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1.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(4): e20210021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1286367

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo sintetizar as evidências disponíveis na literatura sobre os tipos de superfícies de compressão utilizadas na RCP e analisar quais características das superfícies de compressão têm impacto na eficácia da compressão torácica durante a RCP. Método revisão integrativa da literatura, cujos critérios de seleção e inclusão foram: artigos completos, em inglês, português ou espanhol e que respondessem a seguinte questão de pesquisa: "Quais são as características das superfícies de compressão que têm impacto na eficácia das compressões torácicas durante a RCP?". Realizada entre os meses de junho e julho de 2019. Resultados inclui-se 12 artigos de estudos experimentais, cuja extração de dados revelou 13 tipos diferentes de colchões. Em relação às pranchas, seis tamanhos diferentes foram relatados, com diferentes materiais. Constatou-se influências do tipo de superfície de compressão na força necessária para realizar as compressões torácicas. Conclusão as evidências apontam que colchões de maiores dimensões e com tecnologia para redução de pressão e camas mais largas apresentam impactos negativos na qualidade das compressões torácicas. Implicação para prática o conhecimento sobre a influência do tipo e características das superfícies de apoio na qualidade das compressões torácicas podem subsidiar profissionais na escolha e incorporação de tecnologias no ambiente hospitalar.


Resumen Objetivo Sintetizar la evidencia disponible en la literatura sobre los tipos de superficies de compresión utilizadas en la RCP y analizar qué características de las superficies de compresión tienen un impacto en la efectividad de la compresión torácica durante la RCP. Método Revisión bibliográfica integradora, cuyos criterios de selección e inclusión fueron: artículos completos, en inglés, portugués o español y que respondieran a la siguiente pregunta de investigación: "¿Cuáles son las características de las superficies de compresión que inciden en la efectividad de las compresiones torácicas durante la RCP?". Se llevó a cabo entre junio y julio de 2019. Resultados se incluyeron 12 artículos de estudios experimentales, cuya extracción de datos reveló 13 tipos diferentes de colchones. En cuanto a los Tabelaros, se reportaron seis tamaños diferentes, con diferentes materiales. Se encontraron influencias del tipo de superficie de compresión sobre la fuerza requerida para realizar las compresiones torácicas. Conclusión la evidencia señala que los colchones más grandes con tecnología de reducción de presión y las camas más grandes tienen impactos negativos en la calidad de las compresiones torácicas. Implicación para la práctica El conocimiento sobre la influencia del tipo y características de las superficies de apoyo en la calidad de las compresiones torácicas puede ayudar a los profesionales en la elección e incorporación de tecnologías en el ámbito hospitalario.


Abstract Objective To synthesize the available evidence in the literature on the types of compression surfaces used in CPR and to analyze which characteristics of the compression surfaces impact the effectiveness of chest compression during CPR. Method Integrative literature review, whose selection and inclusion criteria were complete articles, in English, Portuguese or Spanish and that answered the following research question: "What are the characteristics of the compression surfaces that impact the effectiveness of chest compressions during CPR?". It was carried out between June and July 2019. Results 12 articles from experimental studies were included. 13 different types of mattresses were found. Regarding the boards, six different sizes and many materials were reported. Influences of the type of compression surface on the force required to perform chest compressions were found. Conclusion Evidence points out that larger mattresses with pressure reduction technology and larger beds have negative impacts on the quality of chest compressions. Implication for practice Knowledge about the influence of the type and characteristics of support surfaces on the quality of chest compressions can support professionals in the choice and incorporation of technologies in the hospital environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Heart Massage , Beds , Quality Management , Floors and Floorcoverings
2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758534

ABSTRACT

The causal relationship between cigarette smoking during pregnancy and adverse maternal and child health outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and sudden infant death syndrome are well known. In addition, cigarette compounds are neurotoxic even at extremely low levels. Thirdhand smoke (THS) is the contamination that persists after secondhand tobacco smoke has been emitted into air. It refers to the tobacco-related gases and particles that become embedded in materials such as carpets, walls, furniture, blankets, and toys. THS is not strictly smoke but chemicals that adhere to surfaces from which they can be released back into the air, undergo chemical transformations, and/or accumulate. The concept of THS is a relatively new phenomenon in the environmental and public health field. Currently, the hazards of THS are not as well documented as the hazards of secondhand smoke. Furthermore, its health effects and biological effects are largely unknown. This review summarizes recent research progress in reproductive toxicology studies that use animal models and in vitro systems, studies of environmental contamination by THS, human exposure studies, and priorities for further research. Future research must be conducted to facilitate hazard identification, and exposure and risk assessment to address its health effect on susceptible populations, such as pregnant women and children. In addition, policies and laws concerning tobacco smoke will need to be reviewed and possibly revised with the role of THS considered as an indispensable component of a broader tobacco control strategy in maternal and child health.


Subject(s)
Child Health , Child , Female , Floors and Floorcoverings , Gases , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Interior Design and Furnishings , Jurisprudence , Maternal Health , Models, Animal , Play and Playthings , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth , Public Health , Risk Assessment , Smoke , Smoking , Sudden Infant Death , Tobacco , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Toxicology
3.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 322-325, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a common problem among carpet weavers. This study was undertaken to introduce affecting personal and occupational factors in developing the number of MSDs among carpet weavers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among 862 weavers in seven towns with regard to workhouse location in urban or rural regions. Data were collected by using questionnaires that contain personal, workplace, and information tools and the modified Nordic MSDs questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by applying Poisson and negative binomial mixed models using a full Bayesian hierarchical approach. The deviance information criterion was used for comparison between models and model selection. RESULTS: The majority of weavers (72%) were female and carpet weaving was the main job of 85.2% of workers. The negative binomial mixed model with lowest deviance information criterion was selected as the best model. The criteria showed the convergence of chains. Based on 95% Bayesian credible interval, the main job and weaving type variables statistically affected the number of MSDs, but variables age, sex, weaving comb, work experience, and carpet weaving looms were not significant. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that occupational factors are associated with the number of MSDs developing among carpet weavers. Thus, using standard tools and decreasing hours of work per day can reduce frequency of MSDs among carpet weavers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bayes Theorem , Comb and Wattles , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Floors and Floorcoverings , Humans , Iran , Occupational Diseases , Risk Factors
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13387

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. The main objectives of this study were to detect and identify Cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in Thailand. In total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (Elaphe guttata), ball python (Python regius), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (Lampropeltis getula), rock python (Python sebae), rainbow boa (Epicrates cenchria), and carpet python (Morelia spilota). Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined using the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-modified acid-fast staining and a molecular method based on nested-PCR, PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing amplification of the SSU rRNA gene. DMSO-modified acid-fast staining revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 12 out of 165 (7.3%) samples, whereas PCR produced positive results in 40 (24.2%) samples. Molecular characterization indicated the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum (mouse genotype) as the most common species in 24 samples (60%) from 5 species of snake followed by Cryptosporidium serpentis in 9 samples (22.5%) from 2 species of snake and Cryptosporidium muris in 3 samples (7.5%) from P. regius.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Animals, Exotic , Boidae , Colubridae , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Dimethyl Sulfoxide , Floors and Floorcoverings , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Genes, rRNA , Methods , Milk , Oocysts , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Snakes , Thailand , Zea mays
5.
Rev. cuba. hig. epidemiol ; 53(1): 0-0, ene.-abr. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-775534

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el problema de la vivienda tiene un alcance mundial. La solución del déficit cualitativo y cuantitativo de la vivienda en Cuba transita a través de diferentes soluciones. Varios asentamientos del país se han erigido con vivienda industrial prefabricada de cloruro de polivinil ­PVC- conocidas por Petrocasas. Algunos estudios reportan estrés térmico en estas viviendas, vinculado a débil ventilación y calentamiento de cierres expuestos al sol. Objetivo: realizar una evaluación de salud ambiental en factores de riesgos físicos en el ambiente interior de las viviendas relativo a la intemperie, tras un cambio del material de cubierta. Método: se plantea un estudio experimental evaluativo de factores de riesgos físicos en el ambiente interior de las viviendas petrocasas a partir de una propuesta de modificación del material de la cubierta con la intención de reducir el estrés térmico de las mismas. Fueron edificadas con este propósito dos viviendas petrocasas con igual orientación de fachada principal y diferente cubierta; ;una fue sustituida por poliestireno expandido y la otra mantiene cubierta original (aluminio y papel de asfalto).Se evaluaron comparativamente factores de riesgos físicos: ruido, componente magnético del campo electromagnético de baja frecuencia, iluminación natural, artificial, ventilación y, principalmente, microclima para valorar la eficacia del cambio introducido. La evaluación estadística se efectuó por descriptores, modelos de regresión y espectro de potencia bivariado con los paquetes estadísticos SPSS v. 17.0 y Statistica 8.0. Resultados: la vivienda Petrocasa con cubierta de aluminio ­ asfalto presenta un clima interior algo más desfavorable al bienestar térmico que aquella de poliestireno; la ventilación en ambas resulta deficiente. Conclusiones: el cambio de material de la cubierta ligera de la vivienda Petrocasa proporciona un clima interior algo más favorable al bienestar de sus residentes(AU)


Introduction: the housing problem is global in scope. Solution to qualitative and quantitative housing deficit in Cuba has been addressed from various different perspectives. Several settlements in the country have been built with prefabricated industrial houses made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). These are known as petrohouses. Some studies have reported thermal stress inside these houses, resulting from insufficient ventilation and the heating of roofs exposed to the sun. Objective: carry out an environmental health evaluation of physical risk factors present in the indoor environment of petrohouses as compared with the outside environment after roof replacement. Method: an experimental evaluative study was conducted of physical risk factors present in the indoor environment of petrohouses based on a proposal of modification of the roof material with the purpose of reducing thermal stress. For this purpose, two petrohouses were built with the same orientation of their main facade, but different roof material. One was roofed with expanded polystyrene, while the other retained its original roof (aluminum sheets and asphalt paper). The following physical risk factors were evaluated comparatively: noise, magnetic component of the low frequency electromagnetic field, natural and artificial lighting, ventilation, and mainly microclimate, to evaluate the efficacy of the change made. Statistical evaluation was conducted with descriptors, regression models and bivariate power spectrum, using the statistical software packages SPSS v. 17.0 and Statistica v. 8.0. Results: indoor environment in the petrohouse with an aluminum-asphalt roof is somewhat more unfavorable in terms of thermal welfare than in the polystyrene-roofed house. Ventilation is deficient in both. Conclusions: roof replacement in petrohouses provides an indoor environment somewhat more favorable to the welfare of dwellers(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Polyvinyl Chloride , Environmental Health/methods , Risk Factors , Low-Cost Housing/methods , PVC Pipes/methods , Cuba , Floors and Floorcoverings/methods
6.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 120-127, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-113873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is a common and disabling problem among carpet weavers and is linked to physical and psychosocial factors of work. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MSP, its psychosocial risk factors, and association of pain in each pair of anatomical sites among carpet weavers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among 546 hand-woven carpet weavers in rural small-scale workshops of Iran. Data were collected by using parts of a standardized CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) questionnaire focused on MSP in 10 body sites, including the low-back, neck, both right and left shoulders, elbows, wrists/hands, individual, physical and psychosocial risk factors. Statistical analysis was performed applying logistic regression models. RESULTS: Prevalence of MSP in at least one body site was 51.7% over the past month. The most common sites were low back and right shoulder pain 27.4% and 20.1%, respectively. A significant difference was found between the mean number of painful anatomical sites and the level of education, age, physical loading at work, time pressure, lack of support, and job dissatisfaction. In pairwise comparisons, strongest association was found between pain in each bilateral anatomical site (odds ratio = 11.6-35.3; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In home-based workshops of carpet weaving, psychosocial factors and physical loading were associated with MSP. This finding is consistent with studies conducted among other jobs. Considering the preventive programs, the same amount of attention should be paid to psychosocial risk factors and physical loading. Also, further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationship of psychological factors.


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Education , Elbow , Floors and Floorcoverings , Iran , Logistic Models , Musculoskeletal Pain , Neck , Occupational Injuries , Prevalence , Psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Shoulder , Shoulder Pain
7.
Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 19 (4): 1-9
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-153680

ABSTRACT

Carpet-weaving is one of the important and high risk occupations in Iran that has some ergonomic factors leading to musculoskeletal disorders. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders [MSDs] and posture assessment by NMQ and QEC method respectively, in female carpet weavers in Sanandaj. Material and In the present cross-sectional study, 250 female carpet hand-weavers were selected randomly and interviewed. To determine the prevalence of MSDs and assessment of work postures, we used Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire [NMQ] and Quick Exposure Check [QEC] respectively. Using SPSS IBM 20 software, data were analyzed by chi-square and independent sample t-test. Prevalence of MSDs in the participants was 80.4%. The most common complaints were related to low back and shoulders with respective prevalence rates of 52 and 49.6% and the least common complaints were related to elbows and feet with prevalence rates of 20 and 26%, respectively. There was significant relationships between QEC scores and musculoskeletal symptoms prevalence rates in shoulder/arm, wrist/hand and neck [p<0.05]. Also, the relationship between the mean work background and daily work time in both groups [with MSDs and none] was significant [p<0.05]. It seems that long duration of daily work and repetitive task and maladjustment of the seat height in proportion to weaved carpet height were effective factors leading to the high prevalence of MSDS among participants which was also confirmed by posture assessment results. Timely adjustment of the seat height through designing adjustable seats and following ergonomic principles in workshops might be useful strategies to reduce prevalence of MSDs


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Floors and Floorcoverings , Prevalence , Posture , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68535

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to analyze 6 day-term variations in bacterial communities contaminating the floor of two dry saunas that were operated at 64degrees C (low temp) and 76degrees C (high temp). Bacteria were sampled daily from the saunas for 6 days from Monday to Saturday. Genomic DNA was isolated directly from bacteria-collected cotton swabs. The diversity of the bacterial communities collected from the saunas was analyzed using thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). The total numbers of DNA bands separated by TGGE for bacteria collected from the low temp and high temp sauna were 20 and 18, respectively, during the 6 days. Seven of 20 bacteria in the low temp sauna and eight of 18 bacteria in the high temp sauna were detected more than three times over the 6 experimental days. Twelve of the 26 bacterial genera contaminating the saunas were cross detected. Bacteria belonging to the genera Moraxella and Acinetobacter were selectively detected in the low temp sauna, whereas those belonging to Aquaspirillum, Chromobacterium, Aquabacterium, Gulbenkiania, Pelomonas, and Aquitalea were selectively detected in the high temp sauna. Three species of bacteria contaminating both the low and high temp saunas were thermophile or thermoduric. The results indicate that the sauna-contaminating bacteria may have been transferred from outside the saunas by user traffic but did not inhabit the saunas.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter , Bacteria , Chromobacterium , DNA , Electrophoresis , Floors and Floorcoverings , Moraxella , Steam Bath
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71551

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the anatomical correlations of the sphenoid sinus with surrounding structures in the normal Korean population, and to identify surgical landmarks for safe sellar floor dissection in the anterior skull base by endoscopy and microscopy. METHODS: We reviewed the 196 brain magnetic resonance imaging findings showing a normal appearance, and measured the distances between anatomical landmarks. RESULTS: The mean distances from the base of the columella to the anterior wall of the sphenoid sinus and the sellar floor were 69.71+/-4.25 mm and 86.26+/-4.57 mm, respectively in the over 15 age group, and showed the smallest degree of variation among the measurements. The mean angles between the floor of the nasal cavity and the straight line connecting the base of the columella and the sellar floor were 29.45+/-3.25degrees and 24.75+/-4.00degrees in the over 15 and under 15 age groups, respectively. The mean values of both distances and angles increased with age until 15 years after which no further increases were evident. There were no significant differences in the measurements between males and females or among subjects with different degrees of pneumatization in the over 15 age group. CONCLUSION: The distances from the base of the columella to the sellar floor and the anterior wall of the sphenoid sinus, which were consistent among individuals, could be used as a surgical indicator to investigate the sellar floor in endoscopic or microscopic transsphenoidal approaches.


Subject(s)
Brain , Endoscopy , Female , Floors and Floorcoverings , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Nasal Cavity , Neuroendoscopy , Pituitary Gland , Skull Base , Skull Base Neoplasms , Sphenoid Sinus
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93351

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report the results of surgical repairing of inferomedial orbital wall fractures accompanied with loss of bony strut by an overlapping method using Resorb X(R) plates (poly(D,L)-lactic acid). METHODS: To repair inferomedial orbital wall fractures with loss of bony strut, we bent the medial aspect of the plate for floor fracture according to the anatomical structure and then inserted the floor implant, which was supported by anterior, posterior and lateral margins of the floor fracture. Then, the medial implant, which was supported by the bent medial edge of the floor implant, was inserted. Postoperatively, we analyzed the outcomes of 21 patients regarding postoperative enophthalmos, limitation of eye movement (LOM) and diplopia. The diagonal lengths of the orbit in the operated side were compared with the non-traumatized side based on the coronal view of the postoperative CT scans to determine the success or failure of the reconstruction. RESULTS: The average postoperative enophthalmic value was 0.5 mm, and no significant differences between the orbital diagonal lengths of the operated and non-operated eyes were observed. The LOM shown in 7 out of 8 patients was completely resolved during the postoperative follow-up period. All patients with diplopia, including one patient who showed partial remission of LOM, experienced complete symptom resolution. No other complications related to the implant were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Inferomedial orbital wall fractures with the loss of bony strut can be successfully repaired by the overlapping method using Resorb X(R) implants.


Subject(s)
Diplopia , Enophthalmos , Eye , Eye Movements , Floors and Floorcoverings , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Orbit , Orbital Implants
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105253

ABSTRACT

A ranula is a bluish, transparent, and thin-walled swelling in the floor of the mouth. They originate from the extravasation and subsequent accumulation of saliva from the sublingual gland. Ranulas are usually limited to the sublingual space but they sometimes extend to the submandibular space and parapharyngeal space, which is defined as a plunging ranula. A 21-year-old woman presented with a complaint of a large swelling in the left submandibular region. On contrast-enhanced CT images, it dissected across the midline, and extended to the parapharyngeal space posteriorly and to the submandibular space inferiorly. Several septa and a fluid-fluid level within the lesion were also demonstrated. We diagnosed this lesion as a ranula rather than cystic hygroma due to the location of its center and its sublingual tail sign. As plunging ranula and cystic hygroma are managed with different surgical approaches, it is important to differentiate them radiologically.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Female , Floors and Floorcoverings , Humans , Lymphangioma, Cystic , Mouth , Mouth Floor , Ranula , Saliva , Sublingual Gland , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-647251

ABSTRACT

Radicular cyst is the most common type of odontogenic cyst. The cyst originates from the maxilla occasionally, causes facial deformation and displacement of adjacent structures. An 11-year-old girl visited the outpatient clinic with the left cheek swelling and facial asymmetry. The cheek lesion was hard, accompanied by tenderness. The computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a large unilocular radicular cyst, which involved the floor of the left maxillary sinus, the palatine and alveolar process of the left maxilla. It was treated by transnasal marsupialization under endoscopic guidance. At the one postoperative year follow-up, facial asymmetry was restored and the marsupialization site was closed. The follow-up CT scan showed that the site of a radicular cyst was restored by bone formation. Therefore, we report a case of radicular cyst accompanied with facial asymmetry, which was restored after marsupialization. We also discuss the mechanism about the restoration of facial asymmetry.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Process , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Cheek , Child , Congenital Abnormalities , Displacement, Psychological , Facial Asymmetry , Floors and Floorcoverings , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Maxilla , Maxillary Sinus , Odontogenic Cysts , Osteogenesis , Radicular Cyst
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208898

ABSTRACT

The other generalized type of epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is a genetic blistering skin disease, caused by a mutation of the genes encoding keratin 5 and 14. EBS starts at birth and is characterized by generalized blisters following a minor trauma that heals with hyperpigmentation. A 19-year-old man presented with 19-year history of multiple erythematous vesicles in a herpetiform arrangement on the trunk, axilla, and thigh with post-inflammatory hyper-pigmentations. On light and electron microscopy, the biopsy specimen showed intraepidermal blisters that formed within the basal keratinocyte. The serum from a patient with bullous pemphigoid antibody and laminin 5 antibody showed the linear deposition at the floor of the blister on immunofluorescence mapping study. On the basis of our clinical, microscopic, and immunofluorescence findings, we diagnosed the patient as having a generalized type of EBS. Herein, we report on an interesting case of the other generalized type of EBS.


Subject(s)
Axilla , Biopsy , Blister , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Epidermolysis Bullosa , Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex , Floors and Floorcoverings , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Hyperpigmentation , Keratin-5 , Keratinocytes , Laminin , Light , Methylmethacrylates , Microscopy, Electron , Parturition , Pemphigoid, Bullous , Polystyrenes , Skin Diseases , Thigh
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162850

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the anatomy of the intraorbital structures regarding to endoscopic sinus surgery and external frontal sinus surgery analyzing computer tomography (CT) scans. METHODS: The CT scans of 100 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The anatomic relationships between the intraorbital structures and paranasal structures were measured using multiplanar reconstruction of the CT scan. RESULTS: The mean distances from the medial orbital floor (MOF) to the intraorbital structures were measured at the depth of the anterior ethmoid (AE), basal lamella (BL), and midportion of posterior ethmoid (PE) in the coronal planes respectively. The mean distances from the MOF to the medial rectus muscle and inferior rectus muscle at the depth of AE were approximately 8 mm and those distances in the BL and PE decreased rapidly. The mean distances from the MOF to the infraorbital nerve at the depth of the AE and BL were approximately more than 10 mm. The mean distances from the vertical axis, which passed through the MOF, to the superior oblique muscle and optic nerve at the depth of the PE were approximately 5 mm medially and 1 mm laterally. In addition, the mean distance from the midline to the trochlea of the superior oblique muscle was approximately 15 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Those measurements provide spatial information on the placements of the extraocular muscles within the orbit. The measurements will contribute to the avoidance of orbital complications during sinus surgery.


Subject(s)
Endoscopy , Floors and Floorcoverings , Frontal Sinus , Humans , Muscles , Optic Nerve , Orbit , Retrospective Studies , Axis, Cervical Vertebra
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145568

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare radiographic analysis on the sagittal lumbar curve when standing, sitting on a chair, and sitting on the floor. METHODS: Thirty asymptomatic volunteers without a history of spinal pathology were recruited. The study population comprised 11 women and 19 men with a mean age of 29.8 years. An independent observer assessed whole lumbar lordosis (WL) and segmental lordosis (SL) between L1 and S1 using the Cobb's angle on lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine obtained from normal individuals when standing, sitting on a chair, and sitting on the floor. WL and SL at each segment were compared for each position. RESULTS: WL when sitting on the floor was reduced by 72.9% than the average of that in the standing position. Of the total decrease in WL, 78% occurred between L4 to S1. There were significant decreases in SL at all lumbar spinal levels, except L1-2, when sitting on the floor as compared to when standing and sitting on a chair. Changes in WL between the positions when sitting on a chair and when sitting on the floor were mostly contributed by the loss of SL at the L4-5 and L5-S1 levels. CONCLUSION: When sitting on the floor, WL is relatively low; this is mostly because of decreasing lordosis at the L4-5 and L5-S1 levels. In the case of lower lumbar fusion, hyperflexion is expected at the adjacent segment when sitting on the floor. To avoid this, sitting with a lordotic lumbar curve is important. Surgeons should remember to create sufficient lordosis when performing lower lumbar fusion surgery in patients with an oriental life style.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Floors and Floorcoverings , Humans , Life Style , Lordosis , Male , Spine
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72103

ABSTRACT

In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with anti-slip tiles, and in which employees more wore non-slip footwear than wet kitchen (76.7%). The kitchen temperature and muscular pain were the most frequently reported employees' discomfort factors in the two systems, and, in the wet kitchen, "noise of kitchen" was also frequently reported as a discomfort. Dietitian and employees rated the less slippery and slip related incidents in dry kitchens than those of wet kitchen. Fryer area, ware-washing area, and plate waste table were the slippery areas and the causes were different between the functional areas. The risk for current leakage was rated significantly higher in wet kitchens by dietitians. In addition, the ware-washing area was found to be where employees felt the highest risk of electrical shock. Muscular pain (72.2%), arthritis (39.1%), hard-of-hearing (46.6%) and psychological stress (47.0%) were experienced by employees more than once a month, particularly in the wet kitchen. In conclusion, the dry kitchen system was found to be more efficient for food and work safety because of its superior design and well managed practices.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , Floors and Floorcoverings , Surveys and Questionnaires , Shock , Stress, Psychological
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138623

ABSTRACT

Mucoceles are common benign cystic lesions of the oral cavity that develop following extravasation or retention of mucous material from the major or minor salivary glands. Mucoceles are usually located in the lower lip (60 to 70% of cases), and the floor of the mouth is only involved in 6 to 15% of cases. Submandibular gland mucocele is extremely rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of swelling at the submandibular triangle in young children. We present the rare case of a 16-month-old child who was diagnosed with bilateral submandibular gland mucocele, presenting as serial swellings in both submandibular regions. We removed the cystic mass with the submandibular and sublingual glands to prevent recurrence.


Subject(s)
Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Floors and Floorcoverings , Humans , Infant , Lip , Mouth , Mucocele , Recurrence , Retention, Psychology , Salivary Glands, Minor , Sublingual Gland , Submandibular Gland
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138622

ABSTRACT

Mucoceles are common benign cystic lesions of the oral cavity that develop following extravasation or retention of mucous material from the major or minor salivary glands. Mucoceles are usually located in the lower lip (60 to 70% of cases), and the floor of the mouth is only involved in 6 to 15% of cases. Submandibular gland mucocele is extremely rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of swelling at the submandibular triangle in young children. We present the rare case of a 16-month-old child who was diagnosed with bilateral submandibular gland mucocele, presenting as serial swellings in both submandibular regions. We removed the cystic mass with the submandibular and sublingual glands to prevent recurrence.


Subject(s)
Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Floors and Floorcoverings , Humans , Infant , Lip , Mouth , Mucocele , Recurrence , Retention, Psychology , Salivary Glands, Minor , Sublingual Gland , Submandibular Gland
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