., pacientes respondedores, ΔPAPm=-27±11% (-9±5 mmHg)]. Cinco pacientes fueron clasificados como no-respondedores (ΔPAPm=-2±7%, -1±4 mmHg). La estancia en UCI fue de 7±5 días (1-19), y la hospitalaria 13 días (1-36). No se presentaron complicaciones de sangrado mayor ni de otra índole. La supervivencia a 90 días fue de 100%. Conclusiones: esta serie observa que la fibrinólisis arterial pulmonar induce una mejoría hemodinámica inmediata en una alta proporción de pacientes con TEPa, con un balance beneficio-riesgo favorable en ausencia de complicaciones atribuibles inmediatas o tardías. (Acta Med Colomb 2019; 44: 17-24).


Abstract Introduction: in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE), local arterial fibrinolysis can have a very favorable relationship between benefits and risks. Objective: to characterize the epidemiological and clinical conditions of patients with intermediate-risk of acute PE who have received urgent fibrinolytic therapy directed by catheter. Methods: a descriptive study of a series of cases of patients treated at the Cardiovascular Foundation of Colombia (2012-2016 period) with a diagnosis of intermediate-risk PE who received fibrinolytic therapy using a pulmonary catheter. Results: 27 cases were included (26 patients, 57 ± 20 years, 52% women). Confirmation of acute pulmonary embolism was performed by angiotomography. 85% of the cases showed echocardiographic signs of right ventricular dysfunction, 74% elevation of troponins, and 82% elevation of BNP or pro-BNP. The door-needle time from diagnosis to fibrinolysis was 29 ± 31 hours (max-min, 2-120). The endovascular treatment included alteplase (total dose, 47 ± 18 mg) and mechanical fragmentation-aspiration by pulmonary catheter. 78% of the patients showed decreases in PAPm> 10% of the initial value [i.e., responding patients, ΔPAPm = -27 ± 11% (-9 ± 5 mmHg)]. Five patients were classified as non-responders (ΔPAPm = -2 ± 7%, -1 ± 4 mmHg). The stay in the ICU was 7 ± 5 days (1-19), and the hospital stay was 13 days (1-36). There were no complications of major or other bleeding. The 90-day survival was 100%. Conclusions: this series shows that pulmonary arterial fibrinolysis induces an immediate hemodynamic improvement in a high proportion of patients with intermediate-risk PE with a favorable benefit-risk balance in the absence of immediate or delayed attributable complications. (Acta Med Colomb 2019; 44: 17-24).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombolytic Therapy , Thrombectomy , Fibrinolysis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785373

ABSTRACT

During pregnancy, the procoagulant activity increases (manifested by elevation in factor VII, factor VIII, factor X, and fibrinogen levels), while the anticoagulant activity decreases (characterized by reduction in fibrinolysis and protein S activity), resulting in hypercoagulation. Standard coagulation tests, such as prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time, are still used despite the lack of evidence supporting its accuracy in evaluating the coagulation status of pregnant women. Thromboelastography and rotational thromboelastometry, which are used to assess the function of platelets, soluble coagulation factors, fibrinogen, and fibrinolysis, can replace standard coagulation tests. Platelet count and function and the effect of anticoagulant treatment should be assessed to determine the risk of hematoma associated with regional anesthesia. Moreover, anesthesiologists should monitor patients for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), and attention should be paid when performing rapid coagulation tests, transfusions, and prohemostatic pharmacotherapy. Transfusion of a high ratio of plasma and platelets to red blood cells (RBCs) showed high hemostasis success and low bleeding-related mortality rates in patients with severe trauma. However, the effects of high ratios of plasma and platelets and the ratio of plasma to RBCs and platelets to RBCs in the treatment of massive PPH were not established. Intravenous tranexamic acid should be administered immediately after the onset of postpartum bleeding. Pre-emptive treatment with fibrinogen for PPH is not effective in reducing bleeding. If fibrinogen levels of less than 2 g/L are identified, 2–4 g of fibrinogen or 5–10 ml/kg cryoprecipitate should be administered.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Conduction , Blood Coagulation Factors , Blood Transfusion , Drug Therapy , Erythrocytes , Factor VII , Factor VIII , Factor X , Female , Fibrinogen , Fibrinolysis , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Humans , Mortality , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Plasma , Platelet Count , Postpartum Hemorrhage , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Protein S , Prothrombin Time , Thrombelastography , Tranexamic Acid
15.
Clinics ; 74: e1222, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) history is present in 4-17% of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This subgroup of patients is at high risk for both ischemic and bleeding events. The aim of this study was to determine the role of platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis in patients with CAD and previous IS or TIA. METHODS: A prospective case-control study that included 140 stable CAD patients divided into two groups: the CASE group (those with a previous IS/TIA, n=70) and the CONTROL group (those without a previous IS/TIA, n=70). Platelet aggregability (VerifyNow Aspirin® and VerifyNow P2Y12®), coagulation (fibrinogen and thromboelastography by Reorox®) and endogenous fibrinolysis (D dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients in the CASE group presented significantly higher systolic blood pressure levels (135.84±16.09 vs 123.68±16.11, p<0.01), significantly more previous CABG (25.71% vs 10%, p=0.015) and significantly higher calcium channel blocker usage (42.86% vs 24.29%, p=0.02) than those in the control group. In the adjusted models, low triglyceride values, low hemoglobin values and higher systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with previous IS/TIA (CASE group). Most importantly, platelet aggregability, coagulation and fibrinolysis tests were not independently associated with previous cerebrovascular ischemic events (CASE group). CONCLUSION: Platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis showed similar results among CAD patients with and without previous IS/TIA. Therefore, it remains necessary to identify other targets to explain the higher bleeding risk presented by these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Ischemic Attack, Transient/blood , Platelet Aggregation/physiology , Stroke/blood , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Platelet Function Tests , Blood Coagulation Tests , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Ischemic Attack, Transient/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Stroke/physiopathology
16.
Acta méd. colomb ; 43(1): 51-51, ene.-mar. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-949538

ABSTRACT

En medicina se emplean términos compuestos para describir fenómenos o accio-nes específicas, como "hemolisis", "trombolisis" y "fibrinolisis", en ocasiones de forma inadecuada y sin respetar su origen lingüístico. Aunque al usarlos en la práctica muchas veces se usa la acentuación llana antietimológica (probablemente por influencia del francés), el sufijo 'lisis' tiene una connotación particular.


Subject(s)
Hemolysis , Thrombolytic Therapy , Fibrinolysis , Medicine
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 583-587, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772397

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Coagulation and fibrinolysis biomarkers can effectively reflect the dysfunction of coagulation and anticoagulation system, and the changes of their levels were closely related to the hypercoagulable status. The aim of this study is to study the variation tendency of these coagulation and fibrinolysis markers and explore the diagnosis power and clinical value of these biomarker for thrombosis in postoperative lung cancer patients with deep vein catheterization.@*METHODS@#We selected 118 postoperative lung cancer patients with deep vein catheterization including 29 patients with thromboembolism and 89 patients in control group. Coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters [thrombomodulin (TM)/thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT)/α2-plasmin inhibitor-plasmin complexes (PIC)/tissue plasminogen activator-inhibitor complexes (t-PAIC)] and traditional coagulation time[prothrombintime (PT)/activated partial thrombo plastin time(APTT)/thrombintime (TT)/fibrinogen (FIB)/antithrombin III (ATIII)/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP)/D-Dimer (D-D)] were detected in both groups. We analyzed the variation tendency of these biomarkers and figured out the diagnosis powerfor thrombosis.@*RESULTS@#A statistically significant difference was available on the value of TM, TAT, PIC, t-PAIC, D-D, FDP between thrombosis group and non-thrombosis group (P<0.05). TM, TAT, PIC, t-PAIC, D-D, FDP performed with an AUC of 0.770, 0.771, 0.669, 0.671, 0.819, 0.816, respectively (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#An enhanced coagulation and fibrinolysis activity existed in lung cancer patients with deep vein catheterization after surgery, and early detection of coagulation and fibrinolytic biomarkers could prevent thrombosis and reduce postoperative thrombosis complications in patients with lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Metabolism , Blood Coagulation , Female , Fibrinolysis , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Thromboembolism
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714259

ABSTRACT

Dry socket, also termed fibrinolytic osteitis or alveolar osteitis, is a complication of tooth exodontia. A dry socket lesion is a post-extraction socket that exhibits exposed bone that is not covered by a blood clot or healing epithelium and exists inside or around the perimeter of the socket or alveolus for days after the extraction procedure. This article describes dry socket lesions; reviews the basic clinical techniques of treating different manifestations of dry socket lesions; and shows how microscope level loupe magnification of 6× to 8× or greater, combined with co-axial illumination or a dental operating microscope, facilitate more precise treatment of dry socket lesions. The author examines the scientific validity of the proposed causes of dry socket lesions (such as bacteria, inflammation, fibrinolysis, or traumatic extractions) and the scientific validity of different terminologies used to describe dry socket lesions. This article also presents an alternative model of what causes dry socket lesions, based on evidence from dental literature. Although the clinical techniques for treating dry socket lesions seem empirically correct, more evidence is required to determine the causes of dry socket lesions.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Diagnosis , Dry Socket , Epithelium , Fibrinolysis , Inflammation , Lighting , Osteitis , Tooth
19.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 16(2): 230-235, out 27, 2017. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343957

ABSTRACT

Introdução: hepatopatias crônicas figuram entre as principais causas de morte no mundo e o transplante hepático permanece como a única alternativa terapêutica curativa disponível. A terapia celular utilizando células tronco tem sido demonstrada como uma alternativa potencial, porém os mecanismos envolvidos na resolução da doença permanecem em debate. Metodologia: trata-se de uma revisão de literatura, na qual foi realizada uma consulta por artigos científicos selecionados através de busca no banco de dados do PubMed e Scielo no período de agosto de 2016 a junho de 2017. Objetivo: este estudo tem como objetivo descrever os mecanismos envolvidos na regeneração/reparo da cirrose hepática através do tratamento com células tronco mesenquimais derivadas do tecido adiposo (AD-MSCs). Resultados e discussão: os estudos utilizando terapia celular apontam como principais mecanismos a fibrinólise, imunomodulação e atividade antioxidante. Com relação a atividade fibrinolítica, o aumento proeminente na expressão de enzimas como MMP2, MMP3 e MMP9 explica a redução da fibrose normalmente observada. A atividade imunomodulatória das ADMSCs parece estar relacionada com a secreção de agentes imunossupressores e fatores que promovem a hematopoiese. Finalmente, as AD-MSCS são capazes de aumentar a atividade do NF-E2-related fator (Nrf2), um fator de transcrição crucial na expressão de diversas enzimas relacionadas à resolução do estresse oxidativo. Conclusão: os estudos utilizando a terapia celular evidenciaram que fibrinólise, imunomodulação e efeito antioxidante podem, de forma associada, contribuir para os bons resultados apresentados. Apesar dos principais mecanismos propostos terem sido apresentados neste presente trabalho, mais estudos são necessários a fim de determinar a precisa contribuição de cada um deles.


Introduction: chronic liver diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world and liver transplantation remains the only curative alternative available. Cell therapy using stem cells has been demonstrated as a potential alternative, but the mechanisms involved in this proccess remain unclear. Methodology: we performed a review of the literature, in which a query was made for scientific articles selected through a search in the PubMed and Scielo database from August 2016 to June 2017. Objectives: this study aims to describe the mechanisms involved in the regeneration/repair of liver cirrhosis by treatment with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs). Results and discussion: studies using cellular therapy point out as main mechanisms fibrinolysis, immunomodulation and antioxidant activity. With regard to fibrinolytic activity, the prominent increase in the expression of enzymes such as MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 explains the reduction in fibrosis normally observed. The immunomodulatory activity of AT-MSCs appears to be related to the secretion of immunosuppressive agents and factors that promote hematopoiesis. Finally, AT-MSCS are able to increase the activity of the NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2), a crucial transcription factor in the expression of several enzymes related to the resolution of oxidative stress. Conclusion: studies using cell therapy have shown that fibrinolysis, immunomodulation and antioxidant effect may, in an associated way, contribute to the good results presented. Although the main proposed mechanisms have been presented in this present study, more studies are necessary in order to determine the precise contribution of each of them.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Immunomodulation , Fibrinolysis , Liver Cirrhosis , Antioxidants , Evaluation Studies as Topic
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158113

ABSTRACT

The balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis is an essential part in early pregnancy. Mutations in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene lead to decreased activity of the enzyme and hyperhomocysteinemia, which then induces platelet aggregation by promoting endothelial oxidative damage, possibly resulting in adverse effect on maintenance of pregnancy. We investigated the role of MTHFR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), C677T and A1298C, in Korean patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). We conducted a prospective case-control study in the Korean population. Subjects included 302 women with 2 or more consecutive, unexplained, spontaneous miscarriages before 20 weeks of gestation and 315 control women without a history of recurrent miscarriages. The genotyping for C677T and A1298C polymorphisms was performed using the TaqMan assay. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test, and χ² test was used to evaluate differences in the genotype distributions between the RPL and the controls. The genotype distribution of both polymorphisms in the RPL group did not differ from those of the controls. For further analysis, if RPL patients were divided according to the numbers of pregnancy losses (≥ 2 and ≥ 3) neither group was significantly different compared with controls. MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are not associated with idiopathic RPL in Korean women, suggesting that those may not be susceptible allelic variants or be deficient to cause RPL.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Habitual , Abortion, Spontaneous , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrinolysis , Genotype , Humans , Hyperhomocysteinemia , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2) , Platelet Aggregation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies
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