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1.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(2): e200067, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279490

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to determine the parameters of the reproductive biology of seven commercial species at the Ramsar Site of the Baixada Maranhense to support fisheries management measures. The collections were carried out between 2012 and 2016. The reproductive period, sex ratio, weight-length relationship and first sexual maturity were evaluated for seven species of commercial importance. The sex ratio showed that females are predominant for all species, except for Plagioscion squamossissimus. The weight-length relationship indicated a greater investment in weight for Cichla monoculus and Hassar affinis, and a greater investment in length for Hoplias malabaricus, Plagioscion squamosissimus, Prochilodus lacustris, Pygocentrus nattereri, and Schizodon dissimilis. The reproductive activity of the species was predominant in the rainy season, but C. monoculus, H. malabaricus and P. lacustris showed the ability to reproduce in both seasons. As management measures for the region, it is suggested a change in the closed fishing season established by IBAMA, from December 1 to April 30, to ensure the protection of all commercial species in this study.(AU)


Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar os parâmetros da biologia reprodutiva de sete espécies comerciais no Sítio Ramsar da Baixada Maranhense, para apoiar medidas de manejo pesqueiro. As coletas foram realizadas entre 2012 e 2016, com um ano de coleta para cada espécie. Foram avaliados o período reprodutivo, a razão sexual, a relação peso-comprimento e a primeira maturidade sexual para sete espécies de importância comercial. A razão sexual mostrou que as fêmeas são predominantes para todas as espécies, exceto para Plagioscion squamossissimus. A relação peso-comprimento indicou um maior investimento em peso para Cichla monoculus e Hassar affinis, e um maior investimento em comprimento para Hoplias malabaricus, Plagioscion squamosissimus, Prochilodus lacustris, Pygocentrus nattereri e Schizodon dissimilis. A atividade reprodutiva das espécies foi predominante na estação chuvosa, mas C. monoculus, H. malabaricus e P. lacustris mostraram capacidade de se reproduzir nas duas estações. Como medidas de manejo para a região, sugere-se uma mudança do período de defeso, estabelecida pelo IBAMA, de 1 de dezembro a 30 de abril, para garantir a proteção de todas as espécies comerciais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Reproduction , Sexual Maturation , Fisheries , Fishes/physiology , Amazonian Ecosystem
2.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210037, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279497

ABSTRACT

Albeit massive fish mortality has an extraordinary visual impact and is certainly a fatality, we still have rudimentary understanding on how addressing this problem in the Neotropical region. The processes that lead to fish die-off events are complex and sometimes ephemeral, which can lead to incorrect diagnosis. In this review, we discuss these events in Neotropical freshwaters, both in areas impacted by dams and natural environment, with a focus on deaths mediated by the lack of oxygen (anoxia) or the excess of dissolved gases (gas supersaturation). We examine the available knowledge about the related mechanisms, lethal thresholds for dissolved oxygen (DO) and total dissolved gases (TDG) for fish, and the sequelae of gas bubble disease (GBD). An assessment of the main mortality events in Brazil in the last 10 years is also presented, as well as the best practices for monitoring, prevention, and mitigation. Finally, it is concluded that the proliferation of hydroelectric plants in the Neotropical region might contribute to the expansion of these events and, consequently, increasing of impacts on fish conservation. We consider urgent the inclusion of this topic in the licensing processes for new hydropower projects by the environmental agencies.(AU)


Embora mortandades massivas de peixes tenham impacto visual extraordinário e sejam certamente uma fatalidade, estamos ainda engatinhando no entendimento e na solução desse problema. Os processos que levam aos eventos de mortes de peixes são complexos e algumas vezes efêmeros, o que explica diagnoses incorretas. Nessa revisão nós discutimos esses eventos em bacias hidrográficas neotropicais, tanto em barragens como em ambientes naturais, porém com o foco nas mortes por falta de oxigênio (anoxia) ou excesso de gases dissolvidos (supersaturação gasosa). Em particular são examinados o conhecimento disponível acerca dos processos que levam a essas condições, os limiares letais de oxigênio dissolvido (OD) e gases totais dissolvidos (GTD) para os peixes e as sequelas da doença das bolhas de gás (DBG). Uma avaliação dos principais eventos de mortandade que ocorreram no Brasil nos últimos 10 anos é também apresentada, bem como discutidas as melhores práticas para o monitoramento, prevenção e mitigação. Conclui-se, finalmente, que a proliferação de hidrelétricas deve contribuir com a expansão desses eventos e consequentemente com mais um fator de ameaça à biodiversidade. Consideramos urgente a inclusão desse tema nos processos de licenciamento de novos empreendimentos pelo órgão ambiental.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dams , Mortality , Fishes/physiology , Hypoxia/mortality , Dissolved Oxygen , Water Reservoirs , Biodiversity
3.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e200155, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340228

ABSTRACT

In South America, mercury contamination due to gold mining operations is a threat to both biodiversity and human health. We examined mercury (Hg) concentrations in fishes that constitute important subsistence fisheries from mined and non-mined tributaries in the middle Mazaruni River, Guyana. Mercury concentrations and trophic food web structure (based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes) were characterized for primary basal sources and 39 fish species representing seven trophic guilds. Fishes collected at mined sites had higher mercury concentrations; piscivores and carnivores had the highest Hg concentrations and exhibited significant Hg biomagnification. Our results showed that medium- to large-bodied fishes commonly eaten by local people contained Hg values that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, and pose a health concern for riverine communities along the Mazaruni River that depend on fish as their main source of protein. Further research to determine the sources of Hg contamination and how it affects human health in this neotropical river must become a top priority. In addition, more research on how Hg contamination impacts the fishes themselves and overall aquatic biodiversity is also needed in the Mazaruni River which has both high fish endemism and diversity.(AU)


Na América do Sul, a contaminação por mercúrio devido às operações de mineração de ouro é uma ameaça à biodiversidade e à saúde humana. Nós examinamos as concentrações de mercúrio (Hg) em peixes que constituem importantes pescarias de subsistência em afluentes minerados e não minerados no médio rio Mazaruni, Guiana. As concentrações de mercúrio e a estrutura trófica da teia alimentar (baseada em isótopos estáveis ​​de carbono e nitrogênio) foram caracterizadas para fontes basais primárias e 39 espécies de peixes representando sete guildas tróficas. Os peixes coletados em locais minerados tiveram maiores concentrações de mercúrio; piscívoros e carnívoros tiveram as maiores concentrações de Hg e exibiram biomagnificação significativa de Hg. Nossos resultados mostraram que peixes de corpo médio a grande comumente consumidos pela população local continham valores de Hg que excedem os critérios da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) e representam uma preocupação para a saúde das comunidades ribeirinhas ao longo do rio Mazaruni que dependem dos peixes como sua principal fonte de proteína. Outras pesquisas para determinar as fontes de contaminação por Hg e como isso afeta a saúde humana neste rio neotropical devem se tornar uma prioridade. Além disso, mais pesquisas sobre como a contaminação por Hg impacta os próprios peixes e a biodiversidade aquática em geral também são necessárias no rio Mazaruni, que tem alto endemismo e diversidade de peixes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical Contamination , Fishes/physiology , Mercury/toxicity , Food Chain , Bioaccumulation , Mercury Isotopes/chemistry
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 862-870, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129541

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the probiotic potential and absorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the aflatoxin B1 in simulated fish intestinal tract conditions. Three yeast strains were used, two from brewery: S. cerevisiae RC1 and S. cerevisiae RC3 and one from a fish farming environment: S. cerevisiae A8L2. The selected yeasts were subjected to the following in vitro tests: homologous inhibition, self-aggregation, co-aggregation, antibacterial activity, gastrointestinal conditions tolerance and adsorption of AFB1. All S. cerevisiae strains showed good capability of self-aggregation and co-aggregation with pathogenic bacteria. All yeast strains were able to survive the gastrointestinal conditions. In acidic conditions, the factors (strain vs. time) had interaction (P=0.0317), resulting in significant variation among the strains tested in the time periods analyzed. It was observed that there was also interaction (P=0.0062) in intestinal conditions, with an increased number of cells in the 12-hour period for all strains tested. In the adsorption test, the A8L2 strain was statistically more effective (P<0.005) for both AFB1 concentrations evaluated in this study (10 and 25ng/mL). Thus, it was observed that the strains of S. cerevisiae have potential probiotic and adsorbent of AFB1.(AU)


Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar in vitro o potencial probiótico e adsorvente de Saccharomyces cerevisiae para aflatoxina B1 em condições simuladas do trato intestinal de peixes. Foram utilizadas três cepas de leveduras, sendo duas provenientes de cervejaria: S. cerevisiae RC1 e S. cerevisiae RC3, e uma de ambiente de piscicultura: S. cerevisiae A8L2. As leveduras selecionadas foram submetidas aos seguintes testes in vitro: inibição homóloga, autoagregação, coagregação, atividade antibacteriana, viabilidade às condições gastrointestinais e adsorção de AFB1. Todas as estirpes de S. cerevisiae mostraram boa capacidade de autoagregação e coagregação com bactérias patogênicas. Todas as estirpes de levedura foram capazes de sobreviver às condições gastrointestinais. Em condições ácidas, os fatores (cepa x tempo) tiveram interação (P=0,0317), resultando em variações significativas entre as cepas testadas nos períodos de tempo analisados. Observou-se que também houve interação (P=0,0062) em condições intestinais, havendo um aumento do número de células no período de 12h para todas as cepas avaliadas. No ensaio de adsorção, a estirpe A8L2 foi a mais eficaz estatisticamente (P<0,005), para as duas concentrações de AFB1 avaliadas neste estudo (10 e 25ng. mL-1). Dessa forma, conclui-se que as cepas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae possuem potencial probiótico e adsorvente de AFB1.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Aflatoxin B1/antagonists & inhibitors , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Fishes/physiology , Intestines/microbiology , In Vitro Techniques , Adsorption
5.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(2): e170042, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1012715

ABSTRACT

The influence of the moon cycles on the ichthyofauna has been little studied in the surf zone. In this study, the number of species, density and biomass were evaluated as a function of the moon. A total of 49 species distributed in 24 families were captured in two areas of Miramar beach. The mean density was significant high in the weaning and low in the new moon, while density and biomass together showed differences for areas. The most abundant species were Anchoa tricolor and Trachinotus falcatus (new moon), and Anchovia clupeoides showed significant differences in the waning moon. The RDA indicates that turbidity influenced significantly the presence of two species group. The group I were represented by Stellifer brasiliensis, Trachinotus goodei, A. clupeoides, Chilomycterus spinosus and Conodon nobilis that occurred on the waning and new phases in both areas, while the group II were represented by Polydactylus virginicus and Haemulopsis corvinaeformis in the full moon. The surf zones may also be strongly governed by the lunar phases. Therefore, the results found in this study, showed that the biological interactions between the species with turbidity and moon might explain the density and biomass variations for some species in the surf zone.(AU)


A influência das fases lunares sobre a ictiofauna tem sido pouco estudada na zona de arrebentação. Nesse estudo, foram avaliadas, o número de espécies, densidade e a biomassa da ictiofauna em função da lua. Foram capturadas 49 espécies distribuídas em 24 famílias em duas áreas na Praia de Miramar. A densidade foi significativamente elevada nas luas minguante e nova. Além disso, a densidade e biomassa juntas mostraram diferenças entre as áreas. As espécies mais abundantes na lua nova foram Anchoa tricolor e Trachinotus falcatus, e Anchovia clupeoides teve uma maior abundancia na lua minguante. O RDA, indicou que a turbidez influenciou significativamente a presença de dois grupos distintos. O grupo I, representado por Stellifer brasiliensis, Trachinotus goodei, A. clupeoides, Chilomycterus spinosus e Conodon nobilis estiveram presentes nas luas minguante e nova em ambas as áreas, e o grupo II, representado por Polydactylus virginicus e Haemulopsis corvinaeformis na lua cheia. As zonas de arrebentação também podem ser reguladas fortemente pelas fases lunares. Os resultados mostraram que as interações biológicas entre as espécies com a turbidez e as fases lunares podem explicar as variações de densidade e biomassa para algumas espécies na zona de arrebentação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomass , Fishes/physiology , Bone Density , Moon , Ecology
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(5): e8026, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001526

ABSTRACT

Carassius auratus is a teleost fish that has been largely used in behavioral studies. However, little is known about potential environmental influences on its performance of learning and memory tasks. Here, we investigated this question in C. auratus, and searched for potential correlation between exercise and visuospatial enrichment with the total number of telencephalic glia and neurons. To that end, males and females were housed for 183 days in either an enriched (EE) or impoverished environment (IE) aquarium. EE contained toys, natural plants, and a 12-hour/day water stream for voluntary exercise, whereas the IE had none of the above. A third plus-maze aquarium was used for spatial and object recognition tests. Different visual clues in 2 of its 4 arms were used to guide fish to reach the criteria to complete the task. The test consisted of 30 sessions and was concluded when each animal performed three consecutive correct choices or seven alternated, each ten trials. Learning rates revealed significant differences between EE and IE fish. The optical fractionator was used to estimate the total number of telencephalic cells that were stained with cresyl violet. On average, the total number of cells in the subjects from EE was higher than those from subjects maintained in IE (P=0.0202). We suggest that environmental enrichment significantly influenced goldfish spatial learning and memory abilities, and this may be associated with an increase in the total number of telencephalic cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Telencephalon/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Fishes/physiology , Spatial Learning/physiology , Spatial Memory/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Cell Count
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 763-772, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951606

ABSTRACT

Abstract Most studies on mechanisms regulating fish larvae processes have focused on assessing the isolated effects of food distribution and feeding behavior. However, in natural ecosystems, fish larvae may strongly interact with zooplankton organisms in an array of complex, direct and indirect interdependencies. This study analyzed the spatial distribution, diet and feeding behavior of early stages of Hypophthalmus edentatus and Plagioscion squamosissimus, two fish species co-occurring in an isolated floodplain lake, during the light-dark cycle. Larvae fed more actively during dark periods (dusk and night) when they migrated toward the surface of the lake, and remained on the bottom and fed less during light periods (day and dawn). Cladocerans represented the most frequent prey in the diet of H. edentatus larvae. In turn, P. squamosissimus larvae initially preferred cladocerans and, as they developed, included calanoid copepods in the diet. Significant differences were detected in the frequencies of food items consumed during larval development, which could be related to a better ability of the most developed stages to explore the environment in search of other prey.


Resumo A maioria dos estudos de mecanismos que regulam os processos de larvas de peixes se concentra na avaliação dos efeitos isolados da distribuição do alimento e do comportamento alimentar. No entanto, em ecossistemas naturais, as larvas de peixes podem interagir fortemente com os organismos do zooplâncton em uma série de interdependências complexas, diretas e indiretas. Este estudo analisou a distribuição espacial, dieta e comportamento alimentar dos estágios iniciais de vida de Hypophthalmus edentatus e Plagioscion squamosissimus, duas espécies de peixes coexistentes em uma lagoa isolada de planície de inundação, durante o ciclo claro-escuro. As larvas se alimentaram mais ativamente durante os períodos escuros (crepúsculo e noite) quando ascenderam em direção à superfície da lagoa, enquanto durante os períodos luminosos (dia e amanhecer) permaneceram no fundo e pouco se alimentaram. Os cladóceros foram as presas mais frequentes na dieta de larvas de H. edentatus. Por sua vez, larvas de P. squamosissimus inicialmente preferiram cladóceros, e a medida que se desenvolveram incluíram copépodes calanóides na dieta. Diferenças significativas foram detectadas nas frequências dos itens alimentares consumidos durante o desenvolvimento larval, o que poderia estar relacionado a uma melhor capacidade dos estágios mais desenvolvidos em explorar o ambiente na busca por outras presas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Fishes/physiology , Larva/physiology , Brazil , Lakes , Population Density , Photoperiod , Ecosystem , Diet
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 202-210, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888858

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the isotopic composition in muscle of striped weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa from Southwest Atlantic Ocean in order to evaluate a possible variation in δ13C and δ15N in response to dietary shifts that occur as animals grow. We also explored for isotopic evidence of differences between sample locations. The results showed an agreement between isotope analysis and previous conventional studies. Differences in the isotope composition between sampling location were not observed. A positive relation exists between isotope values and total body length of the animals. The Cluster analysis defined three groups of size classes, validated by the MDS. Differences in the relative consumption of prey species in each size class were also observed performing isotope mixing models (SIAR). Variation in δ15N among size classes would be associated with the consumption of a different type of prey as animals grow. Small striped weakfish feed on small crustaceans and progressively increase their consumption of fish (anchovy, Engraulis anchoita), increasing by this way their isotope values. On the other hand, differences in δ13C values seemed to be related to age-class specific spatial distribution patterns. Therefore, large and small striped weakfish remain specialized but feeding on different prey at different trophic levels. These results contribute to the study of the diet of striped weakfish, improve the isotopic ecology models and highlight on the importance of accounting for variation in the isotopic composition in response to dietary shifts with the size of one of the most important fishery resources in the region.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a composição isotópica no músculo de Cynoscion guatucupa no Oceano Atlântico Sul Ocidental, a fim de avaliar uma possível variação de δ13C e δ15N como resposta às mudanças ontogenéticas na dieta. Foram também exploradas evidências isotópicas de diferenças entre os locais de amostragem. Os resultados mostraram uma concordância entre a análise de isótopos e os estudos convencionais prévios. Diferenças na composição isotópica entre locais de amostragem não foram observadas. Uma relação positiva existe entre valores isotópicos e comprimento total dos animais. A análise de cluster definiu três grupos de classes de tamanho, validados pelo MDS. Foram também observadas, através de modelos isotópicos mistos (SIAR), diferenças no consumo relativo de espécies de presas para cada classe de tamanho. Variações em δ15N entre as classes de tamanho estariam associadas ao consumo de diferentes tipos de presas ao longo do crescimento dos animais. Indivíduos pequenos alimentam-se de pequenos crustáceos e progressivamente aumentam seu consumo de peixes (Engraulis anchoita), aumentando assim os seus valores isotópicos. Por outro lado, as diferenças nos valores de δ13C parecem estar relacionadas com variações no padrão de distribuição espacial específico de cada classe idade. Desta maneira, tanto C. guatucupa grandes como pequenos permanecem especializados, porém alimentando-se de presas diferentes, em diferentes níveis tróficos e em diferentes áreas. Estes resultados contribuem para o estudo da dieta de C. guatucupa, melhoram os modelos de ecologia isotópica e ressaltam a importância de se considerar a variação na composição isotópica na resposta às mudanças de dieta relacionadas ao tamanho de um dos principais recursos pesqueiros da região.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Isotopes/analysis , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Fishes/physiology , Nitrogen Isotopes/analysis , Atlantic Ocean , Muscles/chemistry
9.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(2): [e170006], jun. 2018. mapas, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-948558

ABSTRACT

This contribution records the reproductive periods of ten dominant freshwater fish species from the Patos Lagoon and Guaíba Lake (Astyanax fasciatus, Cyphocharax voga, Hoplias malabaricus, Oligosarcus jenynsii, Oligosarcus robustus, Hoplosternum littorale, Loricariichthys anus, Parapimelodus nigribarbis, Trachelyopterus lucenai, Pachyurus bonariensis). Data were derived from monthly samples in Casamento Lake (northern Patos Lagoon; Nov. 2002 to Apr. 2004) and Guaíba Lake (Jun. 2005 to May 2006). The reproductive period was determined according to the monthly variation of the gonadosomatic index (GSI). Fish reproduction was identified during all months of the year. Oligosarcus jenynsii started reproduction in winter, but extended spawning to spring (early warming-water reproduction). Three species also presented reproduction during warming water months, but beginning in spring and finishing in summer (late warm-water reproduction): P. nigribarbis, T. lucenai and P. bonariensis. Three species presented relatively short reproduction periods on summer (spotted warm-water reproduction): H. malabaricus, H. littorale and L. anus, and only one species reproduces almost continuously during warmer waters (long-season warm-water reproduction): A. fasciatus. Finally, two other species presented a very distinct reproductive pattern, starting reproduction on late summer but increasing GSI values along autumn and winter (long-season cooling-water reproducers): C. voga and O. robustus.(AU)


Esta pesquisa registra o período reprodutivo de dez espécies de peixes dulcícolas dominantes na região límnica da Laguna dos Patos e Lago Guaíba (Astyanax fasciatus, Cyphocharax voga, Hoplias malabaricus, Oligosarcus jenynsii, Oligosarcus robustus, Hoplosternum littorale, Loricariichthys anus, Parapimelodus nigribarbis, Trachelyopterus lucenai, Pachyurus bonariensis). Os dados derivam de amostras mensais realizadas na Lagoa do Casamento (Nordeste da Laguna dos Patos; Nov. 2002 a Abr. 2004) e no Lago Guaíba (Jun. 2005 a Maio 2006). A reprodução de peixes foi identificada durante todos os meses do ano. Oligosarcus jenynsii iniciou a reprodução no inverno, mas prolongou a desova até a primavera (reprodução no início do ciclo de aquecimento da água). Três espécies também apresentaram reprodução durante os meses de aquecimento da água, mas começando na primavera e terminando no verão (reprodução tardia do ciclo de aquecimento da água): P. nigribarbis, T. lucenai e P. bonariensis. Três espécies apresentaram períodos de reprodução relativamente curtos no verão (reprodução concentrada em período de água quente): H. malabaricus, H. littorale e L. anus, e apenas uma espécie se reproduz quase continuamente durante águas mais quentes (reprodução de longa duração em período de água quente): A. fasciatus. Finalmente, duas outras espécies apresentaram um padrão reprodutivo muito distinto, iniciando a reprodução no final do verão, mas aumentando os valores do IGS ao longo do outono e inverno (reprodutores de longo período com águas em resfriamento): C. voga e O. robustus.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Reproductive Behavior , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Fishes/physiology
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(6): 1877-1886, nov.-dez. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-970638

ABSTRACT

Foram avaliados os efeitos tóxicos do metavanadato de sódio (MV), pentóxido de vanádio (PV) e sulfato de oxovanádio (SV), potenciais fármacos antidiabéticos, em embriões e adultos de zebrafish (Danio rerio). Os embriões foram expostos a concentrações de 10-1000µg/mL para avaliação da CL50 96h e seus efeitos teratogênicos. Os adultos foram expostos a 10 e 20µg/mL dos mesmos compostos para se avaliarem alterações comportamentais relacionadas à exposição química e à mortalidade. A CL50 96h foi de 22,48, 53,62 e 74,14µg/mL para MV, SV e PV, respectivamente. Houve 100% de mortalidade nas concentrações de 400-1000µg/mL dos três compostos. Os efeitos teratogênicos mais observados (P<0,05) nos embriões foram edemas de pericárdio e saco vitelínico. Foram constatados, nos animais adultos expostos aos compostos de vanádio, maior batimento opercular e congestão nos arcos branquiais. A exibição dos comportamentos Flutuar e Descansar nos adultos expostos foi significativa (P<0,05), como também a exibição do comportamento Respiração Aérea. Pode-se concluir que a exposição química aos compostos de vanádio causou efeitos tóxicos em embriões e adultos de zebrafish com alta mortalidade. Diante disso, o seu uso como potencial fármaco antidiabético deve ser mais bem estudado em razão do efeito tóxico dessas substâncias.(AU)


The toxic effects of sodium metavanadate (MV), vanadium pentoxide (PV) and oxovanadium sulfate (SV), potential antidiabetic drug, on embryos and adults of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were evaluated. Embryos were exposed to concentrations of 10-1000µg/mL for evaluation of 96-h LC50 and their teratogenic effects. Adults were exposed to 10 and 20µg/mL of the same compounds to evaluate behavioral changes related to chemical exposure and mortality. The 96-h LC50 were 22.48, 53.62, and 74.14µg/mL for MV, SV, and PV, respectively. Mortality of 100% was observed at the concentrations of 400-1000µg/mL of the three compounds. The teratogenic effects most observed (P<0.05) were pericardial and yolk sac edemas. Adult animals exposed to the vanadium compounds had higher opercular beats and congestion in the gill arches. The exhibition of behaviors Floating and Resting in the exposed adults was significant (P<0.05), as well as the Air breathing behavior. Chemical exposure to vanadium compounds caused toxic effects in embryos and adults of zebrafish with high mortality. In conclusion, its use as a potential antidiabetic drug should be better studied due to the toxic effect.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal , Biological Factors/toxicity , Vanadium Compounds/toxicity , Fishes/physiology , Embryo Research
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(3): 622-631, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888791

ABSTRACT

Abstract The large estuaries can present long narrow branches called subestuaries or tidal creeks. These types of subsystems are distributed along the Uruguayan coast of the Río de la Plata estuary and are very important as nursery and refuge areas for fish. For the first time, the seasonal composition and abundance of the fish community of the Solís Chico subestuary was studied by using beach and gill nets. Fourteen species, mainly euryhaline (86%) presented a significant representation of juvenile stages. The fish community was dominated by Odontesthes argentinensis, Platanichthys platana, Mugil liza, Brevoortia aurea, Micropogonias furnieri and Paralichthys orbignyanus, similar to adjacent subestuaries. While Micropogonias furnieri and B. aurea were the most abundant species, some other species were rarely caught. A seasonal variation of the fish assemblage abundance was detected, with higher values in autumn showing a positive correlation with temperature. Species that complete their life cycle in the Río de la Plata estuary, some of which are relevant to fisheries (64% of the analyzed species) were captured in the Solís Chico subestuary. The importance of this environment as a transitional system for some estuarine fish species is advised.


Resumo Os grandes estuários podem apresentar longos ramos estreitos chamados subestuários e riachos de maré. Estes subsistemas estão distribuídos ao longo da costa uruguaia no estuário do Río de la Plata e são muito importantes como áreas de reprodução e refúgio para os peixes. Pela primeira vez, a composição sazonal e abundância da comunidade de peixes do subestuário Solís Chico foi estudada usando redes de arrasto de praia e rede de emalhar. Quatorze espécies com predominância das eurialinas foram capturadas, havendo uma representação significativa das fases juvenis e espécies alvo para a pesca. A comunidade de peixes foi dominada por Odontesthes argentinensis, Platanichthys platana, Mugil liza, Brevoortia aurea, Micropogonias furnieri e Paralichthys orbignyanus, semelhante aos subestuários adjacentes. Enquanto, M. furnieri e B. aurea foram as espécies com maior número de individuos. Solís Chico apresentou espécies exclusivas com baixa abundância e ocorrência. Foi verificada uma variação sazonal da abundância de peixes, com valores maiores no outono, mostrando uma correlação positiva com a temperatura. Algumas espécies relevantes para a pesca que completam seu ciclo de vida no estuário do Río de la Plata foram capturadas (64% das espécies estudadas) no subestuário Solís Chico, indicando a importância deste ambiente como um sistema transitório para algumas espécies estuarinas de peixes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomass , Biodiversity , Fishes/physiology , Seasons , Uruguay , Population Density , Estuaries , Fisheries
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 195-210, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-897535

ABSTRACT

ResumenLa pesca de ornamento es una actividad económicamente viable en países en desarrollo debido a que el acuarismo se ha convertido en un pasatiempo mundial. En México la pesca se ha dado desde los 80´s, especialmente en la Península de Baja California, pero no se tiene registro adecuado de la producción comercial, ni de la ganancia económica que se obtiene de la explotación del recurso. El objetivo de este estudio fue calcular el nivel máximo de captura permisible de las cinco especies de peces de ornato incluidas en la NOM-059-SEMARNAT 2010 (protegidas por mandato federal), y la ganancia neta que el recurso podría generar. Se realizaron censos (N= 1 610) en 21 localidades arrecifales del Pacifico mexicano y el Golfo de California, para estimar las densidades poblacionales de cada taxón; también se calculó su tasa de mortalidad natural (M) a partir de la talla máxima (L∞), constante de crecimiento (k) y la temperatura (C), y la captura máxima permisible a partir de M. Finalmente, con los precios que se pagan en playa a los pescadores se hizo una estimación del valor económico que posee cada localidad en una temporada de pesca dada, y dentro de una superficie de 220 hectáreas (representativa del tamaño promedio de la zona de captura asignada a una cooperativa en México). Los resultados indicaron que las localidades en las que la pesca de ornato tiene un mejor potencial económico son las Islas Encantadas, Bahía de los Ángeles y el Archipiélago San Lorenzo (todas en el estado de Baja California). Fuera del golfo (donde no hay pesca legal de ornato actualmente), la mayor rentabilidad potencial la presentan Islas Marietas (Jalisco), y las Islas Revillagigedo. La pesca de ornato puede ser una actividad viable en varias de las zonas analizadas del país, sin embargo, los montos potenciales que la captura representa no son suficientes como para sostener un grupo organizado que la practique; por ello, la pesca de ornato debe verse como una actividad comercial alternativa. Finalmente, para que ésta sea una pesquería rentable y sostenible, se recomienda hacer uso de regulaciones federales ya en existentes, que ayuden a controlar cuotas de captura.


Abstract:Ornamental fisheries are economically viable activities in developing countries due to the fact that aquaria have become a worldwide hobby. In Mexico, the fishery has been conducted since the 1980s, especially in the Baja California Peninsula, but nevertheless, there are no adequate records of commercial production, or about the economic gain due to the exploitation of the resource. The objective of this paper was to calculate the maximum allowable catch for the five ornamental fishes included in the NOM-059-SEMARNAT (protected by federal mandate), and the net monetary gain that the resource might generate. Censuses (N=1 610) were conducted in 21 reef sites of the Mexican Pacific and Gulf of California in order to estimate population density of each taxon; also, natural mortality rate (M) was calculated from maximum size (L∞), individual growth rate (k) and temperature (C), and the total allowable catch was estimated on the basis of M. Finally, considering the prices of the species paid to fishermen at the beach, an estimation of the economic value of a single fishing season for an area of 220 hectares (representative of the catch area assigned in average to a cooperative in Mexico) was produced. The results indicated that the areas with the best economic potential were Encantadas Islands, Los Angeles Bay, and San Lorenzo Archipelago (all in the state of Baja California). Outside of the gulf (where no legal ornamental fisheries exist) the potentially more rentable locations were Marietas Islands (Jalisco), and the Revillagigedo Islands. Aquarium fisheries may be a viable activity in several of the analyzed areas of the country, however, the potential gain that harvest represents is not enough to fully sustain an organized group that would perform it; for that reason the ornamental fishery should be seen as an alternative commercial activity. Finally, to guarantee this activity to be a rentable and sustainable fishery, we recommended that, the existing rules defined by the Mexican federal government should be applied to control the catch quotas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 195-210. Epub 2017 March 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Conservation of Natural Resources/economics , Fisheries/economics , Fishes/physiology , Seasons , Species Specificity , Pacific Ocean , Population Density , Statistics, Nonparametric , Animal Distribution , Mexico
13.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 103-115, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897529

ABSTRACT

Abstract:Igarapés are Amazonian streams that are extremely susceptible to environmental changes. Due to the rapidly occurring riparian land use changes, and the several impacts these may have on fish assemblages, it is highly valuable to describe and understand the current relationships between these assemblages and the local environmental conditions, especially in barely know areas. In this research, we studied the taxonomic composition and fish assemblage attributes variation in three streams with different riparian conservation conditions: forest, intermediate and pasture. Samplings were performed every two months from October 2011 to September 2012, in three 1st order streams in the Machado River Basin, Rondônia. Fish were collected using trawls (seine net with a mesh size of 2 mm) and dip nets (2 mm mesh) along the entire stretch; the obtained samples were preserved and identified per site type. A total of 2 141 fish specimens belonging to 59 species, 17 families and five orders were recorded. Unlike the intermediate and pasture streams, the forest stream showed a high richness and low abundance. The forested stream exhibited the highest diversity and evenness value, and had low dominance, unlike the other streams. The variance partitioning and partial Redundancy Analysis (pRDA) indicated that assemblage composition was significantly explained by the environmental variables such as: depth, water velocity, pteridophytes and grasses, but not by spatial predictors. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that intermediate and pasture streams separated from the forested stream. We concluded that both, the stream environmental variables and fish assemblage attributes were influenced by the different conservation status and land cover. Given the influence of regional processes, which have a pervasive role in local fish assemblages, land use at the watershed scale is important, especially to explain the higher richness and diversity found in forested streams. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 103-115. Epub 2017 March 01.


ResumenIgarapés son ríos amazónicos extremadamente susceptibles a los impactos ambientales. Debido al impacto de los cambios en el uso de las zonas riparias en los ensambles de peces, es importante describir y entender las relaciones entre los ensambles de peces y los factores ambientales, especialmente en áreas poco conocidas. Se estudió la composición taxonómica y los atributos del ensamble de peces en ríos bajo diferentes condiciones de conservación de la zona riparia: bosque, zona intermedia y pastos. Los muestreos se realizaron cada dos meses entre Octubre 2011 y Septiembre 2012, en tres ríos de primer orden en la cuenca del río Machado, Rondonia. Los peces fueron recolectados con redes de cerco y de profundidad (2 mm) a lo largo de todo el tramo. Se registró un total de 2 141 ejemplares pertenecientes a 59 especies, 17 familias y 5 órdenes. A diferencia de la zona intermedia y pasto, el bosque mostró una alta riqueza y baja abundancia. El área boscosa exhibió el valor más alto de diversidad y uniformidad, y baja dominancia, a diferencia de los otros sitios. La varianza particionada y el análisis de redundancia parcial (pRDA) indicaron que la composición del ensamble fue significativamente explicado por las variables ambientales como: profundidad, velocidad del agua, pteridofitas y pastos, pero no por predictores espaciales. El análisis de escalamiento multidimensional no métrico (EMNM) mostró que los ríos de sitios intermedios y pastos estaban separados de los ríos del bosque. Llegamos a la conclusión de que las variables ambientales de los ríos y los atributos del ensamble de peces se ven influenciados por los diferentes niveles de conservación y cobertura del suelo. En vista de la influencia de los procesos regionales en el ensamble de peces locales, el uso del suelo a escala de cuenca es importante, especialmente para explicar la alta riqueza y diversidad que se encuentra en el los ríos del área boscosa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Rivers , Fishes/physiology , Reference Values , Species Specificity , Brazil , Forests , Population Dynamics , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Conservation of Natural Resources , Grassland , Animal Distribution
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 89-101, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897528

ABSTRACT

Abstract:The genus Bathypterois (tripod fish) comprises 19 species of deep-sea fishes distributed worldwide. The biology and distribution of the species of this genus are relatively poorly known throughout the Eastern Central Pacific (ECP). This work aims to update the geographic and bathymetric distribution of species of Bathypterois throughout the ECP. To describe the influence of depth, temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) on latitudinal and depth distribution of members of the genus throughout the Mexican Pacific, 51 specimens of B.atricolor (12 trawls) and 112 of B. ventralis (18 trawls), collected during TALUD project, were analyzed. Bathypterois atricolor had broader environmental niches (depth: 0.47, temperature: 0.46, DO: 0.39), and inhabits deeper and colder sites (Electivity positives: > 1 000 m, < 3.2 °C, 1.0-1.62 mL/L) than B. ventralis, which had narrow environmental niches (depth: 0.34, temperature: 0.32, DO: 0.28), with high affinity to warmer sites and lower DO concentrations (Electivity positives: 778-1 400 m, 3.3-5.8 °C, < 1.0 mL/L). Both species used different environmental strata (niche overlap; depth: 0.34, temperature: 0.32, DO: 0.28). The adaptation of B. atricolor to live in a broad range of DO concentrations explains its almost circumglobal distribution, while B. ventralis lives almost permanently in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (< 0.05 mL/L), so the DO could be a limiting factor, reducing its potential geographic and bathymetric distributions. None of these species had been previously recorded in the central Gulf of California, and B. ventralis had not been recorded along the West coast of Baja California. This study confirms that both species have a continuous distribution within the ECP, our new records extended the known northernmost range for B. atricolor by 886 km (from 22°46' N to 30°45' N) and for B. ventralis by 645 km (from 21°18' N to 27°07' N). Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 89-101. Epub 2017 March 01.


ResumenEl género Bathypterois (peces trípode) está conformado por 19 especies de peces de profundidad, distribuidas alrededor del mundo. La biología y distribución de las especies de este género son relativamente poco conocidas a lo largo del Pacífico Centro Oriental (POT). Este trabajo tiene el objetivo de actualizar la distribución geográfica y batimétrica de las especies del género Bathypterois a lo largo del POT. Para describir la influencia de la profundidad, temperatura y concentraciones de oxígeno disuelto (OD) sobre la distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de miembros del género Bathypterois en el Pacífico Mexicano, se analizaron 51 especímenes de B.atricolor (12 arrastres) y 112 B. ventralis (18 arrastres), recolectados durante el proyecto TALUD. Bathypterois atricolor presentó nichos ambientales más amplios (profundidad: 0.47, temperatura: 0.46, OD: 0.39) y habita sitios más profundos y fríos (Electividad positiva: > 1 000 m, < 3.2 °C, 1.0 - 1.62 mL/L) en comparación con B. ventralis, que tiene nichos ambientales reducidos (profundidad: 0.34, temperatura: 0.32, OD: 0.28), con alta afinidad por sitios más cálidos y bajas concentraciones de OD (Electividad positiva: 778-1 400 m, 3.3-5.8 °C, < 1.0 mL/L). Estas especies utilizaron distintos estratos ambientales (traslape de nicho; profundidad: 0.34, temperatura: 0.32, OD: 0.28). La adaptación de B. atricolor para vivir en un amplio intervalo de concentraciones de OD explica su distribución casi circunglobal, mientras que B. ventralis vive casi permanentemente en la Zona de Mínimo Oxígeno (< 0.05 mL/L), por lo que el OD puede ser un factor limitante, reduciendo su posible distribución geográfica y batimétrica. Ninguna de estas especies había sido registrada anteriormente en el centro del Golfo de California, así como B. ventralis no había sido reportada a lo largo de la costa occidental de Baja California. Este estudio confirma que ambas especies tienen una distribución continua dentro del POT, nuestros nuevos registros extienden la distribución más norteña conocida para B. atricolor en 886 km (de 22°46' N a 30°45' N) y en 645 km para B. ventralis (de 21°18' N a 27°07' N).


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Animal Distribution/physiology , Fishes/physiology , Oxygen/analysis , Seawater/chemistry , Species Specificity , Temperature , Pacific Ocean , Population Dynamics , Multivariate Analysis , Acclimatization/physiology , Mexico
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 199-206, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839169

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fishes inhabiting Amazonian floodplain lakes exhibits a great variety of body shape, which was a key advantage to colonize the several habitats that compose these areas adjacent to the large Amazon rivers. In this paper, we did an ecomorphological analysis of twenty abundant species, sampled in May and August 2011, into two floodplain lakes of the lower stretch of the Solimões River. The analysis detected differences among species, which could be probably associated with swimming ability and habitat use preferences.


Resumo Os peixes que habitam os lagos de várzea da Amazônia apresentam morfologias bastante diversas, possibilitando a exploração bem sucedida dos diferentes habitats que formam estas áreas adjacentes aos grandes rios amazônicos. Neste artigo, relatamos os resultados de uma análise ecomorfológica de vinte espécies abundantes, coletadas em maio e agosto de 2011, em dois lagos das várzeas do trecho inferior do rio Solimões. As analises indicaram diferenças entre as espécies como função do atributos ecomorfológicos, provavelmente associadas com a capacidade natatória e com preferências por habitat.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lakes , Fishes/physiology , Brazil , Ecosystem
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 824-833, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828091

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate nutrients concentration and spatial-temporal changes in phytoplankton biovolume during an experimental fish culture in net cages in a lateral arm of Salto Caxias reservoir, Brazil. Two sampling stations were placed in the affected lateral arm and other two in a cageless lateral arm. Neither abiotic variables nor phytoplankton biovolume presented significant differences between the treatments. Only temporal changes were confirmed by the analysis performed. Both lateral arms were classified as oligotrophic, reflecting low influence of the net cages. Phytoplankton growth seems to be limited by nitrogen. Biovolume values were, in general, low and five major functional groups were recognized (E, F, G, K and P). In summer higher biovolume values were observed and representatives of Chlorophyceae and Cyanobacteria belonging to the functional groups F and K, respectively, were the most important. In winter phytoplankton was mainly composed by Bacillariophyceae taxa from P group. G group was also restricted to winter and E group occurred in winter and summer. The variations recorded in phytoplankton structure appear to have been mainly influenced by seasonal changes in temperature, precipitation and nutrients availability. The effects of net cages on the abiotic variables and phytoplankton biovolume appear to have been small, probably due to the small number of net cages employed and the system dilution capacity. However, a permanent monitoring of phytoplankton is recommended, since this environment has a carrying capacity, from which the trophic state may increase.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou avaliar alterações nas variáveis abióticas e no biovolume fitoplanctônico durante o cultivo experimental de peixes em tanques-rede em um braço lateral do reservatório de Salto Caxias, Brasil. Foram selecionadas duas estações de amostragem no braço com tanques-rede e outras duas em um braço sem tanques. As variáveis abióticas e o biovolume fitoplanctônico não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os locais estudados. Apenas mudanças temporais foram confirmadas pelas análises utilizadas. Os dois braços laterais foram classificados como oligotróficos, refletindo a baixa influência dos tanques-rede. O crescimento do fitoplâncton parece ter sido limitado principalmente por nitrogênio. Os valores de biovolume foram, em geral, baixos e cinco principais grupos funcionais foram observados (E, F, G, K e P). No verão, os maiores valores de biovolume foram observados e representantes de Chlorophyceae e Cyanobacteria dos grupos funcionais F e K, respectivamente, se destacaram. No inverno, o fitoplâncton foi composto principalmente por táxons de Bacillariophyceae do grupo P. O grupo G também foi restrito ao inverno e o grupo E ocorreu no inverno e verão. As variações registradas na estrutura do fitoplâncton parecem ter sido principalmente influenciadas pelas mudanças sazonais de temperatura, precipitação e disponibilidade de nutrientes. Os efeitos dos tanques-rede sobre as variáveis abióticas e biovolume fitoplanctônico parecem ter sido pequenos, provavelmente devido ao pequeno número de tanques utilizados e a capacidade de diluição do sistema. Entretanto, o monitoramento permanente do fitoplâncton é recomendado, uma vez que este ambiente possui uma capacidade de suporte, a partir da qual o estado trófico pode aumentar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phytoplankton/physiology , Fisheries , Fishes/physiology , Food , Phytoplankton/classification , Phytoplankton/chemistry , Seasons , Brazil , Cyanobacteria/classification , Cyanobacteria/physiology , Cyanobacteria/chemistry , Diatoms/classification , Diatoms/physiology , Diatoms/chemistry , Conservation of Natural Resources , Biodiversity , Chlorophyta , Nitrogen
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 851-863, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828082

ABSTRACT

Abstract Geographical barriers influence species distribution and play an important role in the segregation of fish assemblages. The present study aims to test the influence of a small natural barrier on the spatial distribution of fish species in the Verde River, Upper Paraná River Basin, Brazil, considering two biotopes: upstream and downstream of the Branca Waterfall. We observed the highest species richness downstream of the Branca Waterfall, which also had the highest number of exclusive species. Richness, evenness, and abundance varied significantly among biotopes. The composition and structure of the fish assemblage differed between biotopes, which were characterized by different indicator species, mainly downstream of the Branca Waterfall. Physical and chemical variables and geographical distance between sites were not responsible for the differences observed. Hence, the present study shows that small barriers can also be crucial in structuring fish fauna and play a key role in the segregation of fish assemblages.


Resumo As barreiras geográficas influenciam a distribuição das espécies e desempenham um papel importante na segregação das assembleias de peixes. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar mudanças espaciais na assembleia de peixes do rio Verde, sob a influência de uma pequena barreira geográfica natural, bacia do alto rio Paraná, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Para isso, seis locais foram amostrados e agrupados em dois biótopos: montante e jusante da cachoeira Branca. Maior riqueza e número de espécies exclusivas foram observadas a jusante da cachoeira Branca. A riqueza, equitabilidade e abundância diferiram significativamente entre os biótopos. Além disso, a composição e a estrutura da assembleia de peixes também diferiram entre os biótopos, os quais foram caracterizados por distintas espécies indicadoras, especialmente a jusante da cachoeira Branca. As variáveis físicas e químicas da água e as distâncias geográficas, entre os locais, não foram responsáveis pelas diferenças observadas. Dessa forma, este estudo demonstrou que pequenas barreiras geográficas podem ser cruciais na estruturação da ictiofauna e desempenhar um papel-chave na segregação de assembleias de peixes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rivers , Animal Distribution , Fishes/physiology , Water Movements , Brazil , Population Dynamics , Population Density , Biodiversity , Fishes/classification
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(4): 1597-1609, oct.-dic. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958237

ABSTRACT

Abstract:The tropical gar A. tropicus plays an important ecological role as it regulates other fish stocks in different water bodies in Southeastern México. Nevertheless, wild populations are declining, and one conservation alternative is the aquaculture production and basic knowledge of reproductive biology; for males, this requires the study of germ and somatic structures of testes, to characterize the reproductive cycle, and to provide basic knowledge for exploitation and conservation models and strategies. With this aim, a total of 24 males with an average sL = 47.2 cm were collected from wild populations from the Laguna Pomposú, municipality of Jalpa de Mendez (18°19' - 93°01'12" W), Tabasco, Mexico. Fish were collected with a trawl net and were transported live to the Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory, División Académica de Ciencias Biológicas (DACBiol), Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco (UJAT). Males were killed by prolonged immersion in MS222. Testes samples were collected from each specimen and were processed using the standard histological procedures, that consisted of dehydration in an ascending ethanol series, xylol, embedding in paraffin, sectioning at 7 µm, and staining with hematoxylin-eosin (HE). The diameter of 20 seminiferous tubules (Dst), height of germinal epithelium (Hge), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and gonad volume (gV) were determined monthly. Based on morphometric and morpho-physiological characteristics, the testes consisted of a network of anastomosed tubules with non-restricted cystic spermatogenesis, and a permanent germinal epithelium. This is the first report of a permanent germinal epithelium in A. tropicus. Five reproductive classes were histologically identified: Class I Regressed; Class II Early Maturation; Class III Mid Maturation; Class IV Late Maturation; Class V Regression. Monthly GSI, gV and Dst values were lower in January and February, the testis showed spermatozoa remains and a regenerating discontinuous germinal epithelium. In March spermiogenesis increased and proliferation of spermatogonia decreased. Male tropical gar followed a seasonal reproductive cycle, indicated by the monthly variation of the reproductive classes and the reproductive season processes observed, and for which temperature and rainfall seem to stimulate reproductive activity and spermiation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (4): 1597-1609. Epub 2016 December 01.


Resumen:A. tropicus tiene un papel ecológico importante, como regulador de otras poblaciones de peces, en los cuerpos de agua de México, pero sus poblaciones silvestres se reducen. Una alternativa de conservación es el cultivo, el cual requiere caracterizar el ciclo reproductivo por medio del estudio de estructuras germinales y somáticas de los testículos, conocimientos que son básicos para formar modelos de aprovechamiento y conservación. Se capturaron mensualmente tres machos sexualmente maduros (N = 24), con un promedio de sL = 47.2 cm en Laguna de Pomposú, Jalpa de Méndez (18°19´59" N - 93°01´12" W), Tabasco, México, de octubre 2009 a septiembre 2010. La técnica de captura fue red de arrastre, se transportaron vivos al laboratorio de acuicultura tropical, DACBiol, UJAT. Los machos recolectados se sacrificaron con baños de inmersión en sobredosis de MS222, los testículos se procesaron para análisis histológico. Se determinó mensualmente el diámetro de 20 túbulos seminíferos (Dst), altura de epitelio germinal (Hge), índice gonadosomático (GSI) y volumen de gónada (gV). Características morfo-fisiológicas del testículo muestran que está constituido de una red de túbulos anastomosados con espermatogénesis quística no restringida, y un epitelio germinal permanente, de nuestro conocimiento es la primera vez que se reporta este tipo de epitelio en Holostei (Lepisosteiformes: Lepisosteidae). Se identificaron cinco clases reproductivas: Clase I Recrudescencia, Clase II Madurez temprana, Clase III Madurez intermedia, Clase IV Maduración tardía, Clase V Regresión, que al contrastarlo con el valor mensual de los indicadores sexuales "GSI, gV, Dst" muestra un patrón de variación; durante enero-febrero se presentan valores bajos, se observa un epitelio germinal discontinuo en regeneración; durante marzo se incrementa la proliferación de espermatogonias disminuyendo la espermatogénesis. Los machos de A. tropicus muestran una actividad reproductora estacional anual, explicado por las variaciones mensuales de los indicadores reproductores, donde la temperatura y la precipitación parecen tener un papel importante como factores que estimulan la actividad reproductora y por tanto la espermiación.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reproduction/physiology , Testis/anatomy & histology , Testis/physiology , Fishes/physiology , Reference Values , Seasons , Sexual Maturation/physiology , Spermatogenesis/physiology , Spermatogonia/physiology , Time Factors , Epithelium/physiology , Mexico
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(4): 1353-1367, oct.-dic. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-958219

ABSTRACT

Resumen:Xel-Há es un parque ecoturístico marino donde no se permite ningún tipo de extracción de flora o fauna. Una de las principales atracciones turísticas en este parque son los peces de arrecife, no existiendo trabajos publicados sobre la comunidad íctica para este sitio. En este estudio se analizó la variación espacio-temporal de la comunidad íctica en diferentes zonas del parque marino Xel-Há. Para ello, se realizaron censos visuales durante un año en 21 transectos fijos de 100x5 m, distribuidos en cinco zonas del parque: "Bocana", "Centro", "Brazo Norte", "Cueva" y "Río", que incluyen la bocana del mar, canales de manglares y un sitio con aportes de agua dulce. Para caracterizar la comunidad de peces, se estimaron los descriptores ecológicos: riqueza de especies, diversidad, abundancia y densidad a partir del promedio de los censos y se compararon entre zonas y tres temporadas (lluvias, "nortes" y secas). El grado de similitud entre zonas y temporadas se evaluó mediante un análisis de escalamiento multidimensional no métrico. El reemplazo en la composición de especies entre temporadas fue determinado con la presencia-ausencia de peces. Además, se aplicó un análisis de componentes principales para evaluar si las variables fisicoquímicas como temperatura, salinidad y concentración de oxígeno disuelto influyen en la variación de las comunidades de peces. Se registró un total de 22 641 individuos que correspondieron a 63 especies, siendo "nortes", la temporada donde se presentó la mayor abundancia (7 991 organismos). Las especies mejor representadas basados en su abundancia total y frecuencia de aparición fueron: Haemulon sciurus, H. flavolineatum, Lutjanus griseus, Acanthurus coeruleus, Abudefduf saxatilis y Gerres cinereus. La diversidad incrementó de lluvias a secas y comparando entre zonas la riqueza de especies y diversidad fue menor en "Río". Entre temporadas, el 54 % de las especies fueron residentes durante todo el año; se observaron cuatro especies exclusivas para lluvias y tres para secas. La diversidad fue el único descriptor que permitió observar variación entre temporadas. El oxígeno disuelto fue la variable que más influyó en la variación de la comunidad de peces entre zonas. El parque Xel-Há, alberga cerca del 20 % de la biodiversidad de peces reportada para el Caribe mexicano y la predominancia de juveniles de varias especies confirma su importancia como sitio de crianza.


Abstract:Xel-Ha is a private marine park where the extraction of flora and fauna is not allowed. Here, reef fish are one of the main touristic attractions, but there are no published surveys focused on fish community in this site. In this study we analyzed the spatio-temporal variation of the fish community in different areas of the marine park Xel-Há. Abundance and richness were estimated during one-year period (2012-2013); visual censuses using fixed transects of 100x5 m each distributed in 21 transects along five sites were established in different zones: "Bocana", "Center", "North branch", "Cave" and "River", including the inlet mouth to the sea, brackish mangrove channels and a zone with freshwater influence. To characterize the fish community, we used species richness, abundance, diversity, and density compared among zones and climatic seasons (rain, "norths" and dry). The similarity among zones and seasons was estimated using a multidimensional scaling analysis. The replacement on the species composition among seasons and sites was realized based on the presence-absence of fish. The influence of physicochemical variables such as temperature, salinity and dissolve oxygen concentration in the fish community was estimated by a principal component analysis. A total of 22 641 individuals were recorded corresponding to sixty-three species over the year. Abundance was higher during the windy season (locally named "norths") with 7 991 organisms. The most representative species according with abundance and frequency of occurrence were: Haemulon sciurus, H. flavolineatum, Lutjanus griseus, Acanthurus coeruleus, Abudefduf saxatilis, and Gerres cinereus. Diversity increased from the rainy to the dry season; species richness and diversity was lower in "River" than other sites in Xel-Ha. Most species (54 %) species were residents through the year. Four non-shared species were observed during the rainy season and three in dry season. Dissolved oxygen was the most influential variable on the fish community composition among zones. Xel-Ha houses nearly 20 % of fish biodiversity reported for the mexican Caribbean, and the predominance of juveniles of several species confirms its role as a nursery area. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (4): 1353-1367. Epub 2016 December 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Animal Distribution/physiology , Fishes/classification , Fishes/physiology , Seasons , Seawater/chemistry , Temperature , Population Dynamics , Population Density , Caribbean Region , Statistics, Nonparametric , Salinity , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Mexico
20.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 715-732, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843308

ABSTRACT

ResumenLos estudios sobre la ecología trófica de las especies permiten reconocer los diferentes grupos tróficos, importancia de los niveles tróficos y las interrelaciones que existen entre sus componentes y los demás miembros de la comunidad. Es común en peces emplear el análisis del contenido estomacal como una herramienta útil desde el punto de vista ecológico. En esta investigación se estudiaron los hábitos alimenticios, variación alimenticia y relaciones tróficas de los peces presente en arroyos del corregimiento del Corral de San Luis, Tubará, Atlántico, cuenca del bajo Rio Magdalena, Caribe, Colombia, a partir del análisis del contenido estomacal, entre noviembre 2012 y octubre 2013. Para la recolecta de los peces se empleó una la red de arrastre (2x5 m, ojo de malla de 0.5 cm), se reportó in situ variables fisicoquímicas. En el análisis del contenido estomacal se utilizó el método numérico (% N), volumétrico (% v) y frecuencia de ocurrencia (% FO), coeficiente de vacuidad (C.v) e índice de importancia alimentaria (i.A). La información se procesó por medio de análisis multivariados, índices ecológicos y modelos nulos: análisis de correspondencia canónica (ACC), análisis de componentes principales (ACP), amplitud del nicho trófico (ShannonWeaver H´) y solapamiento trófico (Morisita-Horn). La ictiofauna se conformó por Awaous banana, Agonostomus monticola, Andinoacara latifrons, Hyphessobrycon proteus, Poecilia gillii, Gobiomorus dormitor y Synbranchus marmoratus. Las especies mostraron diferencias significativas (K-W= 20.86; p<0.05) con respecto al consumo del recurso trófico. Fueron clasificados según sus hábitos tróficos como: omnívoros con tendencia a la insectivoría (A. monticola H´0.60; A. latifrons H´0.43), herbívoros con tendencia a la alguivoría (A. banana H´0.50; P. gillii H´0.54) y carnívoro con tendencia a la insectivoría (H. proteus H´0.23), donde los invertebrados bentónicos y las microalgas son los recursos tróficos más importantes. Un total de 65 ítems alimenticios fueron determinados 21 en A. banana (2 únicos, 19 compartidos), 40 en A. monticola (21 únicos, 19 compartidos), 19 en A. latifrons (5 únicos, 14 compartidos), 6 en H. proteus (1 único, 5 compartidos) y P. gillii con 28 (4 únicos, 24 compartidos). El análisis de correspondencia canónica mostró a la conductividad, la salinidad y el pH como las variables con una relación directa sobre la estructura del ensamblaje de los peces en los sitios de muestreo. Los modelos nulos muestran que el grupo de peces se encontraban significantemente segregados (p=0.001) en el eje trófico con respecto a los ítems alimenticios compartidos, dicha segregación no está influenciada o generada por la competencia; el índice de Morisita-Horn mostró un falso solapamiento trófico (similitud del 80 % aprox.) entre A. banana y P. gillii. El ACP fue explicado en el primer componente principalmente por fitoplancton, mientras en el componente dos se correlacionó con ítems de origen animal, los peces asociados al CP1 son P. gillii con altos valores en la ingesta de microalgas, y A. banana, el CP2 fue explicado por A. monticola la cual se correlacionó con los altos valores en ítems de origen animal. El grupo de peces estudiados se comportan como un ensamblaje ya que la interrelación trófica corresponde a un falso solapamiento trófico y estas no se excluyen unas a otras dentro del ecosistema, utilizando diferentes recursos alimenticios con diferencias espaciales.


AbstractEcological studies of species, such as the stomach content analysis, allow us to recognize different trophic groups, the importance of trophic levels and the interrelationships among species and other members of the community. in this investigation, we studied food habits, feeding variation and trophic relationships of the fishes present in streams of the Corral de San Luis drainage, Tubará, Atlántico Department, a part of the lower Magdalena River Basin in Colombian Caribbean. Fish samples of Awaous banana, Agonostomus monticola, Andinoacara latifrons, Hyphessobrycon proteus, Poecilia gillii, Gobiomorus dormitor and Synbranchus marmoratus were obtained using a seine (2x5 m, mesh 0.5 cm), from November 2012 to October 2013. To analyze their stomach contents, we used numeric (% N), volumetric (% v) and frequency of occurrence (% FO) methods, an emptiness coefficient (C.v), index of food item importance (i.A). Besides, physical and chemical habitat parameters were recorded on site. information obtained was processed using multivariate statistical analysis, ecological indices, and null models: canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), principal component analysis (PCA), trophic niche amplitude (Shannon-Weaver H´) and trophic overlap (Morisita-Horn). We observed significant differences on food resources consumption (K-W= 20.86; p<0.05) among the studied species. They were classified according to their food habits as omnivores with a tendency towards insectivory (A. monticola H´0.60; A. latifrons H´0.43), herbivores with a tendency towards the consumption of algae (A. banana H´0.50; P. gillii H´0.54) and carnivores with a tendency towards insectivory (H. proteus H´0.23); benthic invertebrates and microalgae were found the most important food sources. A total of 65 food items were identified in this study: 21 for A. banana (2 unique, 19 shared), 40 for A. monticola (21 unique, 19 shared), 19 for A. latifrons (5 unique, 14 shared), 6 for H. proteus (1 unique, 5 shared) and P. gillii with 28 (4 unique, 24 shared). The canonical correspondence analysis showed that water conductivity, salinity and pH were the variables that directly influenced fish community structure at the sampled sites. The null model analyses showed that the group of fishes was significantly segregated (p= 0.001) along the trophic axis, with respect to shared food items, and that the segregation was not influenced or generated by competition. The Morisita-Horn index showed false trophic overlap (similarity of about 80 %) between A. banana and P. gillii. The first component of the PCA analysis was explained mainly by phytoplankton, and component two was correlated with items of animal origin. The fishes associated with PC1 were P. gillii and A. banana, with high ingestion values of microalgae. PC2 was explained by A. monticola with high numbers of food items of animal origin. The group of fishes studied behaved as an assemblage; given that the trophic interrelationships showed false trophic overlap, and that they did not exclude one another from the ecosystems, but instead, used different food resources and different physical spaces within their habitat. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 715-732. Epub 2016 June 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Food Chain , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Fishes/physiology , Seasons , Colombia , Caribbean Region , Rivers , Fishes/classification , Gastrointestinal Contents
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