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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257023, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360225

ABSTRACT

The present study examines the correlations between fifteen morphometric and ten meristic characters and total length (TL) of males, females, and combined sexes of Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833) collected from Karachi fish harbor, West Wharf of Karachi Coast. Statistical analyses of linear regression relationships show mostly strong correlations (r≥0.70; p<0.05) between total length (TL) and most morphometric characters in males, females, and combined sexes, except the height of pectoral-fin (PFH), and pelvic-fin base length (PelFL); whereas, meristic characters were found to be constant and indicate weak or negative type correlations (r≤0.50; p>0.05) with total length (TL). Hence, according to our present results, there is a direct relationship between the total length of fish and all morphometric characters, which were found to be the best indicators of positive allometric pattern growth in fish. Moreover, analysis of the 2-sample t-test revealed (t-test; p>0.05) that no sexual dimorphism was reported in Alepes vari. Thus, our present study could be valuable in systematic classification, sexual dimorphism, and management of this species on the Karachi coast.


O presente estudo examina as correlações entre 15 caracteres morfométricos e 10 caracteres merísticos e comprimento total (CT) de machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados de Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833), coletados do porto de Karachi, West Wharf, na costa de Karachi. As análises estatísticas das relações de regressão linear mostraram, principalmente, correlações fortes (r ≥ 0,70; p < 0,05) entre o CT e a maioria dos caracteres morfométricos em machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados, exceto a altura da nadadeira peitoral e o comprimento da base da nadadeira pélvica, enquanto os caracteres merísticos foram constantes, indicando correlações fracas ou negativas (r ≤ 0,50; p > 0,05) com o CT. Portanto, de acordo com nossos resultados, existe uma relação direta entre o CT dos peixes e todos os caracteres morfométricos, que foram considerados os melhores indicadores de crescimento do padrão alométrico positivo em peixes. Além disso, a análise do teste t de duas amostras revelou (teste t; p > 0,05) que nenhum dimorfismo sexual foi relatado em A. vari.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Arabia
2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514962

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Pácora (Plagioscion magdalenae) es una especie nativa de Colombia y en categoría de casi amenazada a nivel del país, de la que poco se conoce acerca de las estructuras con aporte etológico en su historia de vida. Objetivo: Analizar el desarrollo gonadal relacionado con la espermatogénesis de P. magdalenae y las implicaciones taxonómicas a partir de la vejiga natatoria. Métodos: Realizamos siete muestreos en dos periodos climáticos: el primero en octubre de 2019 a febrero de 2020 de recolectas bimensuales y la segunda de octubre 2020 a enero 2021 de recolectas mensuales; con el fin de abarcar cada momento del pulso de inundación de la cuenca baja del Magdalena. Describimos la histomorfología testicular y las características macroscópicas de la vejiga natatoria de la especie. Además, analizamos aspectos como relaciones morfométricas, clases de tallas por sexos, la proporción sexual y la época de madurez sexual. Resultados: Analizamos 142 ejemplares y 4 intervalos de tallas fueron establecidos (entre 145 y 575 mm LE), 66 fueron machos y 73 hembras con una proporción sexual global 1.1:0.9 (hembra-macho) sin diferencias. Los machos tienen testículos de tipo tubular, protegidos por el peritoneo que se encuentra recubierto por la musculatura sónica de la vejiga natatoria, la cual posee forma de ''zanahoria'' sin apéndices, con dos bandas laterales de músculos intrínsecos (promedio entre 6.75 cm de largo y 1.48 cm de ancho) unidos por una aponeurosis y que solo se encuentran en machos sexualmente maduros. Conclusión: Los testículos poseen una organización de tipo lobular irrestricto y la espermatogénesis se da en lóbulos seminíferos. La vejiga natatoria de la Pácora es simple y no tiene estructuras accesorias. La distribución geográfica de P. magdalenae se restringe a la cuenca del río Magdalena en Colombia.


Introduction: The Pácora (Plagioscion magdalenae) is a species native to Colombia and in near-threatened category at the country level, of which little is known about the structures with ethological contribution in its life history. Objective: To analyze the gonadal development related to spermatogenesis of P. magdalenae and the taxonomic implications from the swim bladder. Methods: We collected seven samples in two climatic periods: the first from October 2019 to February 2020 of bimonthly collections, and the second from October 2020 to January 2021 of monthly collections; to cover every moment of the flood pulse of the lower Magdalena basin. We described the testicular histomorphology and macroscopic characteristics of the swim bladder of the species. In addition, we analyzed aspects such as morphometric relationships, size classes by sex, sex ratio and time of sexual maturity. Results: We analyzed 142 specimens and established 4 size intervals (between 145 and 575 mm SL), 66 were males and 73 females with an overall sex ratio of 1.1:0.9 (female-male) with no differences. Males have tubular testes protected by the peritoneum covered by the sonic musculature of the swim bladder, which has a ''carrot'' shape without appendages, with two lateral bands of intrinsic muscles (average between 6.75 cm long and 1.48 cm wide) connected by an aponeurosis and found only in sexually mature males. Conclusion: The testes have an unrestricted lobular organization and spermatogenesis occurs in the seminiferous lobes. The swim bladder of the Pácora is simple and has no accessory structures. The geographic distribution of P. magdalenae is restricted to the Magdalena River basin in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Fishes/anatomy & histology , Gonads , Colombia
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-5, 2023. map, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468965

ABSTRACT

This study estimated the length–weight relationships of 16 fish species occurring close to the shores of sandy beaches along the lower Negro River basin, Brazilian Amazon. The specimens were captured for one day each month, in October to November 2016, early in the morning and early evening, using trawl net (20 m length and 3.5 m height, 5 mm mesh between opposite knots). Measurements were taken for standard length (SL – 0.1 cm precision) and total weight (TW – 0.01 g precision). The parameters a and b of the equation WT = a.LTb were estimated. The a values ranged from 0.0018 to 0.0226 and b values ranged from 2.5271 to 3.3244. This study also provides new data on of maximum lengths for six species, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa and Trachydoras microstomus, and new reports of the LWRs parameters of 15 fish species.


Este estudo estimou as relações comprimento-peso de 16 espécies de peixes que ocorrem às margens de praias arenosas ao longo da bacia do baixo Rio Negro, Amazônia brasileira. As espécies foram capturadas durante um dia de cada mês, de outubro a novembro de 2016, no início da manhã e no início da noite, usando rede de cerco (20 m de comprimento e 3,5 m de altura, 5 malha mm entre nós opostos). As medidas foram feitas para comprimento padrão (SL - precisão de 0,1 cm) e peso total (TW - precisão de 0,01 g). Os parâmetros a e b da equação WT = a.LTb foram estimados. Os valores de a variaram de 0,0018 a 0,0226 e os valores de b variaram de 2,5271 a 3,3244. Este estudo também fornece novos dados sobre comprimentos máximos para seis espécies, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa e Trachydoras microstomus, e novos reportes dos parâmetros da LWRs de 15 espécies de peixes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Fishes/growth & development
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 37-45, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385575

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Los estudios sobre sistemática y anatomía han revelado que las características del esqueleto de los batoideos muestran gran variabilidad y proporcionan información importante sobre las relaciones de parentesco de este grupo, es por ello que el objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la morfología del neurocráneo de ocho especies de batoideos. Los batoideos estudiados mostraron grandes variaciones principalmente en el rostrum, número de fontanelas, orientación de las cápsulas nasales y en la condición y desarrollo de los procesos pre y postorbitales. Las variaciones presentes en las especies estudiadas nos permitieron agrupar a los cráneos en tres morfotipos. El primero incluye a Narcine bancroftii; este morfotipo presenta características únicas, como son un rostrum cuadrado y cartílagos anterorbitarios ramificados; no presentan procesos preorbitales y postorbitales, cresta supraorbital ni apéndice rostral. El segundo morfotipo está formado por Rostroraja texana y Pseudobatus lentiginosus, los cuales tienen un rostrum bien desarrollado con un apéndice rostral en la región anterior, dos fontanelas, arcos yugales en la región occipital y procesos preorbitales y postorbitales poco desarrollados. El tercer morfotipo incluye a las especies de miliobatoideos los cuales tienen un rostrum reducido o ausente, un apéndice rostral separado del cráneo, con una fontanela y procesos preorbitales y postobitales desarrollados. La mayoría de las especies presentan variaciones morfológicas a lo largo de su desarrollo, por lo que al llevar a cabo estudios filogenéticos es importante utilizar caracteres de organismos adultos.


SUMMARY: Systematics and anatomy studies have revealed that characteristics of the batoids skeleton show significant variability and provide relevant information on the phylogenetic relationships of this group. Within this framework, our objective is describing the neurocranium morphology in eight species of batoids. Large variations were found, mainly in the rostrum, number of fontanelles, orientation of nasal capsules, and the condition and development of the pre- and post-orbital processes. These variations allowed us to group these craniums in three morphotypes. The first, including Narcine bancroftii, has unique characteristics, such as a squared rostrum and branched anterorbital cartilages; there are no pre-or post- orbital processes, supraorbital crest or rostral appendix. The second morphotype includes Rostroraja texana and Pseudobatus lentiginosus, which have a well-developed rostrum with a rostral appendix in the anterior region, two fontanelles, jugal arches in the occipital region, and pre- and post-orbital processes poorly developed. The third morphotype includes myliobatoids species, which have small or absent rostrum, rostral appendix separated from the cranium, one fontanelle, and developed pre- and post-orbital processes. Most species have morphological variations throughout their development; therefore, when conducting phylogenetic studies, using characters from adult specimens is fundamental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Skull/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Skeleton/anatomy & histology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-6, 2022. map, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468418

ABSTRACT

The "piaussu", Megaleporinus macrocephalus is an anostomatid fish species native to the basin of the Paraguay River, in the Pantanal biome of western Brazil. However, this species has now been recorded in a number of other drainages, including those of the upper Paraná, Uruguay, Jacuí, Doce, Mucuri, and Paraíba do Sulrivers. This study presents two new records of the occurrence of M. macrocephalus, in the basins of the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers in the state of Maranhão, in the Brazilian Northeast. The piaussu is a large-bodied fish of commercial interest that is widely raised on fish farms, and its occurrence in the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers is likely the result of individuals escaping from fish tanks when they overflow during the rainy season. Morphological analyses and sequences of the Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) gene confirmed the taxonomic identification of the specimens as M. macrocephalus. The COI sequences were 99.66% similar to those of M. macrocephalus deposited in the BOLDSystems database. These records extend the known distribution of M. macrocephalus to the basins of the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers in the Brazilian Northeast, highlighting a new case of introduction of exotic fish species into Brazilian river basins.


Megaleporinus macrocephalus é uma espécie de peixe anostomatídeo nativa da bacia do rio Paraguai, no bioma Pantanal do oeste do Brasil. No entanto, essa espécie já foi registrada em várias outras drenagens, incluindo as dos rios Alto Paraná, Uruguai, Jacuí, Doce, Mucuri e Paraíba do Sul. Este estudo apresenta dois novos registros da ocorrência de M. macrocephalus, nas bacias dos rios Itapecuru e Mearim, no estado do Maranhão, no nordeste brasileiro. O piaussu é um peixe de grande porte, de interesse comercial, amplamente criado em pisciculturas, e sua ocorrência nos rios Itapecuru e Mearim é provavelmente o resultado de indivíduos que escapam dos tanques quando transbordam durante a estação chuvosa. Análises morfológicas e sequências do gene da subunidade I do citocromo oxidase (COI) confirmaram a identificação taxonômica dos espécimes como M. macrocephalus. As sequências de COI foram 99,66% semelhantes às de M. macrocephalus depositadas no banco de dados BOLDSystems. Esses registros estendem a conhecida distribuição de M. macrocephalus às bacias dos rios Itapecuru e Mearim, no nordeste brasileiro, destacando um novo caso de introdução de espécies exóticas de peixes nas bacias hidrográficas brasileiras.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Fishes/genetics
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-7, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468551

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted for the taxonomic, morphometric and limnological assessment of the commercially important ichthyofauna of Sakhakot Stream, Malakand, Pakistan. The study area was divided into three sites along the water course namely Dargai Stream, Sakhakot Stream and Shergarh Stream. Fish samples were collected randomly during January to August 2017 with the help of fish gears. A taxonomic key was designed for the collected fish specimens. Ten fish species were identified belonging to 3 orders and 4 families. Family Cyprinidae was the dominant family with seven representative species while families Siluridae, Nemacheilidae and Mastacembelidae were represented by one species each. Lower mean total length and standard length was recorded in Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) as 9.2 ± 0.6 cm and 7.3 ± 0.6 cm respectively, while highest mean total length and standard length was recorded in Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) as 28.1 ± 1.7 cm and 15.9 ± 2.4 cm respectively. Mean pH of the water ranged from 6.1 at Shergarh Stream in August to 8.7 at Sakhakot Stream in January. Average temperature range was recorded from 10.9 °C in January at Dargai Stream to 18.7 °C in August at Shergarh Stream. No statistically significant difference was found for temperature (p = 0.96) and pH (p = 0.14) in the three water streams. The present study will provide a baseline for the rearing and enhancement of wild stock of the commercially important ichthyofauna in the field of aquaculture and fisheries.


O presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação taxonômica, morfométrica e limnológica da ictiofauna comercialmente importante do Riacho Sakhakot, Malakand, Paquistão. A área de estudo foi dividida em três locais ao longo do curso de água, nomeadamente Riacho Dargai, Riacho Sakhakot e Riacho Shergarh. As amostras de peixes foram coletadas aleatoriamente durante janeiro e agosto de 2017, com a ajuda de artes de peixes. Uma chave taxonômica foi projetada para os espécimes de peixes coletados. Foram identificadas dez espécies de peixes pertencentes a 3 ordens e 4 famílias. A família Cyprinidae foi a família dominante, com sete espécies representativas, enquanto as famílias Siluridae, Nemacheilidae e Mastacembelidae foram representadas por uma espécie cada. O comprimento total médio mais baixo e o comprimento padrão foram registrados em Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) como 9.2 ± 0.6 cm e 7.3 ± 0.6 cm, respectivamente, enquanto o comprimento total médio e o comprimento padrão mais altos foram registrados em Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) como 28.1 ± 1.7 cm e 15.9 ± 2.4 cm, respectivamente. O pH médio da água variou de 6.1 no Riacho Shergarh em agosto a 8.7 no Riacho Sakhakot em janeiro. A faixa de temperatura média foi registrada de 10.9 °C em janeiro no Riacho Dargai a 18.7 °C em agosto no Riacho Shergarh. Não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significativa para temperatura (p = 0,96) e pH (p = 0,14) nos três cursos de água. O presente estudo fornecerá uma linha de base para a criação e aprimoramento do estoque selvagem da ictiofauna comercialmente importante no campo da aquicultura e pesca.


Subject(s)
Animals , Classification/methods , Cyprinidae/growth & development , Catfishes , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Fishes/growth & development
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(1)2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1507812

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las diferencias morfológicas son el producto de la plasticidad fenotípica, la adaptación genética o la deriva genética, pero no siempre se requiere de poblaciones muy antiguas para conseguir adaptaciones locales si se presentan factores selectivos. Objetivo: Este trabajo examina la variación en la forma del cuerpo de peces en ríos costeros de baja altitud para determinar si existen patrones de variación morfológica entre especies y entre zonas a lo largo de estos cauces. Métodos: Desde julio 2016 a junio 2017 se realizaron una serie de muestreos ictiológicos que permitieron analizar la forma del cuerpo de tres especies, a lo largo de todo el cauce en dos ríos costeros del noroccidente ecuatoriano, con el uso de la morfometría geométrica y técnicas de análisis multivariante. Resultados: Se encontró un paralelismo en el cambio de la forma del cuerpo de las tres especies, desde la zona baja hacia la zona alta, caracterizado por una reducción en la profundidad del cuerpo. También encontramos diferentes niveles de variación alométrica en la forma del cuerpo de las tres especies. Conclusiones: Peces en estas cuencas presentan variación fenotípica influenciada por procesos ecológicos y evolutivos que se expresan en cambios paralelos en la forma del cuerpo en diferentes especies incluso en ríos que tienen rangos de altitud muy pequeños, resaltando la importancia que tienen estas cuencas como reservorios del legado evolutivo de la fauna y flora neotropical.


Introduction: Morphological differences are the product of phenotypic plasticity, genetic adaptation or genetic drift, but very old populations are not always required for local adaptation if selective factors are present. Objective: This paper examines the variation in fish body shape in low-altitude coastal rivers to determine if there are common patterns of morphological variation among species and along the course of the watersheds. Methods: From July 2016 to June 2017, a series of ichthyologic samples were collected to analyze the body shape of three species along the entire watercourse of two coastal rivers in Northwestern Ecuador, using geometric morphometrics and multivariate analysis techniques. Results: A parallel change in body shape was found from the lower zone to the upper zone in the three species, characterized by a decrease in body depth. We also found varying levels of allometric variation in the body shape of the three species. Conclusions: Different fish species in these watersheds exhibit parallel changes in body shape along the watercourse that are influenced by ecological and evolutionary processes even though these rivers vary little in altitude, highlighting the importance of these basins as reservoirs of the evolutionary legacy of the fauna and flora in the Neotropics.


Key words: morphological parallelism; allometry; geometric morphometrics; Neotropics


Subject(s)
Animals , Anatomic Variation , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Ecuador
8.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210004, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340242

ABSTRACT

Body size influences the effect of individuals and assemblages on ecosystem functioning and defines how they respond to ecosystem changes. We evaluated how body size structure of fish assemblages and functional groups respond to human modifications at catchment, riparian and local scales in 40 streams of the Pampa grasslands, southern Brazil. To describe body size structure, we calculated the mean, coefficient of variation, skewness, and kurtosis, using individual biomass data for the entire fish assemblages and separately by functional group. The results suggested that body size response depends on body size metrics, functional group, and the spatial scale of land use. From 11 functional groups, only five showed a clear response to land use. In general, most functional groups had a higher concentration of small sizes (left-skewed) in response to increased land use measured at distinct spatial scales (local, riparian, and catchment), and a greater concentration of sizes in a narrow and central distribution (higher kurtosis). However, the responses were complex and varied between the functional groups. We conclude that considering ecomorphological and trophic features separately by functional group and assessing multiple body size metrics contributed greatly to detecting the influence of land use on fish body size.(AU)


O tamanho corporal influencia o efeito de indivíduos e assembleias no funcionamento dos ecossistemas e define como estes respondem à alterações ambientais. Investigamos como a estrutura do tamanho corporal de assembleias e grupos funcionais de peixes responde ao uso da terra quantificado em três escalas espaciais (sub-bacia, ripária e local), em 40 riachos do Pampa, sul do Brasil. Para tanto, calculamos média, coeficiente de variação, assimetria e kurtose usando biomassa individual em nível de assembleia e grupo funcional. As respostas do tamanho corporal dependeram da métrica utilizada, do grupo funcional e da escala de uso da terra. Entre os 11 grupos funcionais identificados, apenas cinco mostraram uma resposta clara ao uso da terra. Em geral, a maioria dos grupos mostrou uma assimetria na distribuição em favor de menores tamanhos corporais e uma concentração de tamanhos em uma distribuição estreita e central (alta kurtose) em resposta ao uso da terra quantificado nas três escalas espaciais. Entretanto, as respostas foram complexas e variaram entre grupos funcionais. A consideração de atributos ecomorfológicos e tróficos separadamente por grupo funcional e a avaliação de múltiplas métricas contribuem de forma importante para detectar a influência do uso da terra no tamanho corporal de peixes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomass , Rivers , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Body Composition , Agriculture
9.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 23(1, cont.): e2305, 20200000. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129301

ABSTRACT

Estudos morfométricos são amplamente utilizados em espécies terrestres de grande porte. O pirarucu é uma espécie de peixe carnívoro de rápido crescimento alcançando 10 kg durante seu primeiro ano de vida em ambiente de cultivo. Objetivou-se avaliar correlações entre peso e medidas corporais de pirarucus visando elaborar equações para estimar o peso desses, por meio da coleta de medidas morfométricas. Como também comparar a concentração de glicose sanguínea de acordo com o peso. Foram avaliados 16 exemplares com pesos médios variando entre 23,58 e 52,87kg. De cada animal foram obtidos o peso (kg), comprimento total (cm), comprimento padrão (cm), comprimento da cabeça (cm), diâmetro ao final da cabeça (cm), diâmetro mediano (cm), diâmetro anterior nadadeira anal (cm), altura (cm), largura (cm) e glicose sanguínea (dm/L). Foi observada correlação positiva entre todas as variáveis. A mais alta correlação foi obtida ao relacionar o peso e o comprimento total, no entanto, dentre as correlações mais fortes, foram selecionadas o peso x diâmetro médio (r = 0,9669, p< 0,01) e peso x diâmetro anterior a nadadeira anal (r = 0,9671, p< 0,01) para ser submetidas à análise de regressão polinomial devido a maior facilidade de mensuração durante a contenção do animal, levando em consideração o seu porte elevado. Deste modo, conclui-se que foi possível estimar o peso por meio de equações de regressão utilizando o diâmetro mediano (y=0,577x + 57,669, r2 = 0,93) e diâmetro anterior à nadadeira anal (y=0,7253x + 42,518, r2 = 0,93). A glicose sanguínea diminuiu com o aumento do peso dos pirarucus.(AU)


Morphometric studies are widely used in large terrestrial species. Pirarucu is a fast-growing carnivorous fish species reaching 10 kg during its first year of life in a farming environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate correlations between weight and body measures of pirarucu to develop equations to estimate their weight through the collection of morphometric measures, as well as comparing blood glucose concentration according to weight. A total of 16 specimens with average weights ranging from 23.58 to 52.87 kg were evaluated. Weight (kg), total length (cm), standard length (cm), head length (cm), diameter at the end of the head (cm), median diameter (cm), diameter before anal fin (cm), height (cm), width (cm), and blood glucose (dm/L) were measured from each specimen. A positive correlation was observed among all variables. The highest correlation was obtained by relating weight and total length; however, among the strongest correlations, weight x average diameter (r = 0.9669, p <0.01), and weight x diameter before anal fin (r = 0.9671, p <0.01) were subjected to polynomial regression analysis due to being of easier measurement during animal containment, taking into account its size. Thus, it can be conclude that it is possible to estimate weight using regression equations using the median diameter (y = 0.577x + 57.669, r2 = 0.93) and diameter before the anal fin (y = 0.7253x + 42.518, r2 = 0.93). It could also be noted that blood glucose decreased with increasing weight of pirarucu.(AU)


Estudios morfométricos son ampliamente utilizados en especies terrestres de gran porte. El arapaima es una especie de pez carnívoro de rápido crecimiento que alcanza los 10 kg durante su primer año de vida en un ambiente de cultivo. El objetivo fue evaluar correlaciones entre el peso y las medidas corporales de arapaimas buscando elaborar ecuaciones para estimar su peso, mediante la recolección de medidas morfométricas. Además de comparar la concentración de glucosa sanguínea según el peso. Se evaluaron 16 ejemplares con pesos promedio que oscilaron entre 23,58 y 52,87 kg. De cada animal se obtuvo el peso (kg), longitud total (cm), longitud estándar (cm), longitud de la cabeza (cm), diámetro al final de la cabeza (cm), diámetro mediano (cm), diámetro de la aleta anal anterior (cm), altura (cm), ancho (cm) y glucosa sanguínea (dm/L). Se observó una correlación positiva entre todas las variables. La correlación más alta se obtuvo al relacionar el peso y la longitud total, sin embargo, entre las correlaciones más fuertes, se seleccionó el peso x diámetro promedio (r = 0.9669, p<0.01) y peso x diámetro antes de la aleta anal (r = 0.9671, p<0.01) para ser sometido a análisis de regresión polinomial debido a la facilidad de medición durante la contención del animal, teniendo en cuenta su gran tamaño. Así, se concluye que fue posible estimar el peso por medio de ecuaciones de regresión utilizando el diámetro mediano (y = 0.577x + 57.669, r2 = 0.93) y el diámetro antes de la aleta anal (y = 0.7253x + 42.518, r2 = 93). La glucosa sanguínea redujo con el aumento de peso de los arapaimas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Body Weights and Measures , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Glucose
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 645-649, June 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098301

ABSTRACT

Gambusia holbrooki es el pez de agua dulce con mayor distribución en Chile y el mundo, pero los estudios que abordan la morfología e histología hepática del pez son escasos. El hígado es utilizado para evidenciar efectos subletales de contaminantes ambientales y es preciso contar con una descripción histomorfológica del hígado para futuros estudios comparativos. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo describir patrones histomorfológicos del hígado de Gambusia holbrooki, para ello se colectaron 97 individuos adultos de los sistemas límnicos de los valles de Lluta y Azapa (Extremo norte de Chile), para observar patrones morfológicos comunes en ambas poblaciones, se utilizó técnicas histológicas de rutina e histoquímica. Las evidencias demostraron que el hígado contiene tejido pancreático y su arquitectura tisular es trabecular con mayor presencia de capilares sinusoides.


