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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 812-820, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1285272

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence, survival time, and risk factors of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in dogs by a retrospective observational cohort study design of a Brazilian veterinary center, admitted from 2012 to 2018 (2.585 days). Considering the 105 dog files confirmed as MMVD, the prevalence of the disease was higher in small-breed dogs with ages from 10 to 19 years (30.3%). The survival time of the dogs at B1 stage (1.854 ± 145 days) was higher than the B2 (1.508+209) and C/D (930 ± 209). Higher risks of death (hazard ratio) were detected in the presence of syncope (2.5), pulmonary crackling (2.0), dyspnea (1.9), and higher values of vertebral heart scale (1.7), radiographic left atrium dimension (1.8), the ACVIM staging (1.7), and the duration of QRS complex (1.05). The results achieved demonstrated higher prevalence of MMVD in old small-breed dogs, associated with longer survival time in the B1 stage of the disease, and higher risk of death related to the presence of clinical signs, such as dyspnea, syncope, and pulmonary crackling, beyond some radiographic, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic variables of heart or atrial enlargement.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a prevalência, o tempo de sobrevivência e os fatores de risco da doença mixomatosa valvar mitral (DMVM) em cães, por meio de estudo de coorte observacional retrospectivo, os quais foram atendidos em um centro veterinário de 2012 a 2018 (2.585 dias). Considerando os 105 arquivos de cães com confirmação da DMVM, maior prevalência foi observada em raças pequenas com idades entre 10 e 19 anos (30,3%). O tempo de sobrevivência de cães em estágio B1 (1.854+145 dias) foi superior ao B2 (1.508+209) e ao C/D (930+209). Maior risco de morte (hazard ratio) foi observado na presença de síncope (2,5), crepitação pulmonar (2,0), dispneia (1,9), bem como de valores superiores de VHS (1,7), dimensão radiográfica do átrio esquerdo (1,8), estadiamento ACVIM (1,7) e duração do complexo QRS (1,05). Os resultados obtidos demonstraram maior prevalência de DMVM em cães idosos de raças pequenas, associada a maior tempo de sobrevida no estágio B1 da doença e a maior risco de morte relacionado à presença de sinais clínicos como dispneia, síncope e crepitação pulmonar, além de algumas variáveis radiográficas, ecocardiográficas e eletrocardiográficas de cardiomegalia ou aumento atrial esquerdo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Fibrosis/veterinary , Endocardium/pathology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Heart Valve Diseases/veterinary , Prognosis , Echocardiography/veterinary , Radiography, Thoracic/veterinary , Electrocardiography/veterinary
2.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(1): 58-64, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251522

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la elastografía en tiempo real, 2D-SWE (Supersonic), es una prueba no invasiva que se utiliza para determinar la elasticidad del hígado y, de esa forma, calcular el grado de fibrosis hepática. En Colombia, la prueba se introdujo en 2016 y no existen hasta el momento estudios del comportamiento de la prueba en todos los pacientes hepáticos, solo se han publicado en pacientes sanos y cirróticos. Objetivo: analizar la experiencia de la aplicación de la elastografía en tiempo real, en sujetos atendidos en el centro de enfermedades hepáticas y digestivas de Bogotá, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de una cohorte de sujetos atendidos entre marzo de 2016 y julio de 2017. Se realizó una historia clínica completa y una prueba de elastografía en tiempo real (Supersonic). Resultados: se incluyeron 654 sujetos, con una mediana de edad de 55 años (rango intercuartílico [RIC]: 45-64). La mediana de valores de fibrosis expresada en kilopascales (kPs) fue de 8,3, con un promedio de 5 mediciones. Se observó una diferencia significativa en el grado de fibrosis entre los grupos de edad y en relación con el diagnóstico final, donde se evidenció una mayor fibrosis en el grupo de enfermedades colestásicas (autoinmune, colangitis biliar primaria [CBP] y superposición autoinmune-CBP). La tasa global de fracaso fue menor al 1%. Conclusiones: es la primera descripción del comportamiento de la prueba a nivel nacional. Los valores de rigidez hepática observados en los diferentes estadios demuestran la utilidad de la prueba para la determinación de la fibrosis hepática en pacientes con diferentes patologías.


Abstract Introduction: Real-time two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) (Supersonic Imagine SA), is a non-invasive test used to determine liver elasticity and calculate the degree of liver fibrosis. In Colombia, this test was introduced in 2016 and, to date, no study has tested its behavior in all liver patients, only in healthy and cirrhotic patients. Objective: To analyze the experience of real-time elastography implementation in subjects treated at the Centro de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study of a cohort of subjects treated between March 2016 and July 2017. A complete medical report and a real-time elastography (Supersonic) test were performed. Results: 654 subjects were included, with a median age of 55 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 45-64). The median fibrosis values expressed in kilopascals (kPs) were 8.3, with an average of 5 measurements. There was a significant difference in the degree of fibrosis between the age groups and in relation to the final diagnosis, where there was a greater fibrosis in the cholestatic disease group (autoimmune, primary biliary cholangitis [PBC], and overlap). The overall failure rate was less than 1%. Conclusions: This is the first description of this test behavior in the country. Hepatic stiffness values observed in the different stages demonstrate the usefulness of the test to establish the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with multiple diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fibrosis , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Liver , Measurements, Methods and Theories , Medical Records , Elasticity , Research Report , Methods
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 99-102, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287247

ABSTRACT

Resumen La resección transmural endoscópica es una técnica que permite la resección en bloque de lesiones colónicas en pacientes en los cuales han fracasado los métodos endoscópicos convencionales como la resección mucosa endoscópica o la disección submucosa endoscópica. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 75 años con antecedentes de adenoma de colon con fibrosis debido a dos intentos previos fallidos de resección endoscópica en otra institución. Realizamos con éxito el procedimiento de resección transmural endoscópica evitando así una cirugía.


Abstract Endoscopic full-thickness resection is a technique that allows in block resection of colonic lesions in patients in whom conventional endoscopic methods such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection have failed. We present a case of a 75-year-old man with history of a difficult-to-resect colon adenoma. He had undergone two previous failed attempts of endoscopic mucosal resection due to non-lifting sign in another center. We successfully performed an endoscopic full-thickness resection procedure, avoiding unnecessary surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Adenoma/surgery , Adenoma/diagnostic imaging , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Endoscopic Mucosal Resection , Fibrosis , Treatment Outcome
4.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(3)2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292072

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: O papel da cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica em pacientes assintomáticos permanece restrito a situações clínicas muito específicas, muitas delas abordadas nos Critérios de Uso Apropriado (AUC) de Cintilografia de Perfusão Miocárdica. Objetivo: Realizar uma análise crítica da aplicação desses critérios nas indicações de exames realizados em pacientes assintomáticos do Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, cuja população é notadamente de alto risco cardiovascular. Métodos: Foram selecionados pacientes assintomáticos que realizaram cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica para pesquisa de isquemia. As indicações dos exames foram classificadas em apropriadas, inapropriadas ou incertas. Hipocaptação fixa, hipocaptação transitória ou dilatação isquêmica transitória foram consideradas exames alterados. Na análise estatística, buscou-se avaliar a correlação entre o grau de recomendação das indicações e a presença de exames alterados. Resultados: A partir de uma seleção inicial de 2.999 prontuários, 490 foram considerados assintomáticos e incluídos conforme critérios de inclusão estabelecidos previamente. Apenas 9,8% das indicações foram inapropriadas, enquanto que 61,4% foram apropriadas, e 28,8% foram incertas. A hipocaptação fixa do radiofármaco ocorreu em 43,5% dos casos e a hipocaptação transitória, em 16,1%. Solicitar o exame de maneira apropriada ou incerta foi fator preditor de exame com resultado alterado nesta população. Conclusão: O uso dos critérios de uso apropriado da cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica mostrou-se eficaz em predizer exames alterados em uma população assintomática de alto risco cardiovascular, especialmente no grupo de pacientes com indicação incerta, o que pode significar que algumas das indicações consideradas incertas talvez sejam apropriadas para uma população de alto risco cardiovascular. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Asymptomatic Diseases , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Fibrosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Myocardium/pathology
5.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(3)2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292025

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: A identificação precoce do dano miocárdico parece ser importante na abordagem do paciente com doença de Chagas. A ecocardiografia com strain obtida por speckle tracking e a avaliação da fibrose miocárdica por meio da ressonância magnética cardíaca podem ser métodos diagnósticos promissores nesse sentido. Objetivo: Avaliar o acometimento miocárdico especificamente na forma crônica cardíaca leve da doença de Chagas por meio do strain por speckle tracking e da fibrose miocárdica pela ressonância magnética cardíaca, além de suas correlações. Método: Estudo de corte transversal que analisou portadores da forma cardíaca crônica leve da doença de Chagas (fração de ejeção preservada) submetidos à ecocardiografia com strain por speckle tracking e à ressonância magnética cardíaca. Resultados: Foram incluídos 21 participantes (mulheres: 62%; idade: 54 ± 5 anos). A prevalência de fibrose miocárdica por meio do realce tardio miocárdico foi de 50%. O strain longitudinal global encontrava-se diminuído em 17 pacientes (81%), com mediana de 14,1% (intervalo interquartil de 12,1 a 16,3). Os valores do mapa T1 encontravam-se, em média, elevados nos portadores de doença de Chagas (993 ± 163 ms). O mapa T1 foi significativamente correlacionado com o strain longitudinal global (r= 0,634; p = 0,015). Além disso, o índice de dispersão mecânica, obtido por strain, estava aumentado (> 55 ms) em 84%, com a maior área sob a curva Característica de Operação do Receptor (área sob a curva de 0,696; intervalo de confiança de 95% de 0,412-0,981) para discriminação de fibrose pelo realce tardio miocárdico. Conclusão: O strain miocárdico e o mapa T1 se comportam como marcadores precoces do dano miocárdico na cardiopatia chagásica crônica leve. O índice de dispersão mecânica estava elevado e foi o parâmetro que melhor se correlacionou com o realce tardio miocárdico. (AU)


Background: The early identification of myocardial damage seems important in the management of patients with Chagas disease. However, it is unknown whether speckle tracking echocardiography strain and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are promising methods for assessing myocardial involvement and fibrosis, respectively. Objective: To evaluate myocardial involvement in the mild chronic cardiac form of Chagas disease using speckle tracking strain and myocardial fibrosis by cardiac magnetic resonance and assess their correlations. Method: This cross-sectional study analyzed patients with the mild chronic cardiac form of Chagas disease (preserved ejection fraction) using speckle tracking echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance. Results: The study included 21 participants (women: 62%; age: 54 ± 5 years). The prevalence of myocardial fibrosis was 50% on delayed myocardial enhancement. The median global longitudinal strain was decreased (14.1%; interquartile range, 12.1­16.3%) in 17 patients (81%). The mean T1 mapping value was high in patients with Chagas disease (993 ± 163 ms). The T1 map was significantly correlated with the global longitudinal strain (r = 0.634; p = 0.015). In addition, the mechanical dispersion index obtained by strain was increased (>55 ms) by 84%, with the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve, 0.696; 95% confidence interval, 0.412­0.981) for fibrosis discrimination by delayed myocardial enhancement. Conclusion: Myocardial strain and T1 mapping are early markers of myocardial damage in mild chronic Chagas heart disease. The mechanical dispersion index was high and the most closely correlated with delayed myocardial enhancement. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Prognosis , Stroke Volume , Fibrosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Linear Models , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , ROC Curve
6.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(3): 1-7, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281389

ABSTRACT

Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is graded according to various histological factors which include the epithelial changes and the connective tissue changes. These features could be identified in routine Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) staining in shades of pink. However, the use of special stains provides a contrast to various connective tissue components thereby aiding in better visualization of these connective tissue changes in advanced OSMF cases. Objective:To compare and evaluate muscle involvement and degeneration in advanced oral submucous fibrosis using three different stains namely, H&E, Van Gieson, and Masson's Trichrome. Material and Methods: 10 Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of advanced OSMFwere stained using 3 different stains namely Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), Van-Gieson, and Masson trichrome. The results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Kruskal Wallis ANOVA. Results: The hyalinization and fibrosis involving the skeletal muscle were better visualized in Masson's Trichrome but were not statistically significant. The muscle degeneration in deeper areas was better visualized in Masson's trichrome when compared to the H&E and Van Gieson. Conclusion: Hematoxylin and eosin stains all the connective tissue components in various shades of pink, use of special stains bestows contrast between different components of connective tissue, thus improvising grading of OSMF. Masson's trichrome stain can be used as a single adjunct to hematoxylin and eosin stain as changes in the superficial and deeper connective tissue could be ascertained (AU)


Contexto: A fibrose submucosa oral (FSO) é classificada de acordo com vários fatores histológicos que incluem alterações epiteliais e do tecido conjuntivo. Essas características podem ser identificadas na coloração de rotina com Hematoxilina e Eosina (H&E) em tons de rosa. No entanto, o uso de colorações especiais fornece um contraste para vários componentes do tecido conjuntivo, auxiliando assim na melhor visualização dessas alterações do tecido conjuntivo em casos avançados de FSO. Objetivo: Comparar e avaliar o envolvimento e degeneração muscular da fibrose submucosa oral avançada usando três colorações diferentes: H&E, Van Gieson e Tricrômio de Masson. Material e Métodos: 10 seções de tecido fixadas em formalina e embebidas em parafina de FSO avançada foram coradas usando essas três colorações. Os resultados obtidos foram tabulados e analisados estatisticamente por meio do teste de Kruskal Wallis. Resultados: A hialinização e fibrose envolvendo o músculo esquelético foram melhor visualizadas no tricromo de Masson, mas não foram estatisticamente significativas. A degeneração muscular em áreas mais profundas foi melhor visualizada no tricrômico de Masson, quando comparado ao H&E e Van Gieson. Conclusão: Hematoxilina e Eosina coloram todos os componentes do tecido conjuntivo em vários tons de rosa. O uso de colorações especiais confere contraste entre os diferentes componentes do tecido conjuntivo, melhorando assim a avaliação da FSO. A coloração com tricrômio de Masson pode ser usada como um único adjunto para a coloração de Hematoxilina e Eosina, pois assim é possível verificar alterações superficiais e profundas no tecido conjuntivo. (AU)


Subject(s)
Oral Submucous Fibrosis , Fibrosis , Connective Tissue
7.
Clinics ; 76: e2409, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278910

