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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254010, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345561

ABSTRACT

Abstract The impact of fish oil concentration on the oxidative stability of microcapsules through the spray drying process using chitosan and maltodextrin as wall material was studied. Emulsions were prepared with different Tuna fish oil (TFO) content (TFO-10%, TFO20%, TF030% TF0-40%) while wall material concentration was kept constant. Microencapsulated powder resulting from emulsion prepared with high fish oil load have high moisture content, wettability, total oil and low encapsulation efficiency, hygroscopicity and bulk tapped density. Oxidative stability was evaluated periodically by placing microcapsules at room temperature. Microcapsules prepared with TFO-10% presented high oxidative stability in terms of peroxide value (2.94±0.04) and anisidine value (1.54±0.02) after 30 days of storage. It was concluded that optimal amounts of fish oil for microencapsulation are 10% and 20% using chitosan and maltodextrin that extended its shelf life during study period.


Resumo Foi estudado o impacto da concentração de óleo de peixe na estabilidade oxidativa de microcápsulas por meio do processo de secagem por atomização, utilizando quitosana e maltodextrina como material de parede. As emulsões foram preparadas com diferentes teores de óleo de atum (TFO) (TFO-10%, TFO20%, TF030% TF0-40%), enquanto a concentração de material de parede foi mantida constante. O pó microencapsulado resultante da emulsão preparada com alta carga de óleo de peixe tem alto teor de umidade, molhabilidade e óleo total e baixa eficiência de encapsulação, higroscopicidade e densidade extraída a granel. A estabilidade oxidativa foi avaliada periodicamente colocando microcápsulas à temperatura ambiente. As microcápsulas preparadas com TFO-10% apresentaram alta estabilidade oxidativa em termos de valor de peróxido (2,94 ± 0,04) e valor de anisidina (1,54 ± 0,02) após 30 dias de armazenamento. Concluiu-se que as quantidades ideais de óleo de peixe para microencapsulação são de 10% e 20% usando quitosana e maltodextrina que prolongaram sua vida útil durante o período de estudo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fish Oils , Chitosan , Powders , Tuna , Oxidative Stress
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 223-230, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153065

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate increasing levels of fish waste oil in diets for laying hens on serum biochemistry profile. 192 Hisex White laying hens at 29 weeks of age were used, with water and food ad libitum. The experimental design was completely randomized consisting of eight treatments corresponding to the inclusion levels of fish waste oil (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5%) in the diets, with four replicates of six birds each. Data collected were subjected to polynomial regression at 5% of significance. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol, and uric acid. These parameters presented a decrease when hens fed diets with higher level of fish waste oil. The results of the present study indicated that the inclusion of fish waste oil caused a significant effect in the serum biochemical profile of laying hens, especially in glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and uric acid concentrations. The inclusion level of 3.5% of fish waste oil caused larger disequilibrium in the serum biochemical profile of laying hens.(AU)


O presente estudo objetivou avaliar os níveis crescentes de óleo de resíduo de pescado em dietas para poedeiras leves sobre o perfil bioquímico sérico. Foram utilizadas poedeiras Hisex White com 29 semanas, com água e ração ad libitum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, consistindo de oito tratamentos correspondentes aos níveis de inclusão de óleo de resíduo de pescado (0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 e 3,5%) nas dietas, com quatro repetições de seis aves cada. Os dados coletados foram submetidos à regressão polinomial a 5% de significância. Diferenças significativas (P<0,05) foram observadas nas concentrações de triglicerídeos, glicose, colesterol total e ácido úrico. Esses parâmetros apresentaram uma diminuição quando as aves se alimentaram com rações contendo maior nível de óleo do resíduo de pescado. Os resultados do presente estudo indicaram que a inclusão de óleo do resíduo de pescado acarretou um efeito significativo no perfil bioquímico sérico de poedeiras, principalmente nas concentrações de glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total e ácido úrico. O nível de inclusão de 3,5% do óleo do resíduo de pescado acarretou maior desequilíbrio no perfil bioquímico sérico das poedeiras.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Fish Oils/administration & dosage , Chickens/blood , Industrial Waste/analysis , Animal Feed/analysis , Triglycerides/blood , Serum Albumin , Cholesterol/blood
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(2): 123-133, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1140336

ABSTRACT

High intake of omega-3 fatty acids has been associated with synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and memory in several experimental models. To assess the efficacy of fish oil supplementation on oxidative stress markers in patients diagnosed with probable Alzheimer´s disease (AD) we conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial. AD patients who met the inclusive criteria were given fish oil (containing 0.45 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1 g docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo daily for 12 months. Oxidative stress markers [lipoperoxides, nitric oxide catabolites levels, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and membrane fluidity] and fatty acid profile in erythrocytes were assessed at enrollment, and 6 and 12 months after the start of the testing period. At the end of the trial, in patients who received fish oil, we detected a decrease in the omega 6/omega 3 ratio in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. This change was parallel with decreases in plasma levels of lipoperoxides and nitric oxide catabolites. Conversely, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione was significantly increased. In addition, membrane fluidity was increased significantly in plasma membrane samples. In conclusion fish oil administration has a beneficial effect in decreasing the levels of oxidative stress markers and improving the membrane fluidity in plasma(AU)


El alto consumo de ácidos grasos omega-3 se asocia con la plasticidad sináptica, neurogénesis y memoria en varios modelos experimentales. Para evaluar la eficacia de la suplementación con aceite de pescado en los marcadores de estrés oxidativo en pacientes con diagnóstico de la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) probable realizamos un ensayo clínico doble ciego, aleatorizado, controlado con placebo. A los pacientes con la EA que cumplían los criterios de inclusión se les administró aceite de pescado (que contenía 0,45 g de ácido eicosapentaenoico y 1 g de ácido docosahexaenoico) o placebo diariamente durante 12 meses. Los marcadores de estrés oxidativo plasmático [niveles de lipoperóxidos y catabolitos del óxido nítrico, cociente de glutatión reducido a glutatiónoxidado) y fluidez de la membrana] y el perfil de ácidos grasos en los eritrocitos se evaluaron al inicio, 6 meses y alos 12 meses. Al final del ensayo, en pacientes que recibieron aceite de pescado detectamos una disminución en el cociente de ácidos grasos omega 6/omega 3 en los fosfolípidos de la membrana eritrocitaria. Este cambio ocurrió en paralelo a la disminución de los niveles plasmáticos de lipoperóxidos y catabolitos del óxido nítrico. Por el contrario, el cociente de glutatión reducido a glutatión oxidado se incrementó significativamente. Además, la fluidez de la membrana aumentó significativamente en las muestras analizadas. En conclusión, la administración de aceite de pescado tiene un efecto beneficioso al disminuir los niveles de marcadores de estrés oxidativo plasmático y mejorar la fluidez de la membrana plasmática(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Fish Oils , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Oxidative Stress , Alzheimer Disease , Cell Membrane , Chronic Disease , Neurogenesis
4.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 33: e003311, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056177

