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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255080, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364503

ABSTRACT

In the current context of emerging drug-resistant fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, discovery of new antifungal agents is an urgent matter. This research aimed to evaluate the antifungal potential of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide against fluconazole-resistant clinical strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. The antifungal activity of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide was evaluated in vitro by the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), inhibition of biofilm formation and its rupture, sorbitol and ergosterol assays, and association between this molecule and common antifungal drugs, amphotericin B and fluconazole. The test product inhibited all strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, with a MIC ranging from 128 to 256 µg.mL-1, and a MFC of 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. It also inhibited up to 92% of biofilm formation and rupture of up to 87% of preformed biofilm. 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide did not promote antifungal activity through binding to cellular membrane ergosterol nor it damages the fungal cell wall. Antagonism was observed when combining this substance with amphotericin B and fluconazole. The substance exhibited significant antifungal activity by inhibiting both planktonic cells and biofilm of fluconazole-resistant strains. Its combination with other antifungals should be avoided and its mechanism of action remains to be established.


No atual contexto de patógenos fúngicos resistentes emergentes tais como Candida albicans e Candida parapsilosis, a descoberta de novos agentes antifúngicos é uma questão urgente. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antifúngico da 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida contra cepas clínicas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis resistentes a fluconazol. A atividade antifúngica da substância foi avaliada in vitro através da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), concentração fungicida mínima (CFM), ruptura e inibição da formação de biofilme, ensaios de sorbitol e ergosterol, e associação entre esta molécula e antifúngicos comuns, anfotericina B e fluconazol. O produto teste inibiu todas as cepas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis, com uma CIM variando de 128 a 256 µg.mL-1, e uma CFM de 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. Também inibiu até 92% da formação de biofilme e causou a ruptura de até 87% de biofilme pré-formado. A 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida não promoveu atividade antifúngica pela ligação ao ergosterol da membrana celular fúngica, tampouco danificou a parede celular. Antagonismo foi observado ao combinar esta substância com anfotericina B e fluconazol. A substância exibiu atividade antifúngica significativa ao inibir tanto as células planctônicas quanto o biofilme das cepas resistentes ao fluconazol. Sua combinação com outros antifúngicos deve ser evitada e seu mecanismo de ação deve ser estabelecido.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , Candida parapsilosis , Antifungal Agents
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(3): 1284-1306, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425966

ABSTRACT

A candidíase vulvovaginal, é uma infecção da vulva e vagina causada por vários tipos de Candida spp. Essa patologia afeta 75% de todas as mulheres pelo menos uma vez durante a vida, ocorrendo com mais frequência durante a idade fértil. A transmissão dessa infeção fúngica ocorre por meio de contato com mucosas e secreções em pele de portadores ou doentes, contato sexual, água contaminada e transmissão vertical. Alguns outros sintomas característicos mais vistos em casos de CVV, são lesões brancas, cremosas e planas, sendo mais intensos no período pré-menstrual, quando a acidez vaginal aumenta. numerosos antifúngicos estão disponíveis no mercado, os quais são encontrados para administração oral na forma de comprimidos ou, para uso tópico, na forma de cremes, loções, comprimidos vaginais, supositórios e tampões revestidos. O objetivo geral do trabalho foi analisar através da revisão de literatura, tratamentos convencionais e alternativos para abordagem terapêutica da Candidíase Vulvovaginal contextuando a mesma, utilizando definições, dados epidemiológicos e sua sintomatologia frente à sociedade. O presente trabalho é uma revisão integrativa, que teve a coleta de dados realizada de março de 2021 a outubro de 2021 nas bases de dados Lilacs, Scielo, Google acadêmico, A busca resultou em 902 artigos, dos quais 14 atenderam ao critério de inclusão. A busca por tratamentos frente a candidíase vulvovaginal tem se mostrado ampla de acordo com os artigos selecionadas. Concluímos que a patologia candidíase vulvovaginal, vem apresentando resistência em algumas abordagens terapêuticas, assim como algumas mulheres não aderem há algum tipo de tratamento, devido à falta de conhecimento sobre a patologia.


Vulvovaginal candidiasis is an infection of the vulva and vagina caused by various types of Candida spp. This condition affects 75% of all women at least once in their lifetime, occurring more frequently during their childbearing years. The transmission of this fungal infection occurs through contact with mucous membranes and secretions on the skin of patients or patients, sexual contact, contaminated water and vertical transmission. Some other characteristic symptoms more seen in cases of VVC are white, creamy and flat lesions, being more intense in the premenstrual period, when the vaginal acidity increases. numerous antifungals are available on the market which are available for oral administration in tablet form or, for topical use, in the form of creams, lotions, vaginal tablets, suppositories and coated tampons. The general objective of the work was to analyze, through a literature review, conventional and alternative treatments for the therapeutic approach of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in its context, using definitions, epidemiological data and its symptoms in society. The present work is an integrative review, which had data collection carried out from March 2021 to October 2021 in the Lilacs, Scielo, Google academic databases. The search resulted in 902 articles, of which 14 met the inclusion criteria. The search for treatments against vulvovaginal candidiasis has been shown to be wide according to the selected articles. We conclude that the vulvovaginal candidiasis pathology has been showing resistance in some therapeutic approaches, as well as some women do not adhere to any type of treatment, due to lack of knowledge about the pathology.


La candidiasis vulvovaginal es una infección de la vulva y la vagina cau- sada por diversos tipos de Candida spp. Esta afección afecta al 75% de las mujeres al menos una vez en la vida, siendo más frecuente durante la edad fértil. La transmisión de esta infección fúngica se produce por contacto con mucosas y secreciones de la piel de pacientes o enfermos, contacto sexual, agua contaminada y transmisión vertical. Otros síntomas característicos más observados en los casos de CVV son las lesiones blancas, cremosas y planas, siendo más intensas en el período premenstrual, cuando aumenta la acidez vaginal. Existen en el mercado numerosos antifúngicos disponibles para adminis- tración oral en forma de comprimidos o, para uso tópico, en forma de cremas, lociones, comprimidos vaginales, supositorios y tampones recubiertos. El objetivo general del tra- bajo fue analizar, a través de una revisión bibliográfica, los tratamientos convencionales y alternativos para el abordaje terapéutico de la Candidiasis Vulvovaginal en su contexto, utilizando definiciones, datos epidemiológicos y su sintomatología en la sociedad. El pre- sente trabajo es una revisión integradora, que tuvo recolección de datos realizada de marzo de 2021 a octubre de 2021 en las bases de datos académicas Lilacs, Scielo, Google. La búsqueda resultó en 902 artículos, de los cuales 14 cumplieron los criterios de inclu- sión. La búsqueda de tratamientos contra la candidiasis vulvovaginal se ha mostrado am- plia según los artículos seleccionados. Concluimos que la patología de la candidiasis vul- vovaginal viene mostrando resistencia en algunos abordajes terapéuticos, así como algu- nas mujeres no se adhieren a ningún tipo de tratamiento, debido al desconocimiento de la patología.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Therapeutic Uses , Propolis/therapeutic use , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Review , Echinocandins/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(1): e205, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1439316

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las infecciones fúngicas invasivas (IFI) son un problema de salud en creciente aumento. Objetivo: describir las características epidemiológicas, microbiológicas y clínicas de los menores de 15 años con IFI hospitalizados en el Hospital Pediátrico, Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell entre 2010- 2019. Metodología: estudio retrospectivo, mediante revisión de historias clínicas. Variables: edad, sexo, comorbilidades, factores de riesgo, clínica, patógenos, tratamiento y evolución. Resultados: se registraron 26 casos de IFI en 23 niños. La mediana de edad fue 8 años, de sexo femenino 17, con comorbilidades 17: infección por VIH 5, enfermedad hematooncológica 4. Todos presentaban factores de riesgo para IFI. Las manifestaciones clínicas de sospecha fueron: fiebre en 19, síntomas neurológicos 11, respiratorios 9, gastrointestinales 6, urinarios 2, sepsis/shock en 3. Los agentes identificados fueron: Candida spp en 14, Cryptococcus neoformans complex 8 y Aspergillus fumigatus complex 4. Tratamiento: se indicó fluconazol en 15, asociado a anfotericina B 11. Todas las infecciones por candida fueron sensibles a los azoles. Fallecieron 7 niños, la mediana de edad fue 1 año. En 4 se identificó Candida spp, Aspergillus fumigatus complex 2 y Cryptococcus neoformans complex 1. Conclusiones: las IFI son poco frecuentes, afectan en su mayoría a niños inmunocomprometidos asociando elevada mortalidad. El diagnóstico requiere alto índice de sospecha. Candida spp y Cryptococcus spp fueron los agentes más involucrados. El inicio precoz del tratamiento acorde a la susceptibilidad disponible se asocia a menor mortalidad.


Summary: Introduction: invasive fungal infections (IFI) are an increasing health problem. Objective: describe the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical characteristics of children under 15 years of age with IFI hospitalized at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center between 2010-2019. Methodology: retrospective study, review of medical records. Variables: age, sex, comorbidities, risk factors, symptoms, pathogens, treatment and evolution. Results: 26 cases of IFI were recorded involving 23 children. Median age 8 years, female 17, comorbidities 17, HIV infection 5, hematological-oncological disease 4. All with risk factors. Suspicion symptoms: fever 19, neurological symptoms 11, respiratory 9, gastrointestinal 6, urinary 2, sepsis / shock 3. Identified agents: Candida spp 14, Cryptococcus neoformans complex 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus complex 4. Treatment: fluconazole 15, associated with amphotericin B 11. All candida infections were sensitive to azoles. 7 died, median age 1 year. In 4, Candida spp was isolated, Aspergillus fumigatus complex in 2 and Cryptococcus neoformans complex in 1. Conclusions: IFI are rare, mostly affecting immunocompromised children, associated with high mortality. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Candida spp and Cryptococcus spp were the most involved agents. Early treatment according to available susceptibility is associated with lower mortality.


Introdução: as infecções fúngicas invasivas (IFI) são um problema de saúde crescente. Objetivo: descrever as características epidemiológicas, microbiológicas e clínicas de crianças menores de 15 anos com IFI internadas no Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell entre 2010 e 2019. Metodologia: estudo retrospectivo, revisão de prontuários. Variáveis: idade, sexo, comorbidades, fatores de risco, sintomas, patógenos, tratamento e evolução. Resultados: foram registrados 26 casos de IFI em 23 crianças. Idade mediana 8 anos, sexo feminino 17, comorbidades 17, infecção por HIV 5, doença hemato-oncológica 4. Todos com fatores de risco. Suspeita clínica: febre 19, sintomas neurológicos 11, respiratórios 9, gastrointestinais 6, urinários 2, sepse/choque 3. Agentes identificados: Candida spp 14, Cryptococcus neoformans complexo 8 e Aspergillus fumigatus complexo 4. Tratamento: fluconazol 15, associado à anfotericina B 11. Todas as infecções por cândida foram sensíveis aos azóis. 7 morreram, idade média de 1 ano. Em 4 das crianças Cândida spp foi isolada, Aspergillus fumigatus complexo em 2 e Cryptococcus neoformans complexo em 1. Conclusões: IFIs são raras, afetando principalmente crianças imunocomprometidas, associadas a alta mortalidade. O diagnóstico requer alto índice de suspeita. Cândida spp e Cryptococcus spp são os agentes mais envolvidos. O tratamento precoce de acordo com a suscetibilidade disponível está associado a menor mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillus fumigatus , Comorbidity , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Child, Hospitalized , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Cryptococcus neoformans , Candidiasis, Invasive/diagnosis , Candidiasis, Invasive/drug therapy , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/mortality , Caspofungin/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1578-1588, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970630

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the mechanism of n-butanol alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in mice based on the negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome via PKCδ/NLRC4/IL-1Ra axis. In the experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into the following six groups: a blank control group, a VVC model group, high-, medium-, and low-dose BAEB groups(80, 40, and 20 mg·kg~(-1)), and a fluconazole group(20 mg·kg~(-1)). The VVC model was induced in mice except for those in the blank control group by the estrogen dependence method. After modeling, no treatment was carried out in the blank control group. The mice in the high-, medium-, and low-dose BAEB groups were treated with BAEB at 80, 40, and 20 mg·kg~(-1), respectively, and those in the fluconazole group were treated with fluconazole at 20 mg·kg~(-1). The mice in the VVC model group received the same volume of normal saline. The general state and body weight of mice in each group were observed every day, and the morphological changes of Candida albicans in the vaginal lavage of mice were examined by Gram staining. The fungal load in the vaginal lavage of mice was detected by microdilution assay. After the mice were killed, the degree of neutrophil infiltration in the vaginal lavage was detected by Papanicolaou staining. The content of inflammatory cytokines interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-18, and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) in the vaginal lavage was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and vaginal histopathology was analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The expression and distribution of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry(IHC), and the expression and distribution of pNLRC4 and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues were detected by immunofluorescence(IF). The protein expression of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra was detected by Western blot(WB), and the mRNA expression of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra was detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed redness, edema, and white secretions in the vagina. Compared with the VVC model group, the BAEB groups showed improved general state of VVC mice. As revealed by Gram staining, Papanicolaou staining, microdilution assay, and HE staining, compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed a large number of hyphae, neutrophils infiltration, and increased fungal load in the vaginal lavage, destroyed vaginal mucosa, and infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cells. BAEB could reduce the transformation of C. albicans from yeast to hyphae. High-dose BAEB could significantly reduce neutrophil infiltration and fungal load. Low-and medium-dose BAEB could reduce the da-mage to the vaginal tissue, while high-dose BAEB could restore the damaged vaginal tissues to normal levels. ELISA results showed that the content of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, and LDH in the VVC model group significantly increased compared with that in the blank control group, and the content of IL-1β, IL-18 and LDH in the medium-and high-dose BAEB groups was significantly reduced compared with that in the VVC model group. WB and qRT-PCR results showed that compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed reduced protein and mRNA expression of PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues of mice and increased protein and mRNA expression of NLRP3. Compared with the VVC model group, the medium-and high-dose BAEB groups showed up-regulated protein and mRNA expression of PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues and inhibited protein and mRNA expression of NLRP3 in vaginal tissues. This study indicated that the therapeutic effect of BAEB on VVC mice was presumably related to the negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by promoting PKCδ/NLRC4/IL-1Ra axis.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Humans , Mice , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Inflammasomes/genetics , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , 1-Butanol/pharmacology , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Candida albicans , Cytokines , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Ethanol , RNA, Messenger , Calcium-Binding Proteins/therapeutic use
5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(4): 697-706, oct.-dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420316

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El fluconazol es el antifúngico más utilizado para la prevención y el tratamiento de infecciones causadas por el género Cryptococcus, agente etiológico de la criptococosis. La resistencia al fluconazol en los aislamientos de Cryptoccocus neoformans puede hacer fracasar el tratamiento y generar recaídas de la infección. Objetivo. Evaluar los perfiles de expresión de los genes AFR1, MDR1 y ERG11 en aislamientos clínicos de C. neoformans var. grubii, durante la respuesta in vitro a la inducción con fluconazol. Materiales y métodos. Se estudiaron 14 aislamientos de C. neoformans var. grubii provenientes de pacientes con HIV, de los cuales 6 eran sensibles al fluconaol y 8 presentaban sensibilidad disminuida. Los niveles de expresión de los genes ERG11, AFR1 y MDR1 se determinaron mediante PCR en tiempo real. Resultados. Los aislamientos resistentes al fluconazol mostraron sobreexpresión de los genes AFR1 y MDR1, mientras que la expresión de los fenotipos de resistencia evaluados se mantuvo homogénea en ERG11, en todos los aislamientos de C. neoformans var. grubii. Conclusiones. La sobreexpresión de los genes AFR1 y MDR1 que codifican las bombas de eflujo, contribuye a la resistencia al fluconazol en los aislamientos estudiados. Sin embargo, los patrones de resistencia que se registran en este hongo, sumado a los casos de recaídas en pacientes con HIV, no pueden atribuirse únicamente a los casos de resistencia por exposición al fármaco. Otros mecanismos podrían también estar involucrados en este fenómeno, como la resistencia emergente (resistencia mediante otros genes ERG) y la heterorresistencia, los cuales deben ser estudiados en estos aislamientos.


Introduction: Fluconazole is the most used antifungal drug for prevention and treatment of Cryptococcus spp. infections, the etiological agent of cryptococcosis. Resistance to fluconazole among Cryptococcus neoformans isolates can lead to treatment failure and generate relapses. Objective: To evaluate the expression profles of the AFR1, MDR1 and ERG11 genes in C. neoformans var. grubii clinical isolates during the in vitro response to fluconazole induction. Materials and methods: Fourteen C. neoformans var. grubii isolates recovered from HIV patients were studied, in which 6 showed sensitivities to fluconazole and 8 decreased sensitivity. The expression levels of ERG11, AFR1 and MDR1 genes were determined by real-time PCR from extracted mRNA. Results: AFR1 and MDR1 genes from C. neoformans var. grubii were overexpressed in fluconazole resistant isolates, whereas ERG11 maintains homogeneous expression in all the evaluated resistance phenotypes of C. neoformans var. grubii isolates. Conclusions: The overexpression of AFR1 and MDR1 genes, which codify for efflux pumps, contributes to fluconazole resistance in the studied isolates. However, the resistance patterns in this fungus and the relapse cases in HIV patients cannot be attributed solely to the exposure to the drug. Heteroresistance and the emerging resistance (resistance through other ERG genes), might be other mechanisms involved in this phenomenon, which must be studied in these isolations.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cryptococcus neoformans , Azoles , Fluconazole , Cryptococcosis
6.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 12(2): 80-86, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417371

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The finding of Candida species in urine is an usual finding and is called candiduria. There is an increase in the frequency of urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by Candida especially in critically ill patients. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and mycological characteristics of Candida urinary infections in intensive care unit (ICU) and antifungal susceptibilities. Methods: Urine cultures of 394 ICU patients with clinical suspicion of UTI were evaluated. After 24-48 hours of incubation, colonies appeared to grow as yeast, were morphologically examined by Gram staining. Candida strains that grew 104 ≥ CFU/mL in urine cultures were accepted as candiduria. The susceptibilities of the Candida strains to amphotericin B, itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, flucytosine, and caspofungin were investigated with broth microdilution method. Results: The distribution of the isolated 100 urinary Candida strains were as, 54 Candida albicans, 34 C. glabrata, 7 C. tropicalis, 2 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, and 1 as C. parapsilosis. Among 100 Candida species isolated in our study susceptibility rates of amphotericin B, flucytosine, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 100%, 100%, 91%, 23%, 13%, 25.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Accurate identification of Candida spp., as well as the investigating the antifungal susceptibility, will be beneficial in terms of the effectiveness of the treatment and the prevention of resistance development.(AU)


Justificativa e objetivos: O achado de espécies de Candida na urina é um achado comum e é chamado de candidúria. Há um aumento na frequência de infecções do trato urinário (ITU) causadas por Candida, principalmente em pacientes críticos. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar as características epidemiológicas, clínicas e micológicas das infecções urinárias por Candida em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) e a susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos. Métodos: Foram avaliadas culturas de urina de 394 pacientes de UTI com suspeita clínica de ITU. Após 24-48 horas de incubação, as colônias pareceram crescer como leveduras, foram morfologicamente examinadas por coloração de Gram. As cepas de Candida que cresceram ≥104 UFC/mL em culturas de urina foram aceitas como candidúria. As suscetibilidades das cepas de Candida à anfotericina B, itraconazol, fluconazol, voriconazol, flucitosina e caspofungina foram investigadas com o método de microdiluição em caldo. Resultados: A distribuição das cepas 100 isoladas de Candida urinária foi de 54 Candida albicans, 34 C. glabrata, 7 C. tropicalis, 2 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae e 1 como C. parapsilosis. Entre 100 espécies de Candida isoladas em nosso estudo, as taxas de susceptibilidade de anfotericina B, flucitosina, caspofungina, fluconazol, itraconazol e voriconazol foram de 100%, 100%, 91%, 23%, 13%, 25,8%, respectivamente. Conclusão: A identificação precisa de Candida spp., bem como a investigação da susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos, será benéfica em termos de eficácia do tratamento e prevenção do desenvolvimento de resistência.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: El hallazgo de especies de Candida en la orina es un hallazgo habitual y se denomina candiduria. Hay un aumento en la frecuencia de infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) causadas por Candida, especialmente en pacientes críticamente enfermos. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y micológicas de las infecciones urinarias por Candida en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) y la susceptibilidad antifúngica. Métodos: Se evaluaron urocultivos de 394 pacientes de UCI con sospecha clínica de ITU. Después de 24-48 horas de incubación, las colonias parecían crecer como levadura, se examinaron morfológicamente mediante tinción de Gram. Las cepas de Candida que crecieron 104 ≥ UFC / ml en urocultivos se aceptaron como candiduria. Las susceptibilidades de las cepas de Candida a la anfotericina B, itraconazol, fluconazol, voriconazol, flucitosina y caspofungina se investigaron con el método de microdilución en caldo. Resultados: La distribución de las cepas 100 urinarias aisladas de Candida fue de, 54 C. albicans, 34 C. glabrata, 7 C. tropicalis, 2 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae y 1 como C. parapsilosis. Entre las 100 especies de Candida aisladas en nuestro estudio, las tasas de susceptibilidad de anfotericina B, flucitosina, caspofungina, fluconazol, itraconazol y voriconazol fueron 100%, 100%, 91%, 23%, 13%, 25,8%, respectivamente. Conclusión: La identificación precisa de Candida spp., así como la investigación de la susceptibilidad antifúngica, será beneficiosa en términos de la eficacia del tratamiento y la prevención del desarrollo de resistencias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Candida , Intensive Care Units , Fluconazole , Amphotericin B
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19897, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383986

ABSTRACT

Abstract Candida glabrata infections are responsible for deaths of people globally. Fluconazole is known to be less effective against C. glabrata, which developed many strategies to evade being destroyed by fluconazole. To achieve enhanced efficacy of fluconazole against C. glabrata, the interaction of fluconazole with sodium bicarbonate was investigated using the CLSI guidelines. The efficacy of fluconazole alone and in combination with sodium bicarbonate was evaluated using the time-kill and phospholipase production assays. Eventually, the expression of PLB was assessed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR to investigate the inhibitory properties of fluconazole alone and in combination with sodium bicarbonate against C. glabrata. The fluconazole/sodium bicarbonate combination displayed synergistic and antagonistic effects (FICI= 0.375-4.25). In C. glabrata ATCC, SN 152, and SN 164, the fluconazole/sodium bicarbonate combination exhibited a significant fungicidal activity (p< 0.05) but antagonistic effect in the case of SN 283. With exception of SN 283, a significant reduction was noted in phospholipase production in clinical isolates of C. glabrata treated with fluconazole/sodium bicarbonate combination. The PLB was down-regulated significantly by 0.168-0.515 fold in C. glabrata treated with fluconazole/sodium bicarbonate. The results suggested fluconazole/sodium bicarbonate to have a potential synergistic interaction in C. glabrata, and the underlying mechanism may be associated with phospholipase gene


Subject(s)
Phospholipases/antagonists & inhibitors , Fluconazole/agonists , Sodium Bicarbonate/agonists , Candida glabrata/pathogenicity , Efficacy , Infections
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19710, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384010

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to assess if the commercially available Fluconazole drug products (Reference, Generic and Similar) would meet the biowaiver criteria from Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Brazilian Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) agencies. All formulations were evaluated considering the dissolution profile carried out in Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) pH 1.2, Acetate Buffer (AB) pH 4.5 and Simulated Intestinal Fluid (SIF) pH 6.8. The results demonstrated that all formulations fulfilled the 85% of drug dissolved at 30 min criterion in SGF pH 1.2. However, in AB pH 4.5 and SIF pH 6.8, some formulations, including the comparator, did not achieve this dissolution percentage. The discrepant dissolution profiles also failed the ƒ2 similarity factor analysis, since none of the formulations showed values between 50 and 100 in the three dissolution media. Comparative dissolution profiles were not similar, considering that the main issues concerning the dissolution were evidenced for the comparator product. Hence, a revision in the regulatory norms in order to establish criteria to switch the comparator could result in an increased application of drugs based on biowaiver criteria


Subject(s)
Fluconazole/analysis , United States Food and Drug Administration/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Similar/classification , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Dissolution , Acetates/agonists
9.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(2): 547-552, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340650

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to describe the epidemiology of invasive candidiasis in a neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: cross-sectional study that included all neonates with invasive candidiasis confirmed by blood culture from April 2015 to June 2018. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were analyzed, comparing neonates with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) with neonates ≥ 1000g birth weight, considering a p <0.05 as statistically significant. Results: there were 38 cases of invasive candidiasis, resulting in an overall incidence of 2.5%. Twelve (32%) were ELBW neonates and 26 (68%) neonates ≥ 1000g birth weight, an incidence of 4.4% and 2.0%, respectively. Abdominal surgery was more frequent among neonates with birth weight ≥ 1000g compared to ELBW neonates (85% vs. 17%; p <0.01), as well as the median in days of antibiotics use (18 vs. 10.5; p = 0.04). The median in days of mechanical ventilation was more frequent among ELBW neonates (10 vs. 5.5; p = 0.04). The majority of Candida species were non-albicans (64%). Fatality rate was 32%. Conclusions: the incidence of invasive candidiasis among neonates with birth weight ≥ 1000g was higher than that found in the literature. This group has a higher proportion of gastrointestinal malformations that require surgery. Thus, fluconazole prophylaxis may be necessary for a broader group of neonates.


Resumo Objetivos: descrever a epidemiologia de candidíase invasiva em uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal. Métodos: estudo transversal que incluiu todos recém-nascidos com candidíase invasiva confirmada por hemocultura de abril de 2015 a junho de 2018. Foi analisado dados demográficos, clínicos e microbiológicos, comparando recém-nascidos de extremo baixo peso ao nascer (EBPN) com os recém-nascidos com peso ao nascer ≥1000g, considerando um valor de p<0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: houve 38 casos de candidíase invasiva, resultando em uma incidência global de 2,5%. Doze (32%) eram neonatos de EBPN e 26 (68%) neonatos com peso ao nascer ≥1000g, resultando em uma incidência de 4,4% e 2,0%, respectivamente. A realização de cirurgia abdominal foi mais frequente nos neonatos com peso ao nascer ≥1000g em comparação com os neonatos de EBPN (85% vs. 17%; p<0,01), assim como a mediana dos dias de uso de antibióticos (18 vs. 10,5; p =0,04). Já o a mediana dos dias de ventilação mecânica foi mais frequente entre recém-nascido de EBPN (10 vs. 5,5; p = 0,04). A maioria das espécies de Candida eram não-albicans (64%). A letalidade foi de 32%. Conclusões: a incidência de candidíase invasiva entre os recém-nascidos ≥1000g ao nascer foi superior ao encontrado na literatura. Este grupo tem uma maior proporção de malformações gastrointestinais que requerem cirurgia. Assim, a profilaxia com fluconazol pode ser necessária para um grupo mais amplo de recém-nascidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Candidiasis, Invasive/prevention & control , Candidiasis, Invasive/therapy , Candidiasis, Invasive/epidemiology , Tertiary Healthcare , Birth Weight , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight
10.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(3): 390-393, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288675

ABSTRACT

Abstract Spondylodiscitis is an uncommon but serious complication after spine surgeries, and its main etiologic agent is Staphylococcus aureus. Fungal infections are rare and mostly caused by Candida albicans. We report the clinical case of a 69-year-old male patient who underwent a L2-S1 arthrodesis for degenerative scoliosis correction. He presented an infection 2.5 months after the procedure, a spondylodiscitis at L5-S1 levels, caused by Candida parapsilosis. The treatment consisted of surgical material removal, tricortical iliac graft placement in an anterior approach (L5-S1), lumbopelvic fixation (from T10 to the pelvis) in a posterior approach, and drug treatment with anidulafungin and fluconazole. This last medication was administered for 12 months, with good clinical outcomes.


Resumo As espondilodiscites são complicações infrequentes, porém graves em pós-operatórios de cirurgias da coluna vertebral, tendo como principal agente etiológico o Staphylococcus aureus. As infecções fúngicas são raras, sendo a Candida albicans a principal representante desse grupo. Relatamos o caso clínico de um paciente do sexo masculino, 69 anos, operado com artrodese de L2 a S1 para correção de escoliose degenerativa. O paciente apresentou quadro clínico infeccioso 2 meses e meio após o procedimento, relacionado à espondilodiscite L5-S1, causada por Candida parapsilosis. O tratamento consistiu na remoção do material cirúrgico, colocação de enxerto tricortical de ilíaco pela via anterior (L5-S1) e fixação lombopélvica (de T10 à pelve) pela via posterior, além de iniciar o tratamento medicamentoso com anidulafungina e fluconazol, mantendo essa última medicação por 12 meses, com boa evolução clínica.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus , Discitis , Fluconazole , Candida parapsilosis , Anidulafungin , Mycoses
11.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021203, 09 fev. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147180

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The resistance of fungal species to drugs usually used in clinics is of great interest in the medical field. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate susceptibility and in vitro response of species of Trichophyton spp. to antifungal drugs of interest in clinical medicine. METHODS: 12 samples of clinical isolates from humans were used, nine of T. mentagrophytes and three of T. tonsurans. Susceptibility tests were performed according to the agar diffusion (AD) and broth microdilution (BM) methods. RESULTS: In the AD method, the species T. tonsurans presented a percentage of sensitivity of 33% in relation to amphotericin B and 66% to itraconazole, with 100% resistance to ketoconazole and fluconazole. T. mentagrophytes also showed 100% resistance to ketoconazole in this technique, with 11% sensitivity to ketoconazole, 22% to itraconazole and 22% of samples classified as sensitive dose dependent. In the MC method, the species T. tonsurans presented a sensitivity percentage of 66%, 55% and 33% in relation to ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole, respectively. The T. mentagrophytes species presented sensitivity percentages of 11%, 11%, 33% and 55% for amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole and fluconazole, respectively. CONCLUSION: There was resistance in vitro of the species of T. mentagrophytes and T. tonsurans against the antifungal fluconazole and relative resistance against ketoconazole in the AD method. In BM, however, important percentages of sensitivity were observed for the two species analyzed in relation to the antifungals fluconazole and ketoconazole when compared to itraconazole and amphotericin B.


INTRODUÇÃO: A resistência de espécies fúngicas às drogas usualmente empregadas no meio clínico é motivo de grande interesse na área médica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar susceptibilidade e resposta in vitro de espécies de Trichophyton spp. a drogas antifúngicas de interesse em clínica médica. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 12 amostras de isolados clínicos de humanos, sendo nove de T. mentagrophytes e três de T. tonsurans. Foram realizados testes de susceptibilidade segundo os métodos de difusão em ágar (DA) e microdiluição em caldo (MC). RESULTADOS: No método de DA, a espécie T. tonsurans apresentou percentual de sensibilidade de 33% em relação à anfotericina B e de 66% ao itraconazol, com 100% de resistência frente ao cetoconazol e ao fluconazol. A espécie T. mentagrophytes também apresentou 100% de resistência frente ao cetoconazol nesta técnica, com 11% de sensibilidade ao cetoconazol, 22% ao itraconazol e 22% das amostras classificadas como sensível dose dependente. No método de MC, a espécie T. tonsurans apresentou percentual de sensibilidade de 66%, 55% e 33% em relação ao cetoconazol, fluconazol e itraconazol, respectivamente. A espécie T. mentagrophytes apresentou percentuais de sensibilidade de 11%, 11%, 33% e 55% para anfotericina B, itraconazol, cetoconazol e fluconazol, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Houve resistência in vitro das espécies do T. mentagrophytes e T. tonsurans frente ao antifúngico fluconazol e resistência relativa frente ao cetoconazol no método de DA. Na MC, no entanto, foram observados importantes percentuais de sensibilidade das duas espécies analisadas frente aos antifúngicos fluconazol e cetoconazol quando comparadas ao itraconazol e à anfotericina B.


Subject(s)
Trichophyton/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Disease Susceptibility/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Tinea/microbiology , Tinea/drug therapy , Colony Count, Microbial , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology
12.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(supl.1): e1450, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289473

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Minthostachys mollises una planta aromática que crece en América Latina y produce aceites esenciales con acción antimicrobiana. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis en diferentes concentraciones, comparado con doxiciclina y fluconazol frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans, a las 24, 48 y 72 horas. Métodos: Se realiza estudio experimental in vitro y longitudinal. Se prepararon 15 pocillos por subgrupo para evaluar el efecto inhibitorio de todas las concentraciones, dando un total de 360 pocillos. Por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas se identificaron los componentes químicos del aceite esencial. Se analizó el efecto inhibitorio por el método de difusión de Kirby-Bauer en Agar Columbia y Agar Muller Hinton. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba ANOVA y Tukey. Resultados: En el análisis químico se identificó principalmente pulegona (30,17 por ciento) y mentona (16,55 por ciento). Los halos de inhibición de Minthostachys mollis al 100 por ciento a las 24, 48 y 72 horas frente a la Porphyromonas gingivalis, midieron: 10,2 mm, 9,8 mm y 9,6 mm, respectivamente; frente al Staphylococcus aureus, midieron: 10,4 mm, 9,7 mm y 9,4 mm, respectivamente; y, por último, frente a Candida albicans midieron: 9,8 mm, 8,9 mm y 8,5 mm, respectivamente. Todas las concentraciones de Minthostachys mollis presentaron un efecto antimicrobiano significativamente menor que el fluconazol y la doxiciclina (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: El aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis al 100 % presentó su mejor actividad inhibitoria frente al Staphylococcus aureus, la Porphyromonas gingivalis y la Candida albicans a las 24 horas. Sin embargo, este efecto antimicrobiano disminuye a medida que pasa el tiempo(AU)


Introduction: Minthostachys mollis is an aromatic plant species growing in Latin America which produces essential oils with antimicrobial activity. Objective: Determine the activity of essential oil from Minthostachys mollis at various concentrations as compared with doxycycline and fluconazole against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Methods: An in vitro experimental longitudinal study was conducted. Fifteen wells were prepared per subgroup to evaluate the inhibitory effect of all concentrations, for a sum total of 360 wells. Chemical components of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The inhibitory effect was analyzed with the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton and Columbia agar. Statistical analysis was based on ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: Chemical analysis mainly found pulegone (30.17 percent) and menthone (16.55 percent). The inhibition halos of 100 percent Minthostachys mollis at 24, 48 and 72 hours against Porphyromonas gingivalis measured 10.2 mm, 9.8 mm and 9.6 mm, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus they measured 10.4 mm, 9.7 mm and 9.4 mm, respectively, and against Candida albicans they measured 9.8 mm, 8.9 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively. The antimicrobial effect of Minthostachys mollis at all concentrations was significantly lower than that of fluconazole and doxycycline (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The essential oil from 100% Minthostachys mollis displayed its best inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans at 24 hours. However, such antimicrobial effect decreases with the passing of time(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile , Fluconazole , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, Gas , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Longitudinal Studies , Chemical Phenomena
13.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 53-66, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-959963

ABSTRACT

@#<p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background. </strong>Preterm infants with very low birth weight are at increased risk of invasive fungal infections. Preventive strategies are needed to improve their clinical course and survival.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objectives. </strong>To assess the efficacy and safety of antifungal agents as prophylaxis in controlling invasive fungal infection and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants in neonatal intensive care units.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methods. </strong>We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane databases, Google Scholar, Trip database, Herdin, and ClinicalTrials.gov without language restriction and publications from January 1988 to May 2021. We included randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials that compared the effect of prophylactic oral or systemic antifungal agents versus placebo in preterm infants < 37 weeks age of gestation and with birth weight lower than 1500 grams. We conducted a meta-analysis using RevMan 5.4.1 and certainty of evidence rating using GRADEpro software.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results. </strong>A total of 14 studies (including 3,001 preterm infants with VLBW) were included. We found that prophylactic use of nystatin significantly reduced the incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFI) (pooled RR 0.16; 95% CI 0.11, 0.23; 4 RCTs, N = 1295; P < 0.00001; moderate certainty evidence) in preterm infants compared to placebo but had no significant effect on the mortality (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.62, 1.23; 4 RCTs, N = 1295; P = 0.43; low certainty evidence). Similarly, fluconazole decreased the incidence of IFI (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.28, 0.53; P = 0.02) and showed statistically significant reduction in mortality (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.61, 0.99; RCTs, N = 1484; P = 0.04; high certainty evidence). The comparison of the two antifungals showed a trend favoring fluconazole, however the difference was not statistically significant in decreasing IFI (RR 1.60; 95% CI 0.68, 3.77; P = 0.28) and mortality (RR 1.62; 95% CI 0.76, 3.45; P = 0.21).</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusion.</strong> Administration of antifungal prophylaxis proves to be beneficial and can probably decrease invasive fungal infection and mortality. The evidence showed that Fluconazole is superior as antifungal prophylaxis compared to placebo while there is no significant difference between fluconazole and nystatin in decreasing fungal infection and mortality among preterm neonates.</p>


Subject(s)
Nystatin , Fluconazole , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06988, 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351274

ABSTRACT

In this study, an outbreak of spontaneous poisoning by Dodonaea viscosa (D. viscosa) in a herd of dairy cattle in the municipality of Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, was investigated. Three deaths occurred in a batch of 16 Jersey cattle, aged between three and four years, kept in a native field. The clinical signs observed were apathy, decreased production, and anorexia, with death occurring within approximately 48 h after the onset of signs. The three cattle were necropsied, and tissue samples were sent for histopathological examination. Necropsy findings included serosanguineous fluid in the abdominal cavity, intestines with congested serosa, and marked mesenteric edema. The mucosa of the abomasum of two of the animals was hemorrhagic with bloody content, and among the ruminal content of a bovine, leaves with morphological characteristics compatible with D. viscosa were observed. The livers of the three animals were enlarged, with accentuation of the lobular pattern. Histologically, centrilobular coagulation necrosis with congestion and hemorrhage was observed in the liver. Vacuolization and degeneration of hepatocytes were observed in the mid-zonal and periportal regions. The diagnosis of poisoning by D. viscosa leaves was based on epidemiological data, necropsy findings, and histopathological alterations. The presence of the plant in the rumen and in the grazing site of the affected cattle was essential for the diagnosis.(AU)


Neste trabalho, é descrito um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Dodonaea viscosa (D. viscosa) ocorrido em um rebanho de bovinos leiteiros, no município de Capão do Leão, no Rio Grande do Sul. Ocorreram três mortes em um lote de 16 bovinos da raça Jersey com idades entre três e quatro anos, mantidos em campo nativo. Os sinais clínicos observados foram apatia, queda na produção e anorexia, com morte em aproximadamente 48 horas após o início dos sinais. Os três bovinos foram necropsiados, e amostras de tecidos foram encaminhadas para exame histopatológico. Os achados de necropsia incluíam líquido serossanguinolento na cavidade abdominal, intestinos com serosas congestas e marcado edema de mesentério. A mucosa do abomaso de dois animais apresentava-se hemorrágica com conteúdo sanguinolento e, em meio ao conteúdo ruminal de um bovino foram observadas folhas com caracteres morfológicos compatíveis com D. viscosa. O fígado dos três animais estava aumentado, com acentuação do padrão lobular. Histologicamente no fígado havia necrose de coagulação centrolobular com congestão e hemorragia. Nas regiões médio-zonal e periportal observou-se vacuolização e degeneração dos hepatócitos. O diagnóstico de intoxicação pelas folhas D. viscosa foi baseado nos dados epidemiológicos, nos achados de necropsia e nas alterações histopatológicas. A presença da planta no rúmen e no local de pastoreio dos bovinos afetados foi fundamental para o diagnóstico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Poisoning , Blood Coagulation , Hepatocytes , Sapindaceae , Fluconazole , Necrosis
15.
Infectio ; 24(4): 217-223, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114872

ABSTRACT

Resumen Candida spp. es un agente etiológico importante en infecciones del tracto urinario, principalmente en población con terapia antimicótica de amplio espectro y con catéteres urinarios. Candida albicans es la especie más frecuente, pero otras especies han surgido como patógenos emergentes. En este trabajo se recolectaron aislamientos de Candida spp. de urocultivos de pacientes que consultaron en Dinamica IPS entre enero 2016 y noviembre 2017. Para estimar la frecuencia de las especies y observar los patrones de sensibilidad, se realizó la identificación fenotípica y su perfil de sensibilidad con el sistema comercial Vitek 2® (BioMérieux, Inc.), adicionalmente se evaluaron mediante análisis de las secuencia y filogenética ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. En el estudio se incluyeron 78 aislamientos de Candida spp. Las frecuencias de especies de Candida identificadas empleando las herramientas moleculares fueron: C. albicans (38,5%), C. tropicalis (23,1%), C. glabrata (21,8%), C. parapsilosis (10,3%), C. metapsilosis y C. krusei (2,5%) y C. guillermondi (1,3%). La identificación por métodos moleculares y por el sistema Vitek 2 fue: C. albicans (93,3%), C. glabrata (94,1%), C. tropicalis (83,3%), C. parapsilosis (75%) C. guilliermondii y C. krusei (100%). La sensibilidad de todos los aislamientos al fluconazol fue 93,6%.


Abstract Candida spp is an important etiologic agent in urinary tract infections, mainly in patients in broad-spectrum antifungal therapy, with urinary catheters. Candida albicans is the most frequent specie; but other species have arised as emerging pathogens. In this study, isolates of Candida spp. of urine cultures from patients who consulted in Dinamica IPS between January 2016 and November 2017 were evaluated. To estimate the frequency of the species and to observe the sensitivity patterns, the phenotypic identification and its sensitivity profile was performed employed the Vitek 2® commercial system. (BioMérieux, Inc) In addition the isolates were evaluated by sequence analysis and phylogenetics ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. This study included 78 isolates of Candida spp. The frequencies of Candida species identified using the molecular tools were: C. albicans (38.5%), C. tropicalis (23.1%), C. glabrata (21.8%), C. parapsilosis (10.3%), C. guillermondi (1.3%) and C. metapsilosis and C. krusei (2.5%). The identification by molecular methods and by Vitek 2 system were: C. albicans (93.3%), for C. glabrata (94.1%), C. tropicalis (83.3%), C. parapsilosis (75%) and 100% for C. guilliermondii and C. krusei.. fluconazole sensitivity of all isolates was 93.6%


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Candida , Diagnostic Techniques, Urological , Candida parapsilosis , Laboratories , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , Sequence Analysis , Urinary Catheters , Infections
16.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 489-494, dez 5, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358023

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: investigar a suscetibilidade de cepas fúngicas de Candida parapsilosis isoladas de sangue humano frente ao timol, bem como seu mecanismo de ação. Metodologia: foram utilizadas técnicas de microdiluição em placas de 96 poços para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração fungicida mínima (CFM). Além disso, foram realizados testes com o sorbitol e o ergosterol para investigar a ação do timol na parede e na membrana celular fúngica respectivamente. Resultados: nos testes de CIM e CFM, foi observado que as cepas de C. parapsilosis são resistentes ao fluconazol e a anfotericina B, no entanto, o timol desempenhou efeito fungicida com razão CFM/CIM entre 1 e 2. Além disso, a CIM do timol não aumentou quando o sorbitol ou o ergosterol foi adicionado no meio, sugerindo fortemente que este monoterpeno não age na parede celular fúngica ou por ligação ao ergosterol na membrana plasmática. Conclusão: portanto, esses resultados contribuem para a elucidação do mecanismo de ação do timol, sugerindo outros possíveis alvos de interação fármaco-receptor. No entanto, mais investigações de caráter enzimático e molecular em modelos in vitro são necessários para que se possa elucidar completamente o modo de ação desse promissor monoterpeno.


Objective: to investigate the susceptibility of fungal strains of Candida parapsilosis isolated from human blood against thymol, as well as its mechanism of action. Methodology: microdilution techniques were used in 96-well plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). In addition, tests were performed with sorbitol and ergosterol to investigate the action of thymol on the wall and on the fungal cell membrane respectively. Results: in the CIM and CFM tests, it was observed that C. parapsilosis strains are resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B, however, thymol had a fungicidal effect with MFC/MIC ratio between 1 and 2. In addition, thymol MIC did not increase when sorbitol or ergosterol was added in the medium, strongly suggesting that this monoterpene does not act on the fungal cell wall or by binding to ergosterol on the plasma membrane. Conclusion: therefore, these results contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of action of thymol, suggesting other possible targets of drug-receptor interaction. However, further investigations of enzymatic and molecular character in in vitro models are necessary to fully elucidate the mode of action of this promising monoterpene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thymol , Fluconazole , Amphotericin B , Candidiasis, Invasive , Candida parapsilosis , Anti-Infective Agents , Antifungal Agents , Sorbitol , Ergosterol
17.
Vive (El Alto) ; 3(9): 227-246, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252340

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: las infecciones fúngicas ocasionadas por levaduras del género Cándida son extremadamente comunes en mujeres de edad reproductiva, y constituyen un motivo de atención medica de salud. OBJETIVO: evaluar la susceptibilidad de Cándidas spp, mediante el método colorimétrico (Integral Yeast System Plus). MÉTODO: fue de tipo descriptivo, transversal; se recopiló información mediante observación directa en campo y el análisis documental para obtener información bibliográfica de tipo secundaria. RESULTADOS: de los 72 casos encontrados de Cándida Albicans revela que son susceptibles a la anfotericina B (2ug/ml); de los 5 casos encontrados de Cándida Krusei revela que son sensibles a la Anfotericina B (2ug/ml); De 1 caso encontrado de Cándida Parapsilosis revela sensibilidad en la Nistatina (1.25ug/ml). En este estudio la prevalencia de la infección por Cándida fue del (44.98%). CONCLUSIONES: Cándida Albicans fue la especie más común aislada en las mujeres embarazadas representando un 72%, En la evaluación de la susceptibilidad a través del kit Integral System Yeast Plus se obtuvo que Cándida Albicans es susceptible a Anfotericina B, Flucitosina entre otros, en Cándida Glabrata se obtuvo que es sensible a la Nistatina, Anfotericina B, susceptible entre otros, en Cándida Krusei se obtuvo que es sensible a la Anfotericina B, Clotrimazol, Miconazol, susceptibles a la Nistatina, Voriconazol y resistente a la Flucitosina, Ketoconazol, Itraconazol y Fluconazol.


INTRODUCTION: fungal infections caused by yeast of the genus Candida are extremely common in women of reproductive age, and constitute a reason for medical health care. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the susceptibility of Candida spp, using the colorimetric method (Integral Yeast System Plus). METHOD: it was descriptive, transversal; Information was collected through direct observation in the field and documentary analysis to obtain secondary bibliographic information. RESULTS: of the 72 cases found, Candida Albicans reveals that they are susceptible to amphotericin B (2ug / ml); of the 5 cases found, Candida Krusei reveals that they are sensitive to Amphotericin B (2ug / ml); Of 1 case found of Candida Parapsilosis reveals sensitivity in Nystatin (1.25ug / ml). In this study, the prevalence of Candida infection was (44.98%). CONCLUSIONS: Candida Albicans was the most common species isolated in pregnant women, representing 72%. In the evaluation of susceptibility through the Integral System Yeast Plus kit it was obtained that Candida Albicans is susceptible to Amphotericin B, Flucytosine among others, in Candida Glabrata was obtained that it is sensitive to Nystatin, Amphotericin B, susceptible among others, in Candida Krusei it was obtained that it is sensitive to Amphotericin B, Clotrimazole, Miconazole, susceptible to Nystatin, Voriconazole and resistant to Flucytosin, Ketoconazole, Itraconazole and Fluconazole.


INTRODUÇÃO: as infecções fúngicas causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida são extremamente comuns em mulheres em idade reprodutiva e constituem motivo de cuidados médicos. OBJETIVO: avaliar a suscetibilidade de Candida spp, por meio do método colorimétrico (Integral Yeast System Plus). MÉTODO: foi descritivo, transversal; as informações foram coletadas por meio de observação direta em campo e análise documental para obtenção de informações bibliográficas secundárias. RESULTADOS: Dos 72 casos encontrados, Cândida Albicans revelou ser suscetíveis à anfotericina B (2ug /ml); dos 5 casos encontrados, Candida Krusei revela que são sensíveis à Anfotericina B (2ug / ml); de 1 caso encontrado de Candida Parapsilosis revela sensibilidade na Nistatina (1,25ug / ml). Neste estudo, a prevalência de infecção por Candida foi (44,98%). CONCLUSÕES: Cândida Albicans foi a espécie mais comum isolada em gestantes, representando 72%. Na avaliação da susceptibilidade através do kit Integral System Yeast Plus foi obtido que Candida Albicans é suscetível à Anfotericina B, Flucitosina entre outras, em Cândida Glabrata foi obtido que é sensível a Nistatina, Anfotericina B, suscetível entre outras, em Candida Krusei foi obtido que é sensível a Anfotericina B, Clotrimazol, Miconazol, suscetível a Nistatina, Voriconazol e resistente a Flucitosina, Cetoconazol, Itraconazol e Fluconazol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Candida , Candida albicans , Amphotericin B , Colorimetry , Candida glabrata , Pregnant Women , Fluconazole , Prevalence , Clotrimazole , Itraconazole , Voriconazole , Flucytosine , Candida parapsilosis , Infections , Miconazole
18.
Infectio ; 24(3): 143-148, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114857

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Candida spp. Es la principal causa de fungemia, cuya incidencia ha aumentado en los últimos años. Existen datos locales insuficientes sobre este tipo de infecciones. Materiales y métodos: Este fue un estudio observacional retrospectivo de 44 pacientes diagnosticados con candidiasis invasiva hospitalizados en la Fundación Valle del Lili, el cual es un centro de cuarto nivel afiliado a la Universidad Icesi en el Suroccidente Colombiano, entre los años 2012 a 2017. Resultados: Se identificaron 44 pacientes con candidiasis invasiva, 27 de ellos mujeres (61%). La mediana de edad fue de 56 años (36 - 70). Más del 50% tenían una enfermedad crónica subyacente, uso de antibióticos (84%), catéter venoso central (80%), ventilación mecánica (68%) y nutrición enteral (66%) El 80% requirió manejo en unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) donde debutaron con sepsis (68%) y falla respiratoria (61%). En el 90% de los casos se aisló alguna especie de Candida spp. A partir de hemocultivo y sólo al 22% se le realizó prueba de sensibilidad. El tratamiento de elección fue con fluconazol (80%), asociado a caspofungina (70%). La tasa de mortalidad fue del 49%, con una mediana de 33 (22-49,5) días desde el ingreso hasta el fallecimiento. C. albicans fue el principal microorganismo aislado. La resistencia a azoles en especies no albicans existe en nuestro medio. Conclusión: La candidiasis se presenta como candidemia asociada a infección bacteriana concomitante, que cobra mayor importancia en el contexto del paciente inmunosuprimido asociado a elevadas tasas de mortalidad.


Introduction: Candida spp. is the main cause of fungemia, whose incidence has increased in recent years. There are insufficient local data about this pathology. Materials and methods: This was an observational, retrospective chart review of 44 patients diagnosed with invasive candida who were hospitalized at Fundación Valle del Lili, which is a fourth level center affiliated to Icesi university between 2012 and 2017. Results: We identified 44 patients with invasive candidiasis, 27 of them women (61%). The median age was 56 years (36 - 70). More than 50% had an underlying chronic disease, use of antibiotics (84%), central venous catheter (80%), mechanical ventilation (68%) and enteral nutrition (66%). 80% required management in an intensive care unit. Sepsis (68%) and respiratory failure (61%) were the most common clinical presentation. Almost 90% of the cases, had positive blood cultures, but only 22% presented susceptibility tests. The treatment was mainly fluconazole (80%), associated with caspofungin (70%). The mortality rate was 49%, median of 33 (22-49.5) days from admission to death. Candida albicans was the main isolated organism. Azole resistance in non-albicans species was observed. Conclusion: Candidiasis presents as bacterial infection associated candidemia, which becomes more important in the context of the immunosuppressed patient with high mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Infections , Immunocompromised Host , Fungemia , Candidiasis, Invasive , Candida , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , Colombia , Sepsis , Caspofungin , Infections , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents
19.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 270-275, set 24, 2020. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358164

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cucurbita pepo L. is an herbaceous plant belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. The species is popularly used in different countries for the treatment of diabetes and parasitic diseases. Objective: This study evaluated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm potential of aqueous extracts of leaves and seeds of C. pepo. Methodology: the extracts were tested in vitro against strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans and Candida krusei. The antimicrobial activity was performed by the microtiter method and the antibiofilm activity by the violet crystal method. Results: the results demonstrated that the extracts tested showed antibacterial and antibiofilm actions against S. pyogenes, but it was not possible to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The extracts inhibited the growth of C. albicans and C. krusei with MIC of 0.03 mg/mL. The antibiofilm activity of these species did not present either a dose dependence relationship or a synergistic effect when associated with the antifungal Fluconazole®. Conclusion: although there are indications of antimicrobial and inhibitory action in the formation of biofilm, additional studies are necessary to characterize the possible pharmacological effects of the analyzed specie.


Introdução: Cucurbita pepo L. é uma planta herbácea pertencente à família Cucurbitaceae. A espécie é usada popularmente em diferentes países para tratamento de diabetes e parasitoses. Objetivo: esse trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial antimicrobiano e antibiofilme de extratos aquosos de folhas e sementes de C. pepo. Metodologia: os extratos foram testados in vitro contra cepas de Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans e Candida krusei. A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pelo método de microtitulação e a atividade antibiofilme pelo método de cristal de violeta. Resultados: os resultados demonstraram que os extratos testados apresentaram ação contra S. pyogenes, tanto em relação ao controle do crescimento bacteriano como inibição de formação de biofilme, mas não foi possível determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM). Os extratos inibiram o crescimento C. albicans e C. krusei com CIM de 0.03 mg/mL. A atividade antibiofilme dessas espécies não apresentou relação de dose dependência nem de efeito sinérgico quando associado ao antifúngico Fluconazol®. Conclusão: Embora haja indicativos de ação antimicrobiana e inibitória na formação de biofilme, são necessários estudos adicionais para a caracterização dos possíveis efeitos farmacológicos da espécie analisada.


Subject(s)
Plants , Streptococcus pyogenes , Candida albicans , Cucurbita pepo , Cucurbitaceae , Fluconazole
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(3): 219-230, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126113

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los azoles son fármacos que inhiben la enzima 14α-esteroldemetilasa, impidiendo la unión de ergosterol; esto altera la estructura y función de la pared celular fúngica. Especialmente el grupo de los triazoles: fluconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol, posaconazol e isavuconazol, son una alternativa farmacológica para el tratamiento de la enfermedad fúngica invasora causada por Aspergillus spp, Candida spp, