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1.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210004, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340242

ABSTRACT

Body size influences the effect of individuals and assemblages on ecosystem functioning and defines how they respond to ecosystem changes. We evaluated how body size structure of fish assemblages and functional groups respond to human modifications at catchment, riparian and local scales in 40 streams of the Pampa grasslands, southern Brazil. To describe body size structure, we calculated the mean, coefficient of variation, skewness, and kurtosis, using individual biomass data for the entire fish assemblages and separately by functional group. The results suggested that body size response depends on body size metrics, functional group, and the spatial scale of land use. From 11 functional groups, only five showed a clear response to land use. In general, most functional groups had a higher concentration of small sizes (left-skewed) in response to increased land use measured at distinct spatial scales (local, riparian, and catchment), and a greater concentration of sizes in a narrow and central distribution (higher kurtosis). However, the responses were complex and varied between the functional groups. We conclude that considering ecomorphological and trophic features separately by functional group and assessing multiple body size metrics contributed greatly to detecting the influence of land use on fish body size.(AU)


O tamanho corporal influencia o efeito de indivíduos e assembleias no funcionamento dos ecossistemas e define como estes respondem à alterações ambientais. Investigamos como a estrutura do tamanho corporal de assembleias e grupos funcionais de peixes responde ao uso da terra quantificado em três escalas espaciais (sub-bacia, ripária e local), em 40 riachos do Pampa, sul do Brasil. Para tanto, calculamos média, coeficiente de variação, assimetria e kurtose usando biomassa individual em nível de assembleia e grupo funcional. As respostas do tamanho corporal dependeram da métrica utilizada, do grupo funcional e da escala de uso da terra. Entre os 11 grupos funcionais identificados, apenas cinco mostraram uma resposta clara ao uso da terra. Em geral, a maioria dos grupos mostrou uma assimetria na distribuição em favor de menores tamanhos corporais e uma concentração de tamanhos em uma distribuição estreita e central (alta kurtose) em resposta ao uso da terra quantificado nas três escalas espaciais. Entretanto, as respostas foram complexas e variaram entre grupos funcionais. A consideração de atributos ecomorfológicos e tróficos separadamente por grupo funcional e a avaliação de múltiplas métricas contribuem de forma importante para detectar a influência do uso da terra no tamanho corporal de peixes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomass , Rivers , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Body Composition , Agriculture
2.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 23(1, cont.): e2305, 20200000. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129301

ABSTRACT

Estudos morfométricos são amplamente utilizados em espécies terrestres de grande porte. O pirarucu é uma espécie de peixe carnívoro de rápido crescimento alcançando 10 kg durante seu primeiro ano de vida em ambiente de cultivo. Objetivou-se avaliar correlações entre peso e medidas corporais de pirarucus visando elaborar equações para estimar o peso desses, por meio da coleta de medidas morfométricas. Como também comparar a concentração de glicose sanguínea de acordo com o peso. Foram avaliados 16 exemplares com pesos médios variando entre 23,58 e 52,87kg. De cada animal foram obtidos o peso (kg), comprimento total (cm), comprimento padrão (cm), comprimento da cabeça (cm), diâmetro ao final da cabeça (cm), diâmetro mediano (cm), diâmetro anterior nadadeira anal (cm), altura (cm), largura (cm) e glicose sanguínea (dm/L). Foi observada correlação positiva entre todas as variáveis. A mais alta correlação foi obtida ao relacionar o peso e o comprimento total, no entanto, dentre as correlações mais fortes, foram selecionadas o peso x diâmetro médio (r = 0,9669, p< 0,01) e peso x diâmetro anterior a nadadeira anal (r = 0,9671, p< 0,01) para ser submetidas à análise de regressão polinomial devido a maior facilidade de mensuração durante a contenção do animal, levando em consideração o seu porte elevado. Deste modo, conclui-se que foi possível estimar o peso por meio de equações de regressão utilizando o diâmetro mediano (y=0,577x + 57,669, r2 = 0,93) e diâmetro anterior à nadadeira anal (y=0,7253x + 42,518, r2 = 0,93). A glicose sanguínea diminuiu com o aumento do peso dos pirarucus.(AU)


Morphometric studies are widely used in large terrestrial species. Pirarucu is a fast-growing carnivorous fish species reaching 10 kg during its first year of life in a farming environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate correlations between weight and body measures of pirarucu to develop equations to estimate their weight through the collection of morphometric measures, as well as comparing blood glucose concentration according to weight. A total of 16 specimens with average weights ranging from 23.58 to 52.87 kg were evaluated. Weight (kg), total length (cm), standard length (cm), head length (cm), diameter at the end of the head (cm), median diameter (cm), diameter before anal fin (cm), height (cm), width (cm), and blood glucose (dm/L) were measured from each specimen. A positive correlation was observed among all variables. The highest correlation was obtained by relating weight and total length; however, among the strongest correlations, weight x average diameter (r = 0.9669, p <0.01), and weight x diameter before anal fin (r = 0.9671, p <0.01) were subjected to polynomial regression analysis due to being of easier measurement during animal containment, taking into account its size. Thus, it can be conclude that it is possible to estimate weight using regression equations using the median diameter (y = 0.577x + 57.669, r2 = 0.93) and diameter before the anal fin (y = 0.7253x + 42.518, r2 = 0.93). It could also be noted that blood glucose decreased with increasing weight of pirarucu.(AU)


Estudios morfométricos son ampliamente utilizados en especies terrestres de gran porte. El arapaima es una especie de pez carnívoro de rápido crecimiento que alcanza los 10 kg durante su primer año de vida en un ambiente de cultivo. El objetivo fue evaluar correlaciones entre el peso y las medidas corporales de arapaimas buscando elaborar ecuaciones para estimar su peso, mediante la recolección de medidas morfométricas. Además de comparar la concentración de glucosa sanguínea según el peso. Se evaluaron 16 ejemplares con pesos promedio que oscilaron entre 23,58 y 52,87 kg. De cada animal se obtuvo el peso (kg), longitud total (cm), longitud estándar (cm), longitud de la cabeza (cm), diámetro al final de la cabeza (cm), diámetro mediano (cm), diámetro de la aleta anal anterior (cm), altura (cm), ancho (cm) y glucosa sanguínea (dm/L). Se observó una correlación positiva entre todas las variables. La correlación más alta se obtuvo al relacionar el peso y la longitud total, sin embargo, entre las correlaciones más fuertes, se seleccionó el peso x diámetro promedio (r = 0.9669, p<0.01) y peso x diámetro antes de la aleta anal (r = 0.9671, p<0.01) para ser sometido a análisis de regresión polinomial debido a la facilidad de medición durante la contención del animal, teniendo en cuenta su gran tamaño. Así, se concluye que fue posible estimar el peso por medio de ecuaciones de regresión utilizando el diámetro mediano (y = 0.577x + 57.669, r2 = 0.93) y el diámetro antes de la aleta anal (y = 0.7253x + 42.518, r2 = 93). La glucosa sanguínea redujo con el aumento de peso de los arapaimas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Body Weights and Measures , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Glucose
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 645-649, June 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098301

ABSTRACT

Gambusia holbrooki es el pez de agua dulce con mayor distribución en Chile y el mundo, pero los estudios que abordan la morfología e histología hepática del pez son escasos. El hígado es utilizado para evidenciar efectos subletales de contaminantes ambientales y es preciso contar con una descripción histomorfológica del hígado para futuros estudios comparativos. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo describir patrones histomorfológicos del hígado de Gambusia holbrooki, para ello se colectaron 97 individuos adultos de los sistemas límnicos de los valles de Lluta y Azapa (Extremo norte de Chile), para observar patrones morfológicos comunes en ambas poblaciones, se utilizó técnicas histológicas de rutina e histoquímica. Las evidencias demostraron que el hígado contiene tejido pancreático y su arquitectura tisular es trabecular con mayor presencia de capilares sinusoides.


Gambusia holbrooki is the freshwater fish with the greatest distribution in Chile and the world. However, studies dealing with morphology and liver histology of fish are scarce. The liver commonly shows the sublethal effects of environmental pollutants and there should be a histomorphological description of the liver for further comparative studies. The present study aims to describe histomorphological patterns of the liver of Gambusia holbrooki. A total of 97 adult individual specimens were collected from the ecosystems in the valleys of Lluta and Azapa (Region of Arica and Parinacota), to observe patterns morphologically common in both populations. Routine histological and histochemical techniques were used for analysis. The evidence showed that the liver contains pancreatic tissue, and that tissue architecture is trabecular with greater presence of capillary sinusoids.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyprinodontiformes/anatomy & histology , Liver/anatomy & histology , Pancreas/anatomy & histology , Chile , Fishes/anatomy & histology
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 677-682, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098306

ABSTRACT

Given the importance of the Golden kingklip (Genypterus blacodes) as an alternative to the production of salmonid species for worldwide diversification of aquaculture this study researched the morpho-histology of the digestive canal, providing a uniform nomenclature and basic information to support their nutritional management in captive conditions. The objective was to describe the normal morphology of the digestive canal. Twelve wild specimens were collected and dissected. Samples of the esophagus, stomach, liver, pyloric blind and intestines were obtained. An anatomical and histological description was performed. The digestive canal presented a short tubular esophagus, a slightly dilated, J-shaped stomach and thick walls. The stomach had a cardiac region that ended in a pyloric sphincter from which the intestine of thin walls. The intestine presented an anterior, middle and posterior segment. The anterior region of the first segment of the middle intestine presented 4-5 pairs of pyloric cecum. The middle intestine represented approximately 30 % of the total length of the digestive canal, with a smaller diameter compared to the first segment. The posterior intestine was separated from the middle intestine by a thick and powerful sphincter. The liver was large and elongated, and located in the peritoneal cavity located to the left plane and ventral to the swim bladder. The gallbladder was located lateral to the hepatic anterior wolf. The bile duct led to the duodenal region of the anterior intestine. Ventrally, the rectum ended in the anus, located in front of the anal fin. In general, the histological structures were variable according to the segment studied, a mucous tunic was recognized that presented a simple columnar epithelium, a lamina propria composed of loose connective tissue, a muscular layer of the mucosa composed of smooth muscle tissue and a submucosal layer composed of loose connective tissue, a circular and longitudinal stratum of muscular tunic, which had striated musculature and an adventitial tunic composed of a simple squamous epithelium. In conclusion, Golden kingklip (Genypterus blacodes) presents a digestive system typical of a carnivorous benthic fish adapted to feed on fish and crustaceans.


Dada la importancia del Congrio colorado (Genypterus blacodes) como alternativa a la producción de especies salmonídeas para la diversificación mundial de la acuicultura, el objetivo del presente estudio es describir la morfología normal del canal digestivo de esta especie, proporcionando una nomenclatura uniforme e información básica para apoyar su manejo nutricional en condiciones de cautiverio. Doce especímenes silvestres fueron colectados y disecados. Se obtuvo muestras del esófago, estómago, hígado, ciego pilórico e intestinos. Se realizó una descripción anatómica e histológica. El canal digestivo presentó un esófago tubular corto, un estómago ligeramente dilatado, con forma de J y paredes gruesas. El estómago presentaba una región cardíaca que terminaba en un esfínter pilórico desde el cual el intestino de paredes delgadas. El intestino presentaba un segmento anterior, medio y posterior. La región anterior del primer segmento del intestino medio presentó 4-5 pares de ciegos pilóricos. El intestino medio representó aproximadamente el 30 % de la longitud total del canal digestivo, con un diámetro menor en comparación con el primer segmento. El intestino posterior estaba separado del intestino medio por un esfínter grueso y poderoso. El hígado era grande y alargado, y ubicado en la cavidad peritoneal ubicado al plano izquierdo y ventral a la vejiga natatoria. La vesícula biliar se ubicó lateral al lobo anterior hepático. El ducto biliar desembocó en la región duodenal del intestino anterior. Ventralmente, el recto terminó en el ano, ubicado frente a la aleta anal. En general, las estructuras histológicas fueron variables según el segmento estudiado, se reconoció una túnica mucosa que presentaba un epitelio columnar simple, una lámina propia de la mucosa compuesta por tejido conectivo laxo, una capa muscular de la mucosa compuesta por músculo liso tejido y una capa submucosa compuesta de tejido conectivo laxo, un estrato circular y longitudinal de túnica muscular, que tenía musculatura estriada y una túnica adventicia compuesta por un epitelio plano simple. En conclusión, Congrio colorado (Genypterus blacodes) presenta un sistema digestivo típico de un pez bentónico carnívoro adaptado para alimentarse de peces y crustáceos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Digestive System/anatomy & histology , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Stomach/anatomy & histology , Intestines/anatomy & histology
5.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(1): e190102, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098412

ABSTRACT

The influence of salinity and temperature on larval fish assemblages, as well as, temporal and vertical patterns on larval fish assemblages off the inlet of the Presidio River, southeast coast of the Gulf of California were evaluated. Samplings for ichthyoplankton and environmental parameter measurements were carried out at three depths, in five sampling sites, during September and December 1994, and April and June 1995. Anchovies and herrings (Clupeiformes) were the most abundant larval fish accounting for 77% of the total abundance. A significant relationship between salinity and the abundance of larval herrings (Opisthonema medirastre and O. dovii) and between the water temperature and the abundance of the weakfish (Cynoscion reticulatus) was found. Anchovies (Anchoa lucida, A. walkeri, and A. nasus) were present in all sampled months, while O. medirastre and O. dovii occurred in December and June, and C. reticulatus in September. Larvae of pelagic fish were more abundant near the surface, while larvae of demersal fish were more abundant near the bottom. The present study, by emphasising the importance of considering temporal and vertical changes in larval fish assemblages in coastal environments with ecological and economic importance, will be useful for designing more efficient sampling programs.(AU)


Se evaluó la influencia de la salinidad y la temperatura, así como patrones temporales y verticales en la comunidad de larvas de peces enfrente del río Presidio, costa sudeste del Golfo de California. Los muestreos de ictioplancton y las mediciones de los parámetros ambientales fueron realizados a tres profundidades, en cinco sitios de muestreo, durante septiembre y diciembre de 1994, y abril y junio de 1995. Las anchoas y sardinas (Clupeiformes) fueron las larvas de peces más abundantes representando el 77% de la abundancia total. Se encontró una relación significativa entre la salinidad y la abundancia de larvas de sardinas (Opisthonema medirastre and O. dovii), y entre la temperatura del agua y la abundancia de la corvina rayada (Cynoscion reticulatus). Las anchoas (Anchoa lucida, A. walkeri y A. nasus) estuvieron presentes en todos los meses muestreados, mientras que O. medirastre y O. dovii ocurrieron en diciembre y junio, y C. reticulatus en septiembre. Las larvas de peces pelágicos fueron más abundantes cerca de la superficie, mientras que las larvas de peces demersales fueron más abundantes cerca del fondo. El presente estudio, al enfatizar la importancia de considerar los cambios temporales y verticales en el ensamblaje de larvas de peces en ambientes costeros con importancia ecológica y económica, será útil para diseñar programas de muestreo más eficientes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Temperature , Salinity , Fishes/anatomy & histology
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 541-547, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002256

ABSTRACT

The structural characteristics of the skin, types and distribution of mucous cells of Yangtze sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) were studied at the light microscope level, stained with Haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Alcian blue-periodie acid Schiff (ABPAS). The skin of both was composed of epidermis and dermis. The dermis was divided into stratum spongiosum and stratum compactum. The stained color of stratum compactum was stained more deeply than that of stratum spongiosum. The skin thickness displayed differences in the fish at different body positions. The thickest of epidermis layer was on the dorsal region for Yangtze sturgeon, reversely, the thinnest was the mandibular region; Stratum spongiosum on the mandibular region was the thickest, the stratum spongiosum of the maxillary region was not obvious. In summary, keratinized spines, a kind of keratin derivative, are widely distributed in the mandibular, ventral, dorsal, and caudal peduncle skin surface for Yangtze sturgeon, and some pit organs mainly present in the skin surface of the maxillary and ventral regions. In short, the small amount of mucous cells in the skin of Yangtze sturgeon and the type of mucous cell were main Type IV, nevertheless there was a distribution of a few Type III.


Se estudiaron las características estructurales de la piel, los tipos y la distribución de las células mucosas del esturión Yangtze (Acipenser dabryanus) con microscopio de luz, teñidas con hematoxilina-eosina (HE) y azul alcián-ácido de Schiff (AB-PAS). La piel estaba compuesta por epidermis y dermis. La dermis se dividía en estrato esponjoso y estrato compacto. El grosor de la piel mostró diferencias en los peces en diferentes posiciones del cuerpo. La capa más gruesa de la epidermis se observó en la región dorsal del esturión Yangtze; a la inversa, la más delgada en la región mandibular. El estrato esponjoso en la región mandibular era el más grueso, el estrato esponjoso de la región maxilar no era visualizado. En resumen, las espinas queratinizadas, un tipo derivado de la queratina, estaban ampliamente distribuidas en la superficie de la piel del pedúnculo mandibular, ventral, dorsal y caudal en el esturión Yangtze, y algunos órganos en fosas, presentes principalmente en la superficie de la piel de las regiones mandibular y ventral. En resumen, la pequeña cantidad de células mucosas en la piel del esturión Yangtze y el tipo de célula mucosa eran células principales tipo IV, sin embargo, se observaron algunas células tipo III.


Subject(s)
Animals , Skin/ultrastructure , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Mucous Membrane/ultrastructure , Dermis/ultrastructure , Epidermis/ultrastructure , Mucus/cytology
7.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(1): e170168, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-990194

ABSTRACT

Morphological characters of species are essential for assessing the functional structure of a fish assemblage, since differences between them, for example in body shape, are related to many functional and ecological traits (e.g., swimming, search for food, striking and capturing prey, evading predators, spawning). Globally, tidal flats are relevant to fish assemblages by offering feeding, refuge, and reproduction grounds. To analyze the morphofunctional structure of the fish assemblage from a tidal flat on the Brazilian coast, we conducted standardized sampling using nine different fishing gears. The geometric morphometric method was applied to describe the fish shapes and verify the morphological structure of the assemblage. Here, we present the influence/susceptibility of each gear type on the morphological diversity of the fish assemblage. The results indicated that beach seine, otter trawl, marginal encircling gillnet, and fish traps, together, were the most effective gears to represent the maximum morphological variability of fish inhabiting that tidal flat. Moreover, the assemblage showed high morphological redundancy considered as a resistance of the ecosystem for avoiding functional diversity loss, emphasizing the importance of complementary gear use when determining fish assemblages in a conservation context.(AU)


Os caracteres morfológicos das espécies são essenciais para avaliar a estrutura funcional de uma assembleia de peixes, uma vez que as diferenças entre elas são indicativas de distintas características ecológicas. De forma geral, as planícies de maré são importantes para assembleias de peixes por oferecerem áreas para alimentação, refúgio e reprodução. Para analisar a estrutura morfofuncional da assembleia de peixes de uma planície de maré na costa brasileira, realizamos amostragens utilizando nove diferentes artes de pesca. Para descrever as formas dos peixes e verificar a diversidade morfológica da assembleia foi aplicado o método de morfometria geométrica. Aqui, apresentamos a influência/suscetibilidade de cada arte de pesca na composição morfológica da assembleia de peixes, uma vez que a forma do corpo está relacionada a diversos aspectos funcionais e ecológicos (como por exemplo nadar, procurar ativamente por comida, atacar e capturar presas, evadir de predadores, se reproduzir). Os resultados indicaram que o arrasto de praia, o arrasto de fundo, a rede de emalhar marginal e as armadilhas, em conjunto, foram os apetrechos mais efetivos para representar a máxima diversidade morfológica dos peixes que habitam esta planície de maré. Além disso, a assembleia apresentou elevada redundância morfológica, fato que indica resistência deste ecossistema para evitar a perda de diversidade funcional.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Morphogenesis , Fishing Industry
8.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(1): e180102, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002704

ABSTRACT

A study including morphological characters and mitogenomics of South American and Australian fishes previously assigned to Percichthyidae was conducted. Results generated from these different data sets reveal major disagreements concerning the content and interpretation of the so-called percichthyids. A phylogenetic analysis based on 54 morphological characters suggests the existence of two major clades: (1) Percichthyidae, including the South American Percichthys and the Australian taxa Macquaria australasica, Macquaria (= Plectroplites), and Maccullochella; (2) Perciliidae with the South American genus Percilia at the base plus more advanced Australian genera Nannoperca, Nannatherina, Bostockia, and Gadopsis. In contrast, molecular and mitogenomic evidence suggests only one clade (Percichthyidae), with the exclusion of species of Macquaria (= Percalates). Additionally, the results reveal the existence of various taxonomic problems, such as the current interpretation of only one species of Percichthys in Argentina, an interpretation that is not supported by the present study; the existence of cryptic species of Percilia as well as of Gadopsis, Nannoperca, and Macquaria that will increase the diversity of the genera; and the need for an extensive revision of species previously assigned to Percalates versus Macquaria. Disagreements point to the need to develop further research on the so-called percichthyids and perciliids.(AU)


Se realizó un estudio de peces sudamericanos y australianos incluyendo caracteres morfológicos y mitogenómicos, para taxa previamente asignados a la familia Percichthyidae. Los resultados generados de estos conjuntos de datos diferentes revelaron desacuerdos importantes entre el contenido y la interpretación de los así llamados percíctidos. Un análisis filogenético basado en 54 caracteres morfológicos sugiere la existencia de dos clados importantes: (1) La familia Percichthyidae, incluyendo el género sudamericano Percichthys y los taxa australianos Macquaria australasica, Macquaria (= Plectroplites) y Maccullochella. (2) Perciliidae con el género sudamericano Percilia en la base, y géneros australianos más avanzados como Nannoperca, Nannatherina, Bostockia y Gadopsis. En contraste, la evidencia molecular y mitogenómica incluye la mayor parte de los géneros dentro de la familia Percichthyidae, excluyendo a las especies de Macquaria (= Percalates). Adicionalmente, los resultados revelan la existencia de variados problemas taxonómicos, tales como la existencia de una sola especie de Percichthys en Argentina, cuya interpretación no es soportada por este estudio; la existencia de especies crípticas de Percilia, Gadopsis, Nannoperca y Macquaria que aumentarán la diversidad específica del género; y la necesidad de una revisión extensiva de especies previamente asignadas a Percalates versus Macquaria. Los desacuerdos encontrados apuntan a la necesidad de investigar más profundamente sobre los así llamados percíctidos y percíliidos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Phylogeny , Endemic Diseases , Biogeography , Fishes/anatomy & histology
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(6): 1015-1025, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955456

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the lethal concentration and the structural and ultra-structural effects caused by the formalin exposure on juveniles of Arapaima gigas. Ninety fish (60.1± 2.5g and 20.2±0.9cm) were exposed to 0, 22, 44, 66, 88 and 110mg L-1 in order to determine the lethal concentration (LC50-96h) that was 36.4mg L-1 of formalin. Sublethal effects were evaluated using histopathological analysis on the gills and assessment of behavioral alterations and clinical signs. The LC50 of formalin for 24, 48 and 72h was 88.3, 64.7 and 56.8mg L-1 respectively. Clinical signs and behavioral changes were found: erratic swimming, lethargy, crowding on the water surface, loss of hydrodynamic equilibrium, spasms and agonistic confrontation, which were observed only at 88 and 110mg L-1. The histological alteration index (HAI) showed that 66, 88 and 100mg L-1 presented significant difference (p<0.05) in relation to unexposed fish, indicating that moderate damage to the gills of fish exposed to formalin had occurred. The mean values of alteration (MVA) for 22, 44, 66, 88 and 110mg L-1 were 1.14, 1.29, 1.51, 1.53 and 1.60 respectively, and differences in this index were only observed with 110 mgL-1 of formalin. It is therefore possible to conclude that sublethal concentrations of formalin (22.0mg L-1) did not compromise the health of juveniles of A. gigas. Finally, concentrations greater than to LC50-96h may be carefully used for short-term exposure, since the MVA for all concentrations tested only indicated localized lesions that did not compromise gills functionality of exposed fish.(AU)


O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a concentração letal e efeitos estruturais e ultraestruturais causados pela exposição a formalina em juvenis de Arapaima gigas. Noventa peixes (60,1±2,5g e 20,2±0,9cm) foram expostos a 0, 22, 44, 66, 88 e 110mg L-1, para determinar a concentração letal (CL50-96h) de formalina que foi 36,4mg L-1. Os efeitos subletais foram avaliados por análises histopatológicas das brânquias e avaliação das alterações comportamentais e sinais clínicos. A CL50 de formalina para 24, 48 e 72horas foi de 88,3, 64,7 e 56,8; respectivamente. Sinais clínicos e alterações comportamentais encontradas foram: natação errática, letargia, aglomeração de peixes na superfície da água, perda de equilíbrio hidrodinâmico, espasmos e confronto agonísticos, observados apenas nas concentrações de 88 e 110mg L-1. O índice de alteração histológica (IAH) mostrou que as concentrações de 66, 88 e 100mg L-1 apresentaram diferenças significativas (p<0,05) em relação aos controles, indicando a ocorrência de danos moderados nas brânquias dos peixes expostos a formalina. Os valores médios de alteração (VMA) para as concentrações 22, 44, 66, 88 e 110mg L-1 foram 1,14, 1,29, 1,51, 1,53 e 1,60; respectivamente, e as diferenças na composição desse índice foram observados apenas na exposição com 110mg L-1 de formalina. Foi possível concluir que concentrações subletais de formalina (22,0mg L-1) não comprometem a saúde de juvenis de A. gigas. Concentrações de formalina acima da CL50-96h podem ser usadas cuidadosamente para banho de curto tempo, uma vez que o VMA para todas as concentrações testadas indicou apenas lesões localizadas que não comprometem a funcionalidade das brânquias dos peixes expostos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pain Measurement/veterinary , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Toxicity
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 523-526, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954148

ABSTRACT

The morphology of the sagittal otolith of Great sturgeon (Huso huso), Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) species from the Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea were studied. Three otolith measurements and three shape indices were recorded from 90 sturgeon specimens. Fish biometry traits were measured and relationship between sagittal otolith length (OL)-total length (TL), and sagittal otolith weight (WO)-body weight of fish (BW) were estimated. Sagittal otolith has a triangle shape with irregular edges in great sturgeon, elongate triangle with smooth surfaces in Persian sturgeon, and relatively circular with smooth surface in starry sturgeon. The ratio of the WO/BW in starry sturgeon was significantly higher ( P <0.05) than great sturgeon and Persian sturgeon. There is a direct proportional relationship between BW and WO in Persian sturgeon (r2=0.7), great sturgeon (r2=0.9) and starry sturgeon (r2=0.9). Regression line slope for these relationships in starry sturgeon were less than Persian sturgeon and great sturgeon. Furtheremore, there is significant linear regression between OL-TL. Results showed that it is possible to identify Caspian sturgeon species based on body morphometry and sagittal otolith characteristics.


Se estudió la morfología del otolito sagital del gran esturión (Huso huso), el esturión persa (Acipenser persicus) y el esturión estrellado (Acipenser stellatus) de las aguas iraníes del Mar Caspio. Se registraron tres mediciones de otolitos y tres índices de forma, de 90 especímenes de esturión. Se midieron los rasgos de la biometría de los peces y se estimó la relación entre la longitud del otolito sagital (LO) - longitud total (LT) y el peso del otolito (PO) - peso del cuerpo de los peces (PC). El otolito sagital tiene forma de triángulo con márgenes irregulares en el gran estu- rión (Huso huso), triángulo alargado con superficies lisas en estu- rión persa y relativamente circular con superficie lisa en esturión estrellado. La relación del PO / PC en el esturión estrellado fue significativamente mayor (P <0.05) que el gran esturión y el estu- rión persa. Existe una relación directamente proporcional entre PC y PO en el esturión persa (r2 = 0.7), el gran esturión (r2 = 0.9) y el esturión estrellado (r2 = 0.9). La pendiente de la línea de regresión para estas relaciones en el esturión estrellado fue menor que el esturión persa y el gran esturión. Por otra parte, existe una regresión lineal significativa entre LO-LT. Los resultados mostraron que es posible identificar especies de esturión del Caspio basadas en la morfometría corporal y las características del otolito sagital.


Subject(s)
Animals , Otolithic Membrane/anatomy & histology , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Iran
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 231-237, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-888077

ABSTRACT

Van fish is a fish that can live in soda water at pH 9-10. Van fishing area is a very important source of protein for the people. The variations in tissue metal levels according to gender and weight in Van fish (Alburnus tarichi, Güldenstadt 1814) were studied. This study was conducted for the first time in Van fish. Which it is very important for living organisms Calcium(Ca), magnesium(Mg), sodium(Na), potassium(K), cobalt(Co), chromium(Cr) and lithium(Li) elements levels in the muscle, liver, gill, gonad, and brain tissues of Van fish were investigated by using inductively-coupled plasma-optic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The results were evaluated in two groups as macro-elements(Ca, Mg, Na, K) and trace-elements(Co, Cr, Li). Cobalt concentration in brain tissue was found to be higher than those in other tissues. Also, male fish had higher metal concentrations than female fish and their metal levels in brain and gonad tissues varied with their weight (P<0.05). This study shows that consumption of Van fish can be consumed to supply some necessary minerals required for a healthy nutrition.(AU)


Peixes van são a única espécie de peixe vivendo em pH 9-10 no mundo. A área de pescaria Van é uma fonte importante de proteína para a população. As variações de niveis de metal nos tecidos de acordo com sexo e peso do peixe Van (Alburnus tarichi, Güldenstadt 1814) foram estudadas. Esse é o primeiro estudo conduzido com peixes Van. São importantes para organismos vivos o Calcio (Ca), magnésio (Mg), sódio (Na), potássio (K), cobalto (Co), cromio (Cr), e lítio (Li) e foi investigado o nível desses elementos no músculo, fígado, brânquia, gônada, e tecido cerebral dos peixes Van utilizando espectrometria de emissão atômica por plasma acoplado indutivamente (ICP-OES). Os resultados foram avaliados em dois grupos como macro-elementos (Ca, Mg, Na, K) e traços (Co, Cr, Li). Concentração de cobalto em tecido cerebral foi mais alto que em outros tecidos. Peixes machos tinham concentração mais alta de metais que fêmeas e os níveis de metal no cérebro e gônadas variava com seu peso (P<0.05). Esse estudo mostra que o consumo de peixe Van pode suplementar alguns minerais necessários para uma nutrição saudável.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Spectrum Analysis , Tissues/anatomy & histology , Fishes/anatomy & histology
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(3): 793-796, maio-jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-911368

ABSTRACT

Neste trabalho, descreveu-se o primeiro caso de hemangioma esclerosante registrado em um exemplar adulto do linguado Paralichthys orbignyanus. Produzido a partir de reprodução artificial, o peixe em questão tinha aproximadamente 10 anos de idade e fazia parte de um plantel de reprodutores. Ao ser retirado do tanque, notou-se a presença de lesão mandibular com escoriações e focos hemorrágicos. Amostras do tumor foram coletadas da mandíbula para análise histopatológica. Microscopicamente foi observada uma proliferação de numerosos vasos sanguíneos rodeados por um estroma conectivo denso. A etiologia dessa neoplasia é desconhecida, mas o fato de o exemplar ter permanecido por muitos anos em cativeiro pode ter contribuído para o surgimento desse tipo de lesão, devido aos choques mecânicos contra a parede do tanque que acontecem esporadicamente.(AU)


In this study, we described the first case of sclerosing haemangioma in an adult Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus. Produced by artificial reproduction, the fish was approximately 10 years old and was maintained at a breeding stock. When removed from the tank, mandibular lesion with excoriations and hemorrhagic foci were noted. Tumor samples were collected from the mandible for histopathological analysis. Proliferation of numerous blood vessels surrounded by dense connective stroma was observed microscopically. The etiology of this neoplasia is unknown, but the fact that the specimen remained in captivity for many years, may have contributed to the appearance of this type of lesion, due to sporadic mechanical shocks to the tank wall.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous/classification , Neoplasms/classification
13.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(3): [e180079], out. 2018. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-963984

ABSTRACT

A morphological revision is presented here on the cohort Otomorpha, a clade currently interpreted as the most primitive among the large supercohort Clupeocephala. Otomorpha is a morphologically heterogeneous group represented by clupei forms , alepocephaliforms, and ostariophysans (gonorynchiforms, cypriniforms, characiforms, siluriforms, and gymnoti forms) that inhabit various marine and freshwater environments worldwide. Otomorphs have a long (ca. 145 Ma) and diverse fossil record. They are the largest fish teleostean clade worldwide, as well as the largest of the Neotropical Region. While molecular studies strongly confirm the monophyly of Otomorpha, most potential morphological synapomorphies of the group become homoplastic largely due to the peculiar morphological character states (either losses or transformations) present in alepocephaliforms. The fusion of haemal arches with their respective vertebral centra anterior to preural centrum 2 stands as an unambiguous synapomorphy of the clade. The ankylosis or fusion of the extrascapular and parietal bones, and silvery areas associated with the gas bladder are also interpreted as synapomorphies, although they are homoplastic characters mainly due to secondary losses or further transformations of the morphological features in the alepocephaliforms.(AU)