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Professional and recreational athletes make daily use of nutritional supplements to improve physical performance. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been used in this sense. N-3 PUFA, particularly eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are involved in important physiological functions and the benefits of supplementation are demonstrated in several types of users. Shark liver oil (SLO) is a natural source of n-3 PUFA. Objective: To evaluate the effect of supplementation with SLO on contractility of skeletal muscles with different metabolic characteristics, soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) from rats submitted to eight weeks of interval training of progressive intensity on a motorized treadmill. In the supplemented group, animals were supplemented with SLO (1 g/kg) five times a week for eight weeks. Method: Contractile parameters as maximum isometric twitch force (Tmax), maximum speed of force development (+dF/dt), maximum speed of force decrease (-dF/dt), maximum tetanic force (Fmax) and resistance to fatigue were analyzed in isolated muscle. Results: Compared to the control group, EDL muscles from the supplemented group reduced Tmax at the first (10.82 ± 0.89 vs 14.30 ± 0.67 mN/mm2. p < 0.01) and second minutes of experimentation (9.85 ± 0.63 vs 13.12 ± 0.70 mN/mm2. p < 0.01). However, it increased resistance to fatigue (22.80 ± 0.97 vs 18.60 ± 0.51 seconds. p = 0.005). Conclusion: No difference was observed in the soleus muscle.


Resumo Introdução: Atletas profissionais e recreativos utilizam suplementos nutricionais diariamente para melhorar a performance física. Os ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (PUFA) têm sido usados nesse sentido. Os n-3 PUFA, particularmente os ácidos eicosapentaenoicos (EPA) e docosaexaenoico (DHA), são relacionados com importantes funções fisiológicas e os benefícios da suplementação são demonstrados em diversas populações. O óleo de fígado de tubarão (OFT) é fonte natural de n-3 PUFA. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da suplementação com OFT na contratilidade de músculos esqueléticos com diferentes características metabólicas, sóleo e extensor longo de dedos (EDL) de ratos submetidos a oito semanas de treinamento intervalado de intensidade progressiva em esteira motorizada. No grupo suplementado, os animais foram suplementados com OFT (1 g/kg) cinco vezes por semana por oito semanas. Método: Parâmetros contráteis como produção de força isométrica máxima (Tmax), velocidade máxima de contração (+dF/dt), velocidade máxima de relaxamento (-dF/dt), força tetânica máxima (Fmax) e resistência à fadiga foram analisados em músculos isolados. Resultados: Comparados ao grupo controle, os músculos EDL dos animais do grupo suplementado reduziram Tmax no primeiro (10.82 ± 0.89 vs 14.30 ± 0.67 mN/mm2. p < 0.01) e no segundo minutos de experimentação (9.85 ± 0.63 vs 13.12 ± 0.70 mN/mm2. p < 0.01), entretanto, aumentaram a resistência à fadiga (22.80 ± 0.97 vs 18.60 ± 0.51 segundos. p = 0.005). Conclusão: Nenhuma diferença foi observada no músculo sóleo.


Resumen Introducción: Los atletas profesionales y recreativos utilizan suplementos nutricionales diariamente para mejorar el rendimiento físico. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA) se han utilizado en este sentido. Los n-3 PUFA, particularmente los ácidos eicosapentaenoicos (EPA) y el docosaexáenoico (DHA), se relacionan con importantes funciones fisiológicas y los beneficios de la suplementación se demuestran en diversas poblaciones. El aceite de hígado de tiburón (AHT) es fuente natural de n-3 PUFA. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con AHT en la contractilidad de músculos esqueléticos con diferentes características metabólicas, sololeo y extensor largo de dedos (EDL) de ratas sometidas a ocho semanas de entrenamiento intervalado de intensidad progresiva en estera motorizada. En el grupo suplementario, los animales fueron suplementados con AHT (1 g/kg) cinco veces por semana durante ocho semanas. Método: Parámetros contráctiles como producción de fuerza isométrica máxima (Tmax), velocidad máxima de contracción (+dF/dt), velocidad máxima de relajación (-dF/dt), fuerza tetánica máxima (Fmax) y resistencia a la fatiga se analizaron en músculos aislados. Resultados: En comparación con el grupo control, los músculos EDL de los animales del grupo suplementado redujeron Tmax en el primer (10.82 ± 0.89 vs 14.30 ± 0.67 mN/mm2. p < 0.01) y en el segundo minuto de experimentación (9.85 ± 0.63 vs 13.12 ± 0.70 mN/mm2. p < 0.01), sin embargo, aumentaron la resistencia a la fatiga (22.80 ± 0.97 vs 18.60 ± 0.51 segundos. p = 0.005). Conclusión: No se observó ninguna diferencia en el músculo sóleo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sharks/physiology , Fish Oils , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal , Dietary Supplements , Athletic Performance , Athletes
5.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 40(2): 185-196, jun./dez. 2019. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224088

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the n-3 fatty acid supplementation effects in breast cancer patients. Methods: it was a prospective longitudinal study performed in breast cancer patients supplemented with fish oil during 8 weeks in neoadjuvant AC-T regimen. Anthropometric, Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) ((Lean Body Mass (LBM), and Phase Angle (PA)), food consumption, nutritional impact symptoms (NIS), metabolic and inflammatory profile were evaluated for 2 months. Results: supplemented patients presented weight gain of 1.4 kg, representing 1.8% of body weight. LBM was 42.3 Kg and PA 6.1º. Nausea, diarrhea and anorexia were the main NIS with reduction in incidence with the supplementation, but xerostomia and heartburn had increase. There was significant drop in hemoglobin values to 12.3 mg/ dL, metabolic parameters and nutritional prognosis (CRP/albumin ratio) were not altered. Cytokines levels of TNF-α and interleukin-6 did not change, however interleukin-2 have shown significant increasing. Conclusion: Body weight gain was noticed in breast cancer patients, independent of food consumption. Fish oil supplementation during neoadjuvant chemotherapy was able to reduce NIS incidence, but not avoiding the decrease of hemoglobin levels, but it keeps the maintenance of proinflammatory parameters, except for increased the cytokine IL-2 (AU)


O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de ácidos graxos n-3 em pacientes com câncer de mama. Metodologia: estudo prospectivo longitudinal realizado em pacientes suplementados com óleo de peixe durante 8 semanas em quimioterapia neoadjuvante com regime AC-T. Antropometria e impedância bioelétrica (massa corporal magra (massa magra) - ângulo de fase (AP)), consumo alimentar, sintomas de impacto nutricional (SIN) e perfil metabólico e inflamatório foram avaliados. Resultados:Os pacientes apresentaram ganho de peso de 1,4 kg, representando 1,8% do peso corporal. LBM foi 42,3 kg e AP 6,1º. Náusea, diarreia e anorexia foram o SIN com redução na incidência com a suplementação, mas a xerostomia e a azia aumentaram. Houve uma queda significativa nos valores de hemoglobina para 12,3 mg/dL, parâmetros metabólicos e prognóstico nutricional (relação PCR/albumina) não foram alterados. Os níveis de citocinas de TNF-α e interleucina-6 não mudaram, entretanto a interleucina-2 mostrou um aumento significativo. Conclusão: O ganho de peso corporal foi observado nas pacientes com câncer de mama, independente do consumo alimentar. Durante a quimioterapia neoadjuvante com suplementação de óleo de peixe houve redução da presença de SIN, diminuição dos níveis de hemoglobina e manutenção de parâmetros bioquímicos e inflamatórios, exceto pelo aumento da citocina IL-2 (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Fish Oils , Cytokines , Breast , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Food
6.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 26(1): 23-43, 2019. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-995583

ABSTRACT

Background: Breast cancer is the second cause of death in women in developed and undeveloped countries, including Colombia. A high percentage of these tumors is estrogen dependent, for which the hormonal treatment is the most used therapy in breast cancer. Currently, the first line treatment for breast tumor in postmenopausal women is the letrozole, an aromatase enzyme inhibitor that avoids the transformation of androgens to estrogens. Since letrozole produced adverse effects on patients, there is a requirement for new alternative treatments. Furthermore, omega fatty acids (ω-FA), essential as they are obtained from the normal diet or from dietary supplements, have demonstrated nutraceutical potential because of their anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory activity. Nonetheless, there is controversy in in vitro, in vivo and epidemiologic reports regarding their preventive or inducing activities of carcinogenesis in animals and humans, depending on the structure of the ω-FA. Objectives: This review aims to show the main in vitro, in vivo and epidemiologic evidences of the chemotherapeutic potential of ω-3 and ω-6 FA in different types of neoplasm, particularly in breast cancer, in individual or combined treatments with diverse antineoplastics. Methods: PubMed and Science Direct databases revealed the most representative studies, published during the last two decades, about ω-3 and ω-6 FA, breast cancer and the principal therapeutic strategies for this neoplasm. Findings were presented in separated topics to provide an overview of ω-FA and their potential in treatments for breast cancer. Results: Patients treated with estrogens and progesterone derivate have shown predisposition to develop breast cancer after two years of continued therapy. Furthermore, ω-FA with known nutraceutical potential have demonstrated their potential as adjuvants in the treatment against different neoplasms, like hepatic and colon cancer. Conclusions: Current therapies for breast cancer and their low efficacy in the long term led to explore new alternative treatments with ω-FA. These essential fatty acids in daily consumption could enhance the antineoplastic agent effect. Nevertheless, metabolism of the ω-FA must be considered for this use.


Antecedentes: el cáncer de mama es la segunda causa de muerte de mujeres en países desarrollados y no desarrollados, incluido Colombia. La mayoría de estos tumores son dependientes de estrógeno por esa razón, la terapia más utilizada es la hormonal. Actualmente, el tratamiento de primera línea en mujeres posmenopáusicas es el letrozol, inhibidor de la enzima aromatasa, que evita la conversión de andrógenos en estrógenos. El letrozol causa efectos adversos en las pacientes, lo cual motiva la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas que disminuyan estos efectos. Los ácidos grasos omega, esenciales en la dieta regular o suplementaria, han mostrado su potencial nutracéutico ambivalente, como antiinflamatorios o proinflamatorios. Debido a esto, existe controversia en distintos reportes a nivel in vitro, in vivo y epidemiológicos sobre la actividad preventiva o quimioterapéutica de los ω-3 y ω-6 AGOs. Objetivos: el aporte de este artículo, es mostrar las principales evidencias in vitro, in vivo y epidemiológicas del potencial quimioterapéutico de los AGOs en tratamientos individuales y combinados con antineoplásicos, en distintos tipos de cánceres, particularmente en el cáncer de mama. Métodos: se revisaron las bases de datos PubMed y Science Direct y se seleccionaron los estudios más representativos de las dos últimas décadas sobre ω-3 y ω-6 AGOs y las principales estrategias usadas en el cáncer de mama. Los hallazgos se presentan en temas separados, primero una visión general de los AGOs y luego su potencial bioactivo en tratamientos contra el cáncer de mama. Resultados: la mayoría de los estudios en pacientes con cáncer de mama, tratadas con estrógenos y derivados de progesterona, han mostrado predisposición a desarrollar cáncer de mama después de dos años de terapia continua. De otro lado, los AGOs han demostrado su potencial como adyuvantes en el tratamiento en diferentes cánceres como el de colon y hepático. Conclusiones: las terapias actuales para el cáncer de mama y su baja eficacia a largo plazo exigen explorar nuevas alternativas de terapias, que incluyen los AGOs podrían potenciar fármacos, no obstante, es necesario tener en cuenta, el metabolismo de los AGOs, para uso


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Fish Oils , Estrogens , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765995

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are implicated in secondary osteoporosis, and the resulting fractures cause significant morbidity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a vital role in bone metabolism. However, few trials have studied the impact of omega-3 PUFA-containing oils against GC-induced osteoporosis. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine whether supplementation with omega-3 PUFA-containing dietary oils such as fish oil, flaxseed oil or soybean oil can impede the development of GC-induced osteoporosis. METHODS: The fatty acids (FAs) content of oils was determined using gas chromatography. Male rats were subdivided into 5 groups (8 rats each): normal control (balanced diet), prednisolone control (10 mg/kg prednisolone daily), soybean oil (prednisolone 10 mg/kg + soybean oil 7% w/w), flaxseed oil (prednisolone 10 mg/kg + flaxseed oil 7% w/w), and fish oil (from cod liver; prednisolone 10 mg/kg + fish oil 7% w/w). RESULTS: The study data exhibited a significant depletion in bone mineral density (BMD) and femur mass in the prednisolone control compared to the normal control, accompanied with a marked decrease in the levels of plasma calcium and 1,25-(OH)₂-vitamin D₃, and elevated levels of C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Supplementation with fish oil, soybean oil or flaxseed oil helped to improve plasma calcium levels, and suppress oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Additionally, bone resorption was suppressed as reflected by the decreased CTX levels. However, fish oil was more effective than the other two oils with a significant improvement in BMD and normal histological results compared to the normal control. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that supplementation with dietary oils containing omega-3 PUFAs such as fish oil, soybean oil or flaxseed oil can play a role in the prevention of bone loss and in the regulation of bone metabolism, especially fish oil which demonstrated a greater level of protection against GC-induced osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Density , Bone Resorption , Calcium , Chromatography, Gas , Dietary Fats, Unsaturated , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Femur , Fish Oils , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Inflammation , Linseed Oil , Liver , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Oils , Osteoporosis , Oxidative Stress , Plasma , Prednisolone , Rats , Soybean Oil , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 131-138, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-888085

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da inclusão de óleo de peixe associado ao ácido ascórbico no diluidor para criopreservação de sêmen caprino. Dois machos da raça Boer foram submetidos à coleta de sêmen pelo método de vagina artificial, sendo os ejaculados avaliados quanto aos aspectos físicos e morfológicos. Após avaliação, formou-se um pool, seguido do fracionamento em cinco grupos: G1 - diluidor citrato-gema e G2, G3, G4 e G5 - diluidor citrato-gema acrescido de 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0% de óleo de peixe e 0,05% de ácido ascórbico, respectivamente. Após descongelamento, foram realizadas avaliações físicas do sêmen e os testes complementares de termorresistência lento (TTR), hiposmótico (HO), integridade acrossomal e compactação da cromatina espermática. Houve comportamento linear crescente (P<0,05) para motilidade pós-descongelamento. Não houve diferença (P>0,05) para vigor pós-descongelamento (2,00±0,24). No TTR não houve diferença (P>0,05) para motilidade e vigor espermáticos entre os tempos cinco e 180min, com médias inicial e final de 62,17±12,13 e 14,29±10,55 para motilidade e de 2,00±0,52 e 0,49±0,44 para vigor. Não houve diferença (P>0,05) para o HO, com porcentagem média de espermatozoides reativos de 23,5±5,96%. Houve comportamento linear crescente para acrossoma íntegro e decrescente para acrossoma irregular (P<0,05). Não houve diferença (P>0,05) na compactação da cromatina, com 97,06±1,17% de cromatina íntegra. A inclusão até 4% de óleo de peixe acrescido de ácido ascórbico no diluidor melhorou motilidade e integridade de acrossoma após a criopreservação.(AU)


The study aimed to evaluate the effect of fish oil inclusion associated with ascorbic acid in the thinner for goat semen cryopreservation. Two male Boers underwent semen collection through the artificial vagina method, ejaculates being then assessed for physical and morphological aspects. After evaluation, a pool was formed, followed by the split into five groups: G1 - yolk-citrate extender and G2, G3, G4 and G5 - yolk-citrate extender plus 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0% fish oil and 0.05% ascorbic acid, respectively. After thawing, physical evaluations of semen were assessed and additional testing slow heat resistance (TTR), hiposmotic (HO), acrosome integrity and compression of sperm chromatin. There was linear increase (P<0.05) post-thaw motility. No difference was obtained for post-thaw vigor and there was no influence of the association of fish oil and ascorbic acid in TTR. Plasma membrane integrity, by hyposmotic test (HO), presented a mean of reactive spermatozoa of 23.5±5.96% (P>0.05). There was linear increase for intact acrosome and decreasing acrosome irregular (P<0.05). In the analysis of the chromatin compaction, approximately 3% of damages (P>0.05) were observed. The inclusion of 4% fish oil plus ascorbic acid in diluter improved motility and acrosome integrity after cryopreservation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Ruminants/embryology , Cryopreservation/veterinary , Fish Oils
9.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 91 p. figuras, tabelas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1099799

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Segundo a Organização Mundial de Saúde qualidade de vida (QV) compreende "a percepção do ser humano de sua posição na vida no contexto da cultura e sistema de valores nos quais ele vive e em relação aos seus objetivos, expectativas, padrões e preocupações". Já foi comprovado os benefícios da terapia neoadjuvante na redução do risco de recorrência local, melhora da margem de ressecção cirúrgica e maiores chances de cura através da resposta patológica completa. Porém, apesar dos benefícios desses tratamentos, existem efeitos adversos relacionados à toxicidade e complicações cirúrgicas e pós-cirúrgicas que interferem drasticamente na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Em estudos pré-clínicos a incorporação de ácidos graxos eicosapentaenoico (EPA) e docosaexaenoico (DHA) - provenientes do óleo de peixe - tem mostrado interferir em vias de inflamação, sinalização celular e transcrição gênica melhorando a resposta ao tratamento e consequentemente a qualidade de vida. Objetivo: O objetivo primário desta pesquisa foi verificar se o consumo diário de 2,4g de EPA+DHA concomitante a terapia neoadjuvante e até um dia antes da cirurgia interferiria na qualidade de vida de pacientes com câncer de reto durante o tratamento. Os objetivos secundários foram avaliar complicações intra e pós-cirúrgicas, resposta patológica e estado nutricional dos pacientes e relacionar essas informações com qualidade de vida e ingestão de óleo de peixe. Metodologia: Um total de 111 pacientes com adenocarcinoma de reto foram randomizados quanto à suplementação diária de 2,4 g de EPA+DHA concomitante ao tratamento neoadjuvante. Após necessidade de exclusão de alguns pacientes 106 estavam aptos para participação das avaliações do projeto, que aconteceram em cinco momentos: M1 - pré-tratamento, M2 - ao termino da quimioradioterapia, M3 - quatro semanas após quimioradioterapia e M4 - um dia antes da cirurgia. No pós-operatório as informações foram adquiridas através do prontuário eletrônico. A qualidade de vida foi avaliada através dos questionários da Organização Europeia de Pesquisa e Tratamento do Câncer, EORTC QLQ-C30 e QLQ-CR29, que foram aplicados em todos os momentos do estudo. Resultados: Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos controle (GC) e o grupo intervenção (GI) quanto as características sociodemográficas e clínicas. Com relação às variáveis do estado nutricional foi possível perceber que a quimioradioterapia resultou em deterioração do estado nutricional em ambos os grupos sendo percebida melhora do estado nutricional no M3 e M4, não havendo, porém, diferenças significativas entre os grupos para todas as variáveis. Os resultados dos questionários de qualidade de vida mostraram no M1 (primeira avaliação) que o GC se apresentava mais sintomático para disúria (P = 0,041) e distensão abdominal (P = 0,036), sendo que ao final da radio e quimioterapia o sintoma disúria permaneceu prevalente para o GC (P = 0,031). No M3 o GI apresentou-se menos sintomático para dor (P = 0,045), dor anorretal (P = 0,009) e dispaurenia (P = 0,041), e para escala de função apresentou menos ansiedade (P = 0,033) quando comparados ao GC. Um dia antes da cirurgia (M4) o GC apresentou-se com maior perda de apetite (P = 0,016) e distensão abdominal (P = 0,007) quando comparado com o GI. Com relação aos efeitos adversos do tratamento neoadjuvante o GI apresentou-se com menor quantidade de sintomas relatados do que o GC (P = 0,045). Conclusão: A suplementação com EPA e DHA em pacientes com câncer de reto melhorou a QV ao diminuir disúria, dor, dor anorretal, dispaurenia, distensão abdominal, perda de apetite e ansiedade quando comparados ao GC e interferiu nos efeitos adversos da RDT e QT ao diminuir significativamente a quantidade de toxicidades relatadas pelos pacientes do GI quando comparados ao GC (AU)


Introduction: According to the Health World Organization, Quality of Life (QoL) comprises "the perception of a human being regarding their position in life in the context of culture and a value system in which they live, related to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns". The benefits of neoadjuvant therapy have already been proven, such as risk reduction of local recurrence, margin improvement of surgical resection and greater chances of cure through the complete pathological response. However, despite the benefits of these treatments, there are adverse effects related to toxicity and surgical and post-surgical complications which drastically interfere with patient's quality of life. In pre-clinical studies, the incorporation of fatty acids as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) ­ derived from fish oil ­ have shown to interfere in inflammation pathways, cellular signaling and gene transition, improving treatment response and therefore the quality of life. Objective: The primary goal of the present research was to verify if daily consumption of 2,4 g of EPA+DHA concomitant to neoadjuvant therapy and up to one day before surgery would interfere in patient's quality of life during treatment. The secondary objectives were to assess intra and post-surgical complications, pathological response and nutritional state of patients and to relate this information with quality of life and fish oil intake. Method: A total of 111 patients with rectum adenocarcinoma were randomly assigned for daily supplementation of 2,4 g of EPA+DHA concomitant to neoadjuvant treatment. After the need for exclusion of some patients 106 were suitable for participation in the projects assessments, which occurred in five moments: M1 ­ pre-treatment, M2 ­ at the end of chemoradiotherapy, M3 ­ four weeks after chemoradiotherapy and M4 ­ one day before surgery. At post-operative information were obtained through electronic record. Quality of life was assessed through the European Organization of Research and Treatment for Cancer, EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR29, which were applied in all moments of the study. Results: There were no significant differences between control group (CG) and intervention group (IG) regarding sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. About nutritional state variables, it was possible to notice that chemoradiotherapy resulted in the deterioration of the nutritional state in both groups, improvement of the nutritional state was noticed in M3 and M4, however, there were no significant differences among groups for all variables. The results of quality of life questionnaires showed that in M1 (first assessment) the CG was presented more symptomatic for dysuria (P = 0,041) and abdominal distention (P = 0,036), in that at the end of radio and chemotherapy the dysuria symptom remained prevalent for CG (P = 0,031). In M3 the IG was presented less symptomatic for pain (P = 0,045), anorectal pain (P = 0,009) and dyspareunia (P = 0,041), and for scale function presented less anxiety (P = 0,033) when compared to the CG. One day before surgery (M4) the CG presented greater loss of appetite (P = 0,016) and abdominal distention (P = 0,007) when compared to the IG. Regarding adverse effects of neoadjuvant treatment, the IG presented less quantity of reported symptoms than the CG (P = 0,045). Conclusion: The supplementation with EPA and DHA in patients with rectum cancer improved QoL by decreasing dysuria, pain, anorectal pain, dyspareunia, abdominal distention, loss of appetite and anxiety when compared to the CG and interfered in the adverse effects of chemoradiotherapy by significantly decreasing the amount of toxicity reported by the IG patients when compared to the CG (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Life , Rectal Neoplasms , Fish Oils , Dietary Supplements , Neoadjuvant Therapy
10.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 42: 1-6, Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-881538

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is an immune mediated chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology and characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and inappropriate immune activation, which affects the skin and joints as well.The immunopathogenesis of psoriasis involves changes in the innate and acquired (T lymphocytes) immune system. The cells of the innate immune system when activated produce growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines that act on cells of the acquired immune system and vice versa, being characterized as atype 1 immune response disease. Fish oil n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), reduce symptoms in many inflammatory skin diseases. The mechanism of action of fish oil in the treatment of psoriasis is widely based on the alteration of epidermal and blood cell membrane lipid composition. In the present study, we performed a review of the several studies, which analyzed the action of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with psoriasis. Taken together, the majority of the studies showed that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly from marine origin, have beneficial effects and can be utilized as adjuvant therapy in psoriasis treatment. Both oral and intravenous administration of fish oil n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had positive effects. However, further studies are warranted to answer many intriguing questions, for instance, the ideal quantity of fish oil to be utilized, the effect on different forms and severity of psoriasis and last, but not least, the consequences of using fish oil n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the cardiovascular features of patients with psoriasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/immunology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Psoriasis/therapy , Fish Oils/therapeutic use
11.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 67(4): 282-290, dic. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1021298

ABSTRACT

Existe consenso científico acerca de la necesidad de cambiar hábitos de alimentación y aumentar la actividad física como estrategias para prevenir y paliar la epidemia de sobrepeso y obesidad. En este estudio se evaluaron los efectos de dietas isocalóricas e isolipídicas, con diferente calidad de lípidos, sobre algunos indicadores de síndrome metabólico en ratas de la línea IIMb/Beta de 70 días de edad. Este modelo murino manifiesta obesidad acompañada de hipertriacilglicerolemia y resistencia insulínica desde la pubertad y desarrolla diabetes tipo 2 en la adultez. Se suministraron durante 90 días tres dietas formuladas según AIN-93 (American Institute of Nutrition-93) ad libitum: Dieta AIN con aceite de girasol como fuente de lípidos; Dieta JB con grasa bovina (remplazando al aceite de girasol) y Dieta JBn-3 con grasa bovina más ácidos grasos poliinsaturados n-3 provenientes de aceite de pescado. Los animales que consumieron la dieta JBn-3 manifestaron disminución (p<0,05) en algunos indicadores de sindrome metabólico como la hiperinsulinemia, la hipertriacilglicerolemia y el depósito de lípidos totales, colesterol y triacilgliceroles hepáticos. Si bien se requieren más estudios, se confirma la validez de las intervenciones dietarias para el abordaje de la obesidad y sus comorbilidades recomendadas por los organismos internacionales(AU)


There is scientific consensus about the importance of changing dietary habits and increasing physical activity for the prevention and treatment of obesity and its co-morbidities. The effects of isocaloric and isolipidic diets with different type of fat on symptoms of the metabolic syndrome in 70 days old IIMb/Beta rats were evaluated. This murine model develops obesity, hypetryacilglycerolemia and insulin resistance since puberty, progressing to type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Three diets formulated according to AIN-93 (American Institute of Nutrition-93) were offered ad libitum during 90 days: Diet AIN with sunflower oil; Diet JB with bovine fat (replacing sunflower oil) and Diet JBn-3 with bovine fat and PUFAn-3 from fish oil. The group fed JBn-3 diet showed diminution (p<0,05) on several of the clinical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, such as: hyperinsulinemia, hypertriacylglycerolemia and hepatic total lipids, cholesterol and triacylglycerols. Although more research is required, the study supports the beneficial effects of dietary approaches on obesity and its comorbidities(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Fatty Acids, Essential , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Metabolic Syndrome , Lipids , Fish Oils , Feeding Behavior
12.
Cambios rev. méd ; 16(2): 25-30, jul.- 2017. ^eilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-981204

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El pescado es una fuente completa de proteínas de fácil digestión. Su aceite, vitaminas y minerales proporcionan un funcionamiento normal a todos los sistemas básicos del organismo. Estudiar las características del crecimiento postnatal del músculo esquelético del pez permite formular propuestas basadas en evidencias para la producción de carne de pescado de buena calidad. Material y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo de más de 300 especies de peces bajo principios análogos: edad joven de 20 a 500 días, de 860 días y con 2 a 3 años bajo crianza con tecnología de granja. El complejo metodológico incluyó morfometría, disección anatómica, métodos de preparación histológica, microscopio electrónico (Quanta 200 3D) y procesador estadístico. Resultados: Las condiciones tecnológicas y la conducta alimentaria garantizan el crecimiento del pez tipo pequeño (fingerlings). Según los registros del estudio, el incremento del peso del cuerpo de los peces carpa entre 15 y 135 días, fitoplankton para carpas plateadas sobre 190 y 301 veces, fitovorous para carpa herbívora, 128 a 302 veces. Discusión: El crecimiento vigoroso hiperplásico en el período inicial de la ontogénesis influye en el crecimiento posterior de los animales adultos. La dinámica estacional de las características morfométricas de las fibras musculares está influida por la intensidad de los procesos metabólicos del organismo.


Introduction: Fish as a food product is a source of complete, easily digested proteins, fish oil, vitamins, minerals which provide normal operation of all basic systems in the organism. Studying the general and specific characteristics of postnatal growth of fish skeletal muscles allow us to formulate evidence-based approach to the production of good quality fish. Methods: Prospective study of more than 300 species under analogue principles: : juveniles aged from 20 till 500 days, species aged 860 days at two- and three years farming technology. Complex methodological approach including morphometrics, anatomic dissection, histological set up methods with electronic scanning microscopy (Quanta 200 3D) was used. Statistical data processing was performed. Results: Technological conditions and feeding behaviour guarantee the intensity of fingerlings growth. According to our records carp increases body weight up to from 50 (at 3 year technology) to 411 times (at 2 year technology) between 15 and 135 days; phytoplankton silver carp up to 190-301 times, phytovorous grass carp up to 128-302 times respectively. Discussion: Vigorous hyperplastic growth of carps at early stages of postnatal ontogenesis influences on further growth of mature animals. Seasonal dynamics of morphometric characteristics of muscular fibers is determined by intensity of metabolic processes proceeding in organism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Goldfish , Aquaculture , Fisheries , Anatomy, Veterinary , Fish Oils , Muscle Development , Muscles
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166005

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer related death in the world. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that there is an association between consumption of dietary fat and colon cancer risk. Not only the amount but also the type and the ratio of fatty acids comprising dietary fats consumed have been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of colon cancer. Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have been known to inhibit development of colon cancer by downregulating the expression of genes involved in colon carcinogenesis and also by altering the membrane lipid composition. Data from laboratory, epidemiological, and clinical studies substantiate the beneficial role of n-3 PUFAs in preventing colitis and subsequent development of colon cancer. In addition, recent studies suggest that some n-3 PUFAs can be effective as an adjuvant with chemotherapeutic agents and other natural anticancer compounds in the management of colon cancer. In this review, we discuss chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of fish oil derived long chain n-3 PUFAs, particularly EPA and DHA, with focus on synergetic effects of which they exert when combined with chemotherapeutic agents and other natural compounds.


Subject(s)
Carcinogenesis , Colitis , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Dietary Fats , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Fish Oils , Membranes , Therapeutic Uses
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185785

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive malignant tumor of the digestive system and radical resection, which is available to very few patients, might be the only possibility for cure. Since therapeutic choices are limited at the advanced stage, prevention is more important for reducing incidence in high-risk individuals with family history of pancreatic cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of fish oil or ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the risk of pancreatic cancers. Dietary fish oil supplementation has shown to suppress pancreatic cancer development in animal models. Previous experimental studies revealed that several hallmarks of cancer involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, such as the resistance to apoptosis, hyper-proliferation with abnormal Wnt/β-catenin signaling, expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors, and invasion. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acid and rich in cold oceanic fish oil. DHA shows anti-cancer activity by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis, inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and decreasing extracellular matrix degradation and expression of pro-angiogenic factors in pancreatic cancer cells. This review will summarize anti-cancer mechanism of DHA in pancreatic carcinogenesis based on the recent studies.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Carcinogenesis , Digestive System , Epidemiologic Studies , Extracellular Matrix , Fatty Acids , Fish Oils , Humans , Incidence , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Models, Animal , Oxidative Stress , Pancreatic Neoplasms
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106740

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study is a comparative evaluation of the incidence of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) when administering intravenous fat emulsions containing fish oil. METHODS: The medical records of patients who were in the neonatal intensive care unit at Severance Hospital from January, 2012 to December 2015, were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who were administered either soybean oil (SO) or SMOF (containing soybean oil, medium chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil) more than 14 days were included. The patients were excluded if they were administered both agents or had underlying hepatic disease. An increase in bilirubin to 2 mg/dL was defined as PNALD. RESULTS: PNALD occurred in only 8 out of a total of 77 patients: 6 out of 31 (19.4%) in the SO group and 2 out of 46 (4.3%) in the SMOF group (P=0.055). The number of patients, whose lab values, such as direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, asparate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino-transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, C-reactive protein, serum triglyceride, and alkaline phosphate, exceeded the normal range, were similar in both groups. The gestational age, birth body weight, and APGAR score at 1 min and 5 min were significantly higher in the SO group and the PN duration was significantly long in the SMOF group. Considering only term infants, there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics and incidence of PNALD. The number of patients whose AST exceeded the normal range was significantly higher in the SO group (P=0.034). CONCLUSION: The incidence of PNALD was similar in both groups. On the other hand, considering the tendency, there was a high correlation between the type of lipid emulsion and an increased direct bilirubin level in the SO group.


Subject(s)
Alanine , Apgar Score , Bilirubin , Body Weight , C-Reactive Protein , Emulsions , Fat Emulsions, Intravenous , Fish Oils , gamma-Glutamyltransferase , Gestational Age , Hand , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Liver Diseases , Liver , Medical Records , Olive Oil , Parenteral Nutrition , Parturition , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies , Soybean Oil , Triglycerides
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89525

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the effects of total parenteral nutrition (PN) using different lipid emulsions in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Fifty-two patients were randomized to receive soybean oil + medium chain triglycerides (MCT) (group I), soybean oil + olive oil (group II), soybean oil + olive oil + fish oil (group III) as a lipid source. PN was started on postoperative day 1 and patients were maintained on PN for a minimum period of 4 days. Laboratory variables (CRP, prealbumin, transferrin) were measured before surgery and on postoperative days. RESULTS: Three treatment groups were included in the study. Patients in group I received long chain triglycerides (LCT) + LCT/MCT emulsion (%75 LCT + %25 LCT/MCT); Patients in group II received olive oil based emulsion (80% olive oil + 20% soybean oil, ClinOleic); Patients in group III received fish oil in addition to olive oil based emulsion (%85 ClinOleic + %15 Omegaven; Fresenius Kabi). The following 14 parameters were assessed: body weight, CRP, prealbumin, transferrin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, total antioxidant status, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, oxidized low density lipoprotein-2, complete blood cell, international normalized ratio, D-dimer, activated partially thromboplastin time, prothrombin time. All other parameters showed no differences among the groups. CONCLUSION: The results of our trial demonstrate a potential beneficial effect of soybean oil/olive oil based lipid emulsions for use in PN regarding inflammatory response and oxidant capacity in the treatment of patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Cells , Body Weight , Emulsions , Fish Oils , Humans , Interleukin-6 , International Normalized Ratio , Necrosis , Olive Oil , Parenteral Nutrition , Parenteral Nutrition, Total , Prealbumin , Prothrombin Time , Soybean Oil , Soybeans , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances , Thromboplastin , Transferrin , Triglycerides
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42082

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Omega-3 fatty acid is known for immunonutrition in that it has anti-inflammatory properties and improves the patients' immune function. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fish oil-based lipid emulsion for adult patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 90 adult allogeneic HSCT patients from July 2011 to June 2015. The patients were divided into two groups according to the lipid type provided; fish oil group (FO group, n=55) and non-fish oil group (NFO group, n=35). The demographics, parenteral nutrition and lipid emulsion duration, length of hospital stay (LOS), weight change, 30 day mortality, survival period, incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), neutropenic fever, sepsis, and re-hospitalization were collected from the electronic medical records. RESULTS: The patients' characteristics including age, sex, body mass index, and underlying disease were similar in the two groups. The incidence of aGVHD and infectious complications, mortality, LOS, re-hospitalization were also similar. The FO group showed weight gains, whereas the NFO group showed weight loss (FO vs. NFO=0.34% vs. -1.08%, P=0.245). CONCLUSION: The clinical outcomes were similar in the two groups but there was a tendency for gain weight in the FO group. A large, well designed study, and a dosing study will also be needed to determine the optimal dose range for HSCT patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Mass Index , Demography , Electronic Health Records , Fatty Acids , Fever , Fish Oils , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Mortality , Parenteral Nutrition , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis , Weight Gain , Weight Loss
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32827

ABSTRACT

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in the elderly in developed countries but therapeutic options are limited. Many observational studies have shown that a high dietary intake of antioxidants, fish oil, and carotenoids is associated with a lower risk of prevalent and incident AMD. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 1 demonstrated that routine supplementation with a certain formulation of vitamins C, E, β-carotene, and zinc with copper reduces the risk of worsening AMD and severe vision loss by 25% over a 6-year period in patients with intermediate or advanced AMD in 1 eye or intermediate AMD in both eyes. The recent Age- Related Eye Disease Study 2 demonstrated that a certain combination of lutein and zeaxanthin is a safe and effective alternative to β-carotene, which is known to be associated with lung cancer in smokers. The aim of this review focuses on the role of supplements in the treatment and prevention of AMD and sums up the recent findings about the micronutrients most frequently used for AMD.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antioxidants , Blindness , Carotenoids , Copper , Developed Countries , Eye Diseases , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Fish Oils , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lutein , Macular Degeneration , Micronutrients , Vision Disorders , Vitamins , Zeaxanthins , Zinc
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728671

ABSTRACT

The advantages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been well established. However, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-diabetic action of MUFAs remain unclear. This study examined the anti-hyperglycemic effect and explored the molecular mechanisms involved in the actions of fish oil- rich in MUFAs that had been acquired from hybrid catfish (Pangasius larnaudii×Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) among experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetic rats that were fed with fish oil (500 and 1,000 mg/kg BW) for 12 weeks significantly reduced the fasting plasma glucose levels without increasing the plasma insulin levels. The diminishing levels of plasma lipids and the muscle triglyceride accumulation as well as the plasma leptin levels were identified in T2DM rats, which had been administrated with fish oil. Notably, the plasma adiponectin levels increased among these rats. The fish oil supplementation also improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and pancreatic histological changes. Moreover, the supplementation of fish oil improved insulin signaling (p-Akt(Ser473) and p-PKC-ζ/λ(Thr410/403)), p-AMPK(Thr172) and membrane GLUT4 protein expressions, whereas the protein expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and nuclear NF-κB) as well as p-PKC-θ(Thr538) were down regulated in the skeletal muscle. These data indicate that the effects of fish oil-rich in MUFAs in these T2DM rats were partly due to the attenuation of insulin resistance and an improvement in the adipokine imbalance. The mechanisms of the anti-hyperglycemic effect are involved in the improvement of insulin signaling, AMPK activation, GLUT4 translocation and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine protein expressions.


Subject(s)
Adipokines , Adiponectin , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Animals , Blood Glucose , Catfishes , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Fish Oils , Glucose , Glucose Transporter Type 4 , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Leptin , Membranes , Muscle, Skeletal , Plasma , Rats , Triglycerides
20.
Actual. nutr ; 16(4): [114]-[121], Dic 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-967777

ABSTRACT

Introducción: dado que el aceite de girasol alto oleico (AGAO) es una alternativa viable, ampliamente utilizada, planteamos el agregado de fitoesteroles o aceite de pescado como una nueva estrategia nutricional que logre posicionar al AGAO como una fuente de lípidos saludable. Objetivos: evaluar el efecto del enriquecimiento de AGAO con fitoesteroles (AGAO-F) naturales o suplementación con aceite de pescado (AGAO-n3) sobre el perfil lipídico-lipoproteico, la grasa corporal total y la masa ósea, en un modelo experimental de hipercolesterolemia nutricional (HCN) en crecimiento y analizar el beneficio de dicho enriquecimiento/suplementación en relación al aceite de oliva extra virgen (AO). Materiales y métodos: 48 ratas Wistar macho al destete recibieron por tres semanas (T3) una dieta aterogénica rica en grasa saturada (GS) y col para inducir HCN. A T3 se midió la colesterolemia (col-T) y se dividieron en cuatro grupos. Por cinco semanas (T8), se reemplazó GS por AGAO o AGAO-F o AGAO-n3 o AO. Las dietas se administraron ad libitum y se registró zoometría y consumo (kcal/100g peso corporal/día). A T8 se evaluaron: índice hepatosomático (IH, %), col-T, colnoHDL, col-HDL y TG séricos (mg/dL), % grasa corporal total y distribución, densidad (DMOg/cm2 ) y contenido mineral óseo (CMO,g) de esqueleto total (DPX). Resultados: sin diferencias en peso (g), longitud (cm), consumo e IH. AGAO-F mejoró todos los lípidos séricos. AGAO-n3 mostró menores niveles de col-T, col-noHDL (p=0,000); no de TG. Sin diferencias en grasa corporal y CMO; AGAO-n3: menor porcentaje de grasa intestinal (p=0,003) y DMO (p=0,03). Respecto a AO: AGAO-F y AGAO-n3 mejoraron el perfil-lipídico y AGAO-n3 < grasa intestinal. Conclusiones: en relación a AGAO y AO, AGAO-F y AGAOn3 disminuyeron el riesgo cardiometabólico. En relación a la masa ósea, el agregado de fitoesteroles o aceite de pescado no logró en el tiempo estudiado reducir el riesgo de osteopenia/ osteoporosis impuesto por la HCN.


Introduction: our previous studies demonstrated that the replacement of saturated fat by MUFA rich-diets ameliorated some of the alterations induced by saturated fat. Since high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) constitutes an important source of MUFA and widely distributed in human nutrition, a supplementation of HOSO may prevent osteopenia and cardiovascular risk improving the biochemical profile. Objectives: the effects of replacing dietary saturated fat, by different ω-9MUFA sources supplemented with natural sterols or fish oil, on serum lipoprotein profile, body fat and distribution, bone mineral content and density in growing hypercholesterolemic rats, were studied. Materials and methods: forty eight Wistar rats (aged=21days) were fed "ad libitum" with an atherogenic diet, rich in saturated fat and cholesterol for 3 weeks, to induce hypercholesterolemia. Then, rats were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups, according to the source of oil replacing saturated fat: extra virgin olive oil (OO); HOSO, HOSO plus phytosterols (HOSO-P) or HOSO plus fish-oil (HOSO-F) for 5 weeks. After 3 weeks, zoometrics and diet consumption were recorded; hepatic index (HI), serum lipids, body fat content and distribution, bone mass content (BMC) and density (BMD), were assessed. Results: groups showed no significant differences in zoometrics, diet consumption and HI (p>0,05). HOSO-P rats showed a reduction in T-Chol and nonHDL-Chol and the lowest TG levels; HOSO-F showed lower T-chol and non HDL-chol levels (p=0,000), but not TG. Total body fat and BMC were not different among groups. HOSO-F rats showed the lowest intestinal fat content (p=0,003) and BMD (p=0,03). When compared to OO, HOSO-P and HOSO-F improved serum lipids and additionally, HOSO-F showed a reduction in intestinal fat. Conclusions: The replacement of saturated fat rich-diet by HOSO supplemented with phytosterols or fish oil induces bene- ficial effects on serum lipids and cardiovascular disease. However, they could not prevent the detrimental effects on bone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fish Oils , Oils , Olive Oil , Food , Helianthus , Hypercholesterolemia
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