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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739396

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The house dust mite (HDM) is one of the most important sources of indoor allergens and a significant cause of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Our previous studies demonstrated that Vibrio vulnificus flagellin B (FlaB) plus allergen as a co-treatment mixture improved lung function and inhibited eosinophilic airway inflammation through the Toll-like receptor 5 signaling pathway in an ovalbumin (OVA)- or HDM-induced mouse asthma model. In the present study, we fused the major mite allergen Derp2 to FlaB and compared the therapeutic effects of the Derp2-FlaB fusion protein with those of a mixture of Derp2 and FlaB in a Derp2-induced mouse asthma model. METHODS: BALB/c mice sensitized with Derp2 + HDM were treated with Derp2, a Derp2 plus FlaB (Derp2 + FlaB) mixture, or the Derp2-FlaB fusion protein 3 times at 1-week intervals. Seven days after the final treatment, the mice were challenged intranasally with Derp2, and airway responses and Derp2-specific immune responses were evaluated. RESULTS: The Derp2-FlaB fusion protein was significantly more efficacious in reducing airway hyperresponsiveness, lung eosinophil infiltration, and Derp2-specific IgE than the Derp2 + FlaB mixture. CONCLUSIONS: The Derp2-FlaB fusion protein showed a strong anti-asthma immunomodulatory capacity, leading to the prevention of airway inflammatory responses in a murine disease model through the inhibition of Th2 responses. These findings suggest that the Derp2-FlaB fusion protein would be a promising vaccine candidate for HDM-mediated allergic asthma therapy.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Asthma , Eosinophils , Flagellin , Immunoglobulin E , Inflammation , Lung , Mice , Mites , Ovalbumin , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic , Therapeutic Uses , Toll-Like Receptor 5 , Vibrio vulnificus
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758951

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious enteric swine disease. The large economic impact of PED on the swine industry worldwide has made the development of an effective PED vaccine a necessity. S0, a truncated region of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) spike protein, has been suggested as a candidate antigen for PED subunit vaccines; however, poor solubility problems when the protein is expressed in Escherichia coli, and the inherent problems of subunit vaccines, such as low immunogenicity, remain. Flagellin has been widely used as a fusion partner to enhance the immunogenicity and solubility of many difficult-to-express proteins; however, the conjugation effect of flagellin varies depending on the target antigen or the position of the fusion placement. Here, we conjugated flagellin, Vibrio vulnificus FlaB, to the N- and C-termini of S0 and evaluated the ability of the fusion to enhance the solubility and immunogenicity of S0. Flagellin conjugation in the presence of the trigger factor chaperone tig greatly improved the solubility of the fusion protein (up to 99%) regardless of its conjugation position. Of importance, flagellin conjugated to the N-terminus of S0 significantly enhanced S0-specific humoral immune responses compared to other recombinant antigens in Balb/c mice. The mechanism of this phenomenon was investigated through in vitro and in vivo studies. These findings provide important information for the development of a novel PED vaccine and flagellin-based immunotherapeutics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diarrhea , Escherichia coli , Flagellin , Immunity, Humoral , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Solubility , Swine , Swine Diseases , Vaccines, Subunit , Vibrio vulnificus , Vibrio
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758914

ABSTRACT

Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) caused by Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) is a global cause for substantial economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we constructed live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (ST) mutant strains expressing and secreting 4 selected immunogenic LI antigens, namely, optA, optB, Lawsonia flagellin (LfliC), and Lawsonia hemolysin (Lhly); the resultant recombinant strains were designated Sal-optA, Sal-optB, Sal-LfliC, or Sal-Lhly, respectively. Using the BALB/c mouse model, we demonstrate that mice vaccinated once orally, either with a mixture of all 4 recombinant strains or with an individual recombinant strain, show significant (p < 0.05) production of LI-specific systemic immunoglobulin (Ig) G and mucosal IgA responses compared to the Salmonella alone group. Upon restimulation of vaccinated splenocytes with the LI-specific antigens, significant (p < 0.05) and comparable production of interferon-γ responses are found in all vaccinated groups, except the Sal-Lhly group, which shows non-significant levels. Challenge studies were performed in C57BL/6 vaccinated mice. On challenge with the LI (10(6.9) 50% tissue culture infectious dose) 14 days post-vaccination, 20% (1/5) of mice in all vaccinated groups, except Sal-Lhly group, show the presence of the LI-specific genomic DNA (gDNA) in stool samples. In contrast, 40% (2/5) and 60% (3/5) of mice vaccinated with the Sal-Lhly strain and the attenuated Salmonella alone, respectively, were found positive for the LI-specific gDNA. Furthermore, 0% mortality was observed in mice vaccinated against the ST challenge compared to the 30% mortality observed in the unvaccinated control group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the Salmonella-based LI-vaccines induce LI-specific humoral and cell-mediated immunities, and encompass the potential to offer dual protection against PPE and salmonellosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA , Flagellin , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulins , Lawsonia Bacteria , Mice , Mortality , Salmonella Infections , Salmonella typhimurium , Salmonella , Swine
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758908

ABSTRACT

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted from the hypothalamus and anti-GnRH antibodies are not formed under normal conditions. However, administration an excess of recombinant GnRH protein results in the formation of anti-GnRH. We evaluated the efficacy of the recombinant Salmonella typhimurium flagellin fljB (STF2)-GnRH vaccine in inducing infertility in 17 intact male cats. The first vaccination and a boosting vaccine was injected for examination. Serum was obtained from blood collected at monthly intervals and anti-GnRH antibodies and testosterone concentrations were determined. Six months after the vaccination, testicular samples are obtained and used for histological examination. Compared with sham control group, the injection groups showed an increase in anti-GnRH antibody titers and testosterone concentrations tended to be reduced in the injection groups and increased in the control group. Histological evaluations and Johnsen's testicular biopsy scores revealed testicular hypoplasia in the 2 injection groups. Consequently, normal sexual maturation with sperm production was observed in the control group. In contrast, the cats that received the GnRH vaccine showed weak (2 of 7 cats) or moderate (4 out of 7 cats) dose-dependent infertility effects. On the basis of the results, the STF2-GnRH vaccine was identified to be effective in inducing infertility in male cats. The results of this study thus indicate the possibility of immunological castration targeting feral cats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Biopsy , Castration , Cats , Contraception, Immunologic , Fertility Agents , Flagellin , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Hypothalamus , Infertility , Male , Salmonella typhimurium , Sexual Maturation , Spermatozoa , Testis , Testosterone , Vaccination , Vaccines
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 529-533, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951804

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Shigellosis remains a serious public health problem and an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize fliC and the genetic relatedness of Shigella spp. isolated during a one-year period from children in a suspected outbreak in Tehran, Iran. Methods and results Fifty Shigella spp. were isolated from 3779 stool samples of children with diarrhea (prevalence rate: 1.32%). Among the isolates, 92% were characterized as Shigella sonnei, while 6% and 2% were identified as S. flexneri and S. boydii, respectively. S. dysenteriae was not recovered from the patients. All isolates were negative for fliC except for Shigella standard strains. The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) profiles allowed differentiating the 50 isolates into 5 ERIC types, which were grouped into five clusters (ET1-ET5). Computer-assisted clustering of the strains showed a high degree of similarity among the isolates. Conclusion In conclusion, given the clonal correlation of the Shigella strains isolated in this study and the lack of fliC among them, we propose that probably a single or limited fliC-defected Shigella clone spread and caused the outbreak.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Shigella/isolation & purification , Disease Outbreaks , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , Dysentery, Bacillary/microbiology , Phylogeny , Shigella/classification , Shigella/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dysentery, Bacillary/epidemiology , Flagellin/genetics , Iran/epidemiology
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 774-781, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889161

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Food-borne diseases, caused by the pathogenic bacteria, are highly prevalent in the world. Salmonella is one of the most important bacterial genera responsible for this. Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is one of the non-typhoid Salmonellae that can be transmitted to human from poultry products, water, and contaminated food. In recent years, new and rapid detection methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been developed. In this study, recombinant FliC (rFliC) was produced to be used as an antigen. The immunization was conducted in mice with the purified recombinant FliC (rFliC). The mice were subcutaneously immunized with rFliC and elicited significant rFliC specific serum IgG antibodies. An indirect ELISA system was established for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis. Our results confirmed that the recombinant flagellin can be one of the excellent indicators for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Flagellin/analysis , Salmonella enteritidis/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Bacterial/analysis , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/analysis , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Flagellin/genetics , Flagellin/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Salmonella enteritidis/genetics , Salmonella enteritidis/immunology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-127716

ABSTRACT

Flagellin is a subunit protein of the flagellum, a whip-like appendage that enables bacterial motility. Traditionally, flagellin was viewed as a virulence factor that contributes to the adhesion and invasion of host cells, but now it has emerged as a potent immune activator, shaping both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity during microbial infections. In this review, we summarize our understanding of bacterial flagellin and host immune system interactions and the role flagellin as an adjuvant, anti-tumor and radioprotective agent, and we address important areas of future research interests.


Subject(s)
Arm , Flagella , Flagellin , Immune System , Virulence
8.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 213-226, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22193

ABSTRACT

Postconditioning has been shown to protect the mouse brain from ischemic injury. However, the neuroprotective mechanisms of postconditioning remain elusive. We have found that toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) plays an integral role in postconditioning-induced neuroprotection through Akt/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in cerebral ischemia. Compared to animals that received 30 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) group, animals that also underwent postconditioning showed a significant reduction of up to 60.51% in infarct volume. Postconditioning increased phospho-Akt (p-Akt) levels and NF-κB translocation to the nucleus as early as 1 h after tMCAO and oxygen-glucose deprivation. Furthermore, inhibition of Akt by Akt inhibitor IV decreased NF-κB promoter activity after postconditioning. Immunoprecipitation showed that interactions between TLR5, MyD88, and p-Akt were increased from postconditioning both in vivo and in vitro. Similar to postconditioning, flagellin, an agonist of TLR5, increased NF-κB nuclear translocation and Akt phosphorylation. Our results suggest that postconditioning has neuroprotective effects by activating NF-κB and Akt survival pathways via TLR5 after cerebral ischemia. Additionally, the TLR5 agonist flagellin can simulate the neuroprotective mechanism of postconditioning in cerebral ischemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Brain Ischemia , Flagellin , Immunoprecipitation , In Vitro Techniques , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Mice , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents , NF-kappa B , Phosphorylation , Toll-Like Receptor 5
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176881

ABSTRACT

To identify the Helicobacter pylori antigens operating during early infection in sera from infected infants using proteomics and immunoblot analysis. Two-dimensional (2D) large and small gel electrophoresis was performed using H. pylori strain 51. We performed 2D immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody immunoblotting using small gels on sera collected at the Gyeongsang National University Hospital from 4–11-month-old infants confirmed with H. pylori infection by pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoblot spots appearing to represent early infection markers in infant sera were compared to those of the large 2D gel for H. pylori strain 51. Corresponding spots were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The peptide fingerprints obtained were searched in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. Eight infant patients were confirmed with H. pylori infection based on urease tests, histopathologic examinations, and pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. One infant showed a 2D IgM immunoblot pattern that seemed to represent early infection. Immunoblot spots were compared with those from whole-cell extracts of H. pylori strain 51 and 18 spots were excised, digested in gel, and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. Of the 10 peptide fingerprints obtained, the H. pylori proteins flagellin A (FlaA), urease β subunit (UreB), pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), and translation elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts) were identified and appeared to be active during the early infection periods. These results might aid identification of serological markers for the serodiagnosis of early H. pylori infection in infants.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Electrophoresis , Flagellin , Gels , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Immunoblotting , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Infant , Microscopy, Immunoelectron , Peptide Elongation Factors , Peptide Mapping , Proteomics , Pyruvate Synthase , Serologic Tests , Spectrum Analysis , Urease
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83203

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of asthma. We previously reported the association between circulating Th2-like iNKT cells and lung function in asthma patients and the suppressive effect of Toll-like receptor 5 ligand flagellin B (FlaB) on asthmatic in a mouse model. Thus, we investigated whether FlaB modulates the function of circulating iNKT cells in asthmatic patients. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with FlaB, and the secreted and intracellular cytokines of iNKT cells were evaluated by using ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively, following stimulation with alpha-galactosylceramide. Foxp3+ iNKT cells were also measured. To determine the effect of FlaB-treated dendritic cells (DCs) on iNKT cells, we co-cultured CD14+ monocyte-derived DCs and T cells from patients with house dust mite-sensitive asthma and analyzed intracellular cytokines in iNKT cells. RESULTS: A reduction of IL-4 and IL-17 production by iNKT cells in PBMCs after FlaB treatment was alleviated following blocking of IL-10 signaling. A decrease in the frequencies of IL-4+ and IL-17+ iNKT cells by FlaB-treated DCs was reversed after blocking of IL-10 signaling. Simultaneously, an increase in Foxp3+ iNKT cells induced by FlaB treatment disappeared after blocking of IL-10. CONCLUSIONS: FlaB may inhibit Th2- and Th17-like iNKT cells and induce Foxp3+ iNKT cells by DCs via an IL-10-dependent mechanism in asthmatic patients. In patients with a specific asthma phenotype associated with iNKT cells, FlaB may be an effective immunomodulator for iNKT cell-targeted immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Cytokines , Dendritic Cells , Dust , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flagellin , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunotherapy , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , Lung , Mice , Natural Killer T-Cells , Phenotype , T-Lymphocytes , Toll-Like Receptor 5
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125572

ABSTRACT

Akabane and bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) viruses cause vector-borne diseases. In this study, inactivated Akabane virus (AKAV)+Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) vaccines with or without recombinant vibrio flagellin (revibFlaB) protein were expressed in a baculovirus expression system to measure their safety and immunogenicity. Blood was collected from mice, guinea pigs, sows, and cattle that had been inoculated with the vaccine twice. Inactivated AKAV+BEFV vaccine induced high virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) titer against AKAV and BEFV in mice and guinea pigs. VNA titers against AKAV were higher in mice and guinea pigs immunized with the inactivated AKAV+ BEFV vaccine than in animals inoculated with vaccine containing revibFlaB protein. Inactivated AKAV+BEFV vaccine elicited slightly higher VNA titers against AKAV and BEFV than the live AKAV and live BEFV vaccines in mice and guinea pigs. In addition, the inactivated AKAV+BEFV vaccine was safe, and induced high VNA titers, ranging from 1 : 64 to 1 : 512, against both AKAV and BEFV in sows and cattle. Moreover, there were no side effects observed in any treated animals. These results indicate that the inactivated AKAV+BEFV vaccine could be used in cattle with high immunogenicity and good safety.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Baculoviridae , Cattle , Cattle , Ephemeral Fever , Flagellin , Guinea Pigs , Mice , Vaccines , Vibrio
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203150

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recombinant subunit vaccines provide safe and targeted protection against microbial infections. However, the protective efficacy of recombinant subunit vaccines tends to be less potent than the whole cell vaccines, especially when they are administered through mucosal routes. We have reported that a bacterial flagellin has strong mucosal adjuvant activity to induce protective immune responses. In this study, we tested whether FlaB could be used as a fusion partner of subunit vaccine for tetanus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We constructed fusion proteins consisted with tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC), the nontoxic C-terminal portion of tetanus toxin, and a Toll-like receptor 5 agonist from Vibrio vulnificus (FlaB). Mice were intranasally administered with fusion protein and protective immune responses of the vaccinated mice were analyzed. RESULTS: FlaB-TTFC recombinant protein induced strong tetanus-specific antibody responses in both systemic and mucosal compartments and prolonged the survival of mice after challenge with a supra-lethal dose of tetanus toxin. CONCLUSION: This study establishes FlaB as a successful fusion partner for recombinant subunit tetanus vaccine applicable through mucosal route, and it further endorses our previous observations that FlaB could be a stable adjuvant partner for mucosal vaccines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibody Formation , Flagellin , Mice , Tetanus , Tetanus Toxin , Tetanus Toxoid , Toll-Like Receptor 5 , Vaccines , Vaccines, Subunit , Vibrio vulnificus
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163100

ABSTRACT

Aims: To study the effect of flagellin on bacterial attachment and invasion of avian ovary cells in vitro by comparing the attachment and invasion of wild-type S. Enteritidis with nonmotile mutants. To assess the immunogenic properties of extracted flagellin against Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in laying hens. Methodology: Non-flagellated mutants for wild-type S. Enteritidis (phage type 8, 13A and 28) were produced by using a strain of S. Enteritidis, SA4502, which carried an fliC::Tn 10 to transfer fliC::Tn 10 insertion into the wild type strains using phage 22 (P22)-mediated transduction with selection for antibiotic resistance encoded within the mutant alleles. Granulosa cells were harvested from Single Comb White Leghorn hens between 18-45 weeks of age. Flagellin was purified from the studied bacterial cultures of Salmonella Enteritidis following reported methods. Laying hens were immunized with the flagellin with adjuvant Results: Non-motile mutants of S. Enteritidis phage wild types were analyzed to confirm the elimination of H1 flagellin synthesis. Wild-type and fliC mutant strains were assessed for their ability to adhere to hen's ovarian granulosa cells. The adherence of the mutant strain was reduced nearly ten-fold compared with that of the wild-type phage 8. Similarly, light microscopic observation of fixed cover slips from wild-type phage types and its mutant strain revealed fewer numbers of the bacterial mutants adhered to the cultured granulosa cell monolayer. Light microscopy revealed similar findings for mutant phage types 28 and 13 A when compared to the wild-type control. There was five folds rise in the egg yolk antibody during the 2-3 weeks post-immunization. No rise was detected in the egg yolk samples from the control hens injected with the placebo mixture without flagellin. Conclusion: It was concluded that Flagellin has an important role in the attachment and invasion of Salmonella Enteritidis to avian ovary cells and that it can be used as immunogenic components to induce a protective immune response in vaccinated hens against challenge infection with the wild type strains.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Adhesion , Chickens/pathology , Flagellin/genetics , Flagellin/immunology , Flagellin/physiology , Granulosa Cells/physiology , Immunization , Mutation , Ovary/cytology , Oviparity , Salmonella enteritidis/immunology
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(3): 217-223, mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-709869

ABSTRACT

The recombinant production of innate immune system pattern recognition receptor agonists has provided a new tool for the production of immunostimulants for animals. The molecular pattern associated with the pathogen (PAMP), flagellin, coded by the fljB gene from Salmonella Typhimirium, and the molecular pattern associated to the damage (DAMP), HSP60, coded by the groEL gene from S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system of birds. In the present study, we performed the cloning of genetic fragments of the genes fljB, from S. Typhimurium, and groEL from S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis inserted in expression vector pET100/D-TOPO and transformed in E. coli TO10 cells. The clones were evaluated by colony PCR, plasmidial DNA PCR and genome sequencing in order to confirm the presence of these genes. In the colony PCR, we identified the presence of genes groEL (S. Enteritidis), groEL (S. Typhimurium) and fljB (S. Typhimurium) in 80%, 60% and 80% of the transformed colonies, respectively. The cloning system adopted allowed the production of HSP60 genetic fragment clones and flagellin of Salmonella strains, allowing the posterior use of these clones in gene expression trials, with the future potential of being used as non-specific immunostimulants for birds.


A produção recombinante de agonistas dos receptores do reconhecimento de padrão do sistema imune inato tem fornecido uma nova ferramenta para a produção de imunoestimulantes para animais. O padrão molecular associado ao patógeno (PAMP), flagelina, codificado pelo gene fljB de Salmonella Typhimurium e o padrão molecular associado ao dano (DAMP) HSP60, codificado pelo gene groEL da S. Typhimurium e S. Enteritidis, são reconhecidos por receptores de reconhecimento de padrões (RRPs) do sistema imune inato das aves. No presente estudo, foi feita a clonagem de fragmentos genéticos dos genes fljB de S. Typhimurium e groEL de S. Typhimurium e S. Enteritidis inseridos no vetor de expressão pET100/D-TOPO e transformados em células de E. coli TOP10. Os clones foram avaliados pela PCR de colônia, PCR de DNA plasmidial e sequenciamento genômico para a confirmação da presença desses genes. Na PCR de colônia, foram identificadas em 80%, 60% e 80% das colônias transformadas, a presença dos genes groEL (S. Enteritidis), groEL (S. Typhimurium) e fljB (S. Typhimurium) respectivamente. O sistema de clonagem adotado possibilitou a produção de clones dos fragmentos genéticos da HSP60 e flagelina das cepas de Salmonella, permitindo a utilização posterior desses clones em ensaios de expressão gênica, com potencial futuro de serem utilizados como imunoestimulante inespecífico das aves.


Subject(s)
Animals , Adjuvants, Immunologic/genetics , Birds/immunology , Cloning, Molecular , Flagellin/isolation & purification , Salmonella enteritidis/isolation & purification , Salmonella typhimurium/isolation & purification , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
15.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(4): 417-422, Apr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675816

ABSTRACT

Identification of Escherichia coli requires knowledge regarding the prevalent serotypes and virulence factors profiles allows the classification in pathogenic/non-pathogenic. However, some of these bacteria do not express flagellar antigen invitro. In this case the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) and sequencing of the fliC may be suitable for the identification of antigens by replacing the traditional serology. We studied 17 samples of E. coli isolated from animals and presenting antigen H nontypeable (HNT). The H antigens were characterized by PCR-RFLP and sequencing of fliC gene. Three new flagellin genes were identified, for which specific antisera were obtained. The PCR-RFLP was shown to be faster than the serotyping H antigen in E. coli, provided information on some characteristics of these antigens and indicated the presence of new genes fliC.


A identificação da Escherichia coli requer conhecimento sobre os sorotipos e fatores de virulência prevalentes permitindo a classificação em patogênico/não patogênico. No entanto, algumas destas bactérias não expressam o antígeno flagelar in vitro. Neste caso, o PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) e o sequenciamento do gene fliC podem ser adequados para a identificação desses antígenos, substituindo a sorologia tradicional. Nesta pesquisa foram estudadas 17 amostras de E. coli isoladas de animais e que apresentavam antígeno H não tipável (HNT). Os antígenos H foram caracterizados por PCR-RFLP e sequenciamento do gene fliC. Três novos genes da flagelina foram identificados, para os quais anti-soros específicos foram obtidos. A técnica PCR-RFLP mostrou-se mais rápida que a sorotipagem do antígeno H em E. coli, fornecendo informações sobre algumas características desses antígenos e indicou a presença de novos genes fliC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Flagellin/isolation & purification , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Antigens , Serotyping/veterinary
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23176

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant cause of cervical cancer-related deaths worldwide. Because HPV is a sexually transmitted mucosal pathogen, enhancement of antigen-specific mucosal immune response likely serves good strategy for vaccination. However, mucosal vaccines generally do not induce strong enough immune responses. Previously we proved that a bacterial flagellin, Vibrio vulnificus FlaB, induce strong antigen-specific immune responses by stimulating the Toll-like receptor 5. In this study, we tested whether FlaB could serve as an effective mucosal adjuvant for a peptide-based HPV preventive cancer vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were intranasally administered with a mixture of FlaB and E6/E7 protective peptides in 5-day interval for a total of two times. Five-days after the last vaccination, cellular immune responses of the vaccinated mice were analyzed. Tumor growth was also observed after a subcutaneous implantation of TC-1 cells bearing E6/E7 antigens. RESULTS: Intranasal administration of the E6/E7 peptide mixture with FlaB elicited a strong antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and antigen-specific interferon-gamma production from splenocytes and cervical lymph node cells. Furthermore, FlaB, as a mucosal adjuvant, conferred an excellent protection against TC-1 tumor challenge with high survival rates in E6/E7 immunized animals. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that FlaB can be a promising mucosal adjuvant for nasal HPV vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Flagellin , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunization , Interferon-gamma , Lymph Nodes , Lymphocytes , Mice , Peptides , Survival Rate , Toll-Like Receptor 5 , Ursidae , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vibrio vulnificus
17.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; dez. 11, 2012. 112 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-837106

ABSTRACT

Escherichia coli enteroinvasora (EIEC) é um dos agentes etiológicos da disenteria bacilar. Seu processo fisiopatológico é desencadeado pela expressão de fatores de virulência, que proporcionam sua invasão e sobrevivência nas células do hospedeiro, ativando o sistema imune inato e adaptativo da mucosa intestinal. Trabalhos recentes têm salientado a importância do sistema de secreção e da flagelina bacteriana como agonista de receptores da imuninade inata dos macrófagos, em especial alguns dos receptores do tipo NLR. Uma vez que esta espécie de E. coli também é capaz de expressar flagelina e fazer a montagem completa do flagelo e do sistema de secreção do tipo III, a nossa proposta foi avaliar o papel da flagelina e do sistema de secreção de EIEC na resposta imune dos macrófagos murinos. Para isso, utilizamos três cepas de EIEC: a cepa selvagem; a cepa mutante no gene responsável pela síntese da flagelina; e a cepa sem o plasmídio de virulência plnv, deficiente no sistema de secreção, para a infecção de macrófagos peritoniais de camundongos C57BI/6, caspase-1-/-, IPAF-/- e ASC-/-. Neste estudo foi possível observar que o escape bacteriano e a morte dos macrófagos infectados por EIEC, assim como a ativação da caspase-1 e posterior secreção de IL-1ß é independente da flagelina bacteriana, mas dependente do sistema de secreção, além disso, a ativação da caspase-1 de macrófagos infectados por EIEC é dependente do receptor IPAF e parcialmente da proteína adaptadora ASC. Assim, no nosso modelo, a ativação da caspase-1 dos macrófagos infectados por EIEC parece estar envolvida com o processamento e secreção de IL-1ß e, possivelmente na secreção de IL-18, mas não na morte celular. No modelo de infecção in vivo, o sistema de secreção bacteriano foi importante para a sobrevivência bacteriana no hospedeiro, assim como para a indução de uma resposta inflamatória no local da infecção. Ainda, a caspase-1 parece ter um papel importante para o controle da infecção in vivo por EIEC, podendo assim contribuir para uma resposta imune protetora do hospedeiro


Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) is one of the etiologic agents responsible for bacillary dysentery. The pathophysiological process induced by this bacteria is triggered by the expression of virulence factors that provide the invasion and survival in host cells, resulting in activation of innate and adaptive immune system present on intestinal mucosa. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of the secretion system and bacterial flagellin as agonist of innate immune receptors present in macrophage, especially NLR (Nod like receptors). Then, our proposal was evaluate the role of flagellin (f1iC) and secretion system of EIEC in the induction of immune response of murine macrophages using the EIEC strains wild type (WT), mutant flagellin gene (f1iC), and a strain deficient in secretion system (DSS) for infection of peritoneal macrophages of C57Bl/6, caspase-1-/-, IPAF-/- and ASC-/-- mice. In this study we observed that the bacterial escape and death of infected macrophages with EIEC, the caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1ß secretion is independent of bacterial flagellin, but dependent of secretion system, moreover, the caspase-1 activation in infected macrophages is IPAF-dependent and partially dependent of the adapter protein ASC. Thus, in our model, the caspase-1 activation in EIEC infected macrophages seems to be involved with the processing and secretion of IL-1ß and possibly with the secretion of IL-18, but not involved with cell death. In the infection model in vivo, bacterial secretion system was important for bacterial survival in the host, as well as for the inflammatory response induction at the infection site. In addition, caspase-1 seems to have an important role to the control of in vivo infection by EIEC and can contribute to a protective immune response of the host


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Flagellin/metabolism , Flagellin/therapeutic use , Macrophage Activation/drug effects , Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins/agonists , Diarrhea , Inflammation , Macrophages/pathology , Pyroptosis
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145371

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi continues to be a major health problem in spite of the use of antibiotics and the development of newer antibacterial drugs. Inability to make an early laboratory diagnosis and resort to empirical therapy, often lead to increased morbidity and mortality in cases of typhoid fever. This study was aimed to optimize a nested PCR for early diagnosis of typhoid fever and using it as a diagnostic tool in culture negative cases of suspected typhoid fever. Methods: Eighty patients with clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever and 40 controls were included in the study. The blood samples collected were subjected to culture, Widal and nested PCR targeting the flagellin gene of S. Typhi. Results: The sensitivity of PCR on blood was found to be 100 per cent whereas the specificity was 76.9 per cent. The positive predictive value (PPV) of PCR was calculated to be 76.9 per cent with an accuracy of 86 per cent. None of the 40 control samples gave a positive PCR. Interpretation & conclusions: Due to its high sensitivity and specificity nested PCR can be used as a useful tool to diagnose clinically suspected, culture negative cases of typhoid fever.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Early Diagnosis , Flagellin/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Typhoid Fever/diagnosis , Typhoid Fever/genetics
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-278455

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to investigate the prophylactic effect of Toll like receptor (TLR)5 agonist flagellin on acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and its possible mechanism. The animal model with allo-HSCT aGVHD was established by using purebred mice (male mouse C57BL/6 as donor, female mouse BALB/c as recipient) with complete-unidentical major histocompatibility antigen. The recipient mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: group 1 in which mice were injected with high purity (95%) flagellin before and after allo-HSCT respectively, group 2 in which mice received allo-HSCT without injection of flagellin, group 3 in which mice were radiated alone. The aGVHD features of mice in group 1 and 2 were observed and compared. The results showed that the typical symptoms of aGVHD appeared in transplanted mice. The death peak of mice in group 2 appeared at day 4-5 after transplantation. The aGVHD symptoms were obviously alleviated and the mean survival time was prolonged significantly in mice group 1 as compared with mice in group 2 (P < 0.05). The comparison of WBC count in peripheral blood of mice in 3 groups before transplantation showed no significant difference (P > 0.05), while WBC count of mice in group 1 and 2 showed the significant difference at days 14 and 21 after transplantation (P < 0.05). The pathological appearances of aGVHD in mice of group 1 were obviously reduced as compared with mice in group 2. The flow cytometric detection of Treg cell/CD4(+) T cell levels at different time before and after transplantation demonstrated that the Treg cell level in mice of group 1 at weeks 2-4 after transplantation significantly increased as compared with mice in group 2 (P < 0.05). It is concluded that flagellin can effectively prevent the aGVHD occurrence after allo-HSCT, reduce the symptoms and pathological changes of aGVHD, obviously prolong mean survival time of mice in group 1. The mechanism of flagellin effect may be associated to increase of Treg cell level in mice after allo-HSCT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Flagellin , Therapeutic Uses , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Toll-Like Receptor 6 , Transplantation, Homologous
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148482

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma in mice and humans. Thus, an agent that modulates the function of iNKT cells may have therapeutic potential to control asthma. We hypothesized that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, flagellin-, or CpG-induced changes in the cytokine milieu may modify and even inhibit the function of airway iNKT cells in asthma. METHODS: Because increased alpha-galactosylceramide (GalCer)-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) reflects the presence of airway iNKT cells, alpha-GalCer-induced AHR, as well as inflammatory cells and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, were determined 24 hours after in vivo treatment with LPS, flagellin, or CpG in naive BALB/c mice. Intracellular IL-4 and IFN-gamma were measured in spleen iNKT cells after in vitro treatment with LPS, flagellin, or CpG. A role for IL-12 following the treatments was determined. RESULTS: Intranasal administration of LPS, flagellin, or CpG reduced development of alpha-GalCer-induced AHR, eosinophilic airway inflammation, and Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses in BAL fluid, while producing IL-12 in BAL fluid. Intraperitoneal administration of IL-12 mAb blocked the suppressive effect of LPS, flagellin, or CpG. In vitro treatment with LPS, flagellin, or CpG reduced production of IL-4 and IFN-gamma from alpha-GalCer-stimulated spleen iNKT cells; these effects were ameliorated by addition of anti-IL-12 mAb. CONCLUSIONS: TLR4, 5, and 9 agonists may suppress the function of airway and spleen iNKT cells via IL-12-dependent mechanisms. Anergy of iNKT cells by IL-12 might play a role in suppression by these TLR agonists.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Asthma , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Cytokines , Eosinophils , Flagellin , Galactosylceramides , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-4 , Mice , Natural Killer T-Cells , Spleen
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