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Acta amaz ; 51(2): 91-101, jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353303

ABSTRACT

Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) é um arbusto que produz frutos com altas concentrações de ácido ascórbico (1380 a 1490 mg 100 g-1 na polpa e 2050 mg 100 g-1 na casca), 20 vezes mais que a acerola e 100 vezes mais que o limão. Nativo da região amazônica, ocorre naturalmente em ambientes sazonalmente inundados, nas margens de lagos e rios, mas também é cultivado comercialmente em terra firme. Neste estudo, observações fenológicas e avaliação da produtividade de frutos foram realizadas em uma população natural de camu-camu em ambiente inundável e em uma plantação em terra firme, na Amazônia central. Visitas quinzenais foram feitas durante um ano para coleta de dados sobre floração, frutificação e fenologia foliar. No auge da floração, os botões florais foram marcados e acompanhados até a maturação dos frutos, que foram colhidos para biometria e contagem das sementes. Os frutos variaram de 1,01 a 2,73 cm em diâmetro e 1,14 a 10,87 g em peso, com maior produção de frutos em ambiente natural. A fenologia diferiu entre os habitats e a sincronia das fenofases foi maior na população natural. Apesar de ser nativo de florestas inundáveis, a produção de frutos em terra firme ocorreu ao longo do ano, sugerindo que há poucas restrições para o desenvolvimento de frutos em cultivo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae , Flowers , Rainforest , Fruit
3.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 43-56, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1352952

ABSTRACT

La fenología estudia los cambios estacionales en los ciclos de vida de los organismos. Una utilidad de la fenología, es que permite establecer periodos en que se pueden colectar semillas para programas de restauración ecológica. Por lo que, de abril de 2017 a mayo de 2019, en el volcán Tacaná, San Marcos, Guatemala, se estableció la estaciona-lidad, variación anual, sincronía, intensidad y duración de las fenofases reproductivas de Prunus lundelliana Standl. Aproximadamente cada 15 días, en 10 individuos se registró la presencia e intensidad de las flores (botones y abiertas) y frutos (inmaduros y maduros). Los datos se analizaron con estadística circular, encontrándose que todas la fenofases fueron estacionales y que solo el patrón de los frutos inmaduros varió significativamente entre los dos periodos. La sincronía fue principalmente alta y la intensidad no superó el 40%. En ambos periodos las intensidades menores las presentaron los frutos maduros (17 y 25%). Los índices de actividad e intensidad se correlacionaron significativamente, por lo que los ángulos medios fueron semejantes en las fenofases y periodos de estudio. Los picos de actividad-in-tensidad de las flores abiertas y de los frutos maduros ocurrieron durante los meses secos (noviembre-abril), patrón que se ha registrado en otros bosques nubosos. La duración de las fenofases varió entre 2.5-3.5 meses, siendo la más pequeña la de frutos maduros. Para fines de manejo, la colecta de frutos maduros puede hacerse desde mediados de marzo hasta finales de mayo, sin embargo, se sugiere hacerlo principalmente entre el 15 de abril y el 15 de mayo.


Phenology studies the seasonal changes in the life cycle of organisms. Phenological data allow to set the periods in which the seeds can be collected for ecological restoration programs. From April, 2017 to May, 2019, in Taca-ná volcano, San Marcos, Guatemala, it was established the seasonality, annual variation, synchrony, intensity, and duration of the reproductive phenophases of Prunus lundelliana Standl. About every 15 days, 10 individuals were observed and it was recorded the presence and intensity of flowers (buds and blossom flowers) and fruits (immature and mature fruits). The data was analyzed with circular statistics, finding that all the phenophases were seasonally distributed and only the immature fruits pattern significantly variated between the two periods. The synchrony was mainly high and the intensity did not exceed 40%. In both of the study periods, the lesser intensities were presented by the mature fruits (17 and 25%). The activity and intensity indexes were significantly correlated; therefore the mid angles were alike in the phenophases and study periods. The activity-intensity highs of blossom flowers and of mature fruits happened in the dry months (November to April), a pattern that has been registered in other cloud forests. The duration of the phenophases ranged from 2.5 to 3.5 months, being the shortest the mature fruits phenophase. For environmental management purposes, the collection of mature fruits can be done from the middle of March to the end of May, nonetheless, it should be done mainly between April 15th and May 15th.


Subject(s)
Trees/growth & development , Forests , Prunus/growth & development , Seeds , Endangered Species , Volcanoes , Flowers/growth & development , Fruit , Guatemala
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(7): e10889, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249311

ABSTRACT

Utilization of plant resources for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections is one of the appealing approaches as rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains is occurring throughout the world. Ethanol extract and its fractions from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis red flower were assessed for antibacterial and urease inhibitory activities towards forty-three clinical strains and two reference strains of H. pylori. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the most potent bacteriostatic activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.2-0.25 mg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of 1.25-1.5 mg/mL against all test strains, including forty-three strains resistant to one to four antibiotics, azithromycin (MICs, 8-256 µg/mL), erythromycin (MICs, 8-128 µg/mL), levofloxacin (MICs, 8-256 µg/mL), and/or metronidazole (MICs, 8-256 µg/mL). The fraction had similar antibacterial activities toward these test strains suggesting the preparation and the antibiotics do not have a common mechanism of anti-H. pylori activity. The fraction also had stronger effects on biofilm formation, morphological conversion, and urease activity of H. pylori than the other fractions and the ethanol extract. These flower preparations were non-toxic to three human cell lines, and nine compounds were also isolated and identified from the ethyl acetate fraction. In vivo research needs to be conducted to confirm the potential usefulness of H. rosa-sinensis flower and its constituents for effective prevention and treatment of H. pylori disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Rosa , Hibiscus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Flowers , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 38-50, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284405

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of Gallesia integrifolia essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers against Aedes aegyptilarvae and pupae. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sulfur compounds represented 95 to 99% of the essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers. Essential oil major compounds were 2,8-dithianonane (52.6%) in fruits, 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide (38.9%) in leaves, and methionine ethyl ester (45.3%) in flowers. The essential oils showed high activity against larvae, and low for pupae withLC99.9of 5.87 and 1476.67µg/mL from fruits; 0.0096 and 348.33 µg/mL from leaves and 0.021and 342.84 µg/mL from flowers, respectively. The main compound with insecticide activity is probably n-ethyl-1,3-dithioisoindole, from isoindole organothiophosphate class, found in greater amount in flower and leaf essential oil. The great insecticide activity of G. integrifolia essential oil suggests that this product is a natural insecticide.


Este estudio evaluó la actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de frutos, hojas y flores de Gallesia integrifolia contra larvas y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Los compuestos de azufre representaron del 95 al 99% del aceite esencial de frutas, hojas y flores. Los compuestos principales del aceite esencial fueron 2,8-ditianonano (52,6%) en frutas, 3,5-ditiahexanol-5,5-dióxido (38,9%) en hojas y éster etílico de metionina (45,3%) en flores. Los aceites esenciales mostraron alta actividad contra larvas y baja para pupas con LC99.9de 5.87 y 1476.67µg/mL de frutos; 0,0096 y 348,33 µg/mL de hojas y 0,021 y342,84 µg/mL de flores, respectivamente. El principal compuesto con actividad insecticida es probablemente el n-etil-1,3-ditioisoindol, de la clase de los organotiofosfatos de isoindol, que se encuentra en mayor cantidad en el aceite esencial de flores y hojas. La gran actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de G. integrifolia sugiere que este producto es un insecticida natural.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Insecticides/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200264, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345483

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sweet cherry fruit is a tasty and valuable product for consumers. In order to increase the export share of cherry, which is also very important in export, it is beneficial to grow with cherry varieties that mature at different times. The cherries offered to the market in the early period will be more attractive. In this study, morphological and biological features of pistils of early-maturing 'Cristalina', 'Early Lory', 'Prime Giant', fruit set rates and pollen germination status and some chemical applications were investigated. As a result, fruit sets of cultivars were 17.6-28.6% in two years. Significant differences were observed in pistil morphology of the cultivars and 'Cristalina' had shorter pistil (14.35-14.51 mm) and style (11.47-11.65 mm) lengths than the other cultivars. Greater deformation was observed in primary ovules of 'Early Lory' right after anthesis. There were not significant differences in pollen germination ratios of the cultivars, but boric acid treatments improved pollen germination ratios of all cultivars. Boric acid application increased pollen germination with 21%. This was followed by IAA (8%), GA3 (5%), KNO3 (4%). It was concluded based on present findings that in orchard establishment with the early cultivars, flower biology should momentously be assessed.


Subject(s)
Flowers , Ovule , Prunus avium , Pollen
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879049

ABSTRACT

In order to better utilize saffron floral bio-residues(SFB), a qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids in SFB was conducted using UPLC-MS and UPLC, respectively. On the one hand, 50 flavonols and 5 anthocyanins were putatively characte-rized by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. On the other hand, an UPLC method was established for determining the fingerprint of SFB as well as testing the main flavonoids kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside and delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside. Contents of kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside and delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside of 10 batches of samples were 44.21-58.73 mg·g~(-1) and 2.11-6.37 mg·g~(-1), respectively, and the similarities of 10 batches were more than 0.99. In addition, the color of the samples was digitized by using electronic eye technology, and it was found that the color of the samples was significantly correlated with the content of delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside. The richness of flavonoids in SFB indicated its potential for development and utilization, and the large variation in anthocyanin content among samples from different regions suggested that more attention should be paid to the methods of sample pretreatment and storage.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Crocus , Flavonoids , Flowers , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879045

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of six common drying methods on the quality of different specifications of Sophorae Flos, in order to select their suitable drying methods. According to appearance and morphology, Sophorae Flos was divided into the following three specifications: flower bud type(HL), half-open type(BK) and blooming type(SK). All specifications of samples were treated with shade-drying method(25 ℃, natural temperature), sun-drying method, hot-air-drying method(60, 105 ℃), and drying method(60 ℃) after steaming. The contents of total flavonoids, rutin, narcissus, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and Fe~(3+) reducing ability, DPPH free radical scavenging ability, ABTS free radical scavenging ability and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching(FRAP) were detected by UV, HPLC and colorimetry, respectively. Principal component analysis(PCA), cluster analysis(CA) and correlation analysis were used to comprehensively evaluate the quality of samples. According to the results, there were significant differences in the effect of drying methods on different specifications of samples. The drying method(60 ℃) after steaming was suitable for HL and BK, while the hot-air-drying method(60 ℃) was suitable for SK. When the fresh medicinal materials could not be treated in time, they should be spread out in a cool and ventilated place. Under high and low temperature conditions, the quality of three specifications of Sophorae Flos would be reduced. The hot-air-drying method(105 ℃) and shade-drying method(25 ℃) were not suitable for the treatment of fresh flowers and flower buds of Sophora japonicus. There were obviously differences of chemical compositions and antioxidant activities among the three specifications of samples. Therefore, the specifications of medicinal materials should be controlled to ensure the uniform quality. The study provided the abundant data reference for the selection of appropriate drying methods for the three specifications of Sophorae Flos, and useful exploration for the classification and processing of medicinal materials of flowers.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavonoids/analysis , Flowers/chemistry , Rutin , Sophora
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879008

ABSTRACT

In order to enrich the transcriptome data of Fagopyrum dibotrys plants, analyze the genes encoding key enzyme involved in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, and mine their functional genes, in this study, we performed RNA sequencing analysis for the rhizomes, roots, flowers, leaves and stems of F. dibotrys on the BGISEQ-500 sequencing platform. After de novo assembly of transcripts, a total of 205 619 unigenes were generated and 132 372 unigenes were obtained and annotated into seven public databases, of which, 81 327 unigenes were mapped to the GO database and most of the unigenes were annotated in cellular process, biological regulation, binding and catalytic activity. Besides, 86 922 unigenes were enriched in 136 pathways using KEGG database' and we identified 82 unigenes that encodes key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. Comparing rhizome with root, flower, leaf or stem in F. dibotrys, 27 962 co-expressed differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were obtained. Among them, 23 515 DEGs of rhizome tissue-specific were enriched into 132 pathways and 13 unigenes were significantly enriched in biosynthesis of flavone and flavonol. In addition, we also identified 3 427 unigenes encoding 60 transcription factor(TFs) families as well as four unigenes encoding bHLH TFs were enriched in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results greatly enriched the transcriptome database of plants, provided a reference for the analysis of key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in plants, and will facilitate the study of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in F. dibotrys at the genetic level.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics , Fagopyrum , Flavonoids , Flowers , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Humans , Transcriptome/genetics
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879007

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed to investigate the reproductive biology characteristics of Polygonatum cyrtonema, especially including phenology, flower bud differentiation, flowering timing, floral traits, pollen vigor and stigma receptivity. The results showed that P. cyrtonema forms inflorescence before the leaves spread. In the wild, P. cyrtonema is mainly pollinated by insects such as bumblebees, with a seed setting rate of 65.12%. The seed setting rate of indoor single plant isolation or self-pollination enclosed by parchment paper bag is 0, indicating that it is self-incompatible. In Lin'an city, seedlings begin to emerge from mid-March to early April(the temperature is higher than 7.5 ℃), buds begin to emerge from the end of March to mid-April, and then undergo the full bloom stage from mid-to-late April, and the final flowering stage from the end of April to mid-May. The whole flowering period lasts 36 to 45 days. There are obvious differences in the phenology of different provenances. The flowers come into bloom from the base to the top along the aboveground main axis, which usually contain 4-22 inflorescences with(2-) 4-10(-21) flowers per inflorescence. The flowering pe-riod for a single plant is 26-38 days. The single flower lasts about 20-25 days from budding to opening and withers 2 days after pollination, and then the ovary will gradually expand. If unpollinated, it will continue to bloom for 3-5 days and then wither. Flower development period is significantly related to pollen vigor and stigma remittance. The pollen viability is the highest when the flower is fully opened with anthers gathering on the stigma, and the receptivity is the strongest when the stigma protrudes out of the perianth and secretes mucus. The fruits and seeds ripen in October, and proper shading can ensure the smooth development and maturity of the seeds. This study provides a basis for the hybrid breeding and seed production of P. cyrtonema.


Subject(s)
Flowers , Plant Breeding , Pollination , Polygonatum , Reproduction
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878971

ABSTRACT

In this study, 23 germplasm resources of Chrysanthemum morifolium used in medicine and tea were collected from Dabie Mountains and its surrounding producing areas, and the contents of 13 mineral elements were determined and compared. The thermal maps of correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used for comprehensive evaluation. The results showed that the average content of each element in Ch. morifolium of different germplasm resources was: K>N>P>Mg>Ca>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd, and the leaves were: K>N>Ca>Mg>P>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>Ni>Pb>Cd. There are rich contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe in Ch. morifolium flowers and their leaves, among them, K element has the largest change range, while N, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn elements have a larger change range. The absorption and accumulation of each element in the leaves of different germplasm resources varied greatly. The correlation analysis shows that there is a strong positive correlation between Ca element, Mg, Mn and Cd element.Principal component analysis in Ch. morifolium flowers characteristic elements for Mn, Cr, Cu, P, K, can be used as a Ch. morifolium resources to identify the characteristics of the elements, choose top five principal component(F1-F5) comprehensive evalua-tion of medicinal Ch. morifolium, scored in the top five varieties for Hangiu-Fuhuangju, Hangju-Xiaoyangju, Hangju-Sheyangju, Hangju-Dayanghua, Hangju-Subeiju,indicates that in terms of mineral elements, the five medicinal Ch. morifolium resources quality is better. The PCA score chart can divide 23 Ch. morifolium resources into 4 groups, and the cluster analysis heat map divides 23 Ch. morifolium resources into 5 groups. All the Ch. morifolium resources of the same type can be well clustered together, indicating that the difference in mineral element content of Ch. morifolium germplasm resources is closely related to genetic factors.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum/genetics , Flowers/genetics , Minerals , Plant Leaves , Tea
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1324-1333, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878634

ABSTRACT

Photoperiod plays an important role in transformation from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in plants. CONSTANS (CO), as a unique gene in the photoperiod pathway, responds to changes of day length to initiate flowering in the plant. In this study, the expression level of FaCONSTANS (FaCO) gene under long-day, short-day, continuous light and continuous darkness conditions was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. We constructed the over-expression vector p1300-FaCO and infected into Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated method. We constructed the silencing vector p1300-FaCO-RNAi and infected into Festuca arundinacea by Agrobacterium-mediated method. The expression of FaCO gene was regulated by photoperiod. The over-expression of FaCO promoted flowering in wild type of Arabidopsis thaliana under long day condition and rescued the late flowering phenotype in co-2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Silencing FaCO gene in Festuca arundinacea by RNAi showed late-flowering phenotype or always kept in the vegetative growth stage. Our understanding the function of FaCO in flowering regulation will help further understand biological function of this gene in Festuca arundinacea.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics , Festuca/metabolism , Flowers/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Photoperiod
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 253-265, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878559

ABSTRACT

Based on observing the cytological characteristics of the flower buds of the functional male sterile line (S13) and the fertile line (F142) in eggplant, it was found that the disintegration period of the annular cell clusters in S13 anther was 2 days later than that of F142, and the cells of stomiun tissue and tapetum in F142 disintegrated on the blooming day, while it did not happen in S13. The comparative transcriptomic analysis showed that there were 1 436 differential expression genes (DEGs) (651 up-regulated and 785 down-regulated) in anthers of F142 and S13 at 8, 5 days before flowering and flowering day. The significance analysis of GO enrichment indicated that there were more unigene clusters involved in single cell biological process, metabolism process and cell process, and more catalytic activity and binding function were involved in molecular functions. Through KEGG annotation we found that the common DEGs were mainly enriched in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, metabolic pathway, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, biosynthesis of amino acids, carbon metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction. The fifteen genes co-expression modules were identified from 16 465 selected genes by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), three of which (Plum2, Royalblue and Bisque4 modules) were highly related to S13 during flower development. KEGG enrichment showed that the specific modules could be enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, α-linolenic acid metabolism, polysaccharide biosynthesis and metabolism, fatty acid degradation and the mutual transformation of pentose and glucuronic acid. These genes might play important roles during flower development of S13. It provided a reference for further study on the mechanism of anther dehiscence in eggplant.


Subject(s)
Flowers/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Humans , Infertility, Male , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Solanum melongena/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 89-99, sept. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Koelreuteria henryi Dummer is an indigenous plant in Taiwan. The species has been used in traditional folk medicine for the promotion of liver functions and for treating malaria and urethritis. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of the flower extract of Koelreuteria henryi Dummer. The extraction conditions were optimized by the contents of total phenolic acids and total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity assays. Moreover, an in vitro study for investigating antioxidant activity of K. henryi flower extract was demonstrated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis. RESULTS: K. henryi flower extracted for 150 min showed high contents of total phenolic acids and total flavonoids. In an in vitro model, L929 cells were pretreated with K. henryi flower extract, and then treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative damage. Results demonstrated that H2O2-induced apoptosis was inhibited by the treatment of 200 µg/ml K. henryi flower extract through the mitochondria-mediated pathway and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The caspase 8/9 activity and expression of p-p38 and pERK were repressed by K. henryi flower extract. In addition, the prevention of H2O2-induced apoptosis by K. henryi flower extract activated the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) stress response pathway to transcript heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Also, K. henryi flower extract prevented H2O2-induced apoptosis through HO-1 production, as evident by the use of HO-1 inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that K. henryi flower extract could inhibit the H2O2-induced apoptosis in L929 cells through the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Flavonoids/analysis , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis , Flowers/chemistry , Heme Oxygenase-1 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Caspase 8 , Hydrogen Peroxide
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 10-18, May 15, 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: APETALA3 (AP3) has significant roles in petal and stamen development in accordance with the classical ABC model. RESULTS: The AP3 homolog, CDM19, from Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Jinba was cloned and sequenced. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CDM19 is of DEF/AP3 lineage possessing the characteristic MIKC-type II structure. Expression analysis showed that CDM19 was transcribed in petals and stamens of ray and disc florets with weak expression in the carpels. Ectopic expression of CDM19 in Arabidopsis wild-type background altered carpel development resulting in multi-carpel siliques. CDM19 could only partially rescue the Arabidopsis ap3­­3 mutant. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that CDM19 may partially be involved in petal and stamen development in addition to having novel function in carpel development.


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins/physiology , Plant Proteins/genetics , Arabidopsis/growth & development , Chrysanthemum , Flowers/growth & development , Ectopic Gene Expression
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 47-56, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089288

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effects of florivory and of the patrolling ants associated to EFNs-extrafloral nectaries, on the frequency of floral visitors, using the specie Ipomoea carnea subs. fistulosa (Martius and Choise) in Caatinga area. The floral attributes of the species were characterized. The effect of florivoria on the frequency of visitors and the influence of the presence of ants associated with the NEFs on the pollinator visit rate were evaluated. The rate of natural florivoria was recorded and collected floral visitors and ants over eight months. The damage on floral structure and the presence of ants foraging in the flowers causes a decrease in the number of total visits. The results may be justified by the fact that the floral damage consisted in the loss of important floral attributes. These effects for Ipomoea carnea subs. fistulosa can affect reproductive success, since it is a self-incompatible species and depends on the activity of the pollinators for their fertilization to occur.


Resumo Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da florivoria e do patrulhamento de formigas nos NEFs - nectários extraflorais sobre a frequência dos visitantes florais, utilizando a espécie Ipomoea carnea subs. fistulosa (Martius e Choise), em uma área de Caatinga. Os atributos florais da espécie foram caracterizados. Foram avaliados o efeito da florivoria sobre a frequência dos visitantes e a influência da presença de formigas associadas aos NEFs sobre a taxa de visita de polinizadores. Ao longo de oito meses foram registrados a taxa de florivoria natural foi registrada e realizada a coleta de visitantes florais e formigas. Os danos na estrutura floral e presença de formigas forrageando nas flores provocam decréscimo no número de visitas totais. Os resultados podem ser justificado pelo fato de que o dano floral consistiu na perda de atributos florais importantes. Estes efeitos para Ipomoea carnea subs. fistulosa podem afetar o sucesso reprodutivo, uma vez que é uma espécie autoincompatível e depende da atividade dos polinizadores para que a sua fecundação ocorra.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Convolvulaceae , Ipomoea , Flowers , Pollination
17.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 8(2): 101-111, 2020. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1148015

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la miel, consumida por el hombre desde hace miles de años debido a sus propiedades organolépticas y terapéuticas, es el producto de la unión entre el mundo animal, la abeja (apis melífera), y el vegetal, el néctar de las flores y/o secreciones azucaradas de las plantas o insectos. En general existen diferencias significativas entre las características físico-químicas de las mieles florales y la miel de mielada. OBJETIVO: determinar del porcentaje de miel de flores y miel de mielada comercializadas en supermercados de la ciudad de La Paz. MÉTODOS: Para la diferenciación entre miel de flores y miel de mielada se utilizó el método estandarizado por el Centro de Investigaciones Apícolas ­ CEDIA) y para la determinación de los parámetros fisicoquímicos, los métodos establecidos en la Norma Boliviana (NB 38023). RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 25 muestras de miel comercializadas en supermercados de la ciudad de La Paz, y a través del parámetro cualitativo de diferenciación de miel de flores y miel de mielada, se logró evidenciar que el 88,46% corresponde a mieles de origen floral, el 7,69 % a mieles de mielada y el 0,96 a mieles adulteradas. CONCLUSIONES: los datos obtenidos reflejan la importancia de considerar en el etiquetado el origen del que procede la miel, así mismo recomendar que este parámetro forme parte de los requisitos de la Norma Boliviana de Miel y de esta manera otorgar un mayor valor comercial a la miel de procedencia nacional.


INTRODUCTION: honey, consumed by man for thousands of years due to its organoleptic and therapeutic properties, is the product of the union between the animal world, the bee (Apis melífera), and the plant, the nectar of flowers and / or sugary secretions from plants or insects. In general, there are significant differences between the physicochemical characteristics of floral honeys and honeydew honey. OBJECTIVE: to determine the percentage of flower honey and honeydew honey sold in supermarkets in the City of La Paz. METHODS: for the differentiation between flower honey and honeydew honey, the standardized method by the Beekeeping Research Center - CEDIA) was used and for the determination of the physicochemical parameters, the methods established in the Bolivian Standard (NB 38023). RESULTS: 25 samples of honey sold in supermarkets in the city of La Paz were analyzed, and through the qualitative parameter of differentiation of flower honey and honeydew honey, it was possible to show that 88.46% corresponds to honeys of origin floral, 7.69% to honeydew honeys and 0.96 to adulterated honeys. CONCLUSIONS: the data obtained reflect the importance of considering the origin of the honey in the labeling, as well as recommending that this parameter be part of the requirements of the Bolivian Honey Standard and thus granting a greater commercial value to the honey of national origin.


Subject(s)
Research , Flowers , Beekeeping , Honey , Plants , Bees , Plant Nectar
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2398-2412, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878496

ABSTRACT

The E class MADS-box genes SEPALLATA (SEP)-like play critical roles in angiosperm reproductive growth, especially in floral organ differentiation. To analyze the sequence characteristics and spatio-temporal expression patterns of E-function MADS-box SEP-like genes during kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) flower development, BroaSEP1/2/3 (GenBank No. KC967957, KC967958, KC967960) homologues, three kale SEP MADS-box gene, were isolated from the kale variety 'Fourteen Line' using Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these three SEP genes had a high degree of identity with SEP1, SEP2, SEP3 from Brassica oleracea var. oleracea, Brassica rapa, Raphanus sativus and Brassica napus, respectively. Alignment of the predicted amino acid sequences from these genes, along with previously published subfamily members, demonstrated that these genes comprise four regions of the typical MIKC-type MADS-box proteins: the MADS domain, intervening (I) domain and keratin-like (K) domain, and the C-terminal domain SEPⅠ and SEP Ⅱ motif. The longest open reading frame deduced from the cDNA sequences of BroaSEP1, BroaSEP2, and BroaSEP3 appeared to be 801 bp, 759 bp, 753 bp in length, respectively, which encoded proteins of 266, 252, and 250 amino acids respectively. Expression analyses using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR indicate that BroaSEP1/2/3 are specifically expressed in floral buds of kale during flower development process. The expression levels of the three genes are very different at different developmental stages, also in wild type, mutant flower with increased petals, and mutant flower with decreased petals. These different patterns of gene expression maybe cause the flowers to increase or decrease the petal number.


Subject(s)
Brassica/metabolism , Flowers/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , MADS Domain Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2277-2286, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878485

ABSTRACT

MYB transcription factor is one of the largest transcription families and involved in plant growth and development, stress response, product metabolism and other processes. It regulates the development of plant flowers, especially anther development, a key role in the reproduction of plant progeny. Here, we discuss the regulatory effects of MYB transcription factors on the development of anther, including tapetum development, anther dehiscence, pollen development, carbohydrates and hormone pathways. We provide a reference for the further study of the regulation mechanism and network of plant anther development.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Flowers/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Humans , Pollen/genetics , Reproduction , Transcription Factors/metabolism
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828004

ABSTRACT

To reveal the processing mechanism of Chrysanthemi Flos from the changes of chemical compositions after frying and its effect on the efficacy of liver protection. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) were used for the qualitative and quantitative researches of chemical compositions before and after Chrysanthemi Flos frying. Progenesis QI and SPSS software were used for principal component analysis(PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA), variable importance projection(VIP) analysis and t-test to identify the compositions with significant changes. Pharmacodynamics experiment was used to investigate the protective effect of crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos on CCl_4-induced acute liver injury in mice. According to mass spectrometry data, there were 28 chemical compositions in crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos, mainly including flavonoids and organic acids. 13 compositions such as luteolin, apigenin and luteolin glycoside were increased significantly after frying, while 7 compositions such as chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide were decreased significantly after frying. Through principal component analysis, crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos products were divided into two categories, indicating that there were internal differences in quality. The results of liver injury protection experiment in mice showed that the AST, ALT and MDA contents were significantly decreased and SOD level was increased in mice with liver injury in both the high and medium dose groups. Histopathological examination showed that crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos can protect the liver by reducing inflammatory cell infiltration, reducing steatosis, and repairing damaged liver cells. The results of this study showed that the chemical compositions had obvious changes after frying, and both crude and fried Chrysanthemis Flos had protective effects on CCl_4-induced acute liver injury in mice. In addition, in the range of high, medium and low doses, the liver protection effect of crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos increased with the increase of dose. The experiment results provided reference for the mechanism of fried Chrysanthemi Flos and clinical selection of processed products.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chrysanthemum , Flavonoids , Flowers , Chemistry , Liver , Chemistry , Mice
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