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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(4): 514-529, jul. 2022. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526959

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Lippia integrifolia "incayuyo" is an aromatic, sub - woody shrub used in popular medicine, aperitit drinks and compound herb s. Its choleretic, antispasmodic, biocidal, antibacterial and larvicidal activity has been proven. The objective of the work was to register the phenology of a sample of 70 genotypes from a population with a broad genetic base. The phenophases studied were : vegetative growth, flower bud, flowering and fruiting fortnightly for two years. The initiation, intensity and prolongation of the phenophases were evaluated. The moment of full bloom occurs during the second half of December. Taking this date as a refer ence, a differentiated beginning of flowering was evidenced. The results of two campaigns were compared, observing that 70% of the specimens had a similar behavor, standing out some genotypes for presenting an early flowering and longer duration. The recor ded variability suggests that much of it could be due to intrinsic factors of the plant, and therefore, feasible to be selected .


Resumen: Lippia integrifolia "incayuyo" es un arbusto aromático, subleñoso empleado en la medicina popular, bebidas aperitivas y yerbas compuestas. Se ha comprobado su actividad colerética, antiespasmódica, biocida, antibacteriana y larvicida. El objetivo del trabajo fue registrar la fenología d e una muestra de 70 genotipos de una población de base genética amplia. Las fenofases estudiadas fueron: crecimiento vegetativo, botón floral, floración y fructificación quincenalmente durante dos años. Se evaluó inicio, intensidad y prolongación de las fe nofases. El momento de plena floración ocurre durante la segunda quincena de diciembre. Tomando esta fecha como referencia, se evidenció un inicio de floración diferenciada. Se compararon los resultados de dos campañas, observando que el 70% de los ejempla res tuvo un compartimiento semejante, destacándose algunos genotipos por presentar una floración temprana y de prolongación superior. La variabilidad registrada sugiere que gran parte de ésta podría deberse a factores intrínsecos de la planta, y por ello, factible de ser seleccionados.


Subject(s)
Lippia/genetics , Lippia/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Flowers/genetics , Flowers/chemistry
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 374-385, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927717

ABSTRACT

Phenylalaninammo-nialyase (PAL) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of methyl benzoate - a plant aroma compound. In order to understand the function of this enzyme in the formation of fragrance in the scented Rhododendron species-Rhododendron fortunei, we cloned a gene encoding this enzyme and subsequently examined the gene expression patterns and the profile of enzyme activity during development in various tissues. The full length of RhPAL gene was cloned by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. The expression levels of RhPAL gene were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and the amount of phenylalanine and cinnamic acid were assayed with LC-MS. The results showed that the ORF sequence of RhPAL gene amplified from the cDNA templates of flower buds had 2 145 bp, encoding 715 amino acids, and shared 90% homology to the PAL amino acid sequences from other species. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of RhPAL in petals during flowering kept in rising even until the flowers wilted. The expression of RhPAL in pistil was much higher than that in stamen, while the expression in the younger leaves was higher than in old leaves. However, the expression level was relatively lower in petal and stamen compared to that in leaves. We also measured the PAL activity by Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay in the petals of flowers at different flowering stages. The results showed that PAL activity reached the highest at the bud stage and then decreased gradually to the lowest when the flowers wilted, which followed a similar trend in the emission of the flower fragrance. The phenylalanine and cinnamic acid contents measured by LC-MS were highly correlated to the expression level of RhPAL in various tissues and at different flowering stages, implying that RhPAL plays an important role in the formation of the flower fragrance. This work may facilitate the breeding and improvement of new fragrant Rhododendron cultivars.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary , Flowers/genetics , Rhododendron/genetics
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19519, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383984

ABSTRACT

Abstract Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most known nanomaterials being used for several purposes, including medical applications. In this study, Calendula officinalis L. flower extract and silver nitrate were used for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles under red, green and blue light-emitting diodes. AgNPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, Electrophoretic Mobility, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction. Isotropic and anisotropic silver nanoparticles were obtained, presenting hydrodinamic diameters ranging 90 - 180 nm, polydispersity (PdI > 0.2) and moderate stability (zeta potential values around - 20 mV)


Subject(s)
Silver , Silver Nitrate/agonists , Calendula/adverse effects , Flowers/genetics , Nanoparticles/analysis , Spectrophotometry/methods , X-Ray Diffraction/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Light
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 272-280, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878971

ABSTRACT

In this study, 23 germplasm resources of Chrysanthemum morifolium used in medicine and tea were collected from Dabie Mountains and its surrounding producing areas, and the contents of 13 mineral elements were determined and compared. The thermal maps of correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used for comprehensive evaluation. The results showed that the average content of each element in Ch. morifolium of different germplasm resources was: K>N>P>Mg>Ca>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd, and the leaves were: K>N>Ca>Mg>P>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>Ni>Pb>Cd. There are rich contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe in Ch. morifolium flowers and their leaves, among them, K element has the largest change range, while N, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn elements have a larger change range. The absorption and accumulation of each element in the leaves of different germplasm resources varied greatly. The correlation analysis shows that there is a strong positive correlation between Ca element, Mg, Mn and Cd element.Principal component analysis in Ch. morifolium flowers characteristic elements for Mn, Cr, Cu, P, K, can be used as a Ch. morifolium resources to identify the characteristics of the elements, choose top five principal component(F1-F5) comprehensive evalua-tion of medicinal Ch. morifolium, scored in the top five varieties for Hangiu-Fuhuangju, Hangju-Xiaoyangju, Hangju-Sheyangju, Hangju-Dayanghua, Hangju-Subeiju,indicates that in terms of mineral elements, the five medicinal Ch. morifolium resources quality is better. The PCA score chart can divide 23 Ch. morifolium resources into 4 groups, and the cluster analysis heat map divides 23 Ch. morifolium resources into 5 groups. All the Ch. morifolium resources of the same type can be well clustered together, indicating that the difference in mineral element content of Ch. morifolium germplasm resources is closely related to genetic factors.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum/genetics , Flowers/genetics , Minerals , Plant Leaves , Tea
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1324-1333, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878634

ABSTRACT

Photoperiod plays an important role in transformation from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in plants. CONSTANS (CO), as a unique gene in the photoperiod pathway, responds to changes of day length to initiate flowering in the plant. In this study, the expression level of FaCONSTANS (FaCO) gene under long-day, short-day, continuous light and continuous darkness conditions was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. We constructed the over-expression vector p1300-FaCO and infected into Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated method. We constructed the silencing vector p1300-FaCO-RNAi and infected into Festuca arundinacea by Agrobacterium-mediated method. The expression of FaCO gene was regulated by photoperiod. The over-expression of FaCO promoted flowering in wild type of Arabidopsis thaliana under long day condition and rescued the late flowering phenotype in co-2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Silencing FaCO gene in Festuca arundinacea by RNAi showed late-flowering phenotype or always kept in the vegetative growth stage. Our understanding the function of FaCO in flowering regulation will help further understand biological function of this gene in Festuca arundinacea.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics , Festuca/metabolism , Flowers/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Photoperiod
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 253-265, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878559

ABSTRACT

Based on observing the cytological characteristics of the flower buds of the functional male sterile line (S13) and the fertile line (F142) in eggplant, it was found that the disintegration period of the annular cell clusters in S13 anther was 2 days later than that of F142, and the cells of stomiun tissue and tapetum in F142 disintegrated on the blooming day, while it did not happen in S13. The comparative transcriptomic analysis showed that there were 1 436 differential expression genes (DEGs) (651 up-regulated and 785 down-regulated) in anthers of F142 and S13 at 8, 5 days before flowering and flowering day. The significance analysis of GO enrichment indicated that there were more unigene clusters involved in single cell biological process, metabolism process and cell process, and more catalytic activity and binding function were involved in molecular functions. Through KEGG annotation we found that the common DEGs were mainly enriched in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, metabolic pathway, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, biosynthesis of amino acids, carbon metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction. The fifteen genes co-expression modules were identified from 16 465 selected genes by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), three of which (Plum2, Royalblue and Bisque4 modules) were highly related to S13 during flower development. KEGG enrichment showed that the specific modules could be enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, α-linolenic acid metabolism, polysaccharide biosynthesis and metabolism, fatty acid degradation and the mutual transformation of pentose and glucuronic acid. These genes might play important roles during flower development of S13. It provided a reference for further study on the mechanism of anther dehiscence in eggplant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Flowers/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Infertility, Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Solanum melongena/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2798-2805, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887952

ABSTRACT

In order to study the regulation mechanism of secondary metabolites biosynthesis in Lonicera macranthoides, the key genes involved in the regulation of biosynthesis and the mechanism of differential metabolites were explored. In this study, high-throughput sequencing technology was used for transcriptome sequencing of L. macranthoides at different development stages. By using Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) technology, the laws of qualitative, quantitative and synthetic accumulation of its metabolites were studied, and the key enzyme genes for the biosynthesis of phenolic acid and flavonoids were screened out according to the differentially expressed genes. A total of 111 differentially accumulate metabolites(DAM) and 6 653 differentially expressed genes(DGE) were obtained by metabonomics and transcriptomics analysis. The metabolites and key enzyme genes in the Erqing(KE) were significantly different from those in the Dabai(KD) and Yinhua(KY) stages. In the phenylalanine biosynthesis pathway, the ion abundance of chlorogenic acid, naringin, quercetin, rutin, coniferol and other metabolites decreased with the development of flowers, while the ion abundance of ferulic acid, coumarin and syringoside increased with the development of flowers. Key enzyme genes such as CHS, HCT, CCR, FLS and COMT positively regulate the downstream metabolites, while PAL, C4H and 4CL negatively regulate the downstream metabolites. This study provides candidate genes and theoretical basis for the further exploration of key enzymes in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and for the regulation of the accumulation of secondary metabolites in L. macranthoides by molecular biological methods.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Flowers/genetics , Lonicera/genetics , Metabolomics , Proteomics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2991-3004, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921401

ABSTRACT

Flowering is a critical transitional stage during plant growth and development, and is closely related to seed production and crop yield. The flowering transition is regulated by complex genetic networks, whereas many flowering-related genes generate multiple transcripts through alternative splicing to regulate flowering time. This paper summarizes the molecular mechanisms of alternative splicing in regulating plant flowering from several perspectives, future research directions are also envisioned.


Subject(s)
Alternative Splicing/genetics , Arabidopsis/metabolism , Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics , Flowers/genetics
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2398-2412, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878496

ABSTRACT

The E class MADS-box genes SEPALLATA (SEP)-like play critical roles in angiosperm reproductive growth, especially in floral organ differentiation. To analyze the sequence characteristics and spatio-temporal expression patterns of E-function MADS-box SEP-like genes during kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) flower development, BroaSEP1/2/3 (GenBank No. KC967957, KC967958, KC967960) homologues, three kale SEP MADS-box gene, were isolated from the kale variety 'Fourteen Line' using Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these three SEP genes had a high degree of identity with SEP1, SEP2, SEP3 from Brassica oleracea var. oleracea, Brassica rapa, Raphanus sativus and Brassica napus, respectively. Alignment of the predicted amino acid sequences from these genes, along with previously published subfamily members, demonstrated that these genes comprise four regions of the typical MIKC-type MADS-box proteins: the MADS domain, intervening (I) domain and keratin-like (K) domain, and the C-terminal domain SEPⅠ and SEP Ⅱ motif. The longest open reading frame deduced from the cDNA sequences of BroaSEP1, BroaSEP2, and BroaSEP3 appeared to be 801 bp, 759 bp, 753 bp in length, respectively, which encoded proteins of 266, 252, and 250 amino acids respectively. Expression analyses using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR indicate that BroaSEP1/2/3 are specifically expressed in floral buds of kale during flower development process. The expression levels of the three genes are very different at different developmental stages, also in wild type, mutant flower with increased petals, and mutant flower with decreased petals. These different patterns of gene expression maybe cause the flowers to increase or decrease the petal number.


