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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 290-297, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339163

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: O núcleo do trato solitário (NTS) é uma área do cérebro que desempenha um papel fundamental na regulação renal e cardiovascular através dos impulsos dos barorreceptores. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da Naringina (NAR) e trimetazidina (TMZ), isoladamente e combinadas, na atividade elétrica do NTS e na sensibilidade barorreflexa (SBR) na lesão de isquemia e reperfusão (I/R) renal. Métodos: Foram utilizados quarenta ratos machos Sprague-Dawley (200-250 g), alocados em 5 grupos com 8 ratos cada. Grupos: 1) Sham; 2) I/R; 3) TMZ 5 mg/kg; 4) NAR 100 mg/kg; e 5) TMZ5 + NAR100. A veia femoral esquerda foi canulada para infundir a solução salina ou droga e avaliar a SBR. A I/R foi induzida por oclusão dos pedículos renais por 45 min, seguida de reperfusão de 4 horas. O eletroencefalograma local do NTS foi registrado antes, durante a isquemia e durante a reperfusão. A fenilefrina foi injetada por via intravenosa para avaliar a SBR ao final do tempo de reperfusão. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA de duas vias com medidas repetidas seguida pelo teste post hoc de Tukey. Um valor de p<0,05 foi considerado como significativo. Resultados: As ondas elétricas do NTS não se alteraram durante o tempo de isquemia, mas diminuíram significativamente durante todos os tempos de reperfusão. A atividade elétrica do NTS e a SBR foram reduzidas drasticamente em ratos com lesão I/R; no entanto, a administração de NAR e TMZ, isoladamente e combinadas, melhorou significativamente essas alterações em ratos com lesão I/R. Conclusões: Os resultados mostraram que a lesão de I/R leva à redução da atividade elétrica da SBR e do NTS, e pode haver uma ligação entre a I/R e a diminuição da SBR. Além disso, a NAR e a TMZ são agentes promissores para tratar complicações de I/R.


Abstract Background: Nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is a brain area that plays a key role in kidney and cardiovascular regulation via baroreceptors impulses. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of naringin (NAR) and trimetazidine (TMZ) alone and their combination on NTS electrical activity and baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) in renal ischemia- reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (200- 250 g) were allocated into 5 groups with 8 in each. 1) Sham; 2) I/R; 3) TMZ 5 mg/kg; 4) NAR 100 mg/kg; and 5) TMZ5+ NAR100. The left femoral vein was cannulated to infuse saline solution or drug and the BRS was evaluated. I/R was induced by occlusion of renal pedicles for 45 min, followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. The NTS local electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded before, during ischemia and throughout the reperfusion. Phenylephrine was injected intravenously to evaluate BRS at the end of reperfusion time. The data were analyzed by two-way repeated measurement ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: NTS electrical waves did not change during ischemia time, while they significantly decreased during the entire reperfusion time. NTS electrical activity and BRS dramatically reduced in rats with I/R injury; however, administration of NAR, TMZ alone or their combination significantly improved these changes in rats with I/R injury. Conclusions: The results showed that I/R injury leads to reduced BRS and NTS electrical activity and there may be an association between I/R and decreased BRS. In addition, NAR and TMZ are promising agents to treat I/R complications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Trimetazidine/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Solitary Nucleus , Baroreflex , Flavanones , Kidney
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1314-1324, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922627

ABSTRACT

The exacerbation of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is closely associated with obstruction of the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). To discover novel therapeutic compounds for enhancing remyelination by endogenous OPCs, we screened for myelin basic protein expression using cultured rat OPCs and a library of small-molecule compounds. One of the most effective drugs was pinocembrin, which remarkably promoted OPC differentiation and maturation without affecting cell proliferation and survival. Based on these in vitro effects, we further assessed the therapeutic effects of pinocembrin in animal models of demyelinating diseases. We demonstrated that pinocembrin significantly ameliorated the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and enhanced the repair of demyelination in lysolectin-induced lesions. Further studies indicated that pinocembrin increased the phosphorylation level of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Taken together, our results demonstrated that pinocembrin promotes OPC differentiation and remyelination through the phosphorylated mTOR pathway, and suggest a novel therapeutic prospect for this natural flavonoid product in treating demyelinating diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Flavanones , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myelin Sheath/metabolism , Oligodendroglia/metabolism , Rats , Remyelination , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1790-1796, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922336

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of Eriodictyol to the growth, apoptosis and oxidative stress of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) in children.@*METHODS@#The effects of Eriodictyol (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320 μmol/L) to viability of BL cell line DG-75 cells were detected by CCK-8. The effects of Eriodictyol (0, 10, 20, 40 μmol/L) to the proliferation activity of DG-75, apoptosis rate, levels of apoptosis-related proteins, oxidative stress indexes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA)], mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and phosphorylation level of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycinm (mTOR) were detected by clony formation assay and Wester blot.@*RESULTS@#When the treatment concentration of Eriodictyol was 20 μmol/L, the proliferation activity of the cells was decreased (P<0.05). The concentrations at 10, 20, 40 μmol/L were selected for subsequent experiments. Compared with 0 μmol/L Eriodictyol, the proliferation activity of DG-75, SOD activity, MMP, phosphorylation levels of PI3K, AKT and mTOR in 20 and 40 μmol/L Eriodictyol treatment groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05), while cells apoptosis rate, Cleaved-Caspase-3/Caspase-3, Bax/Bcl-2 and MDA level were significantly increased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Eriodictyol may promote the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway by inhibiting the abnormal activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR to reduce the proliferation activity of DG-75, and inhibit oxidative stress response to increase the apoptosis rate and play anti-tumor roles.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Flavanones , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878920

ABSTRACT

This study was to investigate the chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Thymus przewalskii. The chemical consti-tuents were separated and purified by column chromatography on silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and semi-prepared HPLC, and their structures were determined by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data. Four flavanones were isolated from the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of T. przewalskii, and identified as(2S)-5,6-dihydroxy-7,8,4'-trimethoxyflavanone(1), 5,4'-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavanone(2),(2S)-5,4'-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone(3), sakuranetin(4), respectively. Compound 1 was a new compound and its configuration was determined by CD spectrum, compound 3 was natural product which was isolated for the first time and their configurations were determined by CD spectra. Compound 2 was isolated from the genus Thymus for the first time and compound 4 was isolated from T. przewalskii for the first time. Furthermore, cytotoxicity test was assayed for the four flavanones. They exhibited weak cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cells(A549), with the IC_(50) from 74.5 to 135.6 μmol·L~(-1).


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavanones , Humans
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e9764, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153532

ABSTRACT

Naringenin (NAR) is a major flavanone in citrus fruits that has multiple pharmacological attributes such as anticancer and antiatherogenic. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of NAR in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis (AS) in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. A HFD-induced AS ApoE-/- mouse model was established. The mice were treated with HFD, different doses of NAR and simvastatin (Simv). After drug treatment, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined. The expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was detected using qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The plaque area of the aorta of AS mice was determined using oil red O staining. Western blot analysis was applied to measure the levels of autophagy-related proteins [protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B), beclin 1, and p62]. The TC, TG, LDL-C, TNF-α, ALT, and MDA levels were significantly increased while the HDL-C, SOD, and GSH-Px levels were decreased in the HFD-induced AS ApoE-/- mice. NAR treatment reversed the expression of the above indicators in mice. After they were treated with different doses of NAR, the LC3B and beclin 1 levels were improved while the p62 protein level was decreased. This study suggested that NAR could promote cell autophagy to improve HFD-induced AS in ApoE-/- mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Flavanones/pharmacology , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Autophagy
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881037

ABSTRACT

In the present study, liquiritigenin-phospholipid complex (LPC) was developed and evaluated to increase the oral bioavailability of liquiritigenin. A single-factor test methodology was applied to optimize the formulation and process for preparing LPC. The effects of solvent, drug concentration, reaction time, temperature and drug-to-phospholipid ratio on encapsulation efficiency were investigated. LPCs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD). The apparent solubility and n-octanol/water partition coefficient were tested. The pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of the LPC were investigated after oral administration in rats in comparison with liquiritigenin alone. An LPC was successfully prepared. The optimum level of various parameters for liquiritigenin-phospholipid complex was obtained at the drug concentration of 8 mg·mL


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Biological Availability , Flavanones/pharmacokinetics , Phospholipids/pharmacokinetics , Rats , Solvents
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 106 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-997286

ABSTRACT

As laranjas e seus derivados, principalmente os sucos, possuem compostos bioativos, tais como os flavonoides, entre eles as flavanonas hesperidina e narirutina, que podem estar relacionados à promoção e benefícios à saúde. A absorção e metabolização de flavonoides podem ser afetadas por diversos fatores como a microbiota e fatores antropométricos, o que pode afetar a sua bioatividade. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o metabolismo e excreção dos flavonoides entre indivíduos eutróficos e obesos após a ingestão de sucos de laranja pasteurizado obtidos das cvs. Pera e Moro. Em um estudo cross-over randomizado 20 voluntárias eutróficas e 10 voluntárias obesas, com idade entre 19 e 40 anos, consumiram em dose única 600 mL de cada suco, que contém as flavanonas narirutina e hesperidina, além das antocianinas no suco Moro. Os metabólitos de flavanonas e de antocianinas foram identificados e quantificados em urina coletada em diferentes períodos de tempo durante 24 horas. Não foi observada diferença significativa na permeabilidade intestinal entre os grupos. Foram detectados e identificados 8 metabólitos de fase II da hesperitina e naringenina, principalmente mono e diglicuronidados e sulfatos, além de três ácidos fenólicos catabólitos de flavanonas formados pela microbiota intestinal, entre elas o ácido hipúrico, ácido protocatecuico e ácido 3-(3-hidroxifenil)-3-hidroxipropiônico. Os ácidos fenólicos foram os metabólitos majoritários recuperados na urina, principalmente o ácido hipúrico. Ainda, os metabólitos de fase II apresentaram maior excreção entre o período de 4-8h e 8-12h (13 a 27% do total de metabólitos excretados). Não foi observada diferença significante (p<0,05) no total de metabólitos de naringenina e hesperitina excretados na urina durante o período de 24 h entre os dois grupos e para os sucos de laranja, nem para o total de metabólitos, provavelmente devido à grande variabilidade interindividual na excreção. Assim, não foi observada diferença entre a metabolização de flavanonas de laranja entre os eutróficos e obesos e nenhuma correlação com os parâmetros antropométricos avaliados


Oranges and orange juices contain bioactive compounds, such as flavonoids, mainly the flavanones hesperidin and narirutin, which may be related to the promotion and health benefits. The absorption and metabolization of flavonoids can be affected by several factors such as the gut microbiota and anthropometric parameters, which may affect its bioactivity. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the metabolism and excretion of flavonoids among eutrophic and obese people after ingestion of two pasteurized orange juice obtained from cvs. Pera and Moro. In a randomized cross-over study 20 eutrophic volunteers and 10 obese volunteers, aged 19-40 years, consumed a single dose of 600 mL of each juice. The metabolites of flavanones and anthocyanins were identified and quantified in urine collected at different time points for 24 hours. No significant difference in intestinal permeability was observed between groups. Eight Phase II metabolites of hesperitin and naringenin, mainly mono and diglycerides and sulfates, and three phenolic catabolites of flavanones formed by the gut microbiota were detected and identified, among them hippuric acid, protocatecuic acid and 3- (3-hydroxyphenyl) ) -3-hydroxypropionic acid. Phenolic acids were the major metabolites recovered in urine, mainly hippuric acid. Furthermore, phase II metabolites had greater excretion between the period of 4-8h and 8-12h (13-27% of total metabolites excreted). No significant difference (p <0.05) was observed in the total of naringenin and hesperitin metabolites excreted in the urine during the 24 h period between the two groups, probably due to interindividual variability in excretion. Thus, no difference was observed on metabolism of flavanones between the eutrophic and obese and no correlation was observed with the anthropometric parameters evaluated


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Flavonoids/analysis , Citrus sinensis/adverse effects , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/adverse effects , Flavanones/classification , Healthy Lifestyle , Hesperidin/classification , Obesity/diet therapy
9.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 244-247, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760565

ABSTRACT

A new isoprenylated stilbene, flavestinK (1) together with two known isoprenylated stilbenes, flavestin B (2), flavestin G (3), and two isoprenilated flavanones, 4-O-methyl-8-isoprenylnaringenin (4) and 8-isoprenyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavanone (5) were isolated from the leaves of Macaranga recurvata Gage. All of the structures have been determined based on HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against three human cancer cells (HeLa, T47D and WiDr). Compound 1 showed higher activity than doxorubicin against HeLa cells with IC₅₀ value of 13.1 µg/mL.


Subject(s)
Doxorubicin , Euphorbiaceae , Flavanones , HeLa Cells , Humans , Stilbenes
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777521

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to establish an UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of baicalin in rat plasma,in order to study the effect of PEG400 on pharmacokinetics of baicalin and baicalein in normal and gut microbiotadysbiosis rats. Plasma was precipitated with ethyl acetate and determined by UPLC-MS/MS method,with genistein as an internal standard. In terms of specificity,linearity,range,accuracy,precision and stability,the method was suitable for the determination of baicalin in plasma. The gut microbiotadysbiosis rat model was induced through the oral administration with lincomycin hydrochloride(5 g·kg-1·d-1) for one week. Samples of plasma of rats were obtained at different time points,after the rats were administrated with baicalin,baicalin and PEG400. Baicalin in rats were detected by UPLC-MS/MS method,and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 3. 2. 2 software. The results showed that the β-glucosidase activity and the number of colonies in the feces of gut microbiotadysbiosis rats induced by lincomycin hydrochloride were significantly reduced. The Cmaxand AUC0-tof the baicalinand PEG400 group in the intestinal flora were significantly lower than those in the normal rat baicalin and PEG400 group. There was no significant difference in Cmaxand AUC0-tbetween the baicalin group and the baicalin+PEG400 group of gut microbiotadysbiosis rats. The Cmaxand AUC0-tof the normal rats baicalin group were significantly higher than those of the gut microbiotadysbiosis rats baicalin group and the baicalin + PEG400 group. There was no significant difference in Cmaxand AUC0-tbetween the normal rat baicalein and PEG400 group and the baicalein group. The Cmaxand AUC0-tof the baicalein group in the gut microbiotadysbiosis rats were lower than those in the normal baicalein group,but significantly higher than those in the baicalein and PEG400 group. PEG400 could increase the absorption of baicalin in normal rats,but is ineffective in gut microbiotadysbiosis rats,with no impact on the absorption of baicalein in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Dysbiosis , Drug Therapy , Flavanones , Pharmacokinetics , Flavonoids , Pharmacokinetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Polyethylene Glycols , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777463

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the inhibitory effect of eight natural flavonoids in Chinese herb Scutellariae Radix on huamn cytochrome P450 1 A(CYP1 A), a key cancer chemo-preventive target. In this study, phenacetin was used as a probe substrate for CYP1 A, while human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYP1 A enzymes were used as enzyme sources. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to monitor the formation rates of acetaminophen, the O-deethylated metabolite of phenacetin. The dose-dependent inhibition curves were depicted based on the changes of the formation rates of acetaminophen, while the IC_(50) were determined. Inhibition kinetic analyses and docking simulations were used to investigate the inhibition modes and mechanism of wogonin(the most potent CYP1 A inhibitor in this herb), while the inhibition constants(K_i) of wogonin against both CYP1 A1 and CYP1 A2 were determined. Among all tested flavonoids, wogonin, 7-methoxyflavanone and oroxylin A displayed a strong inhibitory effect on CYP1 A(IC_(50)100 μmol·L~(-1)). Further investigations demonstrated that wogonin had a weak inhibitory effect on other human CYP enzymes, suggesting that it could be used as a lead compound for the development of specific inhibitors of CYP1 A. Furthermore, the inhibition kinetic analyses clearly demonstrated that wogonin could strongly inhibit phenacetin O-deethylation in both CYP1 A1 and CYP1 A2 in a competitive manner, with K_i values at 0.118 and 0.262 μmol·L~(-1), respectively. Molecular docking demonstrated that wogonin could strongly interact with CYP1 A1 and CYP1 A2 via hydrophobic and π-π interactions, as well as Ser120 and Ser116 in CYP1 A1 via hydrogen-bonding. In conclusion, this study found that some flavonoids in Scutellariae Radix displayed a strong inhibitory effect on CYP1 A, while wogonin is the most potent CYP1 A inhibitor with a relatively high selectivity towards CYP1 A over other human CYPs.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Flavanones , Pharmacology , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry
12.
Zamorano; s.n; 2019. 1-36 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1140534

ABSTRACT

El uso de antioxidantes contribuye a disminuir el deterioro de los alimentos. Una práctica común en la actualidad es el uso de aditivos alimentarios de origen sintético, como el butilhidroxitolueno (BHT) y butilhidroxianisol (BHA). El hongo Cordyceps sinensis es ampliamente usado en la medicina asiática y se ha encontrado que aporta múltiples beneficios. Con el fin de evaluar la capacidad antioxidante de este hongo como aditivo alimentario, se obtuvieron extractos a partir de harina de C. sinensis, utilizando extracto acuoso (T1), etanólico (T2), acuoso-etanólico (T3) y acuoso a 50 °C (T4) (en una relación soluto/solvente de 100 g/900 mL c/u). Para la harina se determinó la composición química proximal, obteniendo alto contenido de carbohidratos (80%), y valores bajos de humedad, proteína, grasa y cenizas (<10%). Se determinó el contenido de fitoquímicos, incluyendo contenido de polisacáridos totales (CPT), fenoles totales (CFT), flavonoides totales (CFvT), flavonas y flavonoles totales (CFFT), flavanonas y dihidroflavonoles totales (CFDT), y ácido clorogénico (CAC). Además, actividad antirradical DPPH y ABTS, así como poder reductor (PR). Los resultados indicaron que el extracto T3, seguido del extracto T1, presentaron la mayor capacidad antioxidante (DPPH. ABTS y PR), lo cual fue asociado con el CFT, CFFT, y CFDT, así como CPT, CFvT y CAC, respectivamente. Se recomienda evaluar el efecto de la adición de los extractos obtenidos de la harina de C. sinensis sobre la estabilidad oxidativa y microbiológica de productos cárnicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenols , Cordyceps/chemistry , Flavanones , Flavonols , Food Additives , Phytochemicals , Medicine, Traditional , Antioxidants
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1256-1265, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771803

ABSTRACT

Naringenin is a natural flavonoid compound with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, anti-viral, anti-atherosclerosis and other pharmacological activities. It is also an important precursor of other flavonoid synthesis and with great value of application. At present, the production of flavonoids such as naringenin by microbial methods has a low yield due to imbalance of metabolic pathways, which greatly limits its industrial application. In this study, a naringenin-producing strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-01 was used in the research object. The expression levels of 4-coumaric acid: CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) were controlled by promoter and copy numbers to investigate the quantitative effect of key enzyme expression level on the accumulation level of target products. The results showed that the correlation between naringenin production and 4CL or CHI expression was not significant while there was a positive correlation with the expression level of CHS. Strain Y-04 with high yield of naringenin was obtained by regulating the expression level of chs gene, and the yield was increased by 4.1-folds compared with the original strain Y-01. This study indicated that CHS is a key regulatory target of naringenin synthesis. Rational regulation of CHS expression can significantly promote the accumulation of naringenin. The related results provide an important theoretical reference for the use of metabolic engineering to strengthen microbial synthesis of important flavonoids such as naringenin.


Subject(s)
Flavanones , Metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773668

ABSTRACT

For the effects of multi-component environment on the solubility and permeability of single components,and the problems of biopharmaceutical attribute classification of single components in the compound prescriptions environment,baicalein was used as the research object in this study to investigate the biopharmaceutic attributes of single-component and their traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) biopharmaceutic attributes in the multi-component environment of Gegen Qilian Decoction. Shaking flask method,intrinsic dissolution rate test and HPLC were used to determine solubility of baicalein. Markers specified by FDA were utilized as permeable boundary reference materials to verify the applicability of the single-pass intestinal perfusion method( SPIP),and the quantitative research on the permeability of baicalein was also conducted. It is concluded that baicalein could be categorized as BCS-Ⅱ drug based on its low solubility and high intestinal permeability values,and it may be categorized into CMMBCS-I in the multi-component environment of Gegen Qilian Decoction due to its poor solubility but enhanced solubility and permeability in compound environment. This study could provide verification ideas for clinical determination of the best human oral dose of baicalein,and provide the data basis for the study of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica( CMMBCS).


Subject(s)
Biopharmaceutics , Classification , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavanones , Chemistry , Humans , Intestinal Absorption , Materia Medica , Classification , Permeability , Solubility
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(12): e8934, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055468

ABSTRACT

Baicalein (BAI) is an acknowledged flavonoids compound, which is regarded as a useful therapeutic pharmaceutical for numerous cancers. However, its involvement in melanoma is largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the anti-melanoma function of BAI and unraveled the regulatory mechanism involved. A375 and SK-MEL-28 were treated with BAI for 24 h. Then, CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, and transwell assay were carried out to investigate cell growth, migration, and invasion. RT-qPCR was applied to detect the expression of colon cancer associated transcript-1 (CCAT1) in melanoma tissues and cells. The functions of CCAT1 in melanoma cells were also evaluated. Western blot was utilized to appraise Wnt/β-catenin or MEK/ERK pathways. BAI restrained cell proliferation and stimulated cell apoptotic capability of melanoma by suppressing cleaved-caspase-3 and cleaved-PARP. Cell migratory and invasive abilities were restrained by BAI via inhibiting MMP-2 and vimentin. CCAT1 was over-expressed in melanoma tissues and down-regulated by BAI in melanoma cells. Overexpressed CCAT1 reversed the BAI-induced anti-growth, anti-migratory, and anti-invasive effects. Furthermore, BAI inhibited Wnt/β-catenin and MEK/ERK pathways-axis via regulating CCAT1. Our study indicated that BAI blocked Wnt/β-catenin and MEK/ERK pathways via regulating CCAT1, thereby inhibiting melanoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Flavanones/pharmacology , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Melanoma/pathology , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Cell Movement/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Neoplasm Invasiveness
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 153-159, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-888084

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação do diluidor de congelação de sêmen ovino com o flavonoide miricetina contra os danos ocasionados aos espermatozoides. Oito pools de sêmen, obtidos de quatro reprodutores ovinos, foram congelados com diferentes concentrações de miricetina (0, 1, 10, 100 e 1000nM). Após o descongelamento, o sêmen foi avaliado quanto à cinética espermática, à integridade das membranas plasmática e acrossomal, ao potencial de membrana mitocondrial, aos níveis de ROS intracelular, à peroxidação lipídica e à estabilidade de membrana. Amostras tratadas com miricetina 10nM apresentaram menor percentual de células rápidas (P≤0,05), quando comparadas ao grupo miricetina 1000nM. Amostras do grupo controle apresentaram maior (P≤0,05) VAP que o grupo 10nM de miricetina, enquanto amostras criopreservadas com miricetina (10, 100 e 1000nM) evidenciaram maior (P<0,05) BCF, quando comparadas ao grupo controle. O grupo tratado com miricetina 1000nM apresentou maior percentual (P<0,05) de células com peroxidação lipídica, quando comparado ao grupo controle. Em conclusão, a suplementação do diluidor de criopreservação de sêmen ovino com 10 e 100nM de miricetina afeta a cinética espermática sem provocar alterações na estrutura geral do gameta, enquanto 1000nM de miricetina provoca mudanças na cinética associadas à danos peroxidativos.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of ram semen frozen with extender with the flavonoid myricetin against damage to sperm. Eight pools of semen obtained from four ram breeders, were frozen with different concentrations of myicetin (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000nM). After thawing, the semen was evaluated for spermatic kinetics, plasma and acrosome membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular ROS levels, lipid peroxidation, and membrane stability. Samples treated with 10nM myricetin preserved a lower percentage of rapid cells (P≤0.05) when compared to the 1000nM myricetin group. Samples from the control group presented higher (P≤0.05) VAP than 10nM group of myricetin, while cryopreserved samples with myicetin (10, 100 and 1000nM) showed greater (P<0.05) BCF, when compared to control group. The group treated with 1000nM myricetin had a higher percentage (P<0.05) of cells with lipid peroxidation, when compared to the control group. In conclusion, supplementation of ram semen cryopreservation extender with 10 and 100nM myricetin affects sperm kinetics, without causing changes in the overall structure of the gamete, while 1000nM myricetin causes changes in the kinetics associated with peroxidative damage.(AU)


Subject(s)
Semen Preservation/methods , Semen Preservation/veterinary , Sheep/embryology , Flavanones , Semen Analysis
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691405

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are a widely distributed group of phytochemicals having benzo-pyrone nucleus, and more than 4,000 different flavonoids have been described and categorized into flavonols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, catechins and anthocyanidins. Flavonoids occurs naturally in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and beverages such as coffee, tea, and red wine, as well as in medical herbs. Flavonoids are responsible for the different colors of plant parts and are important constituents of the human diet. Flavanoids have different pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and anticancer activity. Naringenin belongs to the flavanones and is mainly found in fruits (grapefruit and oranges) and vegetables. Pharmacologically, it has anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative and antiatherogenic activities. Naringenin is used for the treatments of osteoporosis, cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and showed lipid-lowering and insulin-like properties. In the present review, detailed pharmacological and analytical aspects of naringenin have been presented, which revealed the impressive pharmacological profile and the possible usefulness in the treatment of different types of diseases in the future. The information provided in this communication will act as an important source for development of effective medicines for the treatment of various disorders.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Flavanones , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Isoflavones , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776577

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the relationship between the anti-proliferation effect of baicalein and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and focal adhesion kinase(ERK-FAK) signal pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).@*METHODS@#The study included two parts and each part contained 4 groups, including control, 20 μmol/L BAI, 40 μmol/L BAI, 80 μmol/L BAI or control, 40 μmol/L BAI, MEK inhibitor(0.33 nmol/L),MEK inhibitor(0.33 nmol/L)+40 μmol/L BAI.Each group was treated in triplicate for 24 hours and 48 hours.Cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) was used to detect the inhibitory effect of baicalein; Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and Western blot were used to analysis the effect of Baicalein on E-cadherin and Vimentin. The expressions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK), phosphorylated (p-ERK), focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase(p-FAK) were detected by Western blot. The regulatory effect of MEK inhibitor(U0126) on Baicalein was tested by Western blot assay.@*RESULTS@#The survival rate of cells treated with BAI is much lower than that of control group(<0.01); the mRNA and protein levels of E-cadherin were obviously higher than those of control group, while the mRNA and protein levels of Vimentin were lower than those of control group(<0.01).The protein levels of p-ERK and p-FAK treated with BAI were much lower than those of control group(<0.01), but the total ERK and FAK had no obvious changes (<0.05).The protein level of E-cadherin treated with MEK inhibitor was higher than that of control group(<0.01) and the protein levels of Vimentin, p-ERK and p-FAK were lower than those of control group (<0.01), while the total protein levels of ERK and FAK were the same(<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Baicalein can inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of OSCC, which may be mediated by ERK-FAK signal pathway.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Flavanones , Humans , Mouth Neoplasms , Phosphorylation , Signal Transduction
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776390

ABSTRACT

The increasing demand of Chinese materia medica could not be supplied by wild resource, and the cultivated medicinal materials become popular, which led to decreased quality of many medicinal materials due to the difference of the circumstance between the wild and the cultivated. How to improve quality becomes key points of Chinese medicine resource. The leaves of Scutellaria baicalensis were sprayed with H₂O₂, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) changed little, but there had been a marked decrease of peroxidase (POD) and ascorbic oxidase (APX), which showed that the antioxidase system declined. Meanwhile, H₂O₂, as enhanced the expression of phenylalnine ammonialyase (PAL) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as well as activity of PAL, promoted the biosynthesis and biotransformation of flavonoids. At the day 2 after treated, H₂O₂ of 0.004 μmol·L⁻¹ the contents of the baicalin and the wogonoside decreased slightly, but the contents of the baicalein and the wogonin increased significantly, the baicalein from 0.094% to 0.324%, the wogonin from 0.060% to 0.110%, i. e. increased 246% and 83.3%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Ascorbate Oxidase , Metabolism , Catalase , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavanones , Flavonoids , Glucosides , Glucuronidase , Metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide , Peroxidase , Metabolism , Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase , Metabolism , Scutellaria baicalensis , Metabolism , Secondary Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771695

ABSTRACT

To explore the protective effect of naringin(Nar) on the injury of myocardium tissues induced by streptozotocin(STZ) in diabetic rats and the relationship with oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS), the male SD rats were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin(STZ, 60 mg·kg⁻¹) to establish the diabetic rat model and then randomly divided into the type 1 diabetic rat group(T1DR), the low-dose Nar group(Nar25), the middle-dose Nar group(Nar50) and the high-dose Nar group(Nar100). The normal rats were designed as control group(Con). Nar25, Nar50, Nar100 groups were orally administered with Nar at the doses of 25.0, 50.0, 100.0 mg·kg⁻¹ per day, respectively, while the normal group and the T1DR group were orally administered with saline. At the 8th week after treatment, fasting plasma glucose and heart mass index were measured. The pathological changes in myocardial tissues were observed by microscope. The cardiac malondialdehyde(MDA) level and superoxide dismutase(SOD) activities were measured. The gene and protein expressions of glucose-regulated protein 78(GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein(CHOP), cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase 12(caspase 12) were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. According to the results, compared with control group, the myocardial structure was damaged, the content of MDA was increased, while the activities of SOD were decreased(<0.05) in T1DR group. GRP78, CHOP and caspase 12 mRNA and protein expressions were increased significantly in T1DR group(<0.05, <0.01). Compared with T1DR group, myocardial structure damage was alleviated in Nar treatment group. The content of MDA was decreased, while the activities of SOD were increased significantly. The mRNA and protein expressions of GRP78, CHOP and caspase 12 were increased, especially in middle and high-dose groups(<0.05, <0.01). After treatment with Nar for 8 weeks, myocardial structure damage was obviously alleviated in Nar treatment groups. The content of MDA was decreased, while the activities of SOD were increased significantly in myocardial tissues. The mRNA and protein expressions of GRP78, CHOP and caspase 12 were increased, especially in middle and high-dose groups(<0.05, <0.01). The findings suggest that Nar may protect myocardium in diabetic rats by reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress injuries and inhibiting the ERS-mediated cell apoptosis pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cardiotonic Agents , Pharmacology , Caspase 12 , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies , Drug Therapy , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Flavanones , Pharmacology , Heat-Shock Proteins , Metabolism , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Transcription Factor CHOP , Metabolism
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