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1.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 56(1): 80-99, jan.-fev. 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365459

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo apresenta e discute os programas de transferência monetária condicionada implementadas no Chile, o Chile Solidario (2002-2013) e o Ingreso Ético Familiar (2013-presente), procurando identificar continuidades e diferenças entre as duas iniciativas. Tendo por base a literatura sobre mudanças em políticas públicas e, em particular, a tipologia proposta por Howlett e Cashore (2009), que distinguem entre fins e meios, faz-se uma comparação entre os dois programas, de modo a identificar objetivos e mecanismos que se mantêm, quais se alteram, bem como as novidades introduzidas. Argumenta-se que, apesar de ter sido apresentado como um programa inovador em relação ao seu antecessor, o Ingreso Ético Familiar, o Chile Solidario mantém os atributos daquele, aos quais se adicionam alguns novos elementos. O artigo traz contributos em duas áreas: traça a evolução da política de transferência condicionada no Chile nas duas últimas décadas e dialoga com a literatura sobre mudança em política social.


Resumen El artículo presenta y discute los programas de transferencia condicionada chilenas - el Chile Solidario (2002-2013) y el Ingreso Ético Familiar (2013-presente) - y busca identificar continuidades y diferencias entre las dos iniciativas. Teniendo como base la literatura acerca de cambio en políticas públicas y, en particular, la tipología propuesta por Howlett y Cashore (2009) que distingue entre fines y medios, se realizar un análisis comparado entre ambos programas, buscando identificar los objetivos y mecanismos que persisten, los que se modifican y si se introducen innovaciones. Como resultado, pese a que haya sido presentado como un programa innovador en relación al anterior, el Ingreso Ético Familiar mantiene los principales atributos de Chile Solidario, a los cuales son añadidos algunos nuevos elementos. El artículo busca hacer contribuciones en dos áreas: (1) mapear la evolución de los programas de transferencia condicionada en las dos últimas décadas y (2) dialogar con la literatura sobre cambios en política social.


Abstract This article presents and discusses the two conditional cash transfer initiatives implemented in Chile - Chile Solidario (2002-2013) and Ingreso Ético Solidario (2013-present) - and aim at identifying continuities and change between the two. A comparison of the two programmes, based on Howlett and Cashore's (2009) tipology for analysing policy change that distinguished between ends and means, allows the identification of continuities and changes regarding the goals and mechanisms present in the two programmes. The article argues that despite being announced as an innovative measure in regard to the previous programme, Ingreso Etico Familiar maintains the core characteristics of Chile Solidario and includes some additional elements. This article makes two different contributions: (1) it traces the evolution of conditional cash transfers programmes in Chile over the past two decades and (2) it establishes a dialogue with the literatures on changes to social policy.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Financial Support , Policy , Social Programs , Chile
2.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 55(1): 50-71, Jan.-Feb. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155652

ABSTRACT

Abstract How do governments distribute resources across economic sectors during a crisis? And why do some sectors receive more than others? The recent COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the urgency of these questions. In this paper, we explore the extent to which a political economy perspective can help explain the characteristics of sector-specific state aid in the Netherlands, a traditionally corporatist country. While KLM, the biggest player in the Dutch aviation sector, was promised loans worth €3.4 billion, the horeca (hospitality) sector was denied a similar deal. Limited cross-case analysis eliminates purely economic accounts. We employed process-tracing and analyzed hundreds of national media articles to understand the influence of elected leaders, interest groups, and experts. We find that, against the backdrop of economic concerns, vote-seeking behavior by elected leaders as well as the strength and organization of interest groups influenced how much each sector could expect. Meanwhile, policy-seeking behavior helps explain the form that aid took. Our findings highlight the need to consider fiscal support in political economy terms, even during crises, and to explore the composition of state aid, not just its presence or amount.


Resumo Como são distribuídos os recursos de auxílio governamental entre os vários setores econômicos durante uma crise? E por que alguns sectores recebem mais do que outros? A recente pandemia da COVID-19 sublinhou a urgência destas questões. Neste artigo, discutimos como uma perspectiva de economia política pode ajudar a explicar as caraterísticas do auxílio estatal setorial nos Países Baixos, uma nação tradicionalmente corporativista. Enquanto o governo prometeu à KLM, o maior ator no setor da aviação holandês, empréstimos no valor de 3,4 mil milhões de euros, o horeca (sector da hotelaria) não recebeu um pacote de auxílio semelhante. A análise de casos elimina explicações puramente técnicas para esse fenômeno. Utilizamos process-tracing e fizemos uma análise de centenas de artigos publicados na mídia do país para compreender a influência dos líderes políticos, lobbies e peritos. Descobrimos que, num contexto de crise econômica, o comportamento eleitoreiro dos líderes políticos e a força e organização dos lobbies, determinaram a quantia que cada setor poderia esperar receber. Entretanto, os interesses no campo das políticas públicas ajudam a explicar a forma específica do auzílio. Nossas conclusões sublinham a necessidade de considerar o apoio fiscal em termos de economia política, mesmo durante crises, e de explorar não somente a existência ou o montante dos auxílios oferecidos pelo estado, mas também sua composição.


Resumen ¿Cómo se distribuyen los recursos de ayuda gubernamental entre los diferentes sectores económicos durante una crisis? ¿Y por qué algunos sectores reciben más que otros? La reciente pandemia de COVID-19 puso de relieve la importancia de estas cuestiones. En este artículo, exploramos cómo una perspectiva de economía política puede ayudar a entender la distribución del apoyo estatal en diferentes sectores en los Países Bajos, un país de tradición corporativista. Mientras que a KLM ‒el actor más importante del sector de aviación holandés‒ el gobierno le prometió préstamos de alrededor de 3.400 millones de euros, al sector HORECA (que congrega hoteles, restaurantes y cafeterías) se le denegó una ayuda similar. A través de un análisis cruzado de casos eliminamos razones puramente técnicas para este fenómeno. A continuación, utilizamos la metodología process-tracing y analizamos cientos de artículos de medios de comunicación holandeses para entender la influencia de líderes políticos, lobbies y expertos. Descubrimos que, en un contexto de crisis económica, el comportamiento electorero de los líderes políticos y el poder y organización de los lobbies determinaron la suma que cada sector podría esperar. Por otro lado, la estructura de dichas ayudas se explica a través del alineamiento político de los decisores políticos. Nuestros resultados subrayan la necesidad de estudiar el apoyo gubernamental en términos de economía política, inclusive durante crisis, y de explorar no solo la existencia o la cuantía de dichas ayudas sino también su composición.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Public Policy , Financial Support , Policy , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Lobbying
3.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 27: e27043, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351141

ABSTRACT

Resumo O judô é um esporte em destaque no Brasil. Um dos motivos para isso é o suporte financeiro que o país oferta. Por conta disso, este trabalho objetivou descrever e analisar as formas de captação de recursos financeiros dos atletas de ponta do judô e detalhar a utilização do Programa Bolsa Atleta em suas carreiras. Foram entrevistados 17 atletas da seleção brasileira de judô. Geralmente, os atletas se beneficiam de quatro fontes de recursos financeiros - clube, patrocínios individuais, Programa de Atletas do Alto Rendimento (PAAR) e Programa Bolsa Atleta. Além disso, a Confederação Brasileira de Judô (CBJ) auxilia com outros recursos. Concluiu-se, então, que as principais fontes de financiamento dos atletas vêm do governo federal. É possível se manter financeiramente como atleta de alto rendimento, contudo, há um déficit no financiamento de judocas de base, falta de suporte para recuperação de lesões e para o pós-carreira do atleta.


Abstract Judo is a prominent sport in Brazil, partly as a result of government-provided financial support. This work describes and analyzes top judo athletes' fundraising strategies and the uses they make of the Athlete Scholarship Program in their careers. Seventeen athletes from Brazil's national judo team were interviewed. Athletes usually benefit from four funding sources - clubs, individual sponsors, the High-Performance Athletes Program (PAAR), and the Athlete Scholarship Program. In addition, the Brazilian Judo Confederation (CBJ) assists with other resources. The study concludes that the main funding sources for athletes are provided by the federal government. High performance athletes are able support themselves, but lower-level athletes are underfunded and lack support to recover from injuries and for their post-career times.


Resumen El judo es un deporte destacado en Brasil, y una de las razones de esto es el apoyo financiero que ofrece el país. Por eso, este trabajo tuvo como objetivo describir y analizar las formas de captación de recursos económicos de los deportistas de élite del judo, y detalla la utilización del Programa Bolsa Atleta (Beca Atleta) en sus carreras. Fueron entrevistados 17 deportistas de la selección brasileña de judo. Generalmente, los deportistas se benefician de cuatro fuentes de recursos financieros: club, patrocinios individuales, Programa de Atletas de Alto Rendimiento (PAAR) y Programa Bolsa-Atleta. Además, la Confederación Brasileña de Judo (CBJ) colabora con otros recursos. Se concluyó que las principales fuentes de financiación de los deportistas provienen del gobierno federal. Es posible mantenerse económicamente como deportista de alto rendimiento, sin embargo, existe un déficit en la financiación de los judokas de base, falta de apoyo para la recuperación de lesiones y para la poscarrera del deportista.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Financial Support , Capital Financing , Martial Arts , Athletic Performance , Athletes
4.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 54(4): 1022-1036, jul.-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136984

ABSTRACT

Resumo A essencialidade da água à vida talvez tenha ficado ainda mais evidente com a pandemia da COVID-19. Aos prestadores dos serviços de saneamento foi atribuída a responsabilidade de garantir à população a manutenção do abastecimento de água potável, fornecendo meios para que ela pudesse preservar os hábitos de higiene e controlar a propagação do vírus. No entanto, como se poderia garantir que a prestação do serviço não fosse afetada, seja pelo acometimento dos funcionários, seja pela reduzida capacidade de pagamento dos usuários? Este foi o desafio enfrentado pelos prestadores. Diversas foram as medidas adotadas pela Administração Pública para responder no curto prazo a esse desafio, tais como: restrição ao atendimento presencial nas unidades, isenção tarifária aos usuários da tarifa social e suspensão do corte por inadimplência. Contudo todas estas medidas podem desequilibrar as contas dos prestadores de serviço, deixando-os em uma situação de instabilidade que, a princípio, deverá ser sustentada até o fim da pandemia, quando os processos de reequilíbrio econômico-financeiro serão conduzidos pelos reguladores. Estes são e continuarão sendo os principais atores na minimização dos impactos que incidiram sobre os prestadores e na mediação das negociações futuras. Este artigo traz recomendações aos reguladores sobre como tratar os desequilíbrios causados pela pandemia nos futuros processos. Caberá aos reguladores emitir diretrizes claras com relação ao procedimento a ser adotado pelos prestadores, para que possam pleitear o reequilíbrio de suas contas. Deve-se cogitar neste momento a flexibilização das metas contratuais.


Resumen Talvez, la esencialidad del agua para la vida se ha hecho aún más evidente con la pandemia de COVID-19. Los proveedores de servicios de saneamiento tuvieron la responsabilidad de mantener el suministro de agua potable para proporcionarle a la población los medios para mantener sus hábitos de higiene y controlar la propagación del virus. Pero, ¿cómo podría garantizarse que la prestación del servicio no se vería afectada, sea por la disminución de empleados o la capacidad de pago reducida de los usuarios? Este fue el desafío planteado a los proveedores. La Administración Pública tomó varias medidas para responder rápidamente a este desafío. Las iniciativas más adoptadas fueron la restricción del servicio presencial, la exención de tarifas para los usuarios vulnerables socioeconómicamente y la suspensión del corte por incumplimiento. El hecho es que todas las medidas pueden desequilibrar las cuentas de los proveedores de servicios, dejándolos en una situación de inestabilidad que, en principio, debería mantenerse hasta el final de la pandemia, cuando los reguladores llevarán a cabo los procesos de reequilibrio económico y financiero. Los reguladores son y serán los principales actores para minimizar los impactos en los proveedores y mediar en las negociaciones futuras. Este artículo proporciona recomendaciones a los reguladores sobre cómo abordar los desequilibrios causados por la pandemia en procesos futuros. Competirá a los reguladores emitir pautas claras con respecto al procedimiento que adoptarán los proveedores para que puedan reclamar el reequilibrio de sus cuentas. En este momento, se debe considerar la flexibilización de los objetivos contractuales.


Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has evidenced the essentiality of water more prominently. Service providers were responsible for maintaining drinking water supply to the population to maintain good hygiene habits and control the spread of the virus. However, the challenge for providers was guaranteeing the service would not be affected, either by employees falling ill or by users unable to pay for the service provision. Public administration adopted several measures to respond in the short term to this challenge. The actions most frequently observed were the restriction of in-person services, payment exemption for vulnerable users, and suspension of procedures against non-payment. The measures may have unbalanced the accounts of the service providers, leaving them in a situation of instability that, in principle, should be sustained until the end of the pandemic, when the regulators will conduct the process to re-establishing the financial balance. The regulators are and will be the main actors in minimizing the impacts on providers and in mediating future negotiations. This article provides recommendations to regulators on how to address the imbalances caused by the pandemic in future processes. Regulators will have to issue clear guidelines regarding the procedures that providers will adopt to rebalance their accounts. Consideration should be given at this time to making contractual targets more flexible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Water Supply , Financial Support , Sanitation , Hygiene , Coronavirus Infections , Economics
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200522, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136854

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the role of early public research funding regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. METHODS: We examined the budget for research projects relating to the number of cases and deaths and the relationship between each federal unit, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and the national GDP per capita. RESULTS: Using data from the websites of official funding agencies and the Brazilian government, we found that, in the first four months since the first case in Wuhan, China (December 31, 2019), around US$ 38.3 million were directed to public funding for scientific investigations against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, only 11 out of 27 federal units provided funding during the initial stages of the outbreak, and those that did provide financing were not necessarily the units having the most inhabitants, highest GDP, or the greatest number of cases. The areas of research interest were also identified in the funding documents; the most common topic was "diagnosis" and the least common was "equipment for treatment." CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian researchers had access to funding opportunities for projects against COVID-19. However, strategies to minimize the economic impacts of COVID-19 are crucial in mitigating or avoiding substantial financial and social shortcomings, particularly in terms of an emerging market such as Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Financial Support , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Biomedical Research/economics , Pandemics/economics , Brazil , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus
6.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(3): 319-321, may.-jun. 2019.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286508

ABSTRACT

Resumen La investigación clínica es la herramienta de mayor importancia para la identificación de estrategias diagnósticas y terapéuticas que deriven en mayor eficacia y seguridad. A pesar de su trascendencia, la implementación exitosa de la investigación clínica presenta numerosas dificultades; entre las más relevantes se encuentra la poca disponibilidad de recursos para realizar ensayos clínicos independientes. Por lo general, la industria farmacéutica absorbe los costos asociados con la mayoría de los ensayos clínicos, sin embargo, esto puede generar una disociación entre los temas de interés y las prioridades en salud, al existir interés económico como principal motivación de estos protocolos. Además del papel relevante de la industria farmacéutica, es importante que las instancias gubernamentales favorezcan las condiciones, tanto económicas como regulatorias, para la implementación de investigación clínica independiente, que aborde temas de interés médico y terapéutico, aunque no genere beneficios económicos empresariales.


Abstract Clinical research is the most important tool for the identification of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that derive in higher efficacy and safety. Despite its significance, successful implementation of clinical research faces numerous difficulties, with one the most relevant being limited availability of resources for the performance of independent clinical trials. Generally, the pharmaceutical industry absorbs the costs associated with most clinical trials; however, this can generate dissociation between subjects of interest and health priorities when economic interest is the main driver of these protocols. In addition to the relevant role played by the pharmaceutical industry, it is important that government agencies favor adequate conditions, both in economic and regulatory aspects, for the implementation of independent clinical research that addresses subjects of medical and therapeutic interest, even if it does not generate corporate economic benefits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Trials as Topic/organization & administration , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Drug Industry/organization & administration , Financial Support , Clinical Trials as Topic/economics , Biomedical Research/economics , Drug Industry/economics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719710

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: When it comes to cancer care, the psychological well-being of family caregivers has gotten its deserved attention. However, the specific roles that the family caregivers take have not been examined as much. The current study aimed to investigate the distribution of family caregivers' roles, particularly in a family-oriented culture, Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of 439 participants was recruited from 11 national and regional cancer centers in Korea. The participants who were 60 years old or above went through treatments for their gastric, colorectal, or lung cancer. The individual survey included questions regarding the family type, living arrangement, and the sources of support when it comes to their physical, emotional, financial, and decision-making needs. RESULTS: The responses from the participants showed that cancer caregiving is shared by multiple family caregivers; the major source of support for elderly cancer patients on diverse domains was their spouse; patients' reliance on their daughter(s) increased for emotional support; and patients' reliance on their son(s) stood out for financial support and decision-making support. Also, the older the patients were, the heavier their reliance was on the adult children, including sons, daughters, and daughters-in-law. CONCLUSION: Future support programs for elderly cancer patients are suggested to involve multiple family caregivers to encourage effective and efficient intervention. Also, the limitations of the current study and the suggestions for future research are discussed.


Subject(s)
Adult Children , Aged , Caregivers , Financial Support , Humans , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Nuclear Family , Republic of Korea , Residence Characteristics , Spouses
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765641

ABSTRACT

Rapid and correct diagnosis is essential for national tuberculosis (TB) control. A greater national concern for quality control (QC) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) testing is required to improve the proficiency of domestic clinical laboratories using diverse testing protocols in private and public sectors. External quality assessment (EQA) is an important program accompanying internal QC in clinical TB laboratories. In Korea, the EQA program initiated in 2005 by the Korean Association of External Quality Assessment Service (KEQAS) has made remarkable progress in the harmonization of private and public sectors with governmental support since 2011. An integrative TB EQA program led by the KEQAS with financial support from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides optimized EQA materials for both public and private sectors. In 2017, the KEQAS implemented ‘The Next-Generation Proficiency Testing Program’ equipped with a centralized control system of QC material production and electronic data management, which increased the scale of operating programs from 46 to 54 and recruited 1,700 participants. The TB program was also expanded to provide three times EQA for private laboratories from 2 times a year. For TB EQA programs implemented via the Clinical Microbiology Subcommittee of the KEQAS, survey materials were distributed by sectional orders for tests such as acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears, AFB culturing and identification, antituberculous drug susceptibility screening, AFB molecular diagnosis, and rapid detection of rifampin and isoniazid resistance. All survey materials were produced by sophisticated manufacturing processes and thoroughly analyzed by various commercial kits, targeted DNA sequencing, and whole-genome sequencing in pre- and post-manufacturing phases for advancement in the EQA program.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnosis , Financial Support , Isoniazid , Korea , Mass Screening , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Private Sector , Public Sector , Quality Control , Rifampin , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tuberculosis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766131

ABSTRACT

On September 12, 2018, President Jae-In Moon announced the Comprehensive Plan for Lifelong Care for People with Developmental Disabilities, with representatives from the associated government branches (Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Education, and Ministry of Employment and Labor) in attendance. The goals of this plan are to provide health, medical, rehabilitative, special education, and social welfare services according to the life-stages of the affected individuals; to reduce parental pressure; to promote social interventions; and to enhance community-level participation in order to create a ‘welfare society in harmony.’ However, in order for the plan to succeed, additional efforts must be made in the following areas. First, an epidemiological survey is needed to understand the scale, prevalence, and incidence of developmental disabilities and to establish an evidence base to support policy development. Second, accurate definitions of developmental disabilities must be established in order to avoid policy discrimination based on impairment type and age. Third, personal evaluations to assess disabled individuals' unmet needs and customized service designs to deliver those needs are required. Fourth, the plan must fulfill the goals of accessibility and fairness that the government intends to provide. Fifth, the government should consider an integrated financial support system and to propose a detailed plan for monetary distributions. Finally, an integrated system that links health, medical, employment, educational, and welfare services must be constructed.


Subject(s)
Comprehensive Health Care , Developmental Disabilities , Discrimination, Psychological , Education , Education, Special , Employment , Financial Support , Humans , Incidence , Intellectual Disability , Moon , Parents , Policy Making , Prevalence , Social Welfare
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760675

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the level of awareness and knowledge regarding elective oocyte cryopreservation (OC) among unmarried women of reproductive age in Korea. METHODS: A survey was conducted among 86 women who visited a fertility preservation clinic for counseling about elective OC between December 2016 and May 2018. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding their awareness and knowledge of fertility and OC. RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 71 women. Among them, 73% decided to undergo OC after counseling. The main reason for making this decision was that they wished to maintain their fertility in the future (70.6%). Conversely, the high cost for the procedure was the main reason given by those who chose to forego this procedure. Regarding fertility and OC, the participants' knowledge was poor. Most women expected greater financial support from the government or from their place of employment. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the awareness and knowledge about elective OC were relatively poor among the female Korean population. These findings may help clinicians in better counselling of their patients.


Subject(s)
Counseling , Cryopreservation , Employment , Female , Fertility Preservation , Fertility , Financial Support , Humans , Korea , Oocytes , Single Person , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(9): e00174818, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019636

ABSTRACT

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a worldwide public health problem. Many proposals aiming to eliminate its occurrence include the empowerment of women through their socio-economic development. In this context, some studies suggested that microcredit programs (MP) and cash transfer programs (CTP) are initiatives that can also reduce the risk of IPV. Others pointed to an opposite effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of women's economic empowerment in MP and CTP on the risk of physical, psychological and sexual violence through a systematic review. Papers/documents selection was conducted by two researchers according to the following criteria: published in English, Portuguese or Spanish; primary data; assessing the effect of MP or CTP on IPV; in heterosexual couples; on women beneficiaries of the intervention; using a comparator group eligible for an MP or CTP; and focusing on risk IPV as the outcomes. Our results showed that the impact of MP are mixed when it comes to physical and physical/sexual violence. Even so, the review suggests that the effect of MP on sexual violence is trivial or nonexistent. Regarding the impact of CTPs, the present study showed that the effects on physical, physical/sexual, psychological, and sexual violence were also heterogeneous. Women more empowered and with some autonomy could be at risk. Despite that, participation in the empowerment program should be encouraged for poor women and families. However, parallel interventions to lead with IPV should be addressed to the main actions to reduce the risk of increasing IPV prevalence in certain scenarios.


A violência entre parceiros íntimos (VPI) é um problema de saúde pública de alcance global. Muitas propostas para eliminar a VPI incluem o empoderamento das mulheres através do desenvolvimento socioeconômico individual. Nesse contexto, alguns estudos sugerem que programas de microcrédito (PMC) e de transferência de renda (PTR) também podem reduzir o risco de VPI, enquanto outros apontam para um efeito oposto. Através de uma revisão sistemática, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a influência do empoderamento econômico das mulheres através de PMCs e PTRs sobre o risco de violência física, psicológica e sexual. A seleção de artigos e documentos foi realizada por dois pesquisadores, com base nos seguintes critérios: publicação em inglês, português ou espanhol; dados primários; avaliação do efeito de PMC ou PTR sobre VPI; casais heterossexuais; mulheres beneficiárias da intervenção; uso de um grupo de comparação elegível para um PMC ou PTR e foco sobre o risco de VPI como o desfecho. Nossos resultados mostraram que o impacto dos PMCs é misto no que diz respeito à violência física e física/sexual. Contanto, a revisão sugere que o efeito dos PMCs sobre a violência sexual é trivial ou inexistente. Quanto ao impacto dos PTRs, o estudo mostrou que os efeitos sobre a violência física, física/sexual, psicológica e sexual também foram heterogêneos. As mulheres mais empoderadas e com alguma autonomia poderiam estar em risco maior. Entretanto, a participação no programa de empoderamento deve ser incentivada para as mulheres e famílias pobres. Intervenções paralelas para líder com a VPI devem focar nas principais medidas para reduzir o risco de aumento de prevalência de VPI em determinados cenários.


La violencia doméstica (VPI por sus siglas en portugués) es un problema de salud pública en todo el mundo. Las propuestas para eliminarla incluyen el empoderamiento de las mujeres a través de su desarrollo socioeconómico. Algunos estudios sugieren que los programas de microcrédito (PMCs) y de transferencia de renta (PTRs) son iniciativas capaces de reducir el riesgo de VPI. Otros estudios indican un efecto contrario. Basándonos en una revisión sistemática, el estudio procuró investigar la influencia del empoderamiento económico de las mujeres, a través de PMCs y PTRs, sobre el riesgo de violencia física, psicológica y sexual. Los artículos y documentos fueron seleccionados por dos investigadores, de acuerdo con los siguientes criterios: estudios publicados en inglés, portugués o español; datos primarios; evaluación del efecto del PMC o PTR sobre la VPI; parejas heterosexuales; mujeres beneficiarias de la intervención; un grupo de comparación elegible para un PMC o PTR y centrados en el riesgo de VPI como desenlace. De acuerdo con nuestros resultados, el impacto de los PMCs es mixto en lo que se refiere a la violencia física y física/sexual. No obstante, la revisión sugiere que el efecto de los PMCs sobre la violencia sexual es trivial o inexistente. En relación con el impacto de los PTRs, el estudio mostró que los efectos sobre la violencia física, física/sexual, psicológica y sexual también son heterogéneos. Las mujeres más empoderadas y con alguna autonomía podrían estar en riesgo. Sin embargo, la participación en el programa de empoderamiento debe incentivarse en el caso de las mujeres y familias pobres. Las intervenciones paralelas para combatir VPI deben dar prioridad a medidas para reducir el riesgo de aumento de la prevalencia de esta violencia en determinados contextos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Women/psychology , Financial Support , Employment/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/economics , Empowerment , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Financial Management , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Latin America/epidemiology
13.
Rev. bras. geriatr. gerontol. (Online) ; 22(2): e180185, 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013593

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe and reflect the possible relationships established by the elderly between happiness and money. Method: It is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research, carried out from a semi-structured interview with 19 elderly people, in their households, of both sexes in 2017 and 2018, in two states of the South region of Brazil, through content analysis. Results: What emerged in the voice of older people unfolded into two categories: Money as a way of life and Money does not bring happiness. Participants indicated relationships between happiness and money because money is one of the conditions to meet the basic needs of daily life, but it appeared as a propedeutic resource for happiness. They also reported that the obsessive pursuit of money can generate fascination, anxiety and depression. Conclusion: The participants indicated that money is a means to live well and be happy and was not considered the highest goal of their lives. He is not a promoter of happiness, but can contribute to the pursuit of peace, tranquility and inner satisfaction.


Objetivo: Descrever e refletir as possíveis relações estabelecidas por idosos entre felicidade e dinheiro. Método: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, exploratória e descritiva, realizada a partir de entrevista semiestruturada com 19 pessoas idosas, em seus domicílios, de ambos os sexos, no período de 2017 a 2018, em dois estados da região Sul do Brasil, por meio de análise de conteúdo. Resultados: O que emergiu na voz das pessoas idosas desdobrou-se em duas categorias: O dinheiro como um meio de vida, e O dinheiro não traz felicidade. Os participantes indicaram relações entre felicidade e dinheiro, porque o dinheiro é uma das condições para satisfazer as necessidades básicas da vida cotidiana, mas apareceu como recurso propedêutico à felicidade. Também informaram que a busca obsessiva pelo dinheiro pode gerar fascínio, ansiedade e depressão. Conclusão: Os participantes indicaram que o dinheiro é um meio para viver bem e ser feliz e não foi considerado o objetivo maior de suas vidas. Ele não é promotor de felicidade, mas pode contribuir pela busca da paz, da tranquilidade e a satisfação interior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Financial Support , Health of the Elderly , Happiness
14.
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1074-1083, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717456

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: As the recent term of “financial toxicity” implies, cancer causes a treatment-related financial harm. Financial Aid Program for Cancer Patient (FAPCP) is a government’s financial support for low-income patients in the Republic of Korea. This study aimed to describe FAPCP applicants’ condition and to investigate factors influencing financial burden, which would provide the basis for implementing a strategy for FAPCP administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The telephone survey results from 2,700 FAPCP participants were analyzed, including demographic, socioeconomic, and disease characteristics and experiences associated with financial burden and the actions or measures to cope with them. RESULTS: Overall, 87.6% experienced financial burden more than moderate degree, 39.2% got financial help/a loan, 17.8% disposed of their property, and 10.2% changed or stopped treatment owing to medical costs. Monthly household income was connected to financial burden, and the highest income group was associated with the lowest financial burden (odds ratio [OR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11 to 0.38) and the lowest rate of changing/stopping care (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.05 to 1.00). Parents of childhood cancer patients got financial help/a loan (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.03 to 4.88) and disposed of their property (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.40 to 7.22) more frequently, and Medical Aids applicants showed the highest rate of changing/stopping care (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.89 to 4.78). CONCLUSION: FAPCP targets low income groups; however, financial burden and the consequent actions taken still exist disproportionately, depending on the income of the applicants. FAPCP should focus on more vulnerable groups including Medical Aid applicants and parents of childhood cancer patients, by increasing funds and expanding their support coverage.


Subject(s)
Family Characteristics , Financial Management , Financial Support , Health Care Costs , Humans , Parents , Public Assistance , Republic of Korea , Telephone
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713472

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify effects of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control toward Human Papillomavirus (HPV) on HPV vaccination intention in female high school students. METHODS: Subjects of this study were female students aged 16 to 17 years, the optimal age group of HPV vaccination, arbitrarily selected from three high schools in B city. A total of 140 students agreed to participate in this study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, correlation, and stepwise multiple regression. RESULTS: Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control toward HPV were factors influencing HPV vaccination intention of subjects. Perceived behavior control toward HPV vaccination was the most influential factor. These factors accounted for 49% of HPV vaccination intention. CONCLUSION: These results suggest a need to increase perceived behavior control to increase HPV vaccination intention. The government needs to establish a national policy system such as financial support for HPV vaccines and free vaccinations so that students are aware that HPV vaccines can be easily inoculated.


Subject(s)
Behavior Control , Female , Financial Support , Humans , Intention , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Vaccination
17.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 29: e2963, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Brazilian Paralympic sport is growing rapidly due to its results and to more people with disabilities desiring to join it. The purpose of this study is to describe the importance of financial support for Brazilian Paralympic athletes' careers. It is characterized as a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Information was collected through a semi-structured interview. Twenty Paralympians, from both Athletics and Swimming modalities, participated of this research, all of them contemplated by Ministry of Sports grant programs - Bolsa Atleta and Bolsa Atleta Pódio. Results show financial support being indicated as fundamental by all interviewed participants (n = 20, 100%). Many are the funding actions, especially from Brazilian Paralympic Committee and Brazilian Ministry of Sports, which provide better conditions for athlete development and can also guarantee the advent of new generations of Paralympic competitors in Brazil.


RESUMO O esporte paralímpico brasileiro cresce aceleradamente em razão de seus resultados e mais pessoas com deficiência buscam ingressar no esporte. O objetivo do estudo é descrever a importância do suporte financeiro para a carreira esportiva dos atletas paralímpicos brasileiros. Caracteriza-se como descritivo e abordagem qualitativa. A coleta de informações foi realizada através de entrevista semiestruturada. Participaram 20 atletas paralímpicos das modalidades Atletismo e Natação, contemplados pela Bolsa-Pódio do Programa Bolsa-Atleta do Ministério do Esporte - Brasil. Os resultados demonstram que o Suporte Financeiro é apontado como fundamental por todos os atletas investigados (n=20; 100%). Muitas são as ações de suporte financeiro que têm favorecido os atletas brasileiros, partindo principalmente do Comitê Paralímpico Brasileiro e Ministério do Esporte, essas ações proporcionam melhores condições para o desenvolvimento dos atletas e também podem garantir o surgimento de novas gerações de atletas paralímpicos no país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Financial Support , Disabled Persons , Athletes , Swimming , Track and Field
18.
Pensar prát. (Impr.) ; 20(1): 39-52, jan.-mar.2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-913456

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse estudo incidiu em identificar a abrangência do programa Bolsa-Atleta na formação de atletas do handebol brasileiro entre 2008 e 2014. Essa pesquisa, de caráter do- cumental e abordagem teórica em Políticas Públicas, utilizou fontes oficiais do Governo, com suporte do Programa Inteligência Esportiva da Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR)/Ministério do Esporte e as listas de contemplados no Programa Bolsa-Atleta, divul- gadas no site do Ministério do Esporte e devidamente publicadas no Diário Oficial da União. Concluiu-se que há investimento priorizado nas categorias de bolsa de maior valor; o progra- ma Bolsa-Atleta não assegura investimento na formação de atletas no handebol, pois as cate- gorias de bolsa Base e Estudantil não alcançaram 5% dos atletas da modalidade.


This study focused on identifying the coverage of Bolsa-Atleta program in the formation of the Brazilian handball athletes from 2008 to 2014. This is a documental research with theoret- ical approach in Public Policy that used official sources of the Government, supported by the Programa Inteligência Esportiva of UFPR/Ministério dos Esportes and the lists of the covered athletes in the Bolsa-Atleta Program, released on the website of the Ministério dos Esportes and properly published in the Official Gazette. It was concluded that there is prioritized in- vestment in categories with highest value; Bolsa-Atleta program does not guarantee invest- ment in the training of athletes in handball, because the categories Base and Estudantil did not reach 5% of the athletes of that modality.


El objetivo de este estudio se centró en identificar el alcance del programa Bolsa-Atleta en la formación de los atletas de balonmano de Brasil entre 2008 y 2014. Esta investigación, de carácter documental y enfoque teórico sobre las Políticas Públicas, utiliza fuentes oficiales del Gobierno, con el apoyo del Programa de Inteligencia Deportiva de la Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR)/ Ministerio de Deportes y las listas de los que fueron incluidos en el Pro- grama Bolsa-Atleta, divulgado en la página web del Ministerio de Deporte y debidamente publicado en el Diario Oficial del País. Se concluyó que existe una inversión prioritaria en las categorías de becas de mayor valor; el programa Bolsa-Atleta no garantiza la inversión en la formación de los atletas del balonmano, ya que las categorías de beca Base y Estudiante no alcanzó el 5% de los atletas de esa modalidad deportiva.


Subject(s)
Sports , Public Policy , Financial Support
19.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 51(2): 312-329, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-897211

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo tem o objetivo de analisar as políticas públicas que enfrentam o problema social da pobreza em seis países da América Latina: México, Brasil, Uruguai, Paraguai, Bolívia e Argentina. O problema de pesquisa é: o que motivou esses países a empreenderem políticas públicas de transferência de renda? Em hipótese, afirmamos que tais políticas públicas são consequência da redemocratização, da assunção de elites políticas reformistas e de partidos ou coalizões políticas marcados pelo intuito de implementar o Welfare State. Para checar a hipótese, adotamos a metodologia de política comparada e da abordagem do neoinstitucionalismo, e das "teorias sintéticas" e da "virada argumentativa" que valorizam as ideias, o conhecimento e os discursos.


Resumen Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar las políticas públicas que aborden el problema social de la pobreza en seis países de América Latina: México, Brasil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia y Argentina. Como un problema de investigación, adoptamos la siguiente pregunta: ¿qué motivó a estos países para llevar a cabo las políticas de transferencia de ingresos? Bajo ninguna circunstancia, afirmamos que tales políticas son el resultado de la democratización, la asunción de las élites reformistas políticas y los partidos políticos o coaliciones marcados por la intención de aplicar el Bienestar State. Para comprobar la hipótesis, hemos adoptado la metodología de la política comparada, el enfoque neoinstitucionalismo, la "teoría sintética" y la teoria de lo "giro argumentativo" que valoran las ideas, el conocimiento y discursos.


Abstract This article aims to analyze those public policies that address the social problems of poverty in six Latin American countries: Mexico, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Argentina. The research question posed here is: what motivated these countries to implement policies aimed at transferring income? In theory, we consider that such public policies are the result of a re-democratization process, and the rise to power of a reformist political elite and of political parties or political coalitions bent on the idea of implementing a Welfare State. To check this theory, we have adopted the compared policy methodology and the neo-institutionalism approach, as well as the "synthetic theories" and the "argumentative turn", all of which value ideas, knowledge and discourse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Poverty , Public Policy , Financial Support , Paraguay , Argentina , Uruguay , Bolivia , Brazil , Latin America , Mexico
20.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 51(2): 182-200, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-897212

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo analisar a Satisfação Global de Vida (SGV) e o Bem-estar Financeiro (BEF) de indivíduos de baixa renda. Para isso, foram investigados 595 beneficiários do Programa Bolsa Família (PBF), mediante um questionário. A análise dos dados se deu por meio da estatística descritiva, modelagem de equações estruturais e cluster. Os principais resultados apontam que a amostra está satisfeita de maneira global com a vida, mas preocupa-se e sente-se desconfortável com a quantia que deve, o que minimiza o BEF. Ratificando esse resultado, o cluster de maior representatividade é formado pelos beneficiários com alta SGV e baixo BEF, os quais apresentam condições financeiras precárias, contas em atraso, nome vinculado a um cadastro negativo e restrição orçamentária que não permite a realização de poupança, nem o consumo de coisas extras.


Resumen El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la Satisfacción Global de Vida (SGV) y el Bienestar Financiero (BEF) de individuos de baja renta. Para eso, fueron investigados 595 beneficiarios del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) a través de un cuestionario. El análisis de los datos se realizó por medio de estadística descriptiva, modelaje de ecuaciones estructurales y cluster. Los principales resultados apuntan que la muestra está satisfecha de manera global con la vida, pero se preocupan y se sienten incómodos con el monto que deben, lo que minimiza el BEF. Ratificando este resultado, el cluster de mayor representatividad es formado por beneficiarios con alta SGV y baja BEF, los cuales presentan condiciones financieras precarias, cuentas atrasadas, nombre vinculado a un catastro negativo y restricción presupuestal que no permite la realización de ahorro ni el consumo de cosas extras.


Abstract The study aims to analyze overall life satisfaction (OLS) and the financial well-being (FWB) of low income individuals by investigating 595 beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program through a questionnaire. The data analysis includes descriptive statistics, structural equation modeling, and clustering. The main results show that the people in this sample are satisfied overall with life, but are worried about and feel uncomfortable with the amount they owe, which lowers FWB. Confirming this result, the most representative cluster is made up of beneficiaries with high OLS and low FWB, who have precarious financial conditions, past due accounts and negative credit records as well as budget constraints that mean they cannot accumulate savings and cannot afford extra consumption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Poverty , Social Conditions , Financial Support , Cluster Analysis , Personal Satisfaction
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