Se realizó una revisión morfológica de la cohorte Otomorpha la que se interpreta como el grupo más primitivo dentro de la gran supercohorte Clupeocephala. Otomorpha incluye peces con una gran diversidad corporal la que está representada por clupeiformes, alopocefáliformes y ostariofisos (gonorinchiformes, cipriniformes, caraciformes, siluriformes y gimnotiformes), los que habitan diversos ambientes marinos y de aguas continentales del planeta. Otomorfos son el grupo de peces más grande a nivel mundial y al mismo tiempo, el más grande de la Región Neotropical. Mientras estudios moleculares confirman la monofilia de Otomorfa, la mayoría de las sinapomorfías morfológicas del grupo se interpretan como homoplásticas debido fundamentalmente a la naturaleza peculiar de ciertos caracteres morfológicos (ya sea pérdidas o transformación de estados de caracteres) de alepocefaliformes. La fusión de los arcos hemales con sus respectivos centros vertebrales anterior al centro preural 2 es una sinapomorfía de la cohorte. La anquilosis o fusión de los huesos extrascapular y parietal y la presencia de áreas plateadas asociadas con la vejiga natatoria son interpretados como sinapomorfías, independientemente de que son caracteres homoplásticos debido a pérdidas o transformaciones de tales caracteres en los alepocefáliformes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Fishes/anatomy & histology , Fishes/genetics , Fossils
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 950-957, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893079

ABSTRACT

The present study describes the morphology and histology of the digestive tract of juvenile pirarucu, which is a Neotropical fish species with great potential for aquaculture in the Amazon region. Three size classes of pirarucu juveniles from commercial fish farms were sampled for histological examination of the oesophagus, stomach, pyloric caeca, intestine and liver. The morphological and histological features of the pirarucu digestive tract are similar to other carnivorous teleosts and enable the species to ingest, store and digest large food items. Acidic and neutral mucins are secreted by the mucosa of the oesophagus, stomach, pyloric caeca and intestine to protect the mucosal epithelium and to lubricate and facilitate food passage along the digestive tract. Complex transverse folds are predominant in the intestinal mucosa and most likely contribute to optimization of the digestion and nutrient absorption processes, thereby offsetting the relatively short length of the intestine. The exocrine pancreas appears diffuse in the liver and mesentery around the pyloric region of the stomach, pyloric caeca and initial part of the intestine. The digestive tract morphology and thickness become increasingly developed with the size of pirarucu.


El presente trabajo describe la morfología e histología del tracto digestivo de una especie juvenil de paiche, un pez neotropical con gran potencial acuícola en la region Amazónica. Se tomaron muestras de tres clases de tamaño de juveniles de paiche de granjas acuícolas comerciales para examen histológico del esófago, estómago, ciego pilórico, intestino e hígado. El tracto digestivo del paiche tiene características morfológicas e histológicas comunes a otros teleósteos carnívoros que permiten a la especie la ingestión, el almacenamiento y la digestión de grandes alimentos. Mucinas ácidas y neutras son secretadas por la capa mucosa del esófago, estómago, ciego pilórico e intestino para proteger el epitelio de esta capa, además de lubricar y facilitar el paso de los alimentos a lo largo del tracto. Pliegues complejos y de orientación transversal son predominantes en la mucosa intestinal, contribuyendo, probablemente, a la optimización de los procesos de digestión y absorción de nutrientes, y compensando la longitud relativamente corta del intestino. El páncreas exócrino se encuentra difuso dentro del hígado y en el mesenterio alrededor de la región pilórica del estómago, ciego pilórico y porción inicial del intestino. La morfología y el espesor del tubo digestorio se desarrollan de forma gradual a medida que el paiche crece.


Subject(s)
Animals , Digestive System/anatomy & histology , Fishes/anatomy & histology
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 77-84, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840936

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the current investigation was to describe the gill morphology of two bottom feeders Mediterranean Sea fishes: Striped red mullet fish (M. surmuletus) and grey gurnard fish (E. gurnardus) that showed the same feeding habits. The gill system of the grey gurnard consisted of four pairs of gill arches while consisted of three pairs of gill arches in the striped red mullet. Our study focused on the scanning electron microscopical (SEM) features of the gills, where some differences in the gill arches and gill rakers surface in both species were observed. Our results marked that there was an interbranchial septum carrying a four transverse elevated crest in grey gurnard while in striped red mullet carrying a median longitudinal elevated crest. There are some similar structure on the gill arch of two fishes as; no angle between a ceratobranchial part and epibranchial part and also the gill arch has a region of many longitudinal microridges demarcated the region between gill rakers and gill filaments. By SEM, in striped red mullet, the smooth surface of gill arch and gill rakers was characterized by the presence of high number of taste buds. By SEM in grey gurnard, gill raker appeared as a round short projected body with high number of curved apex spines. Furthermore, in striped red mullet, gill raker appeared as short projected body with high number of rod-like spines. Gill filaments were long at middle and short at extremities of gill arch in both species.


El propósito de este trabajo fue describir la morfología de las branquias de dos peces que se alimentan en el fondo del mar Mediterráneo: Gurnard grises (E. gurnardus) y salmonete rojo rayado (M. surmuletus) los cuales mostraron los mismos hábitos alimenticios. El sistema de branquias del E. gurnardus gris consiste en cuatro pares de arcos branquiales, mientras que en el salmonete rayado son tres pares. El estudio se centró en la observación de las características de las branquias por microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB), donde se visualizaron algunas diferencias en ambas especies tanto en los arcos branquiales, como en la superficie de las ramas branquiales. Nuestros resultados marcaron la presencia de un septum interbranchial que presentaba cuatro crestas elevadas a nivel transversal en el E. gurnardus gris, mientras que el salmonete rayado presentaba una cresta elevada mediana longitudinal. Hay una estructura similar en el arco branquial de los dos tipos de peces, pero no hay ángulo entre una parte ceratobranquial y la parte epibranquial. Además, el arco branquial tiene una región de muchas microrredes longitudinales que delimitan la región entre las ramas branquiales y los filamentos branquiales. Por MEB, en el salmonete rayado, la superficie lisa del arco branquial y el de las ramas branquiales se caracterizaron por la presencia de un alto número de papilas gustativas. Por MEB en E. gurnardus gris, las branquias aparecieron como un cuerpo corto proyectado con un alto número de espinas de vértice curvo. Además, en el salmonete rojo rayado, el rastrillo de las branquias apareció como un cuerpo corto proyectado con un alto número de espinas tipo bastón. En ambas especies los filamentos branquiales eran largos en el centro y cortos en los extremos del arco branquial.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Gills/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Smegmamorpha/anatomy & histology
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 331-336, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-840974

ABSTRACT

El charal de Toluca Chirostoma riojai es un pez de alto valor cultural e ictiológico. Los trabajos sobre esta especie se enfocan en el tipo de alimentación o forman parte de revisiones taxonómicas y son pocos los estudios sobre los cambios morfológicos durante su ontogenia. Se evaluó la figura de C. riojai mediante morfometría geométrica desde su eclosión hasta los 90 días de vida. Los ejemplares se cultivaron en condiciones controladas y fueron fijados 171 organismos pertenecientes a 11 intervalos de edad incluidos en cinco fases: embrión libre, apterolarva, pterolarva, juvenil y adulto. Se usaron seis puntos anatómicamente homólogos en una primera configuración de marcas y en una segunda se delinearon dos contornos (dorsal y ventralmente) de la región anterior. Un análisis de componentes principales mostró una fuerte diferenciación en su figura durante la transición larva-juvenil, en tanto un análisis de variables canónicas señaló diferencias significativas (ps<0.001) entre los 11 grupos de edad. La regresión lineal entre el logaritmo del tamaño centroide y las distancias procustes muestran que los organismos mantienen un cambio de figura constante hasta el término del periodo larvario, punto en el que el periodo juvenil comienza y las modificaciones en su figura disminuyen. La descripción del desarrollo temprano de C. riojai sin considerar el desarrollo de las aletas, muestra que la característica con el mayor cambio es el desplazamiento del poro anal, seguido por el alargamiento de la región cefálica. El tamaño y la figura de C. riojai durante su vida temprana pueden servir para diferenciar faces de desarrollo y ser utilizada en otras especies hermanas para evaluar si su figura es específica en cada fase. Los cambios morfológicos de C. riojai durante su vida temprana se pueden describir de forma gradual hasta el periodo larval y saltatoria en el cambio a juvenil.


Toluca silverside Chirostoma riojai is a fish with high cultural and ictiological values. Studies on this species have focused on the type of diet or as part of taxonomic reviews, while few reports are known on the morphological changes during its ontogeny. In this study the shape of C. riojai was evaluated by means of geometric morphometrics from hatchings up to 90 days-old individuals. Specimens of C. riojai were cultivated in controlled conditions, and 171 organisms there fixed, belonging to 11 age intervals included within five phases: free embryo, apterolarva, pterolarva, juvenile, and adult. There were used six landmarks in an initial configuration, and in a second configuration there were outlined two contours (dorsal and ventral) on the anterior region. A principal component analysis showed a strong differentiation in the shape during the transition larva-juvenile, for both an analysis of canonical variables found significant differences (ps<0.001) between the 11 age groups. The linear regression between the logarithm of the size centroid and procustes distances, showed that the individuals maintain a constant change in shape up to the end of the larval phase, at which time the youth stage begins and the changes in its shape decreases. The description of the early development of C. riojai without considering the development of the fins, shows that feature with greatest change is the movement of the anal pore, followed by the lengthening of the cephalic region. The size and shape of C. riojai during its early life could serve to differentiate developmental phases and could be used with other sister species to assess whether their shape is specific in each phase. The morphological changes of C. riojai during his early life could be described in a gradual form up to the the larval period, while saltatory in the change to juvenile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/embryology , Fishes/growth & development , Fishes/anatomy & histology
17.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(3): e170034, 2017. graf
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895093

ABSTRACT

Biogeography of Amazonian fishes (2,500 species in vastly disjunct lineages) is complex and has so far been approached only partially. Here, we tackle the problem on the basis of the largest database yet on geographical distribution and phylogenetic relationships of Amazonian fishes, including all information available. Distributions of 4,095 species (both Amazonian and outgroups) and 84 phylogenetic hypotheses (comprising 549 phylogenetically-informative nodes) were compiled, qualified and plotted onto 46 areas (29 Amazonian and 17 non-Amazonian). The database was analyzed with PAE, CADE, BPA and BPA0, yielding largely congruent results and indicating that biogeographic signal is detectable on multiple dimensions of fish distribution, from single species ranges to cladistic congruence. Agreement is especially pronounced in deeper components, such as Trans-Andean, Cis-Andean, Western Amazon and Orinoco basins. Results show that all major Amazonian tributaries, as well as the Amazon basin itself, are non-monophyletic and constitute hybrid sets of heterogeneous biotic partitions. Amazonian drainages should not be assumed a priori as historically cohesive areas, contrary to widespread practice. Our hypothesis allows re-evaluation of broader issues in historical biogeography, such as the predictive power of biogeographic hypotheses, the vicariant/dispersal duality, the significance of widely distributed taxa, and the need for temporal dimension in biogeographic patterns.(AU)


A biogeografia dos peixes amazônicos (2.500 espécies de diferentes linhagens) é complexa e até agora foi abordada apenas parcialmente. Aqui abordamos o problema com base no maior banco de dados já feito sobre a distribuição geográfica e as relações filogenéticas dos peixes amazônicos, incluindo todas as informações disponíveis. A distribuição de 4.095 espécies (tanto amazônicas como de grupos-externos) e 84 hipóteses filogenéticas (que incluíam 549 nós filogeneticamente informativos) foram compiladas e qualificadas em 46 áreas (29 amazônicas e 17 não-amazônicas). O banco de dados foi analisado a partir das metodologias PAE, CADE, BPA e BPA0, resultando em topologias amplamente congruentes e indicando que o sinal biogeográfico é detectável em múltiplas dimensões, desde a simples distribuição de peixes até em congruência cladística. A concordância topológica é especialmente pronunciada em componentes mais profundos, como as bacias Trans-Andina, Cis-Andina, Amazonas Ocidental e Orinoco. Os resultados demonstram que todos os principais afluentes amazônicos, bem como a própria bacia amazônica, não são monofiléticos e constituem conjuntos híbridos formados a partir de parcelas bióticas heterogêneas. As drenagens amazônicas não devem ser consideradas a priori como áreas historicamente coesas, contrariamente à prática generalizada. Nossa hipótese permite a reavaliação de questões mais amplas na biogeografia histórica, como o poder preditivo de hipóteses biogeográficas, a dualidade vicariante/dispersão, significância de táxons amplamente distribuídos e a necessidade da dimensão temporal em padrões biogeográficos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Hydrographic Basins/analysis , Biogeography , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Animal Distribution
18.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(4): e170033, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895113

ABSTRACT

Informal sales of large-bodied non-native aquarium fishes (known as "tankbusters") is increasing among Brazilian hobbyists. In this study, we surveyed this non-regulated trade on Facebook® from May 2012 to September 2016, systematically collecting information about the fishes available for trading: species, family, common/scientific names, native range, juvenile length, behavior, number of specimens available in five geographical regions from Brazil. We also assessed the invasion risk of the most frequently sold species using the Fish Invasiveness Screening Test (FIST). We found 93 taxa belonging to 35 families. Cichlidae was the dominant family, and most species were native to South America. All species are sold at very small sizes (< 10.0 cm), and most display aggressive behavior. The hybrid Amphilophus trimaculatus × Amphilophus citrinellus, Astronotus ocellatus, Uaru amphiacanthoides, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Cichla piquiti, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Datnioides microlepis and Cichla kelberi were the main species available. The southeast region showed the greatest trading activity. Based on biological traits, the FIST indicated that Arapaima gigas, C. kelberi and C. temensis are high-risk species in terms of biological invasions via aquarium dumping. We suggest management strategies such as trade regulations, monitoring, euthanasia and educational programs to prevent further introductions via aquarium dumping.(AU)


A venda de juvenis de peixes não-nativos de grandes dimensões, chamados de "peixes jumbo", está aumentando entre aquaristas no Brasil. Neste trabalho, pesquisou-se este comércio informal pelo Facebook® de maio/2012 a setembro/2016, coletando-se informações sobre espécies, família, nomes vulgares/científicos, origem, tamanho juvenil, comportamento e número/frequência de exemplares disponíveis nas cinco regiões geográficas do Brasil. Também avaliou-se o risco de invasão das espécies mais vendidas usando o protocolo Fish Invasiveness Screening Test (FIST). Foram encontradas 93 espécies pertencentes a 35 famílias. Cichlidae foi a família dominante, e a maioria das espécies é nativa da América do Sul. Todas as espécies foram vendidas como juvenis (< 10.0 cm), e a maioria exibe comportamento agressivo. O híbrido Amphilophus trimaculatus × Amphilophus citrinellus, Astronotus ocellatus, Uaru amphiacanthoides, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Cichla piquiti, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Datnioides microlepis e Cichla kelberi foram as espécies mais comercializadas. A região sudeste apresentou a maior porcentagem de vendas, e o FIST mostrou que Arapaima gigas, C. kelberi e C. temensis foram consideradas de alto risco para desencadear invasões biológicas mediadas por descarte de aquários. Recomendações como a regulação do comércio, monitoramento, sacrifício das espécies e campanhas educacionais para os aquaristas são sugeridas para evitar futuras introduções de peixes via descarte de aquários.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Commerce/economics , Fishes/anatomy & histology
19.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(1): e160041, 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-841869

ABSTRACT

We describe and compare the histology of liver and spleen ofGeophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes), Hypostomus francisci (Siluriformes) and Hoplias aff. malabaricus (Characiformes), tropical freshwater fishes. InG. brasiliensisandH. aff. malabaricusthe hepatocytes were arranged in tubular form whereas in H. franciscithey cord-like. In all species, hepatocytes presented glycogen, but in G. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus they showed strong stained for hemossiderin in the cytoplasm. InG. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus, melanomacrophage centres (MMCs) were associated to hepatic structures and only in G. brasiliensis was observed intrahepatic exocrine pancreas. The spleen, in all species, was characterized by red and white pulp without boundary between the two regions, but only in H. francisci was recorded nodular organization in splenic parenchyma. The G. brasiliensisandH. aff. malabaricuspresented in the white pulp MMCs linked mainly to ellipsoids. Besides, we observed large MMCs in the spleen in relation to liver of G. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus. In liver, highest values of reticular fibers and collagen were observed inG. brasiliensis. In spleen, highest values of reticular fibers and collagen were recorded inH. aff. malabaricusandH. francisci, respectively. Histological differences confirm the hypothesis that the phylogenetic distance is reflected in liver and spleen.(AU)


Nós descrevemos e comparamos a histologia do fígado e do baço de Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes), Hypostomus francisci (Siluriformes) e Hoplias aff. malabaricus (Characiformes), peixes neotropicais de água doce. Em G. brasiliensis e H. aff. malabaricus os hepatócitos organizaram-se na forma tubular enquanto que em H. francisci eles apresentaram-se como cordões celulares. Em todas as espécies, os hepatócitos apresentaram glicogênio, mas em G. brasiliensis e H. aff. malabaricus, eles mostraram forte marcação para hemossiderina no citoplasma. Em G. brasiliensis e H. aff. malabaricus, centros melanomacrofágicos (CMMs) foram associados a estruturas hepáticas e somente em G. brasiliensis foi observado pâncreas exócrino intrahepático. O baço, em todas as espécies, foi caracterizado pela polpa vermelha e branca sem limites entre as duas regiões, mas somente em H. francisci foi registrado uma organização nodular no parênquima esplênico. G. brasiliensiseH. aff. malabaricusapresentaram na polpa branca CMMs associados principalmente a elipsoides. Além disso, nós observamos CMMs grandes no baço em relação ao fígado de G. brasiliensis e de H. aff. malabaricus. No fígado, valores altos de fibras reticulares e colágeno foram observado em G. brasiliensis. No baço, valores altos de fibras reticulares e colágeno foram registrados em H. aff. malabaricuseH. francisci, respectivamente. Diferenças histológicas confirmam a hipótese que a distância filogenética está refletida no fígado e no baço.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/abnormalities , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Hepatocytes/cytology , Liver/anatomy & histology , Spleen/anatomy & histology
20.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(1): e160049, 2017. mapas, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-841877

ABSTRACT

With the objective of finding fluctuations on fish body condition in the Middle Paraná River floodplain in different hydrological scenarios, this attribute was analyzed in several trophic groups of a secondary floodplain channel and its associated lakes between 2010 and 2012. Standardized residuals generated by length-weight regressions were calculated for each species and the relative weight (Wr) of the most abundant species per group was examined. A two-way factorial ANOVA was carried out (factors: hydrology and habitats) to evaluate the existence of significant spatial-temporal differences by groups and species. Results showed that body condition in detritivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous species fluctuated significantly depending on hydrology and the environment. Optimal body condition was recorded after the largest flood pulse in most species. Body condition decreased during the low-water period and after two disconnection periods, whereas during the second flood pulse it increased in detritivores, herbivores and omnivores. No floods occurred thereafter, but two flow pulses were registered, and body condition increased under these hydrologic scenarios, with similar or higher values to those recorded after the largest pulse. These results indicate that flow pulses, which are supplementary to flood pulses, may have a positive effect on fish body condition.(AU)


Con el objetivo de conocer la fluctuación de la condición corporal de peces en la planicie de inundación del tramo medio del río Paraná ante diferentes escenarios hidrológicos, se analizó este atributo de diferentes grupos tróficos en un cauce secundario de la planicie y sus lagunas asociadas durante 2010 a 2012. Se calcularon los residuos estandarizados generados por las regresiones longitud-peso para cada especie y se examinó el peso relativo (Wr, por sus siglas en ingles) de las especies más abundantes de cada grupo. Se llevó a cabo un ANOVA factorial de dos vías (factores: hidrología y ambientes) para evaluar la existencia de diferencias significativas espacio-temporales por grupos y por especies. Los resultados mostraron que la condición corporal de las especies detritívoras, herbívoras y omnívoras fluctuó significativamente en función de la hidrología y los ambientes. Óptimas condiciones corporales se registraron en la mayoría de las especies después del mayor pulso de inundación. La condición corporal disminuyó durante el período de aguas bajas y luego de dos períodos de desconexión, mientras que, durante el segundo pulso, aumentó en detritívoros, herbívoros y omnívoros. No hubieron inundaciones luego, pero ocurrieron dos pulsos de flujo y las condiciones corporales se incrementaron bajo estos escenarios hidrológicos, presentando valores similares o incluso mayores a los registrados luego del gran pulso. Esto destaca que los pulsos de flujo complementarios a los pulsos de inundación pueden tener un efecto positivo sobre la condición corporal de peces.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Hydrology/classification , Body Composition
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