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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 29-36, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lignocellulose is considered a renewable organic material, but the industrial production of biofuel from lignocellulose is challenging because of the lack of highly active hydrolytic enzymes. The guts of herbivores contain many symbiotic microorganisms that have evolved to hydrolyze plant lignocellulose. Chinese bamboo rats mainly consume high-fiber foods, indicating that some members of the intestinal tract microbiota digest lignocellulose, providing these rats with the energy required for growth. RESULTS: Here, we used metagenomics to analyze the diversity and functions of the gut microbiota in Chinese bamboo rats. We identified abundant populations of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria, whose main functions involved carbohydrate, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism. We also found 587 carbohydrate-active enzyme genes belonging to different families, including 7 carbohydrate esterase families and 21 glycoside hydrolase families. The glycoside hydrolase 3, glycoside hydrolase 1, glycoside hydrolase 43, carbohydrate esterase 4, carbohydrate esterase 1, and carbohydrate esterase 3 families demonstrated outstanding performance. CONCLUSIONS: The microbes and enzymes identified in our study expand the existing arsenal of proficient degraders and enzymes for lignocellulosic biofuel production. This study also describes a powerful approach for targeting gut microbes and enzymes in numerous industries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cecum/enzymology , Enzymes/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Cecum/microbiology , Cellulose/metabolism , Bacteroidetes , Biofuels , Metagenomics , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 16-22, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087512

ABSTRACT

Background: The intestinal bacterial community has an important role in maintaining human health. Dysbiosis is a key inducer of many chronic diseases including obesity and diabetes. Kunming mice are frequently used as a model of human disease and yet little is known about the bacterial microbiome resident to the gastrointestinal tract. Results: We undertook metagenomic sequencing of the luminal contents of the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum of Kunming mice. Firmicutes was the dominant bacterial phylum of each intestinal tract and Lactobacillus the dominant genus. However, the bacterial composition differed among the seven intestinal tracts of Kunming mice. Compared with the small intestine, the large intestine bacterial community of Kunming mice is more stable and diverse. Conclusions: To our knowledge, ours is the first study to systematically describe the gastrointestinal bacterial composition of Kunming mice. Our findings provide a better understanding of the bacterial composition of Kunming mice and serves as a foundation for the study of precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Polymerase Chain Reaction , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Firmicutes/isolation & purification , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification
4.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 447-452, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286541

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the main symptomatic primary immunodeficiency and is associated with complex immune disorders. Gut microbiota interacts closely with the immune system, and intestinal dysbiosis is related to multiple diseases. Objective: To describe for the first time the composition of gut microbiota in Mexican patients with CVID. Methods: Fecal samples from five patients with CVID were collected and massive sequencing of the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was carried out using illumina technology. Results: Bacterial relative abundance was observed at all taxonomic levels. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were the predominant phyla. The Clostridia class and the Clostridial order were the most common in their respective taxon; the Ruminococcaceae family predominated. A total of 166 genera were reported, with the most abundant being Faecalibacterium. Five species were identified, but only Bifidobacterium longum was present in all patients. Conclusions: Unlike healthy subjects' gut microbiota, where Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes predominate, the microbiota of the patients with CVID considered in this study was abundant in Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The low presence of Bacteroidetes and high abundance of Firmicutes might indicate the existence of intestinal dysbiosis in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Bacteria/classification , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Clostridium/isolation & purification , Bacteroidetes/isolation & purification , Ruminococcus/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , Verrucomicrobia/isolation & purification , Dysbiosis/immunology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Firmicutes/isolation & purification , Clostridiales/isolation & purification , Faecalibacterium/isolation & purification , Bifidobacterium longum/isolation & purification , Mexico
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 72-80, sept. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087172

ABSTRACT

Background: Microbial community analysis of electronic waste (e-waste)-polluted environments is of interest to understand the effect of toxic e-waste pollutants on the soil microbial community and to evaluate novel microorganisms resisting the toxic environment. The present study aims to investigate the bacterial community structure in soils contaminated with e-waste from various sites of Loni and Mandoli (National Capital Region (NCR), India) where e-waste dumping and recycling activities are being carried out for many years. Results: Interferences to soil metagenomic DNA extraction and PCR amplification were observed because of the presence of inhibiting components derived from circuit boards. Whole-metagenome sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform showed that the most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Deltaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were the most common classes under Proteobacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene showed that e-waste contamination altered the soil bacterial composition and diversity. There was a decrease in the number of predominant bacterial groups like Proteobacteria and Firmicutes but emergence of Actinobacteria in the contaminated soil samples. Conclusions: This is the first report describing the bacterial community structure of composite soil samples of ewaste-contaminated sites of Loni and Mandoli, Delhi NCR, India. The findings indicate that novel bacteria with potential bioremediating properties may be present in the e-waste-contaminated sites and hence need to be evaluated further.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/genetics , Electronic Waste/analysis , Soil Pollutants , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Metals, Heavy , Proteobacteria/isolation & purification , Metagenomics , Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis , Microbiota , Firmicutes/isolation & purification , India
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota is closely associated with development and exacerbation of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate differences in gut microbiota depending on sex and changes of gut microbiota during IBD developments. METHODS: 16s rRNA metagenomic sequencing was performed for fecal materials from 8-week-old wild type (WT) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice of both sexes. Diversity indices, relative abundance of microbiota, and linear discriminant analysis effect size were examined to compare microbial communities between groups. Clustering of groups was performed by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Functional capabilities of microbiota were estimated using phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. RESULTS: PCoA and UPGMA tree analysis of beta-diversity demonstrated significant differences in gut microbiota between male and female groups of WT mice, but not of IL-10 KO mice. Firmicutes to Bacteroides ratio was higher in male group than that in female group in both WT mice and IL-10 KO mice. Phylum Proteobacteria significantly increased in female IL-10 KO mice than that in female WT mice. At species level, Lactobacillus murinus, Bacteroides acidifaciens, and Helicobacter hepaticus significantly increased in IL-10 KO mice than in WT mice. The relative abundance of beta-glucuronidase (K01195) was higher in female IL-10 KO mice than that in female WT mice by PICRUSt. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that microbiota-host interactions might differ between sexes during development of IBD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteroides , Female , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Genome , Glucuronidase , Helicobacter hepaticus , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interleukin-10 , Lactobacillus , Male , Metagenomics , Methods , Mice , Microbiota , Proteobacteria , Sequence Analysis , Sex Characteristics , Trees
7.
Intestinal Research ; : 419-426, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recently, a number of studies have reported that the gut microbiota could contribute to human conditions, including obesity, inflammation, cancer development, and behavior. We hypothesized that the composition and distribution of gut microbiota are different according to stool frequency, and attempted to identify the association between gut microbiota and stool frequency. METHODS: We collected fecal samples from healthy individuals divided into 3 groups according to stool frequency: group 1, a small number of defecation (≤2 times/wk); group 2, normal defecation (1 time/day or 1 time/2 day); and group 3, a large number of defecation (≥2–3 times/day). We evaluated the composition and distribution of the gut microbiota in each group via 16S rRNA-based taxonomic profiling of the fecal samples. RESULTS: Fecal samples were collected from a total of 60 individuals (31 men and 29 women, aged 34.1±5.88 years), and each group comprised 20 individuals. The microbial richness of group 1 was significantly higher than that of group 3 and tended to decrease with increasing number of defecation (P<0.05). The biological community composition was fairly different according to the number of defecation, and Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio was higher in group 1 than in the other groups. Moreover, we found specific strains at the family and genus levels in groups 1 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio and the abundance of Bifidobacterium were different according to the stool frequency, and specific bacteria were identified in the subjects with large and small numbers of defecation, respectively. These findings suggest that stool frequency might be associated with the richness and community composition of the gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Bacteroidetes , Bifidobacterium , Biota , Defecation , Feces , Female , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Obesity
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758919

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms play important roles in obesity; however, the role of the gut microbiomes in obesity is controversial because of the inconsistent findings. This study investigated the gut microbiome communities in obese and lean groups of captive healthy cynomolgus monkeys reared under strict identical environmental conditions, including their diet. No significant differences in the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Prevotella were observed between the obese and lean groups, but a significant difference in Spirochetes (p < 0.05) was noted. Microbial diversity and richness were similar, but highly variable results in microbial composition, diversity, and richness were observed in individuals, irrespective of their state of obesity. Distinct clustering between the groups was not observed by principal coordinate analysis using an unweighted pair group method. Higher sharedness values (95.81% ± 2.28% at the genus level, and 79.54% ± 5.88% at the species level) were identified among individual monkeys. This paper reports the association between the gut microbiome and obesity in captive non-human primate models reared under controlled environments. The relative proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as the microbial diversity known to affect obesity were similar in the obese and lean groups of monkeys reared under identical conditions. Therefore, obesity-associated microbial changes reported previously appear to be associated directly with environmental factors, particularly diet, rather than obesity.


Subject(s)
Bacteroidetes , Diet , Environment, Controlled , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Haplorhini , Macaca fascicularis , Methods , Microbiota , Obesity , Prevotella , Primates , Spirochaetales
9.
J. appl. sci. environ. manag ; 23(1): 14-19, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1263361

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The dominant bacteriological and archaeal phyla of compounded soils sourced from a commercial farm estate located in Amukpe town and a nearby control in Adavware community both in Delta State, were evaluated with the aid of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) protocols. The residual herbicide and pesticide composition of the bulked soils were also determined using gas chromatography (GC) and electron capture detector (ECD). Total concentrations of the extracted DNA were 6.83 and 6.65 ng/µl for the control and experimental soils. Nine (9) bacterial phyla; Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes Acidobacteria, and Elusimicrobia were observed in the control soil. Thirteen (13) bacterial phyla; Elusimicrobia, Fibrobacteres Lentisphaerae, Armatimonadetes, Cyanobacteria/Chloroplast, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia were detected in the experimental soil. Two (2) archaeal phyla; Euryarchaeota, and Diapherotrites were detected both the experimental and control soil, whilst an additional archaeal phylum; Woesearchaeota was present in only the experimental soil. The total organochloride phosphate component of the experimental soil was 1.4µg/Kg and 0.4µg/Kg for the control soil respectively


Subject(s)
Acidobacteria , Actinobacteria , Bacteroidetes , Chloroflexi , Firmicutes , Nigeria , Verrucomicrobia
10.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(1): 5-11, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903849

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To investigate the correlation among pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines and the two main gut microbiota phyla in obese children. Materials and methods: Anthropometric data were obtained from 890 children under 14 years old to determine the degree of obesity. Serum cytokine concentration was measured by ELISA. Relative abundance of gut microbiota in feces was evaluated by quantitative Real-Time PCR assays. Results: Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were statistically higher in overweight /obese children than in lean ones. Increased TNF-α levels were found in obese children that also have a high relative abundance of Firmicutes. Conclusions: Obese children have a high relative abundance of Firmicutes that correlates with increased levels of TNF-α. This is the first study that shows a relation between Firmicute abundance and TNF-α serum concentration in obese children.


Resumen: Objetivo: Investigar la correlación entre las citocinas proinflamatorias o antiinflamatorias y los dos principales filos de la microbiota intestinal en niños obesos. Material y métodos: Se obtuvieron mediciones antropométricas de 890 niños de 6 a 14 años; posteriormente se clasificaron en normopeso y sobrepeso/obeso. Las concentraciones séricas fueron medidas por el método de ELISA. La abundancia relativa de la microbiota intestinal en heces se evaluó por PCR tiempo real. Resultados: Los parámetros bioquímicos y antropométricos fueron estadísticamente más altos en niños con sobrepeso / obesidad que en niños delgados. Se encontraron niveles más altos de FNT-α en niños obesos que también tenían una abundancia relativa alta de Firmicutes. Conclusiones: Los niños obesos tienen una alta abundancia relativa de Firmicutes, la cual se correlaciona con un incremento de los niveles de FNT-α. Este es el primer estudio que evalúa la reacción entre la abundancia de Firmicutes y la concentración sérica de FNT-α en niños obesos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Pediatric Obesity/microbiology , Pediatric Obesity/blood , Firmicutes/isolation & purification , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Bacteroides/isolation & purification , Blood Glucose/analysis , Energy Intake , Exercise , Anthropometry , Interleukins/blood , Feces/microbiology , Feeding Behavior , Insulin/blood , Lipids/blood
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740062

ABSTRACT

Radiotherapy (RT) is a mainstay in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). For locally advanced HCSCC, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) benefits HCSCC patients in terms of better survival and loco-regional control. In this study, we evaluated changes in oral microbiota in patients, who received CCRT for head and neck cancer. Oral rinsed samples were weekly collected before and during CCRT and at 4 weeks following treatment from HNSCC patients, who had received 70 Gy of radiation delivered to the primary sites for over 7 weeks and concurrent chemotherapy. Oral microbiota changes in three patients were analyzed by next-generation sequencing using 16S rRNA 454 pyrosequencing. On an average, 15,000 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from each sample. All sequences fell into 11 different bacterial phyla. During early CCRT, the microbial diversity gradually decreased. In a patient, who did not receive any antibiotics during the CCRT, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum. During the early CCRT, proteobacteria gradually decreased while Firmicutes increased. During the late CCRT, firmicutes gradually decreased while Bacteroides and Fusobacteria increased. In all the patients, yellow complex showed a gradual decrease, while orange and red complex showed a gradual increase during the CCRT. At 4 weeks after CCRT, the recovery of oral microbiota diversity was limited. During CCRT, there was a gradual increase in major periodontopathogens in association with the deterioration of the oral hygiene. Henceforth, it is proposed that understanding oral microbiota shift should provide better information for the development of effective oral care programs for patients receiving CCRT for HNSCC.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteroides , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Citrus sinensis , Drug Therapy , Epithelial Cells , Firmicutes , Fusobacteria , Genes, rRNA , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Head , Humans , Microbiota , Neck , Oral Hygiene , Proteobacteria , Radiotherapy
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Probiotics are expected to modify the composition of gut microbiota. We aimed to investigate the changes in the composition and diversity of gut microbiota by the administration of probiotics in healthy individuals. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers with age range of 30–42 years provided baseline fecal samples. Subsequently, they took commercially available probiotic capsules (a mixture for Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus) for 4 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at 4 weeks of administration and 2 weeks after the stop of administration. Fecal microbiota was analyzed via 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: The mean Shannon index was not significantly altered by the 4-week administration of probiotics (4.365 vs 4.556, P > 0.05). The proportion of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria was not significantly changed by the 4-week administration of probiotics. At the genus level, the proportions of Lactobacillus (2.138% vs 2.773%, P = 0.028) and Enterococcus (0.022% vs 2.758%, P = 0.004) significantly increased 4 weeks after the administration of probiotics, but reduced 2 weeks after the stop of administration (2.773% vs 3.292%, P = 0.064 and 2.758% vs 0.001%, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The diversity of fecal microbiota is not significantly affected by 4 weeks of probiotics administration. The proportion of fecal microbiota at the genus level is significantly altered by the administration of probiotics. However, this effect does not seem to last long, probably because of homeostasis or dietary influence.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria , Bacteroidetes , Bifidobacterium , Capsules , Enterococcus , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Healthy Volunteers , Homeostasis , Lactobacillus , Microbiota , Probiotics , Proteobacteria , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714779

ABSTRACT

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease in children. Patients with AD experience a high rate of colonization of the skin surface by Staphylococcus aureus. Because of a skin barrier defect, there is a potential risk of staphylococcal invasive infection in patients with AD. Here, we present 2 cases of breast abscess caused by S. aureus in 2 adolescent girls with severe AD. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus was identified from the breast abscess material. They were treated with appropriate antibiotics, however surgical drainage of the abscess was needed in case 1. Identical strains were found from the breast abscess material as well as the lesional and the nonlesional skin of the patients through matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis. We characterized the differential abundance of Firmicutes phylum in patients' skin in microbiota analysis. In particular, S. aureus, a member of Firmicutes, differed significantly between the lesional and the normal-appearing skin. Our cases demonstrate the potential severity of bacterial deep tissue infection in AD and the dysbiosis of skin microbiota may be involved in inflammation in AD.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Breast , Child , Colon , Dermatitis, Atopic , Drainage , Dysbiosis , Female , Firmicutes , Humans , Inflammation , Mastitis , Microbiota , Skin , Skin Diseases , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225910

ABSTRACT

Purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a lotion on the bacterial community in the human forearm skin. The chemical- and natural-based lotions were applied on the left and right inner forearm skins, respectively, of 14 participants, who cleansed forearm skin using sterilized cotton swabs. The germs on cotton swabs were analyzed using libraries of PCR amplicons. The genetic diversity of the bacterial communities detected on the natural-based lotion-applied skin (NLS) was significantly higher than that of the bacterial communities on the chemical-based lotion-applied skin (CLS) in all participants, except two. The diversity was estimated based on operational taxonomic unit (OTU), Chao1, Shannon, and Simpson indices. Bacterial communities obtained from the CLS and NLS were phylogenetically separated into 5 and 3 monophyletic groups, respectively, based on lotion types. The taxonomic distribution of the bacterial communities, which were composed of 198 genera in 14 phyla in the CLS and NLS, respectively, was irregularly and biasedly separated into 2 groups based on the lotion types. Among the 14 phyla, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were found to be relatively dominant, and 15 of the 198 genera, including Methylobacterium, Propionibacterium, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Bacillus were relatively dominant (>0.5%). The taxonomic distribution of dominant bacterial communities from CLS and NLS was irregularly and biasedly separated without relation to the lotion types. In conclusion, the chemical- and natural-based lotions were responsible for changing or influencing the genetic diversity, phylogenetic separation, and taxonomic distribution of skin bacterial communities.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria , Bacillus , Bacteroidetes , Firmicutes , Forearm , Genetic Variation , Humans , Methylobacterium , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Propionibacterium , Proteobacteria , Pseudomonas , Skin , Staphylococcus , Streptococcus
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on gut microbiota regarding colorectal carcinogenesis, including sessile serrated adenoma (SSA), have been scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of mucosa-associated gut microbiota in the colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: We collected biopsy samples of normal rectal mucosa during colonoscopy from healthy control and patients with conventional adenoma, SSA, and colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively (n = 6). Pyrosequencing for 16S rRNA gene of bacteria was performed to compare gut microbiota. RESULTS: The most abundant phylum in total samples was Proteobacteria (55.6%), followed by Firmicutes (27.4%) and Bacteroidetes (11.6%). There was no significant difference in relative abundance of the phylum level among the four groups. Fusobacterium nucleatum, known to be frequently detected during colorectal carcinogenesis, was found in only one sample of patient with SSA. The rarefaction curves showed that the diversity of mucosal communities of patients with CRC is the lowest among the four groups and the diversity of mucosal communities of patients with SSA is higher than that of healthy control. Among the four groups, Shannon's and Simpson's index for diversity was the lowest and the highest in the patients with CRC, respectively; it did not reach statistical significance. The proportion of genus Pseudomonas was very high in the samples of patients with stage II–IV CRC compared with those with stage I CRC (59.3% vs. 0.3%, P = 0.064). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests no significant role of mucosa-associated gut microbiota in the colorectal carcinogenesis. Further study for many samples or using fecal material could be helpful.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Bacteria , Bacteroidetes , Biopsy , Carcinogenesis , Colonic Neoplasms , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Firmicutes , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Genes, rRNA , Humans , Microbiota , Mucous Membrane , Proteobacteria , Pseudomonas
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-212088

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease, and bacterial infection plays a role in its pathogenesis. Bacteria secrete nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs), which may induce more immune dysfunction and inflammation than the bacteria themselves. We hypothesized that the microbiome of lung EVs might have distinct characteristics depending on the presence of COPD and smoking status. We analyzed and compared the microbiomes of 13 nonsmokers with normal spirometry, 13 smokers with normal spirometry (healthy smokers) and 13 patients with COPD by using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of surgical lung tissue and lung EVs. Subjects were matched for age and sex in all groups and for smoking levels in the COPD and healthy smoker groups. Each group included 12 men and 1 woman with the same mean age of 65.5 years. In all groups, EVs consistently showed more operational taxonomic units (OTUs) than lung tissue. In the healthy smoker and COPD groups, EVs had a higher Shannon index and a lower Simpson index than lung tissue and this trend was more prominent in the COPD group. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed clusters based on sample type rather than participants' clinical characteristics. Stenotrophomonas, Propionibacterium and Alicyclobacillus were the most commonly found genera. Firmicutes were highly present in the EVs of the COPD group compared with other samples or groups. Our analysis of the lung microbiome revealed that the bacterial communities present in the EVs and in the COPD group possessed distinct characteristics with differences in the OTUs, diversity indexes and PCA clustering.


Subject(s)
Alicyclobacillus , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections , Extracellular Vesicles , Female , Firmicutes , Humans , Inflammation , Lung , Male , Microbiota , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Principal Component Analysis , Propionibacterium , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Smoke , Smoking , Spirometry , Stenotrophomonas
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211708

ABSTRACT

The microbial community is known to have a key role during the rearing period of broilers. In this study, gut microbial composition and diversity were examined to evaluate the relationships between these factors and broiler growth performance. By applying 454-pyrosequencing of the V1–V3 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, six fecal samples from four- and 28-day-old chickens from three broiler farms and 24 intestinal samples of broilers with heavy and light body weights were analyzed. Microbial composition assessment revealed Firmicutes to be the most prevalent phylum at farm A, while Proteobacteria were predominant at farms B and C. Fecal microbial richness and diversity indices gradually increased from four to 28 days at all three farms. Microbial diversity assessment revealed that small intestine microbial diversity was lower in heavy birds than in light birds. In light birds, the Firmicutes proportion was lower than that in heavy birds. In conclusion, each broiler farm revealed a specific microbial profile which varied with the age of the birds. The microbial communities appeared to affect growth performance; therefore, gut microbial profiles can be utilized to monitor growth performance at broiler farms.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Birds , Body Weight , Chickens , Firmicutes , Genes, rRNA , Intestine, Small , Proteobacteria
18.
Gut and Liver ; : 896-901, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate changes in gut microbiota composition following long-term proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. METHODS: Twenty-four-week-old F344 rats were fed diets with (n=6) or without (n=5) lansoprazole for 50 weeks. Profiles of luminal microbiota in the terminal ileum were then analyzed. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed using an FLX genome sequencer (454 Life Sciences/Roche). RESULTS: Rats treated with lansoprazole showed significantly reduced body weights compared to controls (lansoprazole-treated rats and controls, 322.3±15.3 g vs 403.2±5.2 g, respectively, p<0.001). However, stool frequencies and consistencies did not differ between the two groups. The composition of the gut microbiota in lansoprazole-treated rats was quite different from that of the controls. In the controls, the microbiota profiles obtained from the terminal ileum showed a predominance of Proteobacteria (93.9%) due to the abundance of Escherichia and Pasteurella genera. Conversely, lansoprazole-treated rats showed an elevated population of Firmicutes (66.9%), which was attributed to an increased ratio of Clostridium g4 to Lactobacillus genera. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study suggests that long-term administration of PPI may cause weight loss and changes to the microbiota in the terminal ileum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Clostridium , Diet , Escherichia , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Genes, rRNA , Genome , Ileum , Lactobacillus , Lansoprazole , Microbiota , Pasteurella , Phenobarbital , Pilot Projects , Proteobacteria , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Proton Pumps , Protons , Rats , Rats, Inbred F344 , Weight Loss
19.
Gut and Liver ; : 896-901, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate changes in gut microbiota composition following long-term proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. METHODS: Twenty-four-week-old F344 rats were fed diets with (n=6) or without (n=5) lansoprazole for 50 weeks. Profiles of luminal microbiota in the terminal ileum were then analyzed. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed using an FLX genome sequencer (454 Life Sciences/Roche). RESULTS: Rats treated with lansoprazole showed significantly reduced body weights compared to controls (lansoprazole-treated rats and controls, 322.3±15.3 g vs 403.2±5.2 g, respectively, p<0.001). However, stool frequencies and consistencies did not differ between the two groups. The composition of the gut microbiota in lansoprazole-treated rats was quite different from that of the controls. In the controls, the microbiota profiles obtained from the terminal ileum showed a predominance of Proteobacteria (93.9%) due to the abundance of Escherichia and Pasteurella genera. Conversely, lansoprazole-treated rats showed an elevated population of Firmicutes (66.9%), which was attributed to an increased ratio of Clostridium g4 to Lactobacillus genera. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study suggests that long-term administration of PPI may cause weight loss and changes to the microbiota in the terminal ileum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Clostridium , Diet , Escherichia , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Genes, rRNA , Genome , Ileum , Lactobacillus , Lansoprazole , Microbiota , Pasteurella , Phenobarbital , Pilot Projects , Proteobacteria , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Proton Pumps , Protons , Rats , Rats, Inbred F344 , Weight Loss
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90236

ABSTRACT

Microbial colonization of the infant gut is unstable and shows a wide range of diversity between individuals. Gut microbiota play an important role in the development of the immune system, and an imbalance in these organisms can affect health, including an increased risk of allergic diseases. Microbial colonization of young infants is affected by the delivery mode at birth and the consequent alterations of gut microbiota in early life affect the development of allergic diseases. We investigated the effects of the delivery mode on the temporal dynamics of gut microbiota in healthy Korean infants. Fecal samples were collected at 1-3 days, 1 month, and 6 months after birth in six healthy infants. Microbiota were characterized by 16S rRNA shotgun sequencing. At the first and third days of life, infants born by vaginal delivery showed a higher richness and diversity of gut microbiota compared with those born by cesarean section. However, these differences disappeared with age. The Bacteroides genus and Bacteroidetes phylum were abundant in infants born by vaginal delivery, whereas Bacilli and Clostridium g4 were increased in infants born by cesarean section. The Firmicutes phylum and Bacteroides genus showed convergent dynamics with age. This study demonstrated the effect of delivery mode on the dynamics of gut microbiota profiles in healthy Korean infants.


Subject(s)
Bacteroides , Bacteroidetes , Cesarean Section , Clostridium , Colon , Female , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Immune System , Infant , Microbiota , Parturition , Pregnancy
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