Gambusia holbrooki is the freshwater fish with the greatest distribution in Chile and the world. However, studies dealing with morphology and liver histology of fish are scarce. The liver commonly shows the sublethal effects of environmental pollutants and there should be a histomorphological description of the liver for further comparative studies. The present study aims to describe histomorphological patterns of the liver of Gambusia holbrooki. A total of 97 adult individual specimens were collected from the ecosystems in the valleys of Lluta and Azapa (Region of Arica and Parinacota), to observe patterns morphologically common in both populations. Routine histological and histochemical techniques were used for analysis. The evidence showed that the liver contains pancreatic tissue, and that tissue architecture is trabecular with greater presence of capillary sinusoids.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyprinodontiformes/anatomy & histology , Liver/anatomy & histology , Pancreas/anatomy & histology , Chile , Fishes/anatomy & histology
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 677-682, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098306

ABSTRACT

Given the importance of the Golden kingklip (Genypterus blacodes) as an alternative to the production of salmonid species for worldwide diversification of aquaculture this study researched the morpho-histology of the digestive canal, providing a uniform nomenclature and basic information to support their nutritional management in captive conditions. The objective was to describe the normal morphology of the digestive canal. Twelve wild specimens were collected and dissected. Samples of the esophagus, stomach, liver, pyloric blind and intestines were obtained. An anatomical and histological description was performed. The digestive canal presented a short tubular esophagus, a slightly dilated, J-shaped stomach and thick walls. The stomach had a cardiac region that ended in a pyloric sphincter from which the intestine of thin walls. The intestine presented an anterior, middle and posterior segment. The anterior region of the first segment of the middle intestine presented 4-5 pairs of pyloric cecum. The middle intestine represented approximately 30 % of the total length of the digestive canal, with a smaller diameter compared to the first segment. The posterior intestine was separated from the middle intestine by a thick and powerful sphincter. The liver was large and elongated, and located in the peritoneal cavity located to the left plane and ventral to the swim bladder. The gallbladder was located lateral to the hepatic anterior wolf. The bile duct led to the duodenal region of the anterior intestine. Ventrally, the rectum ended in the anus, located in front of the anal fin. In general, the histological structures were variable according to the segment studied, a mucous tunic was recognized that presented a simple columnar epithelium, a lamina propria composed of loose connective tissue, a muscular layer of the mucosa composed of smooth muscle tissue and a submucosal layer composed of loose connective tissue, a circular and longitudinal stratum of muscular tunic, which had striated musculature and an adventitial tunic composed of a simple squamous epithelium. In conclusion, Golden kingklip (Genypterus blacodes) presents a digestive system typical of a carnivorous benthic fish adapted to feed on fish and crustaceans.


Dada la importancia del Congrio colorado (Genypterus blacodes) como alternativa a la producción de especies salmonídeas para la diversificación mundial de la acuicultura, el objetivo del presente estudio es describir la morfología normal del canal digestivo de esta especie, proporcionando una nomenclatura uniforme e información básica para apoyar su manejo nutricional en condiciones de cautiverio. Doce especímenes silvestres fueron colectados y disecados. Se obtuvo muestras del esófago, estómago, hígado, ciego pilórico e intestinos. Se realizó una descripción anatómica e histológica. El canal digestivo presentó un esófago tubular corto, un estómago ligeramente dilatado, con forma de J y paredes gruesas. El estómago presentaba una región cardíaca que terminaba en un esfínter pilórico desde el cual el intestino de paredes delgadas. El intestino presentaba un segmento anterior, medio y posterior. La región anterior del primer segmento del intestino medio presentó 4-5 pares de ciegos pilóricos. El intestino medio representó aproximadamente el 30 % de la longitud total del canal digestivo, con un diámetro menor en comparación con el primer segmento. El intestino posterior estaba separado del intestino medio por un esfínter grueso y poderoso. El hígado era grande y alargado, y ubicado en la cavidad peritoneal ubicado al plano izquierdo y ventral a la vejiga natatoria. La vesícula biliar se ubicó lateral al lobo anterior hepático. El ducto biliar desembocó en la región duodenal del intestino anterior. Ventralmente, el recto terminó en el ano, ubicado frente a la aleta anal. En general, las estructuras histológicas fueron variables según el segmento estudiado, se reconoció una túnica mucosa que presentaba un epitelio columnar simple, una lámina propia de la mucosa compuesta por tejido conectivo laxo, una capa muscular de la mucosa compuesta por músculo liso tejido y una capa submucosa compuesta de tejido conectivo laxo, un estrato circular y longitudinal de túnica muscular, que tenía musculatura estriada y una túnica adventicia compuesta por un epitelio plano simple. En conclusión, Congrio colorado (Genypterus blacodes) presenta un sistema digestivo típico de un pez bentónico carnívoro adaptado para alimentarse de peces y crustáceos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Digestive System/anatomy & histology , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Stomach/anatomy & histology , Intestines/anatomy & histology
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 68(4)2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1507732

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El pez escalar (Pterophyllum scalare) es una de las principales especies de peces ornamentales comercializados de Sur América. Objetivo: Describir histológica y morfométricamente el tracto digestivo del pez tropical P. scalare. Métodos: Se utilizaron 19 individuos adultos, y se calculó el coeficiente intestinal. Se realizó una descripción macroscópica e histológica del esófago, estómago e intestino (región anterior parte a, anterior parte b, media y posterior). Las muestras fueron procesadas en parafina, se obtuvieron cortes de 5 µm, que fueron teñidos con H&E y P.A.S. Se realizó conteo de células P.A.S +. Para la morfometría se digitalizaron los cortes y se midió el área y perímetro del lumen, y el área tisular para cada región. Resultados: P. scalare presenta un esófago corto, un estómago en forma de saco ciego poco muscular junto a un intestino con una longitud similar a su tamaño, coeficiente intestinal (1.66 +/- 0.52). Se identificaron cuatro capas constitutivas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y en algunas regiones serosa. El esófago se destacó por ser la región con mayor número de células caliciformes P.A.S. + y mayor área tisular. En cuanto al área y perímetro luminar, la región anterior parte a del intestino fue la de mayor valor. Conclusiones: A partir del coeficiente intestinal (1.66 +/- 0.52), y las características histológicas y morfométricas de los órganos evaluados, se puede decir que P. scalare presenta un hábito alimenticio omnívoro con preferencia de presas blandas.


Introduction: Ornamental Angel fish (Pterophyllum scalare) is one of the main commercialized species from South America, with an important number of national and international dealers. Objective: To make a histological and morphometric description of P. scalare digestive tract. Methods: Nineteen adult individuals were used. Intestinal coefficient values were obtained, and a macroscopic and microscopic description of esophagus, stomach, and intestine (anterior, middle and posterior) was carried out. Samples were processed for paraffin embedding, and 5 µm sections were stained with H&E and P.A.S. Positive P.A.S. cells were counted. Lumen area and tissue area were measured in representative digitalized sections from each region. Results: P. scalare exhibited a short esophagus, followed by a blind bag shaped, scarcely muscular stomach, and a short intestine (intestinal coefficient 1.66 +/- 0.52). Four constitutive tissue layers were identified: mucosa, submucosa, muscular and in some areas also a serosa layer. Esophagus exhibit abundant globet P.A.S. + cells and shows the larger tisular area was observed. Luminal area and perimeter are larger in anterior intestinal region. Conclusions: The intestinal coefficient value (1.66 +/- 0.52), and the histological and morphometric characteristics of the evaluated organs, suggest that P. scalare is omnivorous with soft prey preferences.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Colombia
13.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 42: e51495, fev. 2020. map, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460932

ABSTRACT

The present study describes the length/weight ratio (LWR) of 20 fish species caught in an intertidal area of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex, southern Brazil. Fish were caught with three beach seine nets, with 2m high, 70m long and distance between knots of 2.5; 4 and 5cm. A total of 880 individuals of 21 species belonging to 11 families were captured, ranging from 5 to 75.5cm in total length. All species analyzed are widely distributed throughout the Southwestern Atlantic. Positive allometric growth (b > 3) was predominant, occurring in 60% species, 35% presented negative allometry (b < 3) and only 5% had isometric growth (b = 3). Many factors could be influencing the distinct growth patterns observed between the literature and the present study, such as the environmental influences, the reduced number of specimens, the sampling methods, the sampling periods and the estimation of the LWR with grouped sexes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Fishes/growth & development , Body Weight , Sampling Studies
14.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 42: e51310, fev. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460950

ABSTRACT

This study reports the length‐weight relationships (LWRs) for 8 fish species that inhabit mangroves. Many fisheries depend on mangroves, which serve as nursery and feeding areas for the juvenile stage of fishes, shrimp, and other fishery resources. In this sense, mangroves provide many ecosystem services, therefore increasing the basic biological knowledge of these ecosystems can help to understand their functioning and create conservation strategies. The majority of LWR studies do not consider juveniles, and it is important to consider these differences as juveniles can grow differently from adults. The fishes were collected from Perequê mangrove, Paraná, Brazil between 2008 and 2010. A variety of fishery gears were employed, including trammel nets, fyke nets, and traps made with plastic bottles combined with four baits. The specimens were measured (weight and length), sexed and evaluated for maturational stage. For the adults, the LWRs were calculated separately by the sex, while juvenile LWRs were estimated together. In general, there were differences in growth type between sexes and life stages. Some species showed differences compared to FishBase estimations, but this could be due to the lengths (and life stage) of the individuals used in the present study compared to FishBase. The discrepancies between adult, juvenile and FishBase estimations showed the importance of considering these aspects in studies using LWR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Body Weight
15.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(1): e190102, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098412

ABSTRACT

The influence of salinity and temperature on larval fish assemblages, as well as, temporal and vertical patterns on larval fish assemblages off the inlet of the Presidio River, southeast coast of the Gulf of California were evaluated. Samplings for ichthyoplankton and environmental parameter measurements were carried out at three depths, in five sampling sites, during September and December 1994, and April and June 1995. Anchovies and herrings (Clupeiformes) were the most abundant larval fish accounting for 77% of the total abundance. A significant relationship between salinity and the abundance of larval herrings (Opisthonema medirastre and O. dovii) and between the water temperature and the abundance of the weakfish (Cynoscion reticulatus) was found. Anchovies (Anchoa lucida, A. walkeri, and A. nasus) were present in all sampled months, while O. medirastre and O. dovii occurred in December and June, and C. reticulatus in September. Larvae of pelagic fish were more abundant near the surface, while larvae of demersal fish were more abundant near the bottom. The present study, by emphasising the importance of considering temporal and vertical changes in larval fish assemblages in coastal environments with ecological and economic importance, will be useful for designing more efficient sampling programs.(AU)


Se evaluó la influencia de la salinidad y la temperatura, así como patrones temporales y verticales en la comunidad de larvas de peces enfrente del río Presidio, costa sudeste del Golfo de California. Los muestreos de ictioplancton y las mediciones de los parámetros ambientales fueron realizados a tres profundidades, en cinco sitios de muestreo, durante septiembre y diciembre de 1994, y abril y junio de 1995. Las anchoas y sardinas (Clupeiformes) fueron las larvas de peces más abundantes representando el 77% de la abundancia total. Se encontró una relación significativa entre la salinidad y la abundancia de larvas de sardinas (Opisthonema medirastre and O. dovii), y entre la temperatura del agua y la abundancia de la corvina rayada (Cynoscion reticulatus). Las anchoas (Anchoa lucida, A. walkeri y A. nasus) estuvieron presentes en todos los meses muestreados, mientras que O. medirastre y O. dovii ocurrieron en diciembre y junio, y C. reticulatus en septiembre. Las larvas de peces pelágicos fueron más abundantes cerca de la superficie, mientras que las larvas de peces demersales fueron más abundantes cerca del fondo. El presente estudio, al enfatizar la importancia de considerar los cambios temporales y verticales en el ensamblaje de larvas de peces en ambientes costeros con importancia ecológica y económica, será útil para diseñar programas de muestreo más eficientes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Temperature , Salinity , Fishes/anatomy & histology
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 541-547, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002256

ABSTRACT

The structural characteristics of the skin, types and distribution of mucous cells of Yangtze sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) were studied at the light microscope level, stained with Haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Alcian blue-periodie acid Schiff (ABPAS). The skin of both was composed of epidermis and dermis. The dermis was divided into stratum spongiosum and stratum compactum. The stained color of stratum compactum was stained more deeply than that of stratum spongiosum. The skin thickness displayed differences in the fish at different body positions. The thickest of epidermis layer was on the dorsal region for Yangtze sturgeon, reversely, the thinnest was the mandibular region; Stratum spongiosum on the mandibular region was the thickest, the stratum spongiosum of the maxillary region was not obvious. In summary, keratinized spines, a kind of keratin derivative, are widely distributed in the mandibular, ventral, dorsal, and caudal peduncle skin surface for Yangtze sturgeon, and some pit organs mainly present in the skin surface of the maxillary and ventral regions. In short, the small amount of mucous cells in the skin of Yangtze sturgeon and the type of mucous cell were main Type IV, nevertheless there was a distribution of a few Type III.


Se estudiaron las características estructurales de la piel, los tipos y la distribución de las células mucosas del esturión Yangtze (Acipenser dabryanus) con microscopio de luz, teñidas con hematoxilina-eosina (HE) y azul alcián-ácido de Schiff (AB-PAS). La piel estaba compuesta por epidermis y dermis. La dermis se dividía en estrato esponjoso y estrato compacto. El grosor de la piel mostró diferencias en los peces en diferentes posiciones del cuerpo. La capa más gruesa de la epidermis se observó en la región dorsal del esturión Yangtze; a la inversa, la más delgada en la región mandibular. El estrato esponjoso en la región mandibular era el más grueso, el estrato esponjoso de la región maxilar no era visualizado. En resumen, las espinas queratinizadas, un tipo derivado de la queratina, estaban ampliamente distribuidas en la superficie de la piel del pedúnculo mandibular, ventral, dorsal y caudal en el esturión Yangtze, y algunos órganos en fosas, presentes principalmente en la superficie de la piel de las regiones mandibular y ventral. En resumen, la pequeña cantidad de células mucosas en la piel del esturión Yangtze y el tipo de célula mucosa eran células principales tipo IV, sin embargo, se observaron algunas células tipo III.


Subject(s)
Animals , Skin/ultrastructure , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Mucous Membrane/ultrastructure , Dermis/ultrastructure , Epidermis/ultrastructure , Mucus/cytology
17.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 41: e46666, 20190000. map, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460886

ABSTRACT

The present study estimated parameters of the length-weight relationship (LWR) and allometric condition factor for eight fish species from the upper Araguari River, in the State of Amapá, Brazil. A total of 615 fish of eight species were analyzed: Acestrorhynchus falcatus, A. falcirostris, Ageneiosus inermis, Hemiodus unimaculatus, Hoplias aimara, Myloplus asterias, M. ternetzi and Tometes trilobatus. The allometric condition factor varied from 0.742 to 1.435. The coefficient of allometry ranged from 2.723 to 3.225. The coefficient of determination (R2) of the LWR ranged from 0.742 to 0.985. This is the first estimate of the length-weight relationship for fish from the Araguari River and the first record of these parameters for Myloplus ternetzi and Tometes trilobatus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Fishes/growth & development , Body Weight
18.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(1): e180102, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1002704

ABSTRACT

A study including morphological characters and mitogenomics of South American and Australian fishes previously assigned to Percichthyidae was conducted. Results generated from these different data sets reveal major disagreements concerning the content and interpretation of the so-called percichthyids. A phylogenetic analysis based on 54 morphological characters suggests the existence of two major clades: (1) Percichthyidae, including the South American Percichthys and the Australian taxa Macquaria australasica, Macquaria (= Plectroplites), and Maccullochella; (2) Perciliidae with the South American genus Percilia at the base plus more advanced Australian genera Nannoperca, Nannatherina, Bostockia, and Gadopsis. In contrast, molecular and mitogenomic evidence suggests only one clade (Percichthyidae), with the exclusion of species of Macquaria (= Percalates). Additionally, the results reveal the existence of various taxonomic problems, such as the current interpretation of only one species of Percichthys in Argentina, an interpretation that is not supported by the present study; the existence of cryptic species of Percilia as well as of Gadopsis, Nannoperca, and Macquaria that will increase the diversity of the genera; and the need for an extensive revision of species previously assigned to Percalates versus Macquaria. Disagreements point to the need to develop further research on the so-called percichthyids and perciliids.(AU)


Se realizó un estudio de peces sudamericanos y australianos incluyendo caracteres morfológicos y mitogenómicos, para taxa previamente asignados a la familia Percichthyidae. Los resultados generados de estos conjuntos de datos diferentes revelaron desacuerdos importantes entre el contenido y la interpretación de los así llamados percíctidos. Un análisis filogenético basado en 54 caracteres morfológicos sugiere la existencia de dos clados importantes: (1) La familia Percichthyidae, incluyendo el género sudamericano Percichthys y los taxa australianos Macquaria australasica, Macquaria (= Plectroplites) y Maccullochella. (2) Perciliidae con el género sudamericano Percilia en la base, y géneros australianos más avanzados como Nannoperca, Nannatherina, Bostockia y Gadopsis. En contraste, la evidencia molecular y mitogenómica incluye la mayor parte de los géneros dentro de la familia Percichthyidae, excluyendo a las especies de Macquaria (= Percalates). Adicionalmente, los resultados revelan la existencia de variados problemas taxonómicos, tales como la existencia de una sola especie de Percichthys en Argentina, cuya interpretación no es soportada por este estudio; la existencia de especies crípticas de Percilia, Gadopsis, Nannoperca y Macquaria que aumentarán la diversidad específica del género; y la necesidad de una revisión extensiva de especies previamente asignadas a Percalates versus Macquaria. Los desacuerdos encontrados apuntan a la necesidad de investigar más profundamente sobre los así llamados percíctidos y percíliidos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Phylogeny , Endemic Diseases , Fishes/anatomy & histology
19.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(1): e170168, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-990194

ABSTRACT

Morphological characters of species are essential for assessing the functional structure of a fish assemblage, since differences between them, for example in body shape, are related to many functional and ecological traits (e.g., swimming, search for food, striking and capturing prey, evading predators, spawning). Globally, tidal flats are relevant to fish assemblages by offering feeding, refuge, and reproduction grounds. To analyze the morphofunctional structure of the fish assemblage from a tidal flat on the Brazilian coast, we conducted standardized sampling using nine different fishing gears. The geometric morphometric method was applied to describe the fish shapes and verify the morphological structure of the assemblage. Here, we present the influence/susceptibility of each gear type on the morphological diversity of the fish assemblage. The results indicated that beach seine, otter trawl, marginal encircling gillnet, and fish traps, together, were the most effective gears to represent the maximum morphological variability of fish inhabiting that tidal flat. Moreover, the assemblage showed high morphological redundancy considered as a resistance of the ecosystem for avoiding functional diversity loss, emphasizing the importance of complementary gear use when determining fish assemblages in a conservation context.(AU)


Os caracteres morfológicos das espécies são essenciais para avaliar a estrutura funcional de uma assembleia de peixes, uma vez que as diferenças entre elas são indicativas de distintas características ecológicas. De forma geral, as planícies de maré são importantes para assembleias de peixes por oferecerem áreas para alimentação, refúgio e reprodução. Para analisar a estrutura morfofuncional da assembleia de peixes de uma planície de maré na costa brasileira, realizamos amostragens utilizando nove diferentes artes de pesca. Para descrever as formas dos peixes e verificar a diversidade morfológica da assembleia foi aplicado o método de morfometria geométrica. Aqui, apresentamos a influência/suscetibilidade de cada arte de pesca na composição morfológica da assembleia de peixes, uma vez que a forma do corpo está relacionada a diversos aspectos funcionais e ecológicos (como por exemplo nadar, procurar ativamente por comida, atacar e capturar presas, evadir de predadores, se reproduzir). Os resultados indicaram que o arrasto de praia, o arrasto de fundo, a rede de emalhar marginal e as armadilhas, em conjunto, foram os apetrechos mais efetivos para representar a máxima diversidade morfológica dos peixes que habitam esta planície de maré. Além disso, a assembleia apresentou elevada redundância morfológica, fato que indica resistência deste ecossistema para evitar a perda de diversidade funcional.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Morphogenesis , Fishing Industry
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(6): 1015-1025, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955456

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the lethal concentration and the structural and ultra-structural effects caused by the formalin exposure on juveniles of Arapaima gigas. Ninety fish (60.1± 2.5g and 20.2±0.9cm) were exposed to 0, 22, 44, 66, 88 and 110mg L-1 in order to determine the lethal concentration (LC50-96h) that was 36.4mg L-1 of formalin. Sublethal effects were evaluated using histopathological analysis on the gills and assessment of behavioral alterations and clinical signs. The LC50 of formalin for 24, 48 and 72h was 88.3, 64.7 and 56.8mg L-1 respectively. Clinical signs and behavioral changes were found: erratic swimming, lethargy, crowding on the water surface, loss of hydrodynamic equilibrium, spasms and agonistic confrontation, which were observed only at 88 and 110mg L-1. The histological alteration index (HAI) showed that 66, 88 and 100mg L-1 presented significant difference (p<0.05) in relation to unexposed fish, indicating that moderate damage to the gills of fish exposed to formalin had occurred. The mean values of alteration (MVA) for 22, 44, 66, 88 and 110mg L-1 were 1.14, 1.29, 1.51, 1.53 and 1.60 respectively, and differences in this index were only observed with 110 mgL-1 of formalin. It is therefore possible to conclude that sublethal concentrations of formalin (22.0mg L-1) did not compromise the health of juveniles of A. gigas. Finally, concentrations greater than to LC50-96h may be carefully used for short-term exposure, since the MVA for all concentrations tested only indicated localized lesions that did not compromise gills functionality of exposed fish.(AU)


O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a concentração letal e efeitos estruturais e ultraestruturais causados pela exposição a formalina em juvenis de Arapaima gigas. Noventa peixes (60,1±2,5g e 20,2±0,9cm) foram expostos a 0, 22, 44, 66, 88 e 110mg L-1, para determinar a concentração letal (CL50-96h) de formalina que foi 36,4mg L-1. Os efeitos subletais foram avaliados por análises histopatológicas das brânquias e avaliação das alterações comportamentais e sinais clínicos. A CL50 de formalina para 24, 48 e 72horas foi de 88,3, 64,7 e 56,8; respectivamente. Sinais clínicos e alterações comportamentais encontradas foram: natação errática, letargia, aglomeração de peixes na superfície da água, perda de equilíbrio hidrodinâmico, espasmos e confronto agonísticos, observados apenas nas concentrações de 88 e 110mg L-1. O índice de alteração histológica (IAH) mostrou que as concentrações de 66, 88 e 100mg L-1 apresentaram diferenças significativas (p<0,05) em relação aos controles, indicando a ocorrência de danos moderados nas brânquias dos peixes expostos a formalina. Os valores médios de alteração (VMA) para as concentrações 22, 44, 66, 88 e 110mg L-1 foram 1,14, 1,29, 1,51, 1,53 e 1,60; respectivamente, e as diferenças na composição desse índice foram observados apenas na exposição com 110mg L-1 de formalina. Foi possível concluir que concentrações subletais de formalina (22,0mg L-1) não comprometem a saúde de juvenis de A. gigas. Concentrações de formalina acima da CL50-96h podem ser usadas cuidadosamente para banho de curto tempo, uma vez que o VMA para todas as concentrações testadas indicou apenas lesões localizadas que não comprometem a funcionalidade das brânquias dos peixes expostos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pain Measurement/veterinary , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Toxicity
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