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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(3): 390-393, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288675

ABSTRACT

Abstract Spondylodiscitis is an uncommon but serious complication after spine surgeries, and its main etiologic agent is Staphylococcus aureus. Fungal infections are rare and mostly caused by Candida albicans. We report the clinical case of a 69-year-old male patient who underwent a L2-S1 arthrodesis for degenerative scoliosis correction. He presented an infection 2.5 months after the procedure, a spondylodiscitis at L5-S1 levels, caused by Candida parapsilosis. The treatment consisted of surgical material removal, tricortical iliac graft placement in an anterior approach (L5-S1), lumbopelvic fixation (from T10 to the pelvis) in a posterior approach, and drug treatment with anidulafungin and fluconazole. This last medication was administered for 12 months, with good clinical outcomes.


Resumo As espondilodiscites são complicações infrequentes, porém graves em pós-operatórios de cirurgias da coluna vertebral, tendo como principal agente etiológico o Staphylococcus aureus. As infecções fúngicas são raras, sendo a Candida albicans a principal representante desse grupo. Relatamos o caso clínico de um paciente do sexo masculino, 69 anos, operado com artrodese de L2 a S1 para correção de escoliose degenerativa. O paciente apresentou quadro clínico infeccioso 2 meses e meio após o procedimento, relacionado à espondilodiscite L5-S1, causada por Candida parapsilosis. O tratamento consistiu na remoção do material cirúrgico, colocação de enxerto tricortical de ilíaco pela via anterior (L5-S1) e fixação lombopélvica (de T10 à pelve) pela via posterior, além de iniciar o tratamento medicamentoso com anidulafungina e fluconazol, mantendo essa última medicação por 12 meses, com boa evolução clínica.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus , Discitis , Fluconazole , Candida parapsilosis , Anidulafungin , Mycoses
2.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021203, 09 fev. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147180

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The resistance of fungal species to drugs usually used in clinics is of great interest in the medical field. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate susceptibility and in vitro response of species of Trichophyton spp. to antifungal drugs of interest in clinical medicine. METHODS: 12 samples of clinical isolates from humans were used, nine of T. mentagrophytes and three of T. tonsurans. Susceptibility tests were performed according to the agar diffusion (AD) and broth microdilution (BM) methods. RESULTS: In the AD method, the species T. tonsurans presented a percentage of sensitivity of 33% in relation to amphotericin B and 66% to itraconazole, with 100% resistance to ketoconazole and fluconazole. T. mentagrophytes also showed 100% resistance to ketoconazole in this technique, with 11% sensitivity to ketoconazole, 22% to itraconazole and 22% of samples classified as sensitive dose dependent. In the MC method, the species T. tonsurans presented a sensitivity percentage of 66%, 55% and 33% in relation to ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole, respectively. The T. mentagrophytes species presented sensitivity percentages of 11%, 11%, 33% and 55% for amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole and fluconazole, respectively. CONCLUSION: There was resistance in vitro of the species of T. mentagrophytes and T. tonsurans against the antifungal fluconazole and relative resistance against ketoconazole in the AD method. In BM, however, important percentages of sensitivity were observed for the two species analyzed in relation to the antifungals fluconazole and ketoconazole when compared to itraconazole and amphotericin B.


INTRODUÇÃO: A resistência de espécies fúngicas às drogas usualmente empregadas no meio clínico é motivo de grande interesse na área médica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar susceptibilidade e resposta in vitro de espécies de Trichophyton spp. a drogas antifúngicas de interesse em clínica médica. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 12 amostras de isolados clínicos de humanos, sendo nove de T. mentagrophytes e três de T. tonsurans. Foram realizados testes de susceptibilidade segundo os métodos de difusão em ágar (DA) e microdiluição em caldo (MC). RESULTADOS: No método de DA, a espécie T. tonsurans apresentou percentual de sensibilidade de 33% em relação à anfotericina B e de 66% ao itraconazol, com 100% de resistência frente ao cetoconazol e ao fluconazol. A espécie T. mentagrophytes também apresentou 100% de resistência frente ao cetoconazol nesta técnica, com 11% de sensibilidade ao cetoconazol, 22% ao itraconazol e 22% das amostras classificadas como sensível dose dependente. No método de MC, a espécie T. tonsurans apresentou percentual de sensibilidade de 66%, 55% e 33% em relação ao cetoconazol, fluconazol e itraconazol, respectivamente. A espécie T. mentagrophytes apresentou percentuais de sensibilidade de 11%, 11%, 33% e 55% para anfotericina B, itraconazol, cetoconazol e fluconazol, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Houve resistência in vitro das espécies do T. mentagrophytes e T. tonsurans frente ao antifúngico fluconazol e resistência relativa frente ao cetoconazol no método de DA. Na MC, no entanto, foram observados importantes percentuais de sensibilidade das duas espécies analisadas frente aos antifúngicos fluconazol e cetoconazol quando comparadas ao itraconazol e à anfotericina B.


Subject(s)
Trichophyton/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Disease Susceptibility/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Tinea/microbiology , Tinea/drug therapy , Colony Count, Microbial , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06988, 2021. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1351274

ABSTRACT

In this study, an outbreak of spontaneous poisoning by Dodonaea viscosa (D. viscosa) in a herd of dairy cattle in the municipality of Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, was investigated. Three deaths occurred in a batch of 16 Jersey cattle, aged between three and four years, kept in a native field. The clinical signs observed were apathy, decreased production, and anorexia, with death occurring within approximately 48 h after the onset of signs. The three cattle were necropsied, and tissue samples were sent for histopathological examination. Necropsy findings included serosanguineous fluid in the abdominal cavity, intestines with congested serosa, and marked mesenteric edema. The mucosa of the abomasum of two of the animals was hemorrhagic with bloody content, and among the ruminal content of a bovine, leaves with morphological characteristics compatible with D. viscosa were observed. The livers of the three animals were enlarged, with accentuation of the lobular pattern. Histologically, centrilobular coagulation necrosis with congestion and hemorrhage was observed in the liver. Vacuolization and degeneration of hepatocytes were observed in the mid-zonal and periportal regions. The diagnosis of poisoning by D. viscosa leaves was based on epidemiological data, necropsy findings, and histopathological alterations. The presence of the plant in the rumen and in the grazing site of the affected cattle was essential for the diagnosis.(AU)


Neste trabalho, é descrito um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Dodonaea viscosa (D. viscosa) ocorrido em um rebanho de bovinos leiteiros, no município de Capão do Leão, no Rio Grande do Sul. Ocorreram três mortes em um lote de 16 bovinos da raça Jersey com idades entre três e quatro anos, mantidos em campo nativo. Os sinais clínicos observados foram apatia, queda na produção e anorexia, com morte em aproximadamente 48 horas após o início dos sinais. Os três bovinos foram necropsiados, e amostras de tecidos foram encaminhadas para exame histopatológico. Os achados de necropsia incluíam líquido serossanguinolento na cavidade abdominal, intestinos com serosas congestas e marcado edema de mesentério. A mucosa do abomaso de dois animais apresentava-se hemorrágica com conteúdo sanguinolento e, em meio ao conteúdo ruminal de um bovino foram observadas folhas com caracteres morfológicos compatíveis com D. viscosa. O fígado dos três animais estava aumentado, com acentuação do padrão lobular. Histologicamente no fígado havia necrose de coagulação centrolobular com congestão e hemorragia. Nas regiões médio-zonal e periportal observou-se vacuolização e degeneração dos hepatócitos. O diagnóstico de intoxicação pelas folhas D. viscosa foi baseado nos dados epidemiológicos, nos achados de necropsia e nas alterações histopatológicas. A presença da planta no rúmen e no local de pastoreio dos bovinos afetados foi fundamental para o diagnóstico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Poisoning , Blood Coagulation , Hepatocytes , Sapindaceae , Fluconazole , Necrosis
4.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(supl.1): e1450, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289473

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Minthostachys mollises una planta aromática que crece en América Latina y produce aceites esenciales con acción antimicrobiana. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis en diferentes concentraciones, comparado con doxiciclina y fluconazol frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans, a las 24, 48 y 72 horas. Métodos: Se realiza estudio experimental in vitro y longitudinal. Se prepararon 15 pocillos por subgrupo para evaluar el efecto inhibitorio de todas las concentraciones, dando un total de 360 pocillos. Por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas se identificaron los componentes químicos del aceite esencial. Se analizó el efecto inhibitorio por el método de difusión de Kirby-Bauer en Agar Columbia y Agar Muller Hinton. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba ANOVA y Tukey. Resultados: En el análisis químico se identificó principalmente pulegona (30,17 por ciento) y mentona (16,55 por ciento). Los halos de inhibición de Minthostachys mollis al 100 por ciento a las 24, 48 y 72 horas frente a la Porphyromonas gingivalis, midieron: 10,2 mm, 9,8 mm y 9,6 mm, respectivamente; frente al Staphylococcus aureus, midieron: 10,4 mm, 9,7 mm y 9,4 mm, respectivamente; y, por último, frente a Candida albicans midieron: 9,8 mm, 8,9 mm y 8,5 mm, respectivamente. Todas las concentraciones de Minthostachys mollis presentaron un efecto antimicrobiano significativamente menor que el fluconazol y la doxiciclina (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: El aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis al 100 % presentó su mejor actividad inhibitoria frente al Staphylococcus aureus, la Porphyromonas gingivalis y la Candida albicans a las 24 horas. Sin embargo, este efecto antimicrobiano disminuye a medida que pasa el tiempo(AU)


Introduction: Minthostachys mollis is an aromatic plant species growing in Latin America which produces essential oils with antimicrobial activity. Objective: Determine the activity of essential oil from Minthostachys mollis at various concentrations as compared with doxycycline and fluconazole against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Methods: An in vitro experimental longitudinal study was conducted. Fifteen wells were prepared per subgroup to evaluate the inhibitory effect of all concentrations, for a sum total of 360 wells. Chemical components of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The inhibitory effect was analyzed with the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton and Columbia agar. Statistical analysis was based on ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: Chemical analysis mainly found pulegone (30.17 percent) and menthone (16.55 percent). The inhibition halos of 100 percent Minthostachys mollis at 24, 48 and 72 hours against Porphyromonas gingivalis measured 10.2 mm, 9.8 mm and 9.6 mm, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus they measured 10.4 mm, 9.7 mm and 9.4 mm, respectively, and against Candida albicans they measured 9.8 mm, 8.9 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively. The antimicrobial effect of Minthostachys mollis at all concentrations was significantly lower than that of fluconazole and doxycycline (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The essential oil from 100% Minthostachys mollis displayed its best inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans at 24 hours. However, such antimicrobial effect decreases with the passing of time(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile , Fluconazole , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, Gas , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Longitudinal Studies , Chemical Phenomena
5.
Infectio ; 24(4): 217-223, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114872

ABSTRACT

Resumen Candida spp. es un agente etiológico importante en infecciones del tracto urinario, principalmente en población con terapia antimicótica de amplio espectro y con catéteres urinarios. Candida albicans es la especie más frecuente, pero otras especies han surgido como patógenos emergentes. En este trabajo se recolectaron aislamientos de Candida spp. de urocultivos de pacientes que consultaron en Dinamica IPS entre enero 2016 y noviembre 2017. Para estimar la frecuencia de las especies y observar los patrones de sensibilidad, se realizó la identificación fenotípica y su perfil de sensibilidad con el sistema comercial Vitek 2® (BioMérieux, Inc.), adicionalmente se evaluaron mediante análisis de las secuencia y filogenética ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. En el estudio se incluyeron 78 aislamientos de Candida spp. Las frecuencias de especies de Candida identificadas empleando las herramientas moleculares fueron: C. albicans (38,5%), C. tropicalis (23,1%), C. glabrata (21,8%), C. parapsilosis (10,3%), C. metapsilosis y C. krusei (2,5%) y C. guillermondi (1,3%). La identificación por métodos moleculares y por el sistema Vitek 2 fue: C. albicans (93,3%), C. glabrata (94,1%), C. tropicalis (83,3%), C. parapsilosis (75%) C. guilliermondii y C. krusei (100%). La sensibilidad de todos los aislamientos al fluconazol fue 93,6%.


Abstract Candida spp is an important etiologic agent in urinary tract infections, mainly in patients in broad-spectrum antifungal therapy, with urinary catheters. Candida albicans is the most frequent specie; but other species have arised as emerging pathogens. In this study, isolates of Candida spp. of urine cultures from patients who consulted in Dinamica IPS between January 2016 and November 2017 were evaluated. To estimate the frequency of the species and to observe the sensitivity patterns, the phenotypic identification and its sensitivity profile was performed employed the Vitek 2® commercial system. (BioMérieux, Inc) In addition the isolates were evaluated by sequence analysis and phylogenetics ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. This study included 78 isolates of Candida spp. The frequencies of Candida species identified using the molecular tools were: C. albicans (38.5%), C. tropicalis (23.1%), C. glabrata (21.8%), C. parapsilosis (10.3%), C. guillermondi (1.3%) and C. metapsilosis and C. krusei (2.5%). The identification by molecular methods and by Vitek 2 system were: C. albicans (93.3%), for C. glabrata (94.1%), C. tropicalis (83.3%), C. parapsilosis (75%) and 100% for C. guilliermondii and C. krusei.. fluconazole sensitivity of all isolates was 93.6%


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Candida , Diagnostic Techniques, Urological , Candida parapsilosis , Laboratories , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , Sequence Analysis , Urinary Catheters , Infections
6.
Vive (El Alto) ; 3(9): 227-246, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252340

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: las infecciones fúngicas ocasionadas por levaduras del género Cándida son extremadamente comunes en mujeres de edad reproductiva, y constituyen un motivo de atención medica de salud. OBJETIVO: evaluar la susceptibilidad de Cándidas spp, mediante el método colorimétrico (Integral Yeast System Plus). MÉTODO: fue de tipo descriptivo, transversal; se recopiló información mediante observación directa en campo y el análisis documental para obtener información bibliográfica de tipo secundaria. RESULTADOS: de los 72 casos encontrados de Cándida Albicans revela que son susceptibles a la anfotericina B (2ug/ml); de los 5 casos encontrados de Cándida Krusei revela que son sensibles a la Anfotericina B (2ug/ml); De 1 caso encontrado de Cándida Parapsilosis revela sensibilidad en la Nistatina (1.25ug/ml). En este estudio la prevalencia de la infección por Cándida fue del (44.98%). CONCLUSIONES: Cándida Albicans fue la especie más común aislada en las mujeres embarazadas representando un 72%, En la evaluación de la susceptibilidad a través del kit Integral System Yeast Plus se obtuvo que Cándida Albicans es susceptible a Anfotericina B, Flucitosina entre otros, en Cándida Glabrata se obtuvo que es sensible a la Nistatina, Anfotericina B, susceptible entre otros, en Cándida Krusei se obtuvo que es sensible a la Anfotericina B, Clotrimazol, Miconazol, susceptibles a la Nistatina, Voriconazol y resistente a la Flucitosina, Ketoconazol, Itraconazol y Fluconazol.


INTRODUCTION: fungal infections caused by yeast of the genus Candida are extremely common in women of reproductive age, and constitute a reason for medical health care. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the susceptibility of Candida spp, using the colorimetric method (Integral Yeast System Plus). METHOD: it was descriptive, transversal; Information was collected through direct observation in the field and documentary analysis to obtain secondary bibliographic information. RESULTS: of the 72 cases found, Candida Albicans reveals that they are susceptible to amphotericin B (2ug / ml); of the 5 cases found, Candida Krusei reveals that they are sensitive to Amphotericin B (2ug / ml); Of 1 case found of Candida Parapsilosis reveals sensitivity in Nystatin (1.25ug / ml). In this study, the prevalence of Candida infection was (44.98%). CONCLUSIONS: Candida Albicans was the most common species isolated in pregnant women, representing 72%. In the evaluation of susceptibility through the Integral System Yeast Plus kit it was obtained that Candida Albicans is susceptible to Amphotericin B, Flucytosine among others, in Candida Glabrata was obtained that it is sensitive to Nystatin, Amphotericin B, susceptible among others, in Candida Krusei it was obtained that it is sensitive to Amphotericin B, Clotrimazole, Miconazole, susceptible to Nystatin, Voriconazole and resistant to Flucytosin, Ketoconazole, Itraconazole and Fluconazole.


INTRODUÇÃO: as infecções fúngicas causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida são extremamente comuns em mulheres em idade reprodutiva e constituem motivo de cuidados médicos. OBJETIVO: avaliar a suscetibilidade de Candida spp, por meio do método colorimétrico (Integral Yeast System Plus). MÉTODO: foi descritivo, transversal; as informações foram coletadas por meio de observação direta em campo e análise documental para obtenção de informações bibliográficas secundárias. RESULTADOS: Dos 72 casos encontrados, Cândida Albicans revelou ser suscetíveis à anfotericina B (2ug /ml); dos 5 casos encontrados, Candida Krusei revela que são sensíveis à Anfotericina B (2ug / ml); de 1 caso encontrado de Candida Parapsilosis revela sensibilidade na Nistatina (1,25ug / ml). Neste estudo, a prevalência de infecção por Candida foi (44,98%). CONCLUSÕES: Cândida Albicans foi a espécie mais comum isolada em gestantes, representando 72%. Na avaliação da susceptibilidade através do kit Integral System Yeast Plus foi obtido que Candida Albicans é suscetível à Anfotericina B, Flucitosina entre outras, em Cândida Glabrata foi obtido que é sensível a Nistatina, Anfotericina B, suscetível entre outras, em Candida Krusei foi obtido que é sensível a Anfotericina B, Clotrimazol, Miconazol, suscetível a Nistatina, Voriconazol e resistente a Flucitosina, Cetoconazol, Itraconazol e Fluconazol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Candida , Candida albicans , Amphotericin B , Colorimetry , Candida glabrata , Pregnant Women , Fluconazole , Prevalence , Clotrimazole , Itraconazole , Voriconazole , Flucytosine , Candida parapsilosis , Infections , Miconazole
7.
Infectio ; 24(3): 143-148, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114857

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Candida spp. Es la principal causa de fungemia, cuya incidencia ha aumentado en los últimos años. Existen datos locales insuficientes sobre este tipo de infecciones. Materiales y métodos: Este fue un estudio observacional retrospectivo de 44 pacientes diagnosticados con candidiasis invasiva hospitalizados en la Fundación Valle del Lili, el cual es un centro de cuarto nivel afiliado a la Universidad Icesi en el Suroccidente Colombiano, entre los años 2012 a 2017. Resultados: Se identificaron 44 pacientes con candidiasis invasiva, 27 de ellos mujeres (61%). La mediana de edad fue de 56 años (36 - 70). Más del 50% tenían una enfermedad crónica subyacente, uso de antibióticos (84%), catéter venoso central (80%), ventilación mecánica (68%) y nutrición enteral (66%) El 80% requirió manejo en unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) donde debutaron con sepsis (68%) y falla respiratoria (61%). En el 90% de los casos se aisló alguna especie de Candida spp. A partir de hemocultivo y sólo al 22% se le realizó prueba de sensibilidad. El tratamiento de elección fue con fluconazol (80%), asociado a caspofungina (70%). La tasa de mortalidad fue del 49%, con una mediana de 33 (22-49,5) días desde el ingreso hasta el fallecimiento. C. albicans fue el principal microorganismo aislado. La resistencia a azoles en especies no albicans existe en nuestro medio. Conclusión: La candidiasis se presenta como candidemia asociada a infección bacteriana concomitante, que cobra mayor importancia en el contexto del paciente inmunosuprimido asociado a elevadas tasas de mortalidad.


Abstract Introduction: Candida spp. is the main cause of fungemia, whose incidence has increased in recent years. There are insufficient local data about this pathology. Materials and methods: This was an observational, retrospective chart review of 44 patients diagnosed with invasive candida who were hospitalized at Fundación Valle del Lili, which is a fourth level center affiliated to Icesi university between 2012 and 2017. Results: We identified 44 patients with invasive candidiasis, 27 of them women (61%). The median age was 56 years (36 - 70). More than 50% had an underlying chronic disease, use of antibiotics (84%), central venous catheter (80%), mechanical ventilation (68%) and enteral nutrition (66%). 80% required management in an intensive care unit. Sepsis (68%) and respiratory failure (61%) were the most common clinical presentation. Almost 90% of the cases, had positive blood cultures, but only 22% presented susceptibility tests. The treatment was mainly fluconazole (80%), associated with caspofungin (70%). The mortality rate was 49%, median of 33 (22-49.5) days from admission to death. Candida albicans was the main isolated organism. Azole resistance in non-albicans species was observed. Conclusion: Candidiasis presents as bacterial infection associated candidemia, which becomes more important in the context of the immunosuppressed patient with high mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Infections , Immunocompromised Host , Fungemia , Candidiasis, Invasive , Candida , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , Colombia , Sepsis , Caspofungin , Infections , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(3): 219-230, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126113

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los azoles son fármacos que inhiben la enzima 14α-esteroldemetilasa, impidiendo la unión de ergosterol; esto altera la estructura y función de la pared celular fúngica. Especialmente el grupo de los triazoles: fluconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol, posaconazol e isavuconazol, son una alternativa farmacológica para el tratamiento de la enfermedad fúngica invasora causada por Aspergillus spp, Candida spp, Cryptococcus spp, patógenos emergentes como los Mucorales, y de micosis endémicas como las ocasionadas por Histoplasma spp y Coccidioides spp. Los efectos adversos de los triazoles son menos frecuentes comparados con los ocasionados por anfotericina B, un antifúngico de uso común para estas micosis. Los principales efectos adversos de los triazoles son hepáticos, gastrointestinales y cardiovasculares como la prolongación del intervalo QT. Las interacciones farmacológicas son usuales y se presentan con moléculas que usan sustratos del citocromo CYP3A4, lo que incluye anti-retrovirales, anti-tuberculosos e inmunomoduladores. En este trabajo se revisan la historia, características farmacológicas y los ensayos clínicos que evidencian su eficacia clínica en los diferentes escenarios clínicos.


Abstract The azoles are drugs that inhibit the 14α-sterol-demethylase enzyme preventing the binding of ergosterol, altering the functionality and structure of the fungal cell wall. Especially the group of triazoles: fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole, are a pharmacological alternative for the treatment of the invasive fungal disease, caused by Aspergillus spp, Candida spp, Cryptococcus spp, by emerging pathogens for example, the Mucoral and finally of endemic mycosis as those caused by Histoplasma spp. and Coccidioides spp. The adverse effects of the triazoles are less frequent compared to those caused by amphotericin B, the main ones being hepatics, gastrointestinals and cardiovasculars, such as the prolongation of the QT interval. The pharmacological interactions are common and occur with molecules that use the substrates of the CYP3A4 cytochrome, for example: antiretroviral, anti-tuberculous and immunomodulators. The history, pharmacological characteristics and clinical trials are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Azoles/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole , Itraconazole , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Voriconazole , Antifungal Agents
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(2): 124-128, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126098

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones por levaduras del género Cryptococcus afectan principalmente a pacientes con déficit de la inmunidad mediada por células. Han sido escasos los estudios de sensibilidad realizados para este género en Chile. Objetivos: Determinar la sensibilidad in vitro de Cryptococcus sp a antifúngicos de uso habitual y evaluar la concordancia esencial entre sensibilidad determinada por microdilución en caldo y por difusión en agar con tiras comerciales. Materiales y Método: Estudio descriptivo de 21 cepas aisladas desde liquido céfalo-raquídeo y sangre. Las CIM50 y CIM90 para fluconazol, voriconazol y anfotericina B se determinaron por microdilución en caldo (Sensititre Yeast One®) y por difusión en agar con tiras comerciales (MIC Test Strips). Resultados: Todas las cepas correspondieron a C. neoformans. Los rangos de CIM50 y CIM90 para cada antifúngico estudiado fueron amplios por ambos métodos. La concordancia esencial entre microdilución y difusión en agar con tiras comerciales fue de 24, 62 y 29% para fluconazol, voriconazol y anfotericina B, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La prueba de Sensititre Yeast One® y la de difusión en agar con tiras comerciales, MIC Test Strips, tienen una pobre concordancia esencial para fluconazol y anfotericina B.


Abstract Background: Cryptococcus yeast infections primarily affect immunocompromised patients. There have been few susceptibility studies conducted for this genus in Chile. Aims: To determine the in vitro susceptibility to commonly used antifungals and evaluate the concordance between susceptibility determined by microdilution in broth and commercially available strips. Methods: Descriptive study of 21 Cryptococcus strains, isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood. The MIC50 and MIC90 for fluconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B was determined by broth microdilution (Sensititre Yeast One®) and by commercial drug sensitivity strips (MIC Test Strips). Results: All strains corresponded to C. neoformans. The ranges of MIC50 and MIC90 for each antifungal studied were wide by both methods. The essential agreement between Sensititre Yeast One test and strips was 24, 62 and 29% for fluconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Conclusions: The Sensititre Yeast One test and MIC Test Strips exhibited poor essential concordance, especially for fluconazole and amphotericin B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis , Cryptococcus neoformans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole , Chile , Antifungal Agents
10.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(1): 40-46, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Statins are used as cholesterol-lowering drugs and may also have direct antimicrobial effects. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate synergic interactions between simvastatin and both amphotericin B and fluconazole, against environmental strains of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from captive birds' droppings. DESIGNAND SETTING: Experimental study conducted at Federal University of Piauí, Parnaíba, in collaboration with Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil. METHODS: Statin susceptibility tests of Cryptococcus neoformans samples were performed as prescribed in standards. Interactions of simvastatin with amphotericin and fluconazole were evaluated using the checkerboard microdilution method. Presence of these interactions was quantitatively detected through determining the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). RESULTS: Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans were obtained from 30 of the 206 samples of dry bird excreta (14.5%) that were collected from pet shops and houses. Ten isolates were selected for susceptibility tests. All of them were susceptible to amphotericin and fluconazole. All presented minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 128 µg/ml and, thus, were resistant in vitro to simvastatin. An in vitro synergic effect was shown through combined testing of amphotericin B and simvastatin, such that six isolates (60%) presented FICI < 0.500. Two isolates showed considerable reductions in MIC, from 1 µg/ml to 0.250 µg/ml. No synergic effect was observed through combining fluconazole and simvastatin. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that simvastatin should be considered to be a therapeutic alternative, capable of potentiating the action of amphotericin B. However, further studies are necessary to clarify the real effect of simvastatin as an antifungal agent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Cryptococcus neoformans , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole , Prospective Studies , Drug Synergism , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200249, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136896

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Coccidioidomycosis, a disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii, is endemic in arid climatic regions in Northeast Brazil. Its prevalence is higher among young adult males living in rural areas. Existing literature about this disease in Ceará, a Northeast Brazilian state, are scarce. Here, we aimed to outline the clinical and epidemiological profiles, radiological patterns, and therapeutic responses of patients with coccidioidomycosis in a reference center in Ceará, Brazil. METHODS This is a descriptive study with quantitative analysis. Patients who underwent medical follow-up in São José Hospital of Infectious Diseases and received confirmed mycological diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis between January, 2007 and December 2017 were included. Epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and therapeutic response data were collected from medical charts. RESULTS Thirty patients were included. The patients were males with median age of 30 years, and 73% were considered to have high-risk exposure to Coccidioides owing to professional activities. Cough (96.7%), dyspnea (63.3%), fever (86.7%), and pleuritic pain (60%) were the most prevalent clinical manifestations. Interstitial pattern (91.3%) was the most frequent pulmonary radiological finding. Fluconazole, amphotericin B, and itraconazole were administered for treatment (in 82.1%, 42.8%, and 21.4% of cases, respectively). A favorable outcome was observed in 83.8% of patients. CONCLUSIONS Coccidioidomycosis was more prevalent in the central and southern regions of the State of Ceará. Understanding the local epidemiology and clinical manifestations of the disease, in addition to the pulmonary radiologic findings, may aid the early detection of coccidioidomycosis and facilitate early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Coccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Coccidioidomycosis/diagnostic imaging , Brazil/epidemiology , Fluconazole , Coccidioides , Itraconazole
13.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 79 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-TESESESSP, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1146099

ABSTRACT

Candidemias caracterizam um grave problema de saúde pública em todo mundo pela alta mortalidade dos casos, onde as espécies apresentam variação epidemiológica e na sensibilidade aos antifúngicos. Objetivou-se demonstrar a frequência de espécies de Candida, enfatizando as espécies crípticas e caracterizar o perfil de sensibilidade antifúngica de cepas em casos de candidemia, internados em hospitais do estado de São Paulo, onde Instituto Adolfo Lutz é o laboratório de referência. As cepas, únicas de cada paciente, foram recebidas de 22 hospitais públicos gerais, filantrópico, escola e especializado em infectologia. A identificação fenotípica para determinação dos complexos deu-se por análise morfológica e bioquímica, por métodos auxanográficos. Para discriminar espécies crípticas aplicaram-se técnicas moleculares das mais simples às complexas, sendo elas: PCR, PCR-RFLP, MALDI-TOF e sequenciamento. Os antifúngicos utilizados nos testes de sensibilidade foram: fluconazol, voriconazol, caspofungina, micafungina, anidulafungina e anfotericina B. Nos anos de 2017 e 2018, foram estudadas 144 cepas de candidemia com as seguintes espécies crípticas: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (47/144; 32,6%), C. orthopsilosis (4/144; 2,7%), C. metapsilosis (2/144; 1,4%), C. albicans ssss (40/144; 27,8%), C. dubliniensis (2/144, 1,4%), C. glabrata (14/144; 9,7%), C. haemulonii (2/144; 1,4%), C. haemulonii var. vulnera (3/144; 2,1); C. duobushaemulonii (1/144; 0,7%) e C. guilliermondii (2/144; 1,4%). As demais espécies foram: C. tropicalis (21/144; 14,6%), C. krusei (4/144; 2,8%), C. pelliculosa (1/144; 0,7%) e C. kefyr (1/144; 0,7%). Para FCZ foram encontradas 3 cepas de C. parapsilosis (3/46; 6,5%; 0,12->64 µg/mL) e em uma de C. tropicalis (1/21; 4,76%; 64 µg/mL) resistentes; observou-se uma cepa non-wild type de C. guilliermondii (1/2; 50%; 64 µg/mL) e altos MICs para 2 cepas de C. haemulonii var. vulnera (2/3; 66,6%; 16-32 µg/mL) e para a única cepa de C. duobushaemulonii (64 µg/mL). Alta taxa de cepas non-wild type ao VCZ (6/14; 42,8%) foi encontrada em C. glabrata. Reafirma-se neste estudo que as espécies do complexo C. haemulonii, consideradas multirresistentes aos antifúngicos, despontam com maior frequência em nosso estado, se comparado aos dados da literatura. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a identificação por métodos moleculares representou importante estratégia para demonstrar a variedade de espécies causais de candidemias e alertar para necessidade de terapias apropriadas. A determinação de espécies crípticas propensas à resistência pode ter impacto na sobrevida de pacientes por fornecer subsídios para terapia empírica com base no perfil epidemiológico da candidemia em cada hospital, região e país.


Subject(s)
Fluconazole , Mortality , Infectious Disease Medicine , Voriconazole , Antifungal Agents
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828724

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the efficacy and safety of fluconazole in the prophylaxis of invasive fungal infection in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.@*METHODS@#Databases including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Wanfang Data, Weipu, and CNKI were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic fluconazole in VLBW infants. Review Manager 5.3 software was used to perform a Meta analysis of the included studies.@*RESULTS@#A total of 12 RCTs were included, involving 1 679 VLBW infants. The Meta analysis showed that prophylactic fluconazole significantly reduced the incidence of invasive fungal infection (RR=0.44, 95%CI: 0.27-0.71, P0.05). No significant differences were found in the incidence of fluconazole resistance and complications between the fluconazole and control groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Prophylactic fluconazole can effectively and safely prevent invasive fungal infection in VLBW infants, even at a small dose.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Fluconazole , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Invasive Fungal Infections
15.
Investig. enferm ; 222020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1119923

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los esfuerzos terapéuticos orientados a atender las micosis por Candidaspp. se han enfocado en el empleo de azoles; sin embargo, en la literatura científica se discute su beneficio, por los amplios y descritos mecanismos de resistencia. Objetivo: Describir los mecanismos de resistencia al fluconazol expresados por la especie Candida glabrata, con la intención de que sean considerados dentro de las variables de elegibilidad para la intervención. Método: Se realizó una revisión integrativa utilizando la pregunta orientadora: ¿cuáles son los mecanismos de resistencia al fluconazol expresados por la especie Candida glabrata? Veintinueve estudios obtenidos de la base de datos PubMed cumplieron los criterios del análisis crítico propuesto por el instrumento PRISMA, utilizado para la selección de los artículos incluidos para su revisión en este manuscrito. Las categorías bajo las cuales se organizaron los elementos de análisis fueron: sobrexpresión de bombas de eflujo y modificaciones en la enzima lanosterol 14-alfa-desmetilasa. Resultados: Los mecanismos de resistencia al fluconazol expresados por Candida glabrata están determinados principalmente por la regulación a la alza de bombas de adenosina-trifosfato Binding Cassette (ABC) y por la modificación del punto de unión con su blanco farmacológico: la enzima lanosterol 14-alfa-desmetilasa. Conclusión: Los mecanismos de resistencia expresados por Candida glabrata se asocian con la modificación estructural de la diana farmacológica y la sobreexpresión de bombas de eflujo de manera diferencial a otras especies. Se sugiere que Candida glabrata es intrínsecamente menos susceptible al fluconazol.


Introduction: Therapeutic efforts aimed at treating mycosis caused by Candida spp. have focused on the use of azoles; however, their benefits have been subject to discussion in scientific literature, due to the extensive and well-described resistance mechanisms. Objective: To describe the resistance mechanisms to fluconazole expressed by the Candida glabrata species, so they are considered within the variables of eligibility for intervention. Method: An integrative review was carried out using the guiding question: what are the fluconazole resistance mechanisms expressed by the Candida glabrata species? Twenty-nine studies obtained from the PubMed database met the criteria for the critical analysis proposed by the PRISMA instrument, which was used for the selection of articles for review included in this paper. The analysis elements were organized in the following categories: overexpression of efflux pumps and modifications in the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha-demethylase. Results: The resistance mechanisms to fluconazole expressed by Candida glabrata are mainly determined by the upregulation of Adenosine triphosphate Binding Cassette (ABC) pumps and by the modification of the point of attachment with its pharmacological target: the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha-demethylase. Conclusion: The resistance mechanisms expressed by Candida glabrata are associated with the structural modification of the pharmacological target and the overexpression of efflux pumps, in a way different to other species. It is suggested that Candida glabrata is intrinsically less susceptible to fluconazole.


Introdução: Os esforços terapêuticos voltados ao tratamento de micose por Candida spp. se focaram no uso de azóis; no entanto, na literatura científica discute-se seu benefício devido aos extensos e descritos mecanismos de resistência. Objetivo: Descrever os mecanismos de resistência ao fluconazol expressos pela espécie Candida glabrata, com a intenção de serem considerados dentro das variáveis de elegibilidade para a intervenção. Método: Uma revisão integrativa foi realizada utilizando a questão norteadora: quais os mecanismos de resistência ao fluconazol expressos pela espécie Candida glabrata? Vinte e nove estudos obtidos da base de dados PubMed atenderam os critérios de análise crítica proposta pelo instrumento PRISMA, utilizado para a seleção dos artigos incluídos para revisão neste manuscrito. As categorias sob as quais se organizaram os elementos de análise foram: superexpressão de bombas de efluxo e modificações na enzima lanosterol 14-alfa-desmetilase. Resultados: Os mecanismos de resistência ao fluconazol expressos por Candida glabrata são determinados principalmente pela regulação positiva das bombas de adenosina-trifosfato Binding Cassette (ABC) e pela modificação do ponto de fixação com seu alvo farmacológico: a enzima lanosterol 14-alfa-desmetilasa. Conclusão: Os mecanismos de resistência expressos por Candida glabrata são associados à modificação estrutural da Diana farmacológica e a superexpressão de bombas de efluxo de maneira diferencial a outras espécies. Sugere-se que Candida glabrata é intrinsecamente menos susceptível ao fluconazol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida glabrata , Fluconazole
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 451-461, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Papiliotrema laurentii is one of several non-neoformans cryptococci that have rarely been associated with human infection, since it was previously considered saprophyte and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. Nevertheless, increasing number of reports of human infection have emerged in recent years, mostly in oncologic patients. Aim: To report a case of a female patient with pyloric obstructive cancer with a catheter-related Papiliotrema laurentii blood stream infection and systematically review the available evidence on P. laurentii infection in humans. Methods: Retrieval of studies was based on Medical Subject Headings and Health Sciences Descriptors, which were combined using Boolean operators. Searches were run on the electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE (PubMed), BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews and Opengray.eu. There was no language or date of publication restrictions. The reference lists of the studies retrieved were searched manually. Results: The search strategy retrieved 1703 references. In the final analysis, 31 references were included, with the description of 35 cases. Every patient but one had a previous co-morbidity - 48.4 % of patients had a neoplasm. Amphotericin B was the most used treatment and only a single case of resistance to it was reported. Most patients were cured of the infection. Conclusion: P. laurentii infection in humans is usually associated to neoplasia and multiple co-morbidities, and amphotericin B seems to be a reliable agent for treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Biopsy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 744-746, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054899

ABSTRACT

Abstract This report describes a case of unusual deep skin ulcers with tortuous sinus tract formation in an immunocompetent woman. She was initially diagnosed with a Staphylococcus aureus skin infection and histopathologically diagnosed with pyoderma gangrenosum. However, culture from the deep end of ribbon gauze inserted into the subcutaneous sinus tract revealed shiny, light-yellow mucoid colonies, which were identified as Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. She was treated with fluconazole for nine months and completely healed. Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by variants of C. neoformans species. Cutaneous manifestations of cryptococcosis are quite divergent, rarely occurring as deep skin ulcers with sinus formation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Skin Ulcer/microbiology , Skin Ulcer/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Immunocompetence , Skin Ulcer/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Immunocompromised Host , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(1): 16-24, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1007865

ABSTRACT

Las úlceras corneales de origen infeccioso son una emergencia oftalmológica que amenaza la visión y la integridad estructural del ojo, causando ceguera en 1,5 a 2 millones de casos al año por lo que requiere tratamiento inmediato. El objetivo fue determinar el patrón epidemiológico, factores de riesgo y efectividad del tratamiento en pacientes con úlcera corneal en la Fundación Visión en el periodo 2015-2017. Estudio de cohorte prospectivo donde se evaluó 53 pacientes con úlcera corneal de causa infecciosa que consultaron en la Fundación Visión en el periodo 2015-2017, y tuvieron un seguimiento mínimo de 4 meses. Se encontró un predominio del sexo masculino (69,8%), edad 45-65 años (49,1%), casados (54,7%), de condición socioeconómica baja (56,6%), agricultores (26,4%), con antecedente de traumatismo corneal (69,8%) o uso de lentes de contacto (17%). El agente etiológico fue bacteriano en el 49,1% y micótico en el 37,7%; para los de origen bacteriano el tratamiento más empleado fueron colirios fortificados de Cefazolina + Gentamicina y Natamicina/Fluconazol en caso de ser micótico. La evolución fue favorable en 90,9% y 80,0% de los bacterianos y micóticos, respectivamente. Los grupos de riesgo detectados fueron pacientes varones, agricultores, de condición socioeconómica baja, con antecedente de traumatismo corneal o uso de lentes de contacto. La efectividad del tratamiento utilizado fue mayor al 80%, siendo en su mayoría patógenos bacterianos(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Corneal Ulcer/drug therapy , Corneal Ulcer/epidemiology , Gentamicins/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Cefazolin/therapeutic use , Corneal Ulcer/microbiology , Natamycin/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Keratitis/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 121-123, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785573

ABSTRACT

Urinary tract infection is common in the pediatric population. The most common causative agents are bacteria, among which Escherichia coli is the most frequent uropathogen. Although fungal urinary tract infection is rare in the healthy pediatric population, it is relatively common among hospitalized patients. Fungus may be isolated from the urine of immunocompromised patients or that of patients with indwelling catheters. The most common cause of funguria is Candida albicans. Although more than 50% of Candida isolates belong to non-albicans Candida , the prevalence of non-albicans candiduria is increasing. Herein, we report a case of community-acquired candiduria in a 4-month-old immunocompetent male infant who had bilateral vesicoureteral reflux and was administered antibiotic prophylaxis. He was diagnosed with urinary tract infection caused by Candida lusitaniae and was managed with fluconazole.


Subject(s)
Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Bacteria , Candida , Candida albicans , Catheters, Indwelling , Escherichia coli , Fluconazole , Fungi , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the synergy of the Burkholderia signaling molecule cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) and fluconazole (FLU) or itraconazole (ITRA) against two azole-resistant C. albicans clinical isolates in vitro and in vivo.@*METHODS@#Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics against two azole-resistant C. albicans were measured by the checkerboard technique, E-test, and time-kill assay. In vivo antifungal synergy testing was performed on mice. Analysis of the relative gene expression levels of the strains was conducted by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).@*RESULTS@#BDSF showed highly synergistic effects in combination with FLU or ITRA with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of ⪕ 0.08. BDSF was not cytotoxic to normal human foreskin fibroblast cells at concentrations of up to 300 μg/mL. The qRT-PCR results showed that the combination of BDSF and FLU/ITRA significantly inhibits the expression of the efflux pump genes CDR1 and MDR1 via suppression of the transcription factors TAC1 and MRR1, respectively, when compared with FLU or ITRA alone. No dramatic difference in the mRNA expression levels of ERG1, ERG11, and UPC2 was found, which indicates that the drug combinations do not significantly interfere with UPC2-mediated ergosterol levels. In vivo experiments revealed that combination therapy can be an effective therapeutic approach to treat candidiasis.@*CONCLUSION@#The synergistic effects of BDSF and azoles may be useful as an alternative approach to control azole-resistant Candida infections.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Pharmacology , Burkholderia cenocepacia , Chemistry , Candida albicans , Physiology , Candidiasis , Drug Therapy , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Fluconazole , Pharmacology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Triazoles , Metabolism
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