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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879045


To investigate the effects of six common drying methods on the quality of different specifications of Sophorae Flos, in order to select their suitable drying methods. According to appearance and morphology, Sophorae Flos was divided into the following three specifications: flower bud type(HL), half-open type(BK) and blooming type(SK). All specifications of samples were treated with shade-drying method(25 ℃, natural temperature), sun-drying method, hot-air-drying method(60, 105 ℃), and drying method(60 ℃) after steaming. The contents of total flavonoids, rutin, narcissus, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and Fe~(3+) reducing ability, DPPH free radical scavenging ability, ABTS free radical scavenging ability and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching(FRAP) were detected by UV, HPLC and colorimetry, respectively. Principal component analysis(PCA), cluster analysis(CA) and correlation analysis were used to comprehensively evaluate the quality of samples. According to the results, there were significant differences in the effect of drying methods on different specifications of samples. The drying method(60 ℃) after steaming was suitable for HL and BK, while the hot-air-drying method(60 ℃) was suitable for SK. When the fresh medicinal materials could not be treated in time, they should be spread out in a cool and ventilated place. Under high and low temperature conditions, the quality of three specifications of Sophorae Flos would be reduced. The hot-air-drying method(105 ℃) and shade-drying method(25 ℃) were not suitable for the treatment of fresh flowers and flower buds of Sophora japonicus. There were obviously differences of chemical compositions and antioxidant activities among the three specifications of samples. Therefore, the specifications of medicinal materials should be controlled to ensure the uniform quality. The study provided the abundant data reference for the selection of appropriate drying methods for the three specifications of Sophorae Flos, and useful exploration for the classification and processing of medicinal materials of flowers.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavonoids/analysis , Flowers/chemistry , Rutin , Sophora
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881073


Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. The latest clinical study showed that early treatment with QFPDD was associated with favorable outcomes for patient recovery, viral shedding, hospital stay, and course of the disease. However, the effective constituents of QFPDD remain unclear. In this study, an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS based method was developed to identify the chemical constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed prototypes as well as the metabolites in mice serum and tissues following oral administration of QFPDD. A total of 405 chemicals, including 40 kinds of alkaloids, 162 kinds of flavonoids, 44 kinds of organic acids, 71 kinds of triterpene saponins and 88 kinds of other compounds in the water extract of QFPDD were tentatively identified via comparison with the retention times and MS/MS spectra of the standards or refereed by literature. With the help of the standards and in vitro metabolites, 195 chemical components (including 104 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were identified in mice serum after oral administration of QFPDD. In addition, 165, 177, 112, 120, 44, 53 constituents were identified in the lung, liver, heart, kidney, brain, and spleen of QFPDD-treated mice, respectively. These findings provided key information and guidance for further investigation on the pharmacologically active substances and clinical applications of QFPDD.

Administration, Oral , Alkaloids/analysis , Animals , COVID-19 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Flavonoids/analysis , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponins/analysis , Triterpenes/analysis
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 89-99, sept. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253101


BACKGROUND: Koelreuteria henryi Dummer is an indigenous plant in Taiwan. The species has been used in traditional folk medicine for the promotion of liver functions and for treating malaria and urethritis. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of the flower extract of Koelreuteria henryi Dummer. The extraction conditions were optimized by the contents of total phenolic acids and total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity assays. Moreover, an in vitro study for investigating antioxidant activity of K. henryi flower extract was demonstrated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis. RESULTS: K. henryi flower extracted for 150 min showed high contents of total phenolic acids and total flavonoids. In an in vitro model, L929 cells were pretreated with K. henryi flower extract, and then treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative damage. Results demonstrated that H2O2-induced apoptosis was inhibited by the treatment of 200 µg/ml K. henryi flower extract through the mitochondria-mediated pathway and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The caspase 8/9 activity and expression of p-p38 and pERK were repressed by K. henryi flower extract. In addition, the prevention of H2O2-induced apoptosis by K. henryi flower extract activated the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) stress response pathway to transcript heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Also, K. henryi flower extract prevented H2O2-induced apoptosis through HO-1 production, as evident by the use of HO-1 inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that K. henryi flower extract could inhibit the H2O2-induced apoptosis in L929 cells through the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Flavonoids/analysis , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis , Flowers/chemistry , Heme Oxygenase-1 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Caspase 8 , Hydrogen Peroxide
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 247-288, mayo 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116290


Selaginella is the only genus from Selaginellaceae, and it is considered a key factor in studying evolution. The family managed to survive the many biotic and abiotic pressures during the last 400 million years. The purpose of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of Selaginella in order to recognize their potential and evaluate future research opportunities. Carbohydrates, pigments, steroids, phenolic derivatives, mainly flavonoids, and alkaloids are the main natural products in Selaginella. A wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities, some of them pointed out by folk medicine, has been reported. Future studies should afford valuable new data on better explore the biological potential of the flavonoid amentoflavone and their derivatives as chemical bioactive entities; develop studies about toxicity and, finally, concentrate efforts on elucidate mechanisms of action for biological properties already reported.

Selaginella es el único género de Selaginellaceae, y se considera un factor clave en el estudio de la evolución. La familia logró sobrevivir a las muchas presiones bióticas y abióticas durante los últimos 400 millones de años. El propósito de esta revisión es proporcionar un resumen actualizado de Selaginella para reconocer su potencial y evaluar futuras oportunidades de investigación. Los hidratos de carbono, pigmentos, esteroides, derivados fenólicos, principalmente flavonoides, y alcaloides son los principales productos naturales en Selaginella. Se ha informado un amplio espectro de actividades farmacológicas in vitro e in vivo, algunas de ellas señaladas por la medicina popular. Los estudios futuros deberían proporcionar datos nuevos y valiosos para explorar mejor el potencial biológico de la amentoflavona flavonoide y sus derivados como entidades bioactivas químicas; desarrollar estudios sobre la toxicidad y, finalmente, concentrar los esfuerzos en dilucidar los mecanismos de acción para las propiedades biológicas ya informadas.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Selaginellaceae/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Alkaloids/analysis , Medicine, Traditional
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 38-45, May 15, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177420


BACKGROUND: Taraxacum species (commonly known as dandelion) used as herbal medicine have been reported to exhibit an antiproliferative effect on hepatoma cells and antitumor activity in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Although several investigations have demonstrated the safety of Taraxacum officinale, the safety of tissue-cultured plants of T. formosanum has not been assessed so far. Therefore, the present study examines the safety of the water extract of the entire plant of tissue cultured T. formosanum based on acute and subacute toxicity tests in rats, as well as the Ames tests. RESULTS: No death or toxicity symptoms were observed in the acute and subacute tests. The results of the acute test revealed that the LD50 (50% of lethal dose) value of the T. formosanum water extract for rats exceeded 5 g/kg bw. No abnormal changes in the body weight, weekly food consumption, organ weight, or hematological, biochemical, and morphological parameters were observed in the subacute toxicity test. Thus, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of T. formosanum water extract was estimated to be higher than 2.0 g/kg. Finally, the results of the Ames test revealed that T. formosanum water extract was not genotoxic at any tested concentration to any of five Salmonella strains. CONCLUSIONS: The water extract of tissue-cultured T. formosanum was non-toxic to rats in acute and subacute tests and exhibited no genotoxicity to five Salmonella strains.

Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Taraxacum/toxicity , Tissue Culture Techniques/methods , Safety , Flavonoids/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Urinalysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phenol/analysis , Acute Toxicity , Herbal Medicine , Taraxacum/chemistry , Serum , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Toxicity Tests, Subacute , Mutagenicity Tests
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(1): 50-59, marz. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1129607


La medicina tradicional y estudios realizados a diferentes especies del género Prosopis, del desierto sonorense, indican que es una fuente para la cualificación de compuestos bioactivos, con poder antioxidante y ácidos grasos (linoleico y linolénico) de la semilla. La actividad biológica, es atribuible a alcaloides, flavonoides, terpenos y compuestos fenólicos, para lo cual, se realizó el perfil fitoquímico en los extractos acuoso, etanólico, hexanico y clorofórmico (mediante técnicas colorimétricas), actividad antioxidante (método: 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH)), fenoles totales (utilizando el reactivo de Folin-Ciocalteau) y perfil de ácidos grasos (cromatografía de gases) de la semilla de Prosopis spp. La extracción del aceite se realizó mediante Soxhlet. Se encontraron saponinas en todos los extractos, mientras que, en el etanólico, hexanico y clorofórmico, terpenos y esteroles. En el extracto etanólico se encontraron quinonas y en el acuoso aminoácidos libres. El valor más alto de la actividad antioxidante de EC50 fue de 3.272,41 ± 5,97, para el extracto etanólico, indicando su potencial como antioxidante. El contenido de fenoles totales, fue hexano> etanol > cloroformo> acuoso (81,95; 119,83; 125,18 y 127,57 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico/g de extracto seco). Los ácidos grasos en mayor proporción fueron los insaturados con 71,41 % (ácido linoleico: 42,68 %; oleico: 28.73 %) y ácidos grasos saturados: ácido palmítico (13.42 %) y estérico (4,73 %). Se concluye que este tipo de extractos presentan metabolitos importantes para la dieta, presentan actividad antioxidante y ácidos grasos esenciales para el organismo(AU)

Traditional medicine and studies with different species of the Prosopis genus, from the Sonoran Desert, is a source for the qualification of bioactive compounds, with antioxidant power and fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic) of the seed. The biological activity is attributable to alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds, for which, the phytochemical profile was performed in the aqueous, ethanolic, hexane and chloroform extracts (using colorimetric techniques), antioxidant activity (method: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH)), total phenols (using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent) and fatty acid profile (gas chromatography). The oil was extracted using Soxhlet. Saponins were found in all extracts, while, in ethanolic, hexanic and chloroform, terpenes and sterols. In the ethanolic extract quinones were found and in the aqueous free amino acids. The highest value of the antioxidant activity of EC50 was 3,272.41 ± 5.97, for the ethanolic extract, indicating its potential as an antioxidant. The total phenolic content was hexane> ethanol> chloroform> aqueous (81.95, 119.83, 125.18 and 127.57 mg equivalent of gallic acid / g of dry extract). The fatty acids in greater proportion were unsaturated with 71.41 % (linoleic acid: 42.68 %; oleic: 28.73 %) and saturated fatty acids: palmitic acid (13.42 %) and stearic (4.73 %). It is concluded that this type of extracts have important metabolites for the diet, have antioxidant activity and essential fatty acids for the body(AU)

Prosopis , Phenolic Compounds , Fatty Acids , Phytochemicals , Seeds , Flavonoids/analysis , Alkaloids/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 161-166, mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104063


The methanol extract of the Balkan endemic species Jurinea tzar-ferdinandii Davidov demonstrated weak antioxidant activity against DPPH• and ABTS+• and low inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase (8.3% Inh.) and tyrosinase (IC50 = 208 ± 8 µg/mL) enzymes. Phytochemical investigation of the extract led to isolation and identification of apigenin, luteolin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-4'-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-gentiobioside, luteolin-4'-O-glucoside, rutin, narcissin, chlorogenic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. With exception of apigenin and rutin, all isolated compounds are reported for the first time in the representatives of genus Jurinea. The distribution of flavonoids was discussed from chemotaxonomic point of view.

El extracto de metanol de la especie endémica de los Balcanes Jurinea tzar-ferdinandii Davidov demostró una actividad antioxidante débil contra DPPH• y ABTS+• y un bajo potencial inhibidor contra las enzimas acetilcolinesterasa (8.3% Inh.) tirosinasa (IC50 = 208 ± 8 µg/mL). La investigación fitoquímica del extracto condujo al aislamiento e identificación de apigenina, luteolina, apigenina-7-Oglucósido, apigenina-4'-O-glucósido, apigenina-7-O-gentiobiósido, luteolina-4'-O-glucósido, rutina, narcissin, clorogénico y ácido 1,5- dicafeoilquinico. Con excepción de la apigenina y la rutina, todos los compuestos aislados se informan por primera vez en el género Jurinea. La distribución de flavonoides se discute desde el punto de vista quimiotaxonómico.

Asteraceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Monophenol Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Methanol , Balkan Peninsula
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 167-178, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104197


The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and inhibitory activities of the ethanolic extracts of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) grown in Montenegro, Quindío, Colombia, in three stages of maturation, including the edible (pulp) and inedible parts (pericarp and peduncle). The alcoholic samples were phytochemically characterized by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and by Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR); the antioxidant capacities were also evaluated by the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), in addition to the inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and the total content of phenols and flavonoids. The tests detected phytochemical compounds such as phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and xanthones, to which the antioxidant activity and the inhibition of AChE presented, can be attributed. In conclusion, the inedible parts of mangosteen contain higher proportions of secondary metabolites, these being the most promising sources for industrial use.

El objetivo de este trabajo fue el de evaluar las actividades antioxidantes e inhibitoria de acetilcolinesterasa de los extractos etanólicos del mangostino (Garcinia mangostana L.) de Montenegro, Quíndio, Colombia, en tres estados de maduración, incluyendo las partes comestibles (pulpa) y no comestibles (pericarpio y pedúnculo). Las muestras alcohólicas fueron caracterizadas fitoquímicamente por Cromatografía de Capa Delgada (CCD), Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Eficiencia (HPLC) y Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier (FT-IR); la capacidad antioxidante fue evaluada también por el método de captación del radical libre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracilo (DPPH• dejar el radical en superíndice) y la Capacidad de Absorción de Radicales de Oxígeno (ORAC), adicionalmente la actividad inhibitoria de la acetilcolinesterasa (AchE) y el contenido total de fenoles y flavonoides. Se detectaron compuestos fitoquímicos como fenoles, flavonoides, alcaloides, quinonas y xantonas, a quienes se les puede atribuir las actividades antioxidantes y de inhibición de la acetilcolinesterasa. En conclusión, las partes no comestibles del mangostino contienen una mayor proporción de metabolitos secundarios, siendo las fuentes más promisorias para uso industrial.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Garcinia mangostana/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Colombia , Clusiaceae , Ethanol , Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 188-206, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104201


The present study aimed to screen the Rhazya stricta Decne root for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidants potential through invitro assays along with phytochemical and elemental analyses. The crude extract was prepared through maceration and fractionated using solvent-solvent extraction technique. The spectroscopic studies indicated the presence of various phytochemical classes in the extract and its fractions. The antioxidant assays showed notable results along with a good concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Enzyme inhibition assays demonstrated glucose-lowering effects by inhibiting the enzyme activity which could reduce post-prandial blood glucose level. The Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibition assay results showed the novel DPP-IV inhibition activity of the plant extract and all fractions showed noteworthy enzyme inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity. Conclusively, the Rhazya stricta root extract displayed its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic potential due to the presence of various classes of phytochemicals and micro-nutrients.

El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne por su potencial antihiperglicémico y antioxidante a través de ensayos in vitro junto con análisis fitoquímicos y elementales. El extracto crudo se preparó por maceración y se fraccionó usando una técnica de extracción solvente-solvente. Los estudios espectroscópicos indicaron la presencia de varias clases fitoquímicas en el extracto y sus fracciones. Los ensayos antioxidantes mostraron resultados notables junto con una importante concentración de contenido fenólico y flavonoide. Los ensayos de inhibición enzimática demostraron efectos reductores de la glucosa al inhibir la actividad enzimática que podría reducir el nivel de glucosa posprandial en sangre. Los resultados del ensayo de inhibición de Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) mostraron la nueva actividad de inhibición de DPP-IV del extracto de la planta y todas las fracciones mostraron una notable inhibición enzimática y actividad antihiperglicémica. En conclusión, el extracto de raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne mostró su potencial antioxidante y antihiperglicémico debido a la presencia de varias clases de fitoquímicos y micronutrientes.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Flavonoids/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Plant Roots/chemistry , Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Phytochemicals , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 1-7, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087465


Background: Biotechnological processes are part of modern industry as well as stricter environmental requirements. The need to reduce production costs and pollution demands for alternatives that involve the integral use of agro-industrial waste to produce bioactive compounds. The citrus industry generates large amounts of wastes due to the destruction of the fruits by microorganisms and insects together with the large amounts of orange waste generated during the production of juice and for sale fresh. The aim of this study was used orange wastes rich in polyphenolic compounds can be used as source carbon of Aspergillus fumigatus MUM 1603 to generate high added value compounds, for example, ellagic acid and other molecules of polyphenolic origin through submerged fermentation system. Results: The orange peel waste had a high concentration of polyphenols, 28% being condensed, 27% ellagitannins, 25% flavonoids and 20% gallotannins. The major polyphenolic compounds were catechin, EA and quercetin. The conditions, using an experimental design of central compounds, that allow the production of the maximum concentration of EA (18.68 mg/g) were found to be: temperature 30°C, inoculum 2 × 107 (spores/g) and orange peel polyphenols 6.2 (g/L). Conclusion: The submerged fermentation process is an effective methodology for the biotransformation of molecules present in orange waste to obtain high value-added as ellagic acid that can be used as powerful antioxidants, antibacterial and other applications.

Waste Management , Citrus sinensis/chemistry , Ellagic Acid , Aspergillus fumigatus , Waste Products/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Biotechnology/methods , Hydrolyzable Tannins/analysis , Fermentation , Polyphenols/analysis , Phytochemicals
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878821


UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology was used to analyze the chemical constituents from classical prescription Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang standard decoction. Acquity HSS T3 column(2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) was used as the chromatographic column, with 0.1% formic acid solution-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile as the mobile phase for gradient elution. The volume flow rate was 0.4 mL·min~(-1) and the column temperature was 40 ℃. Mass spectrometry data of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang standard decoction were collected in positive and negative ion modes. The chemical constituents from classical prescription Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang standard decoction were analyzed and identified by Masslynx 4.1 software combined with SciFinder database, comparison with reference mate-rials, mass spectrometry data analysis and reference to relevant literature. A total of 110 compounds were analyzed and identified, including 33 flavonoids, 14 monoterpene glycosides, 8 triterpenoids, 8 gingerols, 17 phenylpropanoids, 12 organic acids, 7 amino acids and 11 other compounds. The results of this study provide an experimental basis for the further research on the substance basis and quality control of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang standard decoction.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids/analysis , Glycosides , Prescriptions , Reference Standards
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 742-748, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001482


Abstract Citrus fruit production occupies a place of considerable importance in the economy of the world including Pakistan. Tristeza disease caused by Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) exists in various forms that may or may not cause symptoms in the plants. The bioactive compounds and antioxidants are naturally present in plants and provide a defense mechanism that is generally accelerated in response to a stress. The objective of the present study was to target and analyze the citrus plants that were CTV positive to observe the changes in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants of citrus (Sweet Oranges only). It was observed that in response to CTV infection, both the non-enzymatic antioxidants (total flavonoid, ascorbic acid, phenolic acid) and enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) activities showed an increasing trend overall. The profiling of antioxidants in response to a viral infection may help in the discovery of new biomarkers that can be used as a monitoring tool in disease management.

Resumo As frutas cítricas ocupam um lugar de considerável importância na economia do Paquistão, assim como o resto do mundo. A doença da tristeza causada pelo Vírus da Tristeza dos Citros (CTV) existe em várias formas que podem ou não apresentar sintomas nas plantas. Os compostos bioativos e antioxidantes estão naturalmente presentes nas plantas e fornecem um mecanismo de defesa que é geralmente acelerado em resposta a um estresse. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar as alterações causadas pelo CTV nos antioxidantes enzimáticos e não enzimáticos de laranjas doces. Foi observado que, em resposta ao ataque de CTV, os antioxidantes não enzimáticos como flavonoides totais, ácido ascórbico, ácido fenólico e antioxidantes enzimáticos, como as atividades de catalase, superóxido dismutase e peroxidase, geralmente mostram uma tendência crescente. O perfil de antioxidantes em resposta a um ataque viral pode ajudar na descoberta de novos biomarcadores que podem ser usados ​​como uma ferramenta de monitoramento no gerenciamento de doenças.

Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plant Diseases/virology , Closterovirus/physiology , Citrus sinensis/enzymology , Citrus sinensis/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/classification , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Catalase/analysis , Peroxidase/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 444-458, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008263


This review work focuses on how the secondary chemistry could help in the survival of plants in high mountain habitats under extreme environmental conditions. The elevated levels of stress in high areas of the tropic and subtropic change dramatically not only by following the annual cycles of winter and summer but they also change in a single day. Some species, however, are able to successfully grow at heights more than 3000 m in the tropical mountains due, in part, to highly specialized physiological processes that affect their physical and chemical responses. In this study, it describes some strategies of how the secondary metabolites could help the plants to stand the high levels of stress in the high mountain ecosystems.

Este trabajo de revisión se centra en cómo la química secundaria podría ayudar en la supervivencia de plantas en hábitats de alta montaña en condiciones ambientales extremas. Los altos niveles de estrés en las zonas altas del trópico y subtrópico cambian dramáticamente no solo al seguir los ciclos anuales de invierno y verano, sino que también cambian en un solo día. Sin embargo, algunas especies pueden crecer con éxito a alturas superiores a 3000 m en las montañas tropicales debido, en parte, a procesos fisiológicos altamente especializados que afectan sus respuestas físicas y químicas. En esta revisión, se describen algunas estrategias de cómo los metabolitos secundarios podrían ayudan a las plantas a soportar los altos niveles de estrés en los ecosistemas de alta montaña.

Plants/chemistry , Stress, Physiological , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Altitude , Phloroglucinol/analysis , Phloroglucinol/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Terpenes/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 106 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-997286


As laranjas e seus derivados, principalmente os sucos, possuem compostos bioativos, tais como os flavonoides, entre eles as flavanonas hesperidina e narirutina, que podem estar relacionados à promoção e benefícios à saúde. A absorção e metabolização de flavonoides podem ser afetadas por diversos fatores como a microbiota e fatores antropométricos, o que pode afetar a sua bioatividade. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o metabolismo e excreção dos flavonoides entre indivíduos eutróficos e obesos após a ingestão de sucos de laranja pasteurizado obtidos das cvs. Pera e Moro. Em um estudo cross-over randomizado 20 voluntárias eutróficas e 10 voluntárias obesas, com idade entre 19 e 40 anos, consumiram em dose única 600 mL de cada suco, que contém as flavanonas narirutina e hesperidina, além das antocianinas no suco Moro. Os metabólitos de flavanonas e de antocianinas foram identificados e quantificados em urina coletada em diferentes períodos de tempo durante 24 horas. Não foi observada diferença significativa na permeabilidade intestinal entre os grupos. Foram detectados e identificados 8 metabólitos de fase II da hesperitina e naringenina, principalmente mono e diglicuronidados e sulfatos, além de três ácidos fenólicos catabólitos de flavanonas formados pela microbiota intestinal, entre elas o ácido hipúrico, ácido protocatecuico e ácido 3-(3-hidroxifenil)-3-hidroxipropiônico. Os ácidos fenólicos foram os metabólitos majoritários recuperados na urina, principalmente o ácido hipúrico. Ainda, os metabólitos de fase II apresentaram maior excreção entre o período de 4-8h e 8-12h (13 a 27% do total de metabólitos excretados). Não foi observada diferença significante (p<0,05) no total de metabólitos de naringenina e hesperitina excretados na urina durante o período de 24 h entre os dois grupos e para os sucos de laranja, nem para o total de metabólitos, provavelmente devido à grande variabilidade interindividual na excreção. Assim, não foi observada diferença entre a metabolização de flavanonas de laranja entre os eutróficos e obesos e nenhuma correlação com os parâmetros antropométricos avaliados

Oranges and orange juices contain bioactive compounds, such as flavonoids, mainly the flavanones hesperidin and narirutin, which may be related to the promotion and health benefits. The absorption and metabolization of flavonoids can be affected by several factors such as the gut microbiota and anthropometric parameters, which may affect its bioactivity. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the metabolism and excretion of flavonoids among eutrophic and obese people after ingestion of two pasteurized orange juice obtained from cvs. Pera and Moro. In a randomized cross-over study 20 eutrophic volunteers and 10 obese volunteers, aged 19-40 years, consumed a single dose of 600 mL of each juice. The metabolites of flavanones and anthocyanins were identified and quantified in urine collected at different time points for 24 hours. No significant difference in intestinal permeability was observed between groups. Eight Phase II metabolites of hesperitin and naringenin, mainly mono and diglycerides and sulfates, and three phenolic catabolites of flavanones formed by the gut microbiota were detected and identified, among them hippuric acid, protocatecuic acid and 3- (3-hydroxyphenyl) ) -3-hydroxypropionic acid. Phenolic acids were the major metabolites recovered in urine, mainly hippuric acid. Furthermore, phase II metabolites had greater excretion between the period of 4-8h and 8-12h (13-27% of total metabolites excreted). No significant difference (p <0.05) was observed in the total of naringenin and hesperitin metabolites excreted in the urine during the 24 h period between the two groups, probably due to interindividual variability in excretion. Thus, no difference was observed on metabolism of flavanones between the eutrophic and obese and no correlation was observed with the anthropometric parameters evaluated

Humans , Female , Adult , Flavonoids/analysis , Citrus sinensis/adverse effects , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/adverse effects , Flavanones/classification , Healthy Lifestyle , Hesperidin/classification , Obesity/diet therapy
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 36-42, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990001


RESUMEN: Estudios recientes han demostrado que los compuestos activos presentes en extractos de C. chayamansa, E. prostrata y J. dioica tienen propiedades antioxidantes. Los resultados obtenidos en nuestro estudio fueron compuestos fenólicos solubles mostraron en C. chayamansa 6,34, E. prostrata 10,67, J. dioica 1,83 mg equiv de ácido gálico/gm BS respectivamente. Los antioxidantes solubles en agua por el método ABTS fueron para C. chayamansa 5.9, E. prostrata 12.7 y para J. dioica 2.5 mM equiv. de trolox/gr BS. Los resultados histopatológicos muestran una mejoría en los tejidos tratados con los extractos después de la inducción a hiperglicemia.

SUMMARY: Recent studies have shown that the active compounds present in extracts of C. chayamansa, E. prostrata and J. dioica have antioxidant properties. The results obtained in our study were soluble phenolic compounds showed in C. chayamansa 6.34, E. prostrata 10.67, J. dioica 1.83 mg equiv of gallic acid/gm BS respectively. The antioxidants soluble in water by the ABTS method were for C. chayamansa 5.9, E. prostrata 12.7 and for J. dioica 2.5 mM equiv. of trolox/gr BS. The histopathological results show an improvement in the tissues treated with the extracts after the induction to hyperglycemia.

Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Euphorbia/chemistry , Jatropha/chemistry , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Phenolic Compounds , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Antioxidants/chemistry
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007328


Propolis is a substance manufactured by Apis mellifera and has been widely used in folk medicine due to its high concentration of bioactive compounds. The purpose of the following study was to characterize and evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial properties of propolis on clinical samples and ATCC strains. The chemical characterization of propolis presents a concentration of total polyphenols of 247 ± 9 mg EAG g-1 MS, flavones and flavonols 75± 4 mg EQ g-1 MS, flavanonones and flavanonols 118 ± 11 EP g-1 MS. HPLC-DAD identified apigenin, galangin, phenethyl ester of caffeic acid and pinocembrin, in addition to 16 compounds by HPLC MS/MS. Chilean propolis is a natural antimicrobial, showing effectiveness in strains ATCC Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and clinical samples of Staphylococcus aureus unlike Escherichia coli. These results demonstrate the antimicrobial effectiveness of the synergy of compounds present in propolis against different human pathogens.

El propóleos es una substancia fabricada por Apis mellifera y ha sido utilizado ampliamente en la medicina popular debido a su alta concentración de compuestos bioactivos. El propósito del siguiente estudio fue caracterizar y evaluar in vitro las propiedades antimicrobianas del propóleos sobre muestras clínicas y cepas ATCC. La caracterización química de propóleos presenta una concentración de polifenoles totales de 247 ± 9 mg EAG g-1 de MS, flavonas y flavonoles 75 ± 4 mg EQ g-1 de MS, flavanononas y flavanonoles 118 ± 11 EP g-1 de MS. Mediante HPLC-DAD se identificó apigenina, galangina, fenetil éster del ácido cafeico y pinocembrina, además de 16 compuestos mediante HPLC MS/MS. El propóleos chileno es un antimicrobiano natural, observándose efectividad en cepas ATCC Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum y muestras clínicas de Staphylococcus aureus a diferencia de Escherichia coli. Estos resultados demuestran la efectividad antimicrobiana de la sinergia de compuestos presentes en el propóleos ante diferentes patógenos humanos.

Humans , Propolis/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pharynx/microbiology , Propolis/chemistry , Trichophyton/drug effects , Flavonoids/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Apis mellifica , Chile , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Mouth/microbiology
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 248-254, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888871


Abstract This study was carried out to assess the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of extracts of Morus nigra L. HPLC was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram of the crude ethanolic extract (Mn-EtOH). The antibacterial effect was assessed through the method of microdilution. The cytotoxicity was tested against human tumour cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also assessed through the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching methods. The presence of phenolic compounds in Mn-EtOH was confirmed using HPLC. The extracts showed activity against most microorganisms tested. The extracts did not show any expressive antiproliferative effect in the assessment of cytotoxicity. The most significant total phenolic content was 153.00 ± 11.34 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g to the ethyl acetate extract (AcOEt). The total flavonoid content was 292.50 ± 70.34 mg of catechin equivalent/g to the AcOEt extract, which presented the best antioxidant activity (IC50 50.40 ± 1.16 μg/mL) for DPPH scavenging. We can conclude that this species shows strong antibacterial and antioxidant activities, as well as weak cytotoxic effects.

Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar as atividades antibacteriana, citotóxica e antioxidante de extratos de Morus nigra L. HPLC foi utilizado para determinar o perfil de compostos fenólicos do extrato etanólico bruto (Mn-EtOH). O efeito antibacteriano foi avaliado através do método de microdiluição. A citotoxicidade foi testada contra linhagens celulares de tumores humanos utilizando o ensaio do brometo de 3-(4,5-dimetil-2-tiazolil)-2,5-difenil-2H-tetrazólio (MTT). O conteúdo total de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides também foi avaliado por meio dos métodos de Folin-Ciocalteu e cloreto de alumínio, respectivamente. A atividade antioxidante dos extratos foi avaliada por meio do sequestro do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) e co-oxidação do sistema β-caroteno-ácido linoleico. A presença de compostos fenólicos em Mn-EtOH foi confirmada utilizando HPLC. Os extratos mostraram atividade contra a maioria dos microrganismos testados. Os extratos não mostraram qualquer efeito antiproliferativo expressivo na avaliação da citotoxicidade. O conteúdo fenólico total mais significativo foi de 153,00 ± 11,34 mg de equivalente de ácido gálico/g para o extrato acetato de etila (AcOEt). O conteúdo de flavonoides totais foi de 292,50 ± 70,34 mg de equivalente de catequina/g para o extrato AcOEt, que apresentou a melhor atividade antioxidante (IC50 50,40 ± 1,16 mg/mL) para o sequestro do DPPH. Podemos concluir que esta espécie apresenta forte atividade antibacteriana e antioxidante, bem como fraca atividade citotóxica.

Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Morus/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Picrates/metabolism , Flavonoids/analysis , Biphenyl Compounds/metabolism , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/toxicity , Antioxidants/chemistry
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 43: 1-7, Mar. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-881664


BACKGROUND: Carissa bispinosa, Ficus sycomorus, and Grewia bicolar are edible fruit plants that grow in the wild. The plants produce yellow-, red-, and purple-colored fruits and thus can be good sources of flavonoids for fighting oxidative reactions in humans, food, and the pharmaceutical industry. The present study aimed at isolating flavonoids from C.bispinosa, F. sycomorus, and G. bicolar fruits and determining their antioxidant activity using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azino-bis 3-ethylbenz-thiaz-oline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) model radical assays. METHODS: Analytical and preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to isolate flavonoids from the fruits using methanol/chloroform/hexane (7:2:1,v/v/v) as a mobile phase system. The ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging methods were used to test for the antioxidant activity of the samples, using quercetin and catechin as reference standards. RESULTS:Thin-layer chromatographic profiling revealed two different types of flavonoids from each plant.C. bispinosa yielded two flavonoid bands, Rfvalues 0.11 and 0.38;G. bicolaryielded two flavonoid bands,Rfvalues 0.63 and 0.81; andF.sycomorus also yielded two types of flavonoids, Rfvalues 0.094 and 0.81. All the extracted flavonoids exhibited significant antioxidant activity of over 80% at a concentration of 200 mg/L. The order of radical scavenging activity for the 200-mg/Lsamples is G. bicolar Rf(0.81) >C. bispinosa Rf(0.113) >F. sycomorus Rf(0.094) >F. sycomorus Rf(0.047) >C. bispinosa Rf(0.38) >G. bicolar Rf(0.63).G. bicolar(Rf= 0.81) exhibited antioxidant activitythat was superior to that of catechin. CONCLUSION:The present study results show that C. bispinosa,F. sycomorus,and G. bicolar contain different flavonoid types with significant antioxidant activity of over 80% at a concentration of 200 mg/L. Therefore, the fruits can be used as a source of natural antioxidants which can be used as nutraceuticals to promote health, as preservatives to delay peroxidation of foods, and as flavoring for packed foods.

Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Ficus/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Grewia/chemistry
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 325-332, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886914


ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the frequency of bee pollen production, its botanical origin and chemical composition when collected in different seasons. Our results indicate that higher proteins (22.80 ± 3.09%) and flavonoids (2789.87 ± 1396.00 μg 100g-1) levels were obtained in the winter season, which also showed greater pollen production (134.50 ± 35.70 grams) and predominance of the Myrtaceae family. As for spring we found high concentrations of lipids (4.62 ± 2.26%) and low ash content (2.22 ± 0.39%). Regarding the amino acid composition and vitamin C content, we found no differences between the averages throughout the seasons. Our results highlight the importance of understanding not only the botanical origin and the chemical composition of bee pollen, but also the harvesting frequency of this product by bees, so that it becomes possible to supplement the colonies in times of natural food resources shortage.

Animals , Pollen/physiology , Pollen/chemistry , Seasons , Bees/physiology , Magnoliopsida/physiology , Pollen/classification , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Reference Values , Flavonoids/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Amino Acids/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 98-107, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888842


Abstract The family Verbenaceae hosts important species used in traditional medicine of many countries. The taxonomic controversies concerning the specific delimitation of several of its species make it difficult to guarantee the botanical origin of herbal preparations based on species of this family. To contribute to the development of both specific chemomarkers and a quality control tool to authenticate the botanical origin of herbal preparations of Verbenacea species, we determined the foliar HPLC-DAD phenolic profiles and the antioxidant properties of 10 wild species of this family occurring in Mexico. The contents of phenols and flavonoids varied significantly among species. Priva mexicana showed the highest levels of total phenolics (53.4 mg g-1 dry tissue) and Verbena carolina had the highest levels of flavonoids (17.89 mg g-1 dry tissue). Relevant antioxidant properties revealed by antiradical and reducing power were found for the analyzed species. These properties varied significantly in a species-dependent manner. The phenolic compounds accumulated were flavones and phenolic acids. Flavones were the only type of flavonoids found. The results of a cluster analysis showed that the compounds were accumulated in species-specific profiles. The phenolic profiles are proposed as valuable chemomarkers that can become a useful tool for the quality control concerning the botanical origin of herbal medicinal preparations based on the species analyzed. In addition, phenolic profiles could contribute importantly to solve the taxonomic controversies concerning species delimitation in the family Verbenaceae.

Resumo A família Verbenaceae compreende importantes espécies utilizadas na medicina popular de muitos países. As dificuldades taxonômicas relativas à delimitação específica de muitas das suas espécies face difícil a verificar a origem botânico das preparações herbales baseadas nas espécies desta família. Para fazer uma contribuição ao desenvolvimento de indicadores taxonômicos e dum método de controle de qualidade para verificar a origem botânico de preparações herbales das espécies de Verbenaceae, os perfis fenólicos, obtidos pares HPLC-DAD, e as atividades antioxidantes das folhas de 10 espécies selvagens Mexicanas desta família foram determinados. Os conteúdos dos compostos fenólicos totais e dos flavonoides foram significativamente diferentes entre as espécies. Priva mexicana apresentou a maior quantidade de compostos fenólicos totais (53.4 mg g-1 amostra seca) e Verbena carolina apresentou a maior quantidade de flavonoides (17.89 mg g-1 amostra seca). Verifica-se importantes propriedades antioxidantes, como os resultados dos ensaios da capacidade antiradical e do poder redutor indicaram. As propriedades antioxidantes foram significativamente diferentes entre as espécies. Verificou-se que os compostos fenólicos conteúdos nas folhas das espécies analisadas foram só flavonas e ácidos fenólicos. Os resultados das análises de agrupamento provarãn que os perfiles fenólicos foram espécie-específicos. Estes perfis podem ser considerados como indicadores químicos da qualidade relativa à origem botânico de preparações medicinais baseadas nas espécies analisadas e podem fazer importantes contribuições para a delimitação específica na família Verbenaceae.

Phenols/analysis , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Verbenaceae , Mexico