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to perform a meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of emricasan. Nine databases were searched for clinical trials investigating the efficacy of emricasan treatment in patients with liver cirrhosis or fibrosis. A manual search was conducted to identify the missing trials. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the revised Cochrane risk of bias tool. Efficacy of emricasan treatment was defined as a positive change in apoptosis-related parameters from baseline to the last follow-up visit. Overall, emricasan treatment is more effective in patients with liver cirrhosis or fibrosis than placebo (standardized mean difference [SMD] [95% confidence intervals (CI)]=0.28 [0.14; 0.41]). No significant change in model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score between the emricasan and placebo groups was noted (SMD [95% CI]=0.18 [-0.01; 0.36]; p=0.058). A 50 mg dose of emricasan had the highest efficacy rate compared to placebo (SMD [95% CI]=0.28 [0.06; 0.50]; p=0.012), followed by the 5 mg dosing regimen (SMD [95% CI]=0.28 [0.06; 0.50]; p=0.012). Treatment with emricasan resulted in significant reductions in ALT (mean difference (MD) [95% CI]=-5.89 [-10.59; -1.20]; p=0.014) and caspase3/7 levels (MD [95%CI]=-1215.93 [-1238.53; -1193.33]; p<0.001), respectively. No significant increase in the rate of overall adverse events was noted (OR [95% CI]=1.52 [0.97; 2.37]; p=0.069). Treatment with emricasan is more effective in improving liver function and apoptosis parameters compared to placebo, with a well-tolerated safety profile. However, due to the poor quality of the analyzed studies, the small number of trials and patients, and the short follow-up periods, more robust trials are still warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , End Stage Liver Disease , Pentanoic Acids , Severity of Illness Index , Fibrosis , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e10692, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153536

ABSTRACT

Fibrosis caused by the increase in extracellular matrix in cardiac fibroblasts plays an important role in the occurrence and development of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hsa-miR-4443 in AF, human cardiac fibroblast (HCFB) proliferation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. TaqMan Stem-loop miRNA assay was used to measure hsa-miR-4443 expression in patients with persistent AF (n=123) and healthy controls (n=100). Patients with AF were confirmed to have atrial fibrosis by late gadolinium enhancement. At the cellular level, after hsa-miR-4443 mimic and inhibitor were transfected with HCFBs, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were analyzed. Lastly, hsa-miR-4443-targeted gene and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/α-SMA/collagen pathway were evaluated by dual-luciferase reporter assay and western blot, respectively. In patients with AF, hsa-miR-4443 decreased significantly and collagen metabolism level increased significantly. Logistic regression analysis showed that low hsa-miR-4443 level was a risk factor of AF (P<0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that hsa-miR-4443 was useful for predicting AF (area under the curve: 0.828, sensitivity: 0.71, specificity: 0.78, P<0.001). In HCFBs, hsa-miR-4443 targeted thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) and downregulated TGF-β1/α-SMA/collagen pathway. The inhibition of hsa-miR-4443 expression promoted HCFB proliferation, migration, invasion, myofibroblast differentiation, and collagen production. The significant reduction of hsa-miR-4443 can be used as a biomarker for AF. hsa-miR-4443 protected AF by targeting THBS1 and regulated TGF-β1/α-SMA/collagen pathway to inhibit HCFB proliferation and collagen synthesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation , MicroRNAs/genetics , Fibrosis , Collagen , Contrast Media , Thrombospondin 1/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Fibroblasts , Gadolinium
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): e9206, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153519

ABSTRACT

Renal fibrosis is one of the most significant pathological changes after ureteral obstruction. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays essential roles in kidney fibrosis regulation. The aims of the present study were to investigate effects of microRNA-302b (miR-302b) on renal fibrosis, and interaction between miR-302b and TGF-β signaling pathway in murine unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model. Microarray dataset GSE42716 was downloaded by retrieving Gene Expression Omnibus database. In accordance with bioinformatics analysis results, miR-302b was significantly down-regulated in UUO mouse kidney tissue and TGF-β1-treated HK-2 cells. Masson's trichrome staining showed that miR-302b mimics decreased renal fibrosis induced by UUO. The increased mRNA expression of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and decreased expression of E-cadherin were reversed by miR-302b mimics. In addition, miR-302b up-regulation also inhibited TGF-β1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HK-2 cells by restoring E-cadherin expression and decreasing α-SMA expression. miR-302b mimics suppressed both luciferase activity and protein expression of TGF-βR2. However, miR-302b inhibitor increased TGF-βR2 luciferase activity and protein expression. Meanwhile, miR-302b mimics inhibited TGF-βR2 mRNA expression and decreased Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, over-expression of TGF-βR2 restored the miR-302b-induced decrease of collagen I and α-SMA expression. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that miR-302b attenuated renal fibrosis by targeting TGF-βR2 to suppress TGF-β/Smad signaling activation. Our findings showed that elevating renal miR-302b levels may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing renal fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Ureteral Obstruction/pathology , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Smad Proteins , Kidney Diseases/genetics , Fibrosis , Cell Line , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/pathology
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878732

ABSTRACT

Elabela is a newly discovered peptide in recent years.It is the endogenous ligand of Apelin receptor(APJ)and plays an important role in embryonic development and adult organs.Elabela-APJ axis is closely related to organ fibrosis.Elabela can protect the functions of heart and kidney by antagonizing renin-angiotensin system and regulating blood pressure.In addition,it can prevent kidney and heart fibrosis by down-regulating the expression of fibrosis and inflammatory factors.However,there is a positive correlation between the level of Elabela and the degree of liver fibrosis,suggesting that Elabela may play a role in promoting liver fibrosis.This review aims to explore the role of Elabela-APJ axis in renal fibrosis,cardiac fibrosis,and liver fibrosis,and to provide a new therapeutic target for organ fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Apelin , Apelin Receptors , Blood Pressure , Female , Fibrosis , Humans , Peptide Hormones , Pregnancy
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(10): 791-797, Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1143412

ABSTRACT

The Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is one of the best models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), with similar genotypic and phenotypic manifestations. Progressive proliferation of connective tissue in the endomysium of the muscle fibers occurs in parallel with the clinical course of the disease in GRMD animals. Previous studies suggest a relationship between mast cells and the deposition of fibrous tissue due to the release of mediators that recruit fibroblasts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of mast cells and their relationship with muscle injury and fibrosis in GRMD dogs of different ages. Samples of muscle groups from six GRMD and four control dogs, aged 2 to 8 months, were collected and analyzed. The samples were processed and stained with HE, toluidine blue, and Azan trichrome. Our results showed that there was a significant increase in infiltration of mast cells in all muscle groups of GRMD dogs compared to the control group. The average number of mast cells, as well as the deposition of fibrous tissue, decreased with age in GRMD dogs. In the control group, all muscle types showed a significant increase in the amount of collagenous tissue. This suggests increased mast cell degranulation occurred in younger GRMD dogs, resulting in increased interstitial space and fibrous tissue in muscle, which then gradually decreased over time as the dogs aged. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of fibrosis.(AU)


O cão Golden Retriever distrófico (Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy - GRMD) é um dos melhores modelos da distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD), com manifestações genotípicas e fenotípicas similares. A proliferação progressiva de tecido conjuntivo no endomísio das fibras musculares ocorre paralelamente ao curso clínico da doença em animais GRMD. Estudos anteriores sugerem uma relação entre os mastócitos e a deposição de tecido fibroso devido à liberação de mediadores que recrutam fibroblastos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de mastócitos e sua relação com a lesão muscular e fibrose em cães GRMD de diferentes idades. Amostras de grupos musculares de seis GRMD e quatro controles, com idade entre 2 a 8 meses, foram coletadas e analisadas. As amostras foram processadas e coradas com HE, azul de toluidina e tricrômico de Azan. Nossos resultados mostraram que houve um aumento significativo na infiltração de mastócitos em todos os grupos musculares de cães GRMD em comparação com o grupo controle. O número médio de mastócitos, assim como a deposição de tecido fibroso, diminuiu com a idade em cães GRMD. No grupo controle, todos os tipos musculares mostraram um aumento significativo na quantidade de tecido colágeno. Isto sugere o aumento da degranulação de mastócitos em cães GRMD mais jovens, resultando em aumento do espaço intersticial e tecido fibroso no músculo, que então gradualmente diminuiu com o tempo à medida que os cães envelheceram. No entanto, mais estudos são necessários para esclarecer o papel dos mastócitos na patogênese da fibrose.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dogs , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/etiology , Dog Diseases , Mast Cells , Fibrosis
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1263-1270, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1131508

ABSTRACT

Glicocorticoides são amplamente utilizados na clínica de pequenos animais, entretanto seu uso contínuo pode causar efeitos colaterais. Os gatos são considerados menos susceptíveis a esses efeitos do que outras espécies, mas existem poucos trabalhos abordando os efeitos adversos em felinos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar possíveis alterações laboratoriais, histopatológicas e do grau de atenuação radiográfica do parênquima hepático de gatas submetidas à terapia com prednisolona. Um ensaio clínico foi realizado em quatro gatas hígidas, as quais receberam prednisolona, por via oral, na dose de 3mg/kg, durante 60 dias consecutivos. Nos achados histopatológicos após 60 dias de tratamento, observou-se desorganização dos cordões de hepatócitos e degeneração vacuolar, além de necrose de hepatócitos, porém não foram observados sinais de fibrose no parênquima hepático. Os dados da tomografia computadorizada demonstram aumento do grau de atenuação do parênquima hepático a partir do 30º dia da administração de prednisolona, que persistiu até o final do experimento. No presente estudo, foi possível caracterizar a existência de hepatopatia esteroidal em gatos em estágios precoces da terapia com prednisolona.(AU)


Glucocorticoids are widely used medications in small animal practice; however, its continuous use can have side effects. Cats are considered less susceptible than other species, however, the literature does not usually address adverse effects in felines. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible laboratory and histopathologic changes, as well as changes to the degree of radiographic attenuation of the hepatic parenchyma in cats treated with prednisolone. A clinical trial was done in four healthy cats, who received prednisolone orally at 3mg/kg during 60 consecutive days. In the histopathologic findings at 60 days of treatment, there were disorganized hepatocyte chords and vacuolar degeneration, as well as hepatocyte necrosis, however, there were no signs of fibrosis in the hepatic parenchyma. Data obtained via computed tomography showed increase of the degree of attenuation in the hepatic parenchyma from day 30 of prednisolone therapy, which persisted until the end of the experiment. In the present study, it was possible to characterize the existence of steroidal hepathopathy in cats in the early stages of prednisolone therapy.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cats , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Fibrosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary , Parenchymal Tissue
13.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(2): e661, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139006

ABSTRACT

En los estudios de los últimos años, se ha propuesto el uso de una novedosa terapia denominada electrólisis percutánea intratisular (EPI), para el tratamiento del dolor en diversas enfermedades. La electrólisis percutánea guiada por ultrasonido, implica la transferencia de corriente galvánica dentro del tejido objetivo del tratamiento (fibrosis) a través de una aguja de 0,30 a 0,33 mm de diámetro. La corriente galvánica, en una solución salina, desarrolla instantáneamente el proceso de electrólisis, que a su vez induce la ablación electroquímica de la fibrosis. La aplicación de breves corrientes galvánicas en una estructura dañada, produce una respuesta inflamatoria local controlada, con la consiguiente mejora de la curación tisular y reducción del dolor(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Fibrosis , Disease , Electrochemistry , Electrolysis
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 737-746, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098314

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate changes in beige adipocytes at different times of melatonin administration, in the morning (ZT01) or in the evening (ZT11), at 30 mg/kg daily by gavage for 7 weeks or continuously with drinking water in the term of high-calorie diet-induced obesity (HCD). Melatonin received at ZT11 or with drinking water resulted in an increased area of the browning zone in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), even in rats with HCD (compared with Control or HCD, respectively). The beige adipocyte and lipid droplet area after melatonin use were reduced compared to those with HCD and Control, in all administration modes (group ZT01 showed smaller changes compared to ZT11 or with drinking water groups). The fibrosis level decreased and significantly differed in HCD ZT01, HCD ZT11, and HCD water compared to that in HCD; moreover, the lowest value determined in HCD water, reached the control parameters. Furthermore, the IL-1b and IL-8 level was decreased in the HCD groups under melatonin treatment at ZT11 or with drinking water compared to that in HCD. The obtained results suggest that melatonin promotes sWAT browning in rats with diet-induced obesity and influences morphological signs of normal rats depending on the time of administration. Different functional activity of beige adipocytes was observed after melatonin was used depending on the time of administration, resulting in heat production and lipolysis (the relative mass of visceral fat was likewise diminished). More rapid browning was observed when melatonin treatment was performed at 1 h before lights-off (ZT11) or continuously via drinking water. Melatonin acted on beige adipocytes of obese rats through changing some parameters such as the area of adipocytes and lipid drops, the number of lipid drops, the relative area browning of sWAT, and the level of tissue fibrosis.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los cambios en los adipocitos beige en diferentes momentos de la administración de melatonina, en la mañana (ZT01) o por la noche (ZT11). Se administraron 30 mg/kg diariamente por sonda durante 7 semanas o continuamente con agua potable durante el periodo de obesidad inducida por una dieta alta en calorías (HCD). La melatonina recibida en ZT11 o con agua potable resultó en un aumento de área dorada en tejido adiposo blanco subcutáneo (sWAT), incluso en ratas con HCD (en comparación con Control o HCD, respectivamente). El área de gotas de lípidos y adipocitos de color beige después del uso de melatonina se redujo en comparación con aquellos con HCD y Control, en todos los modos de administración (el grupo ZT01 mostró cambios más pequeños en comparación con ZT11 o con grupos de agua potable). El nivel de fibrosis disminuyó y difirió significativamente en HCD ZT01, HCD ZT11 y agua HCD, en comparación con el HCD; además, el valor más bajo determinado en agua HCD alcanzó los parámetros de control. Además, el nivel de IL-1b e IL-8 disminuyó en los grupos HCD bajo tratamiento con melatonina en ZT11 o con agua potable en comparación con el de HCD. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la melatonina promueve el dorado sWAT en ratas con obesidad inducida por la dieta e influye en los signos morfológicos de las ratas normales dependiendo del momento de la administración. Se observó una actividad funcional diferente de los adipocitos de color beige después de usar melatonina dependiendo del tiempo de administración, dando como resultado la producción de calor y lipólisis (la masa relativa de grasa visceral también disminuyó). Se observó un ennegrecimiento más rápido cuando el tratamiento con melatonina se realizó 1 h antes de apagar las luces (ZT11) o de forma continua en grupos de agua potable. La melatonina actuó en los adipocitos beige de ratas obesas al cambiar algunos parámetros, como el área de adipocitos y gotas de lípidos, el número de gotas de lípidos, el área relativa de ennegrecimiento de sWAT y el nivel de fibrosis tisular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Adipocytes, Beige/drug effects , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Obesity , Time Factors , Fibrosis , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Interleukin-8/drug effects , Diet , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects
15.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(1): 24-33, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115446

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los ratones SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h que son alimentados con una dieta rica en grasas saturadas, desarrollan enfermedad coronaria aterosclerótica severa, complicaciones isquémicas e insuficiencia cardíaca, con alta mortalidad. Los estudios con este modelo se han enfocado fundamentalmente en la enfermedad coronaria y menos en el remodelado cardíaco. El OBJETIVO del trabajo ha sido caracterizar el remodelado miocárdico, evaluar la evolución temporal de la función ventricular izquierda y la sobrevida asociada a enfermedad cardíaca por ateromatosis. MÉTODO: Ratones homocigotos SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h fueron alimentados por 8 semanas con dieta aterogénica o dieta normal y se comparó la sobrevida en ambos grupos. A las 4 semanas se realizó un ecocardiograma bidimensional. En los ratones eutanasiados se evaluó en la pared cardíaca fibrosis miocárdica y tamaño de los cardiomiocitos por morfometría, apoptosis con técnica de TUNEL e infiltración por células inflamatorias mononucleares (ED1) por inmunohistoquímica. RESULTADOS: En el grupo que recibió dieta aterogénica la sobrevida se redujo en 46,7% (p < 0.001), debido a muerte súbita y a falla cardíaca progresiva. En este grupo, a las 4 semanas se observó dilatación de cavidades izquierdas y disminución de la fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo en comparación con el grupo control (79,3 ± 1,3% vs 66 ± 3,7%, p<0,01). También se observó aumento de la masa cardíaca relativa de 2.1 veces (p<0,001) y del peso pulmonar relativo en 80% (p<0,001), sin cambios en las dimensiones de los cardiomiocitos. En el miocardio de los ratones que recibieron dieta aterogénica hubo un aumento de la fibrosis cardíaca de 7.9 veces (p < 0.01) y del número de cardiomiocitos apoptóticos en 55.9 veces (p < 0.01), junto a un aumento del número de células inflamatorias mononucleares ED1. CONCLUSIONES: En el modelo de falla cardíaca severa de etiología isquémica con alta mortalidad en el ratón homocigoto SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h sometido a una dieta aterogénica, con falla cardíaca izquierda por disfunción sistólica, el remodelado patológico del miocardio está dado fundamentalmente por apoptosis y fibrosis. También se observa un aumento discreto de macrófagos en la pared cardíaca. Es posible que el edema parietal también pueda ser un mecanismo de remodelado relevante en este modelo.


Abstract: SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h mice fed a high saturated fat diet develop severe coronary atheromatosis, and cardiac failure with a high mortality rate. Cardiac remodeling under these conditions has not been well studied. AIM: To evaluate the time course of left ventricular function, cardiac remodeling and survival associated to the administration of an atherogenic diet. METHOD: Homozygote SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h mice received an atherogenic diet for 8 weeks. Mice receiving a normal diet served as controls. Survival rate, myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte size, apoptosis and infiltration by inflammatory or mononuclear cells were compared between groups. A TUNEL technique was used to evaluate apoptosis. RESULTS: A 46.7% survival reduction compared to controls was observed in the experimental group (p<0.01), due to left ventricular and atrial dilatation associated to a decrease in ejection fraction (79,3 ± 1,3% vs 66 ± 3,7%, p<0,01, respectively). Also, an increased cardiac weight, 2.6 times greater was observed in the experimental group, compared to controls. Mice receiving the atherogenic diet showed an 80% increased lung weight. There was no evident change in cardiomyocytes, but there was more (7.9 times) cardiac fibrosis (p<0.01) and 55.9 times more apoptotic cells. (p<0.01), along with a greater number of inflammatory cells and ED1 mononuclear cells. CONCLUSION: Mice receiving an atherogenic diet develop heart failure and reduced survival rate. This is associated with cardiac remodeling with underlying apoptosis an ventricular wall fibrosis. It is posible that wall edema might contribute to the observed cardiac remodeling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Ventricular Remodeling , Diet, Atherogenic , Heart Failure/etiology , Hyperlipidemias/pathology , Ischemia/etiology , Fibrosis , Survival Analysis , Ventricular Function, Left , Apoptosis , Mice, Knockout , Ventricular Dysfunction , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/pathology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/mortality , Ischemia/pathology
16.
Actual. nutr ; 21(2): 43-49, Abril-Junio de 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282315

ABSTRACT

En las últimas décadas, los cambios en el estilo de vida pro-vocaron un incremento en la prevalencia del síndrome meta-bólico y que la enfermedad por hígado graso no alcohólico (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD sus siglas en inglés) se convierta en la enfermedad hepática crónica más fre-cuente en todo el mundo. Los componentes del síndrome metabólico no son sólo altamente prevalentes en pacientes con hígado graso no alcohólico, sino que a la vez aumentan el riesgo de desarrollarlo. Esta relación bidireccional ha sido claramente establecida. Asimismo se considera que NAFLD podría ser el componente hepático del síndrome metabólico. Aunque NAFLD se considera principalmente una enfermedad benigna, puede progresar a fibrosis hepática grave y carcino-ma hepatocelular (CHC), incluso se encontraría este último en hígados no cirróticos. El objetivo de esta revisión es determinar los procesos fisio-patológicos comunes a estas entidades, cuáles son las estra-tegias diagnósticas recomendadas y cuáles las intervenciones terapéuticas actualmente aprobadas.


Subject(s)
Fibrosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
17.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 26(1): 8-11, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115519

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El hamartoma fibroso de la infancia (FHI) es una lesión rara de tejidos blandos en niños con morfología trifásica característica. El principal problema con estas lesiones es el diagnóstico diferencial con otras masas de tejidos blandos, en particular sarcomas, que requieren un afrontamiento clínico y terapéutico diferente. Presentamos un caso de un infante de 10 meses con un crecimiento asintomático de una masa axilar que, tras realizarse angioresonancia magnética y biopsia se confirmó el diagnóstico de FHI.


Abstract: Fibrous hamartomas of childhood (FHC) are rare soft tissue lesions in infants and young children with characteristic three-phase morphology.The main problem with these lesions is differentiating it from other soft tissue masses, in particular sarcomas, which require a different clinical and therapeutic approach. We present a case of a 10-month-old infant with asymptomatic growth of a left axillary mass that, after magnetic resonance angiography and biopsy, the diagnosis of FHC was confirmed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Hamartoma/diagnostic imaging , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/surgery , Fibrosis , Ultrasonography , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Hamartoma/surgery , Hamartoma/pathology
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786182

ABSTRACT

The kidneys are closely connected with several organs, including the liver, and can therefore be negatively affected when the liver is damaged. The most common cause of chronic liver disease is chronic viral hepatitis, resulting from either a hepatitis B virus (HBV) or a hepatitis C virus (HCV). Chronic viral hepatitis often progresses to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, it can also lead to viral-associated glomerulopathies that can cause chronic kidney disease (CKD), which can then progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Additionally, patients with ESRD on hemodialysis are at risk for viral infections because HBV and HCV are hematogenously transmitted. Recently, treatments with oral nucleoside/nucleotide analogues and direct-acting antivirals have yielded excellent results in HBV- and HCV-infected patients with CKD. As a result, a new paradigm for the treatment of chronic viral infections in CKD patients has emerged. This review discusses viral-associated glomerulopathies, antiviral treatments of HBV and HCV infections in patients with CKD, and prevention strategies for the transmission of HBV and HCV in patients with ESRD.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Chronic Disease , Fibrosis , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Kidney Diseases , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney , Liver Diseases , Liver , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pilea umbrosa (Urticaceae) is used by local communities (district Abbotabad) for liver disorders, as anticancer, in rheumatism and in skin disorders.@*METHODS@#Methanol extract of P. umbrosa (PUM) was investigated for the presence of polyphenolic constituents by HPLC-DAD analysis. PUM (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) was administered on alternate days for eight weeks in rats exposed with carbon tetrachloride (CCl). Serum analysis was performed for liver function tests while in liver tissues level of antioxidant enzymes and biochemical markers were also studied. In addition, semi quantitative estimation of antioxidant genes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induced stress markers, pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis related genes were carried out on liver tissues by RT-PCR analysis. Liver tissues were also studied for histopathological injuries.@*RESULTS@#Level of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione (GSH) decreased (p < 0.05) whereas level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), HO and nitrite increased in liver tissues of CCl treated rat. Likewise increase in the level of serum markers; alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin was observed. Moreover, CCl caused many fold increase in expression of ER stress markers; glucose regulated protein (GRP-78), x-box binding protein1-total (XBP-1 t), x-box binding protein1-unspliced (XBP-1 u) and x-box binding protein1-spliced (XBP-1 s). The level of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was aggregated whereas suppressed the level of antioxidant enzymes; γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf-2). Additionally, level of fibrosis markers; transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), Smad-3 and collagen type 1 (Col1-α) increased with CCl induced liver toxicity. Histopathological scrutiny depicted damaged liver cells, neutrophils infiltration and dilated sinusoids in CCl intoxicated rats. PUM was enriched with rutin, catechin, caffeic acid and apigenin as evidenced by HPLC analysis. Simultaneous administration of PUM and CCl in rats retrieved the normal expression of these markers and prevented hepatic injuries.@*CONCLUSION@#Collectively these results suggest that PUM constituted of strong antioxidant chemicals and could be a potential therapeutic agent for stress related liver disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Fibrosis , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Urticaceae , Chemistry
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression of tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and its role in fibrosis.@*METHODS@#Skin biopsy samples were collected from 21 patients with SSc and 22 patients with healthy skin for detecting the mRNA and protein expressions of PTTG1 using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. In cultured primary human dermal fibroblasts, PTTG1 expression was knocked down via RNA interference (siRNA), and the mRNA expression levels of PTTG1 and the fibrosis-related genes @*RESULTS@#Compared with those in normal skin samples, the mRNA and protein expressions of PTTG1 increased significantly in the skin tissue of patients with SSc (@*CONCLUSIONS@#PTTG1 is highly expressed in skin tissues of patients with SSc, and PTTG1 knockdown can reduce the activity of the dermal fibroblasts, suggesting a close correlation of PTTG1 with fibrosis in SSc.


Subject(s)
Cells, Cultured , Fibroblasts , Fibrosis , Humans , Scleroderma, Systemic/pathology , Securin , Skin/pathology
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