Subject(s)
Brassica/metabolism , Flowers/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , MADS Domain Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2277-2286, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878485

ABSTRACT

MYB transcription factor is one of the largest transcription families and involved in plant growth and development, stress response, product metabolism and other processes. It regulates the development of plant flowers, especially anther development, a key role in the reproduction of plant progeny. Here, we discuss the regulatory effects of MYB transcription factors on the development of anther, including tapetum development, anther dehiscence, pollen development, carbohydrates and hormone pathways. We provide a reference for the further study of the regulation mechanism and network of plant anther development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arabidopsis/metabolism , Flowers/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Pollen/genetics , Reproduction , Transcription Factors/metabolism
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 31: 75-83, Jan. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022130

ABSTRACT

Background: Phalaenopsis is an important ornamental flowering plant that belongs to the Orchidaceae family and is cultivated worldwide. Phalaenopsis has a long juvenile phase; therefore, it is important to understand the genetic elements regulating the transition from vegetative phase to reproductive phase. In this study, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologs in Phalaenopsis were cloned, and their effects on flowering were analyzed. Results: A total of five FT-like genes were identified in Phalaenopsis. Phylogenetic and expression analyses of these five FT-like genes indicated that some of these genes might participate in the regulation of flowering. A novel FT-like gene, PhFT-1, distantly related to previously reported FT genes in Arabidopsis and other dicot crops, was also found to be a positive regulator of flowering as heterologous expression of PhFT-1 in Arabidopsis causes an early flowering phenotype. Conclusions: Five FT homologous genes from Phalaenopsis orchid were identified, and PhFT-1 positively regulates flowering.


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins/genetics , Arabidopsis , Orchidaceae/genetics , Flowers/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Cloning, Molecular , Genes, Plant/genetics , Computational Biology , Orchidaceae/growth & development , Flowers/growth & development
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(3): 77-81, May 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787011

ABSTRACT

Background: Analytical techniques such as methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to detect variation in DNA methylation of mature Chrysanthemum leaves during the floral transition induced by short-day (SD) treatment. Results: For both early- and late-flowering cultivars, the time from the date of planting to the appearance of the capitulum bud and early blooming were significantly shorter than those of the control. The capitulum development of the early-flowering cultivar was significantly accelerated compared to the control, unlike the late-flowering cultivar. The DNA methylation percentage of leaves was significantly altered during flower development. For the early-flowering cultivar, DNA methylation was 42.2-51.3% before the capitulum bud appeared and 30.5-44.5% after. The respective DNA methylation percentages for the late-flowering cultivar were 43.5-56% and 37.2-44.9%. Conclusions: The DNA methylation percentage of Chrysanthemum leaves decreased significantly during floral development. The decline in DNA methylation was elevated in the early-flowering cultivar compared with the late-flowering cultivar.


Subject(s)
DNA Methylation/genetics , Chrysanthemum/genetics , Flowers/growth & development , Flowers/genetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
14.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 12(2): 208-214, abr.-jun. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-578956

ABSTRACT

Ocimum basilicum, cv. Maria Bonita (Lamiaceae), conhecido como manjericão, é espécie que apresenta propriedades aromáticas, condimentares e medicinais, por ser rico emóleos essenciais. É muito usado nas indústrias farmacêuticas e de alimentos em geral. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as propriedades do pólen e estigma do manjericão (cultivar Maria Bonita) identificando procedimentos simples que possam contribuir para programas de melhoramento. Para análise da disponibilidade, viabilidade do pólen e receptividade de estigma, botões florais foram coletados de hora em hora ao longo do dia, e lâminas eram montadas e coradas, para observação em microscópio óptico. Foi verificado que o manjericão apresenta antese diurna, assincrônica e com a maioria das flores se abrindo entre 10:00 e 11:00 horas. Quanto ao estudo do pólen foi verificado que a viabilidade manteve-se elevada ao longo do dia e a conservação por até 90 dias demonstrou bons níveis de viabilidade. O estigma apresentou receptividade desde a pré-antese até a pós-antese. Estas informações são relevantes para os melhoristas que desejam fazer seleção de genótipos ou hibridações em programas de melhoramento, contribuindo para aumentar o potencial da espécie que já se destaca como produtora de óleos essenciais.


Known as basil, Ocimum basilicum cv. Maria Bonita (Lamiaceae) is a species that presents aromatic, condimental and medicinal properties, since it is rich in essential oils. This species is largely used in pharmaceutical and food industries. The aim of this work was to study basil (cultivar Maria Bonita) pollen and stigma properties, identifying simple procedures that can contribute to plant breeding programs. To analyze pollen availability and viability, besides stigma receptivity, flower buds were collected at every hour throughout the day, and slides were mounted, stained and observed under an optical microscope. Basil presented diurnal asynchronous anthesis and most flowers opened between 10:00 and 11:00 a.m. As regards pollen analysis, viability was high throughout the day and its conservation until 90 days was good. Stigma presented receptivity from pre- to post-anthesis. These data are relevant to breeders who wish to select genotypes or hybridizations in plant breeding programs, contributing to improve the potential of this species, which already represents a producer of essential oils.


Subject(s)
Crosses, Genetic , Flowers/genetics , Genetic Enhancement/statistics & numerical data , Ocimum basilicum/growth & development , Pollen/genetics , Genotype , Regression Analysis
15.
Biota neotrop. (Online, Ed. port.) ; 8(2)Apr.-June 2008. ilus, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-489042

ABSTRACT

Croton is the second bigger and more diverse genus in the family Euphorbiaceae, with about 1,200 species distributed in 40 sections, occurring in all tropical areas, most of them in Americas. In South America, Brazil is the country in which a larger number of taxa are found, ca. 356. According to recent classification, the genus belongs to the tribe Crotoneae, and despite the wide and morphological diversity, it would be a monophyletic taxon. However, a phylogenetic analysis using markers of ITS region from nuclear ribosomal DNA, and of trnL-F from plastidial DNA, showed that Croton, like traditionally circumscribed, is not a monophyletic taxon. A taxonomic revision of Croton section Lamprocroton (Müll. Arg.) Pax is presented here. It is a Neotropical group with most of its species occurring from Southeast and South Brazil to southern South America (Uruguay and Argentina). Morphologically, the members of Lamprocroton are characterized as monoecious or dioecious shrubs or subshrubs, with a lepidote indumentum at least in part of foliage, entire leaves with no glands. The staminate flowers have 9 to 16 stamens and the pistillate flowers may have equal or unequal sepals, reduced to absent petals, and styles once or twice bifid. Overall, are recognized 26 species in the group, three of them new to the science. Identification key, morphological descriptions, illustrations, phenological period, as well as data on geographic distribution and general comments of each species are presented. Four taxa were excluded from C. sect. Lamprocroton because they do not show the morphological features that are diagnostics of the section. Four species that are poorly known were not included in the taxonomic treatment.


O gênero Croton L. é o segundo maior e mais diverso da família Euphorbiaceae, possuindo cerca de 1.200 espécies, agrupadas em 40 seções, com distribuição pantropical, das quais a maioria ocorre nas Américas. Na América o Sul, o Brasil é o país que congrega o maior número de espécies, aproximadamente 356. De acordo com a mais recente classificação, o gênero pertence à tribo Crotoneae e, apesar do grande número de espécies e da grande diversidade morfológica, seria um táxon monofilético. Entretanto, uma análise filogenética recente, que utilizou dados moleculares das regiões ITS, do DNA nuclear ribossômico, e do fragmento trnL-F, do DNA plastidial, demonstrou que Croton, como tradicionalmente circunscrito, não é um táxon monofilético. Neste trabalho, é apresentada uma revisão taxonômica de Croton sect. Lamprocroton (Müll. Arg.) Pax. Trata-se de um grupo neotropical com a maioria das espécies ocorrendo nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do Brasil e sul da América do Sul. Seus representantes caracterizam-se por ser plantas arbustivas ou subarbustivas, monóicas ou dióicas, com indumento lepidoto presente em pelo menos parte da folhagem e folhas inteiras e sem glândulas. As flores estaminadas possuem androceu composto por 9 a 16 estames e as flores pistiladas apresentam sépalas iguais ou desiguais no tamanho, pétalas reduzidas ou ausentes e estiletes uma ou duas vezes bífidos. Neste trabalho são reconhecidas 26 espécies na seção sendo três novas para a ciência. Chave de identificação, descrições morfológicas, ilustrações, período fenológico, distribuição geográfica e comentários gerais de cada uma das espécies são apresentados. Quatro táxons foram excluídos de C. sect. Lamprocroton por não possuírem os caracteres morfológicos diagnósticos da seção. Quatro espécies não foram incluídas no tratamento taxonômico por falta de informação sobre as mesmas.


Subject(s)
Croton/classification , Flowers/classification , Brazil , Croton/genetics , Flowers/genetics
16.
J Genet ; 2007 Aug; 86(2): 93-101
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114314

ABSTRACT

A cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line of Brassica juncea was derived by repeated backcrossing of the somatic hybrid (Diplotaxis catholica + B. juncea) to B. juncea. The new CMS line is comparable to euplasmic lines for almost all characters, except for flowers which bear slender, needle-like anthers with aborted pollen. Detailed Southern analysis revealed two copies of coxI gene in the CMS line. One copy, coxI-1 is similar to the coxI gene of B. juncea, whereas the second copy, coxI-2 is present in a novel rearranged region. Northern analysis with eight mitochondrial gene probes showed altered transcript pattern only for the coxI gene. Two transcripts of 2.0 and 2.4 kb, respectively, were detected in the CMS line. The novel 2.4 kb transcript was present in floral bud tissue but absent in the leaf tissue. In plants where male sterility broke down under high temperature during the later part of the growing season, the 2.4 kb coxI transcript was absent, which suggested its association with the CMS. The two coxI genes from the CMS line showed two amino acid changes in the coding region. The novel coxI gene showed unique repeats in the 5' region suggesting recombination of mitochondrial genomes of the two species. The possible role of the duplicated coxI gene in causing male sterility is discussed.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Brassica/genetics , Cyclooxygenase 1/genetics , Cytoplasm/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis , Flowers/genetics , Gene Duplication , Gene Expression , Genome, Plant , Hybrid Cells/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Mustard Plant/genetics , Plant Infertility/genetics , RNA/analysis , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
18.
J Biosci ; 2005 Jun; 30(3): 289-91
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110777
19.
J Genet ; 2005 Apr; 84(1): 81-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114309
20.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 3(3): 323-341, 2004. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-482174

ABSTRACT

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been shown to be of great potential in plant reverse genetics. Advantages of VIGS over other approaches, such as T-DNA or transposon tagging, include the circumvention of plant transformation, methodological simplicity and robustness, and speedy results. These features make VIGS an attractive alternative instrument in functional genomics, even in a high throughput fashion. The system is already well established in Nicotiana benthamiana; however, efforts are being made to improve VIGS in other species, including monocots. Current research is focussed on unravelling the mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene silencing and VIGS, as well as on finding novel viral vectors in order to broaden the host species spectrum. We examined how VIGS has been used to assess gene functions in plants, including molecular mechanisms involved in the process, available methodological elements, such as vectors and inoculation procedures, and we looked for examples in which the system has been applied successfully to characterize gene function in plants.


Subject(s)
Gene Silencing , Genes, Plant/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Tobacco/genetics , Transcription, Genetic/genetics , Plant Viruses/genetics , DNA, Viral , Flowers/genetics , Genetic Vectors , Genomics/methods , Models, Genetic , Transformation, Genetic
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