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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 38-50, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284405


This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of Gallesia integrifolia essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers against Aedes aegyptilarvae and pupae. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sulfur compounds represented 95 to 99% of the essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers. Essential oil major compounds were 2,8-dithianonane (52.6%) in fruits, 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide (38.9%) in leaves, and methionine ethyl ester (45.3%) in flowers. The essential oils showed high activity against larvae, and low for pupae withLC99.9of 5.87 and 1476.67µg/mL from fruits; 0.0096 and 348.33 µg/mL from leaves and 0.021and 342.84 µg/mL from flowers, respectively. The main compound with insecticide activity is probably n-ethyl-1,3-dithioisoindole, from isoindole organothiophosphate class, found in greater amount in flower and leaf essential oil. The great insecticide activity of G. integrifolia essential oil suggests that this product is a natural insecticide.

Este estudio evaluó la actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de frutos, hojas y flores de Gallesia integrifolia contra larvas y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Los compuestos de azufre representaron del 95 al 99% del aceite esencial de frutas, hojas y flores. Los compuestos principales del aceite esencial fueron 2,8-ditianonano (52,6%) en frutas, 3,5-ditiahexanol-5,5-dióxido (38,9%) en hojas y éster etílico de metionina (45,3%) en flores. Los aceites esenciales mostraron alta actividad contra larvas y baja para pupas con LC99.9de 5.87 y 1476.67µg/mL de frutos; 0,0096 y 348,33 µg/mL de hojas y 0,021 y342,84 µg/mL de flores, respectivamente. El principal compuesto con actividad insecticida es probablemente el n-etil-1,3-ditioisoindol, de la clase de los organotiofosfatos de isoindol, que se encuentra en mayor cantidad en el aceite esencial de flores y hojas. La gran actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de G. integrifolia sugiere que este producto es un insecticida natural.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Insecticides/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879045


To investigate the effects of six common drying methods on the quality of different specifications of Sophorae Flos, in order to select their suitable drying methods. According to appearance and morphology, Sophorae Flos was divided into the following three specifications: flower bud type(HL), half-open type(BK) and blooming type(SK). All specifications of samples were treated with shade-drying method(25 ℃, natural temperature), sun-drying method, hot-air-drying method(60, 105 ℃), and drying method(60 ℃) after steaming. The contents of total flavonoids, rutin, narcissus, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and Fe~(3+) reducing ability, DPPH free radical scavenging ability, ABTS free radical scavenging ability and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching(FRAP) were detected by UV, HPLC and colorimetry, respectively. Principal component analysis(PCA), cluster analysis(CA) and correlation analysis were used to comprehensively evaluate the quality of samples. According to the results, there were significant differences in the effect of drying methods on different specifications of samples. The drying method(60 ℃) after steaming was suitable for HL and BK, while the hot-air-drying method(60 ℃) was suitable for SK. When the fresh medicinal materials could not be treated in time, they should be spread out in a cool and ventilated place. Under high and low temperature conditions, the quality of three specifications of Sophorae Flos would be reduced. The hot-air-drying method(105 ℃) and shade-drying method(25 ℃) were not suitable for the treatment of fresh flowers and flower buds of Sophora japonicus. There were obviously differences of chemical compositions and antioxidant activities among the three specifications of samples. Therefore, the specifications of medicinal materials should be controlled to ensure the uniform quality. The study provided the abundant data reference for the selection of appropriate drying methods for the three specifications of Sophorae Flos, and useful exploration for the classification and processing of medicinal materials of flowers.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavonoids/analysis , Flowers/chemistry , Rutin , Sophora
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 89-99, sept. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253101


BACKGROUND: Koelreuteria henryi Dummer is an indigenous plant in Taiwan. The species has been used in traditional folk medicine for the promotion of liver functions and for treating malaria and urethritis. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of the flower extract of Koelreuteria henryi Dummer. The extraction conditions were optimized by the contents of total phenolic acids and total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity assays. Moreover, an in vitro study for investigating antioxidant activity of K. henryi flower extract was demonstrated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis. RESULTS: K. henryi flower extracted for 150 min showed high contents of total phenolic acids and total flavonoids. In an in vitro model, L929 cells were pretreated with K. henryi flower extract, and then treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative damage. Results demonstrated that H2O2-induced apoptosis was inhibited by the treatment of 200 µg/ml K. henryi flower extract through the mitochondria-mediated pathway and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The caspase 8/9 activity and expression of p-p38 and pERK were repressed by K. henryi flower extract. In addition, the prevention of H2O2-induced apoptosis by K. henryi flower extract activated the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) stress response pathway to transcript heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Also, K. henryi flower extract prevented H2O2-induced apoptosis through HO-1 production, as evident by the use of HO-1 inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that K. henryi flower extract could inhibit the H2O2-induced apoptosis in L929 cells through the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Flavonoids/analysis , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis , Flowers/chemistry , Heme Oxygenase-1 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Caspase 8 , Hydrogen Peroxide
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 653-660, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951604


Abstract This paper briefly reports some effects of irrigations at two critical periods on the phenology of three varieties of cactus pear cultivated in Agadir area: the spineless varieties 'Aissa' and 'Moussa' and the thorny one 'Achefri'. In the first year experiments (2010-2011) treatments of irrigation used were: (T1) 0 mm, (T2) 30 mm during flowering and 30 mm during fruit enlargement and (T3) 30 mm only during fruit enlargement. In the 2nd year experiments, irrigation treatments were: (T1) 0 mm, (T2) 60 mm during flowering and 60 mm during fruit enlargement and (T3) 60 mm only during fruit enlargement. Treatments of irrigation were applied between mid-April and mid-June in the 1st year experiments and in February and May in the 2nd year experiments. Results of the first year experiments showed that the emission of buds was higher in the thorny variety than in the spineless ones (more than 6 emitted buds/cladode vs less than 4.5 in the spineless varieties). In the second year, irrigation increased the emission of buds in the three varieties (more than 7 emitted buds/cladode for each T2 and T3 of all varieties vs not more than 5 for T1) and the duration of the flowering phase of these varieties. However, irrigation did not modify the proportions of fruits reaching commercial maturity during the early or the late period of maturation.

Resumo Este artigo relatou brevemente alguns efeitos das irrigações em dois períodos críticos na fenologia de três variedades de Opuntia cultivadas na área de Agadir: as variedades sem espinhos 'Aissa' e 'Moussa' e um espinhoso 'Achefri'. No primeiro ano (2010-2011) os seguintes tratamentos do experimento da irrigação foram usados: (T1) 0 milímetros, (T2) 30 milímetros durante a florescência e 30 milímetros durante a ampliação do fruto e (T3) 30 milímetros somente durante a ampliação do fruto. No segundo ano das experiências, os tratamentos da irrigação foram: (T1, 0 milímetros), (T2) 60 milímetros durante a florescência e 60 milímetros durante a ampliação do fruto e (T3) 60 milímetros somente durante a ampliação do fruto. Os tratamentos da irrigação foram aplicados entre a metade de abril e metade de junho nas experiências do primeira ano e em fevereiro e maio nas experiências do segundo ano. Os resultados das experiências do primeiro ano mostraram que a emissão de brotos foi maior na variedade espinhosa do que no rufia (mais de 6 emitida gomos/cladode vs inferior a 4,5 no rufia variedades). No segundo ano, a irrigação aumentou a emissão dos botões nas três variedades (mais de 7 botões emitidos/cladÓdio para cada T2 e T3 de todas as variedades não mais que 5 para o T1) e a duração da fase de florescência destas variedades. Contudo, a irrigação não alterou as proporções de frutos que alcançaram a maturidade comercial durante o período adiantado ou atrasado de maturação.

Opuntia/growth & development , Flowers/growth & development , Agricultural Irrigation , Fruit/growth & development , Phenols/chemistry , Seasons , Water , Germination/physiology , Opuntia/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 3901/01/2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100215


The phytochemical profile of essential oils and extracts from Casearia sylvestris leaves, flowers and fruits have been investigated here. Leaf and flower extracts were prepared by sonication and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The phenolic content was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Leaves, flowers, and fruits essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation. The highest extracts yields were 20.3 % (leaves) and 23.4 % (flowers) with ethanol 70 %. Essential oil extraction yields were 0.3 % (leaves) and 0.1 % (flowers and fruits). Bicyclogermacrene was the major component in all essential oil. Thin-layer chromatography suggests a chemical profile similar for leaves and flowers. The leaves and flowers phenolic content were similar (14.0 and 15.0 %, respectively). Chromatography analyses indicated the predominance of casearin clerodane diterpenes in leaves (λmax 232-235), whereas in flowers, diterpenes with a different standard diene in side-chain C13(16) and C14 (λmax 223-229). The different phytochemical profile of C. sylvestris flowers as compared to the leaves could be explored by the search for new bioactive components. This is the first report on the fruit and flower C. sylvestris essential oil composition. These data could be used as quality control of herbal medicine derived from C. sylvestris leaves.(AU)

Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Oils, Volatile , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Casearia/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Diterpenes, Clerodane/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1,supl.1): 681-695, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886931


ABSTRACT An overview is provided of the status of research at the frontiers of investigation of the chemistry and photochemistry of two classes of natural plant pigments, the anthocyanins and the betalains, as well as of the pyranoanthocyanin pigments formed from anthocyanins during the maturation of red wine. Together, anthocyanins and betalains are responsible for almost all of the red, purple and blue colors of fruits and flowers and anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins are major contributors to the color of red wines. All three types of pigments are cationic below about pH 3, highly colored, non-toxic, reasonably soluble in water or alcohol and fairly stable to light. They exhibit good antioxidant or antiradical activity and, as part of our diet, confer a number of important health benefits. Systematic studies of model compounds containing the basic chromophoric groups of these three types of pigments are providing a deeper understanding of the often complex chemistry and photochemistry of these pigments and their relationship to the roles in vivo of these pigments in plants. These natural pigments are currently being exploited as starting materials for the preparation of novel semi-synthetic dyes, pigments and fluorescence probes.

Wine , Pigmentation , Flowers/chemistry , Betalains/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Anthocyanins/chemistry , Color , Betalains/isolation & purification , Anthocyanins/isolation & purification
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1907-1915, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886748


ABSTRACT Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal bacteria and antioxidant properties. Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (pêra-do-cerrado, in Portuguese) is a species of Myrtaceae with restricted distribution in the Cerrado. The essential oils were extracted through the hydrodistillation technique using a modified Clevenger apparatus (2 hours) and chemically characterized by GC-MS. The major compounds were α-copaene (10.6 %) found in oil from leaves in natura, β-bisabolene (17.4 %) in the essential oil from dry leaves and α-(E)-bergamotene (29.9 %) in oil from flowers. The antioxidant activity of essential oils showed similarities in both methods under analysis (DPPH and ABTS˙+) and the results suggested moderate to high antioxidant activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), using the microdilution method. MIC values below 400 µg/mL were obtained against Streptococcus salivarius (200 µg/mL), S. mutans (50 µg/mL), S. mitis (200 µg/mL) and Prevotella nigrescens (50 µg/mL). This is the first report of the chemical composition and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of E. klotzschiana. These results suggest that E. klotzschiana, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest.

Streptococcus/drug effects , Prevotella/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
Braz. j. biol ; 77(3): 632-641, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888770


Abstract The halophyte species Plantago coronopus has several described ethnomedicinal uses, but few reported biological activities. This work carried out for the first time a comparative analysis of P. coronopus organs in terms of phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of organic and water extracts from roots, leaves and flowers. The leaves contents in selected nutrients, namely amino acids and minerals, are also described. Roots (ethyl acetate and methanol extracts) had the highest radical scavenging activity (RSA) towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, while leaves (hexane extract) had higher RSA on nitric oxide radical and iron chelating ability. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis identified eighteen phenolics from which salicylic acid and epicatechin are here firstly described in Plantago species. Leaves had mineral levels similar to those of most vegetables, proving to be a good source for elements like calcium, sodium, iron and magnesium, and also for several of the essential amino acids justifying it use as food. Our results, especially those regarding the phenolics composition, can explain the main traditional uses given to this plantain and, altogether, emphasize the potential of P. coronopus as a source of bioactive molecules particularly useful for the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases.

Resumo A espécie halófita Plantago coronopus tem vários usos etnomedicinais já descritos, mas em relação à bioatividade a informação é escassa. Este trabalho efetuou, pela primeira vez, uma análise comparativa dos órgãos de P. coronopus em termos de compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante de extratos orgânicos e aquosos provenientes das raízes, folhas e flores da planta, bem como o conteúdo de determinados nutrientes, aminoácidos e minerais, nas folhas da planta. As raízes (extratos de acetato de etila e metanol) apresentaram a maior atividade de captação para os radicais 1,1-difenil-2-picril hidrazil (DPPH) e 2,2'-azino-bis(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfónico) (ABTS), enquanto as folhas (extrato de hexano) mostraram maior atividade captadora para o radical óxido nítrico bem como maior capacidade quelante do ferro. A análise por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiência (CLAE) identificou dezoito compostos fenólicos e, destes, o ácido salicílico e a epicatequina são aqui descritos pela primeira vez em espécies de Plantago. As folhas desta planta halófita mostraram ainda conter minerais em níveis semelhantes aos da maioria dos vegetais, provando ser uma boa fonte de elementos como o cálcio, sódio, ferro e magnésio, bem como de vários dos aminoácidos essenciais o que justifica seu uso na alimentação. Os resultados, particularmente aqueles relacionados à composição fenólica, podem justificar os principais usos medicinais atribuídos a esta espécie e, na sua totalidade, demonstram o potencial de P. coronopus como fonte de moléculas bioativas particularmente úteis na prevenção de doenças relacionadas com estresse oxidativo.

Phenols/analysis , Plantago/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(3): 1101-1116, jul.-sep. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958199


Abstract:Volatile compounds play a vital role in the life cycle of plants, possessing antimicrobial and anti-herbivore activities, and with a significant importance in the food, cosmetic, chemical, and pharmaceutical industry. This study aimed to identify the volatile compounds emitted by flowers of thirteen species belonging to four genera of Bromeliaceae, using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 71 volatile compounds belonging to nine chemical groups were identified. The compounds identified represented more than 97 % of the major components in Aechmea bicolor, Ae. bromeliifolia, Ae. distichantha, Ae. fasciata, and Vriesea friburgensis. In the Ananas varieties, over 99 % of the components were identified, and around 90 % in V. simplex. V. friburgensis presented the largest diversity of volatiles with 31 compounds, while Alcantarea nahoumii presented only 14. All three Ananas varieties presented the same 28 compounds in relatively similar abundance, which has been confirmed by principal component analysis. Current taxonomy and pollination syndrome studies available can adequately explain the variation in volatile compounds among species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (3): 1101-1116. Epub 2016 September 01.

ResumenLos compuestos volátiles tienen un papel vital en el ciclo de vida de las plantas. Poseen actividad antimicrobiana y anti-herbivoría biológica y una gran importancia en la industria de alimentos, cosméticos, perfumes, productos químicos y farmacéuticos. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los compuestos volátiles de trece flores de especies, pertenecientes a cuatro géneros de Bromeliaceae utilizando microextracción en fase sólida mediante cromatografía de gases hifenada con espacio de cabeza acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Se han identificado setenta y un diferentes compuestos volátiles pertenecientes a nueve grupos. Los compuestos identificados representaron más del 97 % de los componentes principales en Aechmea bicolor, Ae. bromeliifolia, Ae. distichantha, Ae. fasciata, Vriesea friburgensis, 99 % en las variedades de Ananas y 90 % en V. Simplex. V. friburgensis mostró la mayor diversidad de compuestos volátiles con 31, mientras que en Al. nahoumii se han encontrado sólo 14 compuestos. Las tres variedades de Ananas presentan los mismos 28 compuestos en cantidades relativamente similares, lo que se confirmó por el análisis de componentes principales. Estudios taxonómicos y síndromes de polinización disponibles podrían explicar la variación de los compuestos volátiles entre especies.

Bromeliaceae/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Principal Component Analysis , Bromeliaceae/metabolism , Flowers/metabolism , Solid Phase Microextraction/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 177-183
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158412


We studied the influence of sucrose and nitrogen concentration on in vitro flowering and fruit setting in elongated shoots of Withania somnifera. BA (1.5 mg/l) and IAA (0.3 mg/l) on MS medium supplemented with 4% sucrose showed 67% of in vitro flower induction frequency, 9 flowers/shoot, 4 fruits/shoot and 11 seeds/fruit in elongated-shoots. Different concentrations of nitrogen sources (L-glutamine, adenine sulphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate 5-25 mg/l) were tested in combination with 4% sucrose and BA at 1.5 mg/l and IAA at 0.3 mg/l. Highest number of flowers (20 flowers/shoot; 2.2-fold) and fruits (16 fruits/shoot; 3.39-fold), fruit setting (12 seeds/fruit; 1.08-fold) at a higher frequency (88 %) were achieved on MS medium augmented with 15 mg/l adenine sulphate with same PGRs and sucrose concentration. The maximum production of withanolide A (0.68 mg/g DW) and withanolide B (0.77 mg/g DW) was recorded in in vitro fruits. Highest accumulation of withaferin A (2 mg/g DW) was quantified from in vitro flowers, whereas, it was low in in vitro fruits (0.49 mg/g DW withaferin A). However, withanone (0.23 mg/g DW) was found accumulated uniformly in both in vitro flowers and fruits compared to control.

Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/pharmacology , Carbon/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Culture Media/pharmacology , Flowers/chemistry , Flowers/growth & development , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/growth & development , Germination/drug effects , Glutamine/metabolism , Glutamine/pharmacology , Hydroponics , Nitrates/metabolism , Nitrates/pharmacology , Nitrogen/metabolism , Plant Shoots/chemistry , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Sucrose/metabolism , Sucrose/pharmacology , Withania/chemistry , Withania/growth & development , Withania/metabolism , Withanolides/metabolism
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 125-133, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741616


The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.

Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Flowers/chemistry , Hibiscus/chemistry , Industrial Waste/analysis , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/economics , Beverages/analysis , Beverages/economics , Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis , Dietary Carbohydrates/economics , Dietary Carbohydrates/isolation & purification , Dietary Fiber/economics , Food, Fortified/economics , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Industrial Waste/economics , Mexico , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/economics , Polysaccharides/analysis , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/economics , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Solubility
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-11, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734617


BACKGROUND: Honey is a natural product obtained from the nectar that is collected from flowers by bees. It has several properties, including those of being food and supplementary diet, and it can be used in cosmetic products. Honey imparts pharmaceutical properties since it has antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Thai honey were investigated in this study. RESULTS: The honey from longan flower (source No. 1) gave the highest activity on MRSA when compared to the other types of honey, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5% (v/v) and minimum bactericidal concentration of 25% (v/v). Moreover, it was found that MRSA isolate 49 and S. aureus were completely inhibited by the 50% (v/v) longan honey (source No. 1) at 8 and 20 hours of treatment, respectively. Furthermore, it was observed that the honey from coffee pollen (source No. 4) showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid compounds by 734.76 mg gallic/kg of honey and 178.31 mg quercetin/kg of honey, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the honey obtained from coffee pollen was also found to be the highest, when investigated using FRAP and DPPH assay, with 1781.77 mg FeSO4•7H2O/kg of honey and 86.20 mg gallic/kg of honey, respectively. Additionally, inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme was found that honey from coffee flower showed highest inhibition by 63.46%. CONCLUSIONS: Honey demonstrates tremendous potential as a useful source that provides anti-free radicals, anti-tyrosinase and anti-bacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria causing skin diseases.

Apitherapy , Flavonoids/analysis , Honey/analysis , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Phenols/analysis , Pollen/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Biphenyl Compounds , Coffee/chemistry , Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching , Flowers/chemistry , Free Radicals/analysis , Honey/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Monophenol Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Monophenol Monooxygenase/drug effects , Picrates , Pollen/classification , Skin Diseases/microbiology , Skin Diseases/therapy , Skin Lightening Preparations/pharmacology , Thailand , Time Factors , Viscosity
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 63(3): 197-208, sep. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-749961


La florifagia, que es el consumo de flores como alimento es una práctica que, aunque no es nueva no estaba muy difundida entre los consumidores hasta hace algunas décadas. Las flores comestibles contribuyen al mejoramiento de la estética de los alimentos además, aportan sustancias biológicamente activas como vitaminas A, C, riboflavina, niacina, minerales como calcio, fósforo, hierro y potasio beneficiando la salud de quien las consume. Esta revisión incluye algunos ejemplos de flores comestibles como las rosas, violetas y capuchinas entre otras, sus usos y aplicaciones como alimento, sus características organolépticas y valor nutrimental por las cuales pueden considerarse un alimento funcional. No todas las flores pueden consumirse como alimento hay otro grupo de flores que pueden resultar tóxicas e incluso su ingesta puede ser mortal. Un factor importante que afecta la calidad de las flores es la forma en la que se conservan la cual repercute en sus características sensoriales y nutrimentales. Finalmente aunque el consumo de flores como alimento es una práctica antigua hay poca reglamentación es necesario realizar mayor investigación sobre su análisis químico y nutrimental que promueva su inclusión en la dieta ya que pueden ser una fuente alimenticia con un alto valor nutrimental y funcional.

The floriphagia that is the consumption of flowers as a food, is an old practice not widespread among consumers until some decades ago. Edible flowers contribute to increasing the appearance of food. They can provide biologically active substances including vitamin A, C, riboflavins, niacin, minerals such as calcium, phosphorous, iron and potassium that are eventually beneficial to consumers’ health. This review includes some examples of edible flowers including roses, violets and nasturtium among others, uses and applications, sensorial characteristics and nutritional values that lead them to be considered as functional food. An important factor that affects the quality of edible flowers is the form in which they are preserved since it may affect their sensorial and nutritional characteristics. However, not all flowers can be eaten as food since there are some of them that can be toxic or even mortal. Finally, although the consumption of flowers is an ancient practice, there is little regulation in this regard. Of the review on edible flowers, it is concluded that there are still numerous aspects about them to evaluate such as nutritional and functional characteristics, conservation and regulation with the aim to extend its consumption.

Flowers , Nutritive Value , Plants, Edible , Flowers/chemistry , Flowers/classification , Plants, Edible/chemistry , Plants, Edible/classification
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Aug; 50(4): 296-304
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148611


Wound healing or repair is the body’s natural process of regenerating dermal and epidermal tissue. Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz (Family: Lythraceae) is used traditionally in wound healing by the tribals of Chhattisgarh district. However, there is a paucity of scientific data in support. In this study, we evaluated antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanolic and aqueous extracts against a diverse range of gram +ve and gram -ve bacteria along with pathogenic fungi. The wound healing activity of ethanolic extract was also evaluated at dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg body wt in rats by excision, incision and dead space wound healing models along with histopathology of wound area of skin. The ethanolic extract showed potent wound healing activity, as evident from the increase in the wound contraction and breaking strength in dose-dependent manner. Treatment with ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body wt) showed significant dose-dependently decrease in epithelization period and scar area. Hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid and hexosamine contents, the important constituents of extracellular matrix of healing were also correlated with the observed healing pattern. During early wound healing phase, pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 levels were found to be upregulated by the ethanolic extract treatment. The ethanolic extract exhibited a strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, as compared to other extracts. It showed very low Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and inhibited the growth of E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans in concentration of 2.5 µg/disc. Thus, the results of the present study demonstrated the strong wound healing potential and antimicrobial activities of W. fruticosa, flowers, supporting the folklore use of the plant by the tribal people of Chhattisgarh district.

Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Ethanol/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Interleukin-10/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Male , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , Woodfordia/chemistry , Wound Healing/drug effects
Biol. Res ; 46(3): 231-238, 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-692188


This study describes the isolation and identification of apigenin-7-O-ghicopyranoside, a flavonoid isolated from the flowers of Bellis perennis L., Asteraceae, an species with a broad spectrum of biological activities. The in vitro antioxidant activity and the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase were evaluated. The flavonoid showed strong in vitro antioxidant potential, because of the capacity of removal of hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide, and also prevented the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. These parameters were inhibited at the highest concentration of ApG at rates of 77.7%, 72% and 73.4%, respectively, in addition to inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, suggesting potential use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Antioxidants/pharmacology , Asteraceae/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Flowers/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase/drug effects , Asteraceae/classification , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Biocell ; 36(2): 63-71, Aug. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662143


The flower of Butea monosperma (Lam.) (Fabaceae) has been used in traditional Indian medicine in the treatment of many ailments including liver disorders. To understand the pharmacological basis of its beneficial effects, the extracts of dried flowers in water, methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate and acetone were evaluated for free radical scavenging and pro-apoptotic activities in cell cultures (human hepatoma Huh-7 cell line and immortalized AML-12 mouse hepatocytes). Butrin and butein -the active constituents of flower extracts- were used as reference molecules. The levels of cell injury markers like lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione and lipid peroxidation and primary antioxidant enzymes glutathione S-transferase and catalase were also measured. The aqueous and butanolic extracts exhibited better 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging and cytotoxic activities in hepatoma cells than in immortalized hepatocytes. Interestingly, butein inhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical better than butrin. The aqueous and butanolic extracts were further investigated for hepatoprotection against carbon tertrachloride-induced biochemical changes and cell death. Both extracts, just as butrin and butein, significantly reversed the cellular glutathione levels and lipid peroxidation, and glutathione-S-transferase activity. Lactate dehydrogenase leakage and cell death were also prevented. However, only butein revived the catalase activity. Thus, the butein content of Butea monosperma flower extracts is important for free radical scavenging activity, apoptotic cell death and protection against oxidative injury in hepatic cells.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Butea/chemistry , Chalcones/pharmacology , Flowers/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Free Radicals/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Cells, Cultured , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Chalcones/isolation & purification , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/isolation & purification , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Hepatocytes/cytology , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Oxidation-Reduction
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(6): 781-783, Nov.-Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-611763


INTRODUCTION: A treatment to the Alzheimer's disease consists inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for the acetylcholine control in the synapses. METHODS: We have investigated the potential of inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase produced by hexane extracts of leaves, branches, and flowers from three Bauhinia specimens, which is based on the technique of thin layer chromatography and on identifying the organ of the plant that possesses larger concentration of inhibitors. RESULTS: Retention factor analysis shows values of 0.31aA, 0.31aA, and 0.46aB for flowers B. variegata, B. var. candida, and B. ungulata, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The flower extract of B. ungulata is the most suitable for further studies on this inhibition.

INTRODUÇÃO: Um tratamento para a doença de Alzheimer consiste na inibição da acetilcolinesterase, responsável pelo controle de acetilcolina nas sinapses. MÉTODOS: Nós investigamos o potencial de inibição da acetilcolinesterase produzido por extratos hexânicos de folhas, ramos e flores de três espécimes de Bauhinia, realizado a partir da cromatografia em camada delgada e que órgão possui maior concentração de inibidores. RESULTADOS: Os fatores de retenção apresentaram 0,31aA, 0,31aA e 0,46aB para as flores de B. variegata, B. var. candida e B. ungulata respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: O extrato de flores de B. ungulata é o mais satisfatório para futuros estudos desta inibição.

Bauhinia/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry
Acta cir. bras ; 26(1): 19-24, jan.-fev. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-572229


Purpose: In this work, angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) ethanolic extract and dichloromethane and hexanic fractions were evaluated, considering medicinal properties, especially healing activity, are attributed to this plant. Methods: Models using 36 rats and 90 embryonated eggs were used to evaluate healing and angiogenic activities of extracts and fractions of the plant, through the induction of skin wounds and the chorioallantoic membrane, respectively. The effect of vascular proliferation was also tested from the study to verify the intensity of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cutaneous wounds in rats. Results: The angiogenic activity of the extract and the fractions was evidenced in both experimental models. It was verified that this effect is not directly related to the expression of VEGF and it could be associated to other pro-angiogenic factors. Conclusion: The healing activity referred to C. officinalis is related, among other factors, to its positive effect on angiogenesis, characterized by the induction of neovascularization.

Objetivo: Neste trabalho a atividade sobre a angiogênese do extrato etanólico (EEC) e das frações diclorometano e hexânica das flores de Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivada no Brasil foram avaliados, visto que propriedades medicinais têm sido atribuídas às flores da planta, destacando-se a atividade cicatrizante. Métodos: Modelos utilizando 36 ratos e 90 ovos embrionados foram usados para avaliar as atividades cicatrizante e angiogênica dos extratos e frações da planta, por meio da indução de feridas cutâneas e da membrana corioalantóide, respectivamente. O efeito proliferativo vascular foi também testado a partir do estudo imunoistoquímico, realizado para verificar a intensidade da expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF) na derme de ratos. Resultados: A atividade angiogênica do extrato e das frações foi evidenciada nos dois modelos experimentais empregados. Foi evidenciado que este efeito não estava diretamente relacionado à expressão do VEGF, podendo estar associado a outros fatores pró-angiogênicos. Conclusão: A atividade cicatrizante referida a C. officinalis está relacionada ao seu efeito positivo sobre a angiogênese, e este foi caracterizado pela indução de neovascularização.

Animals , Chick Embryo , Female , Rats , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/pharmacology , Calendula/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Wound Healing/drug effects , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/isolation & purification , Chorioallantoic Membrane/blood supply , Chorioallantoic Membrane/drug effects , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Skin/blood supply , Skin/injuries , Skin/metabolism , Wound Healing/physiology
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 Feb; 48(1): 54-58
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135301


Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for development of coronary artery disease. Cassia auriculata is traditionally used in India for medicinal purposes. In this study, effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia auriculata flowers (Et-CAF) was investigated in Triton WR1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Treatment with the Et-CAF (450 mg/kg b.wt) significantly reduced the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) levels and significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level associated with reduction of atherogenic index in hyperlipidemic rats. However, there was no change in the serum lipid profile of normal rats treated with Et-CAF alone. The results suggest that Et-CAF has a beneficial effect in treating hyperlipidemia and may serve as a potential drug for prevention of hyperlipidemic atherosclerosis.

Animals , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Weight/drug effects , Cassia/chemistry , Cholesterol/blood , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/drug effects , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/drug effects , Cholesterol, LDL/metabolism , Ethanol/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Hyperlipidemias/blood , Hyperlipidemias/chemically induced , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Hypolipidemic Agents/isolation & purification , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Triglycerides/blood , Triglycerides/metabolism
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 10(6): 581-589, ene. 2011. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-618853


Volatile secondary metabolites obtained from the leaves and flowers (fresh and dried) of Chromolaena barranquillensis (native specie of the Departamento del Atlántico), and isolated by simultaneous-distillation extraction (SDE) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD), were characterized chemically by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds identified in the volatile fractions were: (a). fresh flowers – beta - elemene (24.4 percent), a-pinene (19.6 percent), and limonene (15.7 percent); (b). dried flowers – beta-caryophyllene (21.4 percent), germacrene D (16.6 percent), and caryophyllene oxide (13.6 percent); (c). Fresh leaves – myrcene (39.0 percent), y-curcumene (17.8 percent), and limonene (10.2 percent); and, (d). Dried leaves – beta-caryophyllene (13.8 percent), -curcumene (9.8 percent), beta-elemene (7.7 percent), and caryophyllene oxide (6.4 percent). In the essential oils (EO) were recognized as major components: (e). Fresh flowers – beta-caryophyllene (22.9 percent), beta-elemene (14.3 percent), and germacrene D (14.0 percent); (f). Dried flowers – beta-caryophyllene (23.6 percent), -elemene (20.6 percent), and germacrene D (15.8 percent); (g). Fresh leaves – beta-caryophyllene (22.0 percent), limonene (11.8 percent), -cadinene (6.8 percent), and germacrene D (6.1 percent); and, (h). Dried leaves – beta-caryophyllene (29.1 percent), germacrene D (13.1 percent), and caryophyllene oxide (12.0 percent). The yields achieved in the isolation of EO were 0.2 percent/0.4 percent and 0.06 percent/0.1 percent for fresh/dried flowers and fresh/dried leaves, respectively.

Los metabolitos secundarios volátiles obtenidos de hojas y flores (frescas y secas) de Chromolaena barranquillensis (especie nativa del departamento del Atlántico), aislados por destilación-extracción simultánea con solvente (SDE) e hidrodestilación convencional (HD), se caracterizaron químicamente por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Los compuestos mayoritarios que se identificaron en las fracciones volátiles fueron: (a). flores frescas – beta-elemeno (24.4 por ciento), a-pineno (19.6 por ciento) y limoneno (15.7 por ciento); (b). Flores secas – trans-beta-cariofileno (21.4 por ciento), germacreno D (16.6 por ciento) y óxido de cariofileno (13.6 por ciento); (c). Hojas frescas – beta-mirceno (39.0 por ciento), y-curcumeno (17.8 por ciento) y limoneno (10.2 por ciento); y, (d). Hojas secas – trans-beta-cariofileno (13.8 por ciento), y-curcumeno (9.8 por ciento), beta-elemeno (7.7 por ciento) y óxido de cariofileno (6.4 por ciento). En los aceites esenciales (AE) se reconocieron como componentes principales: (e). Flores frescas – trans-beta-cariofileno (22.9 por ciento), beta-elemeno (14.3 por ciento) y germacreno D (14.0 por ciento); (f). Flores secas – trans-beta-cariofileno (23.6 por ciento), beta-elemeno (20.6 por ciento) y germacreno D (15.8 por ciento); (g). Hojas frescas – trans-beta-cariofileno (22.0 por ciento), limoneno (11.8 por ciento), -cadineno (6.8 por ciento) y germacreno D (6.1 por ciento); y, (h). Hojas secas – trans-beta-cariofileno (29.1 por ciento), germacreno D (13.1 por ciento) y óxido de cariofileno (12.0 por ciento). Los rendimientos alcanzados en el aislamiento de los AE fueron 0.2 por ciento/0.4 por ciento y 0.06 por ciento/0.1 por ciento para las flores frescas/secas y hojas frescas/secas, respectivamente.

Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Chromolaena/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas , Colombia , Distillation , Flowers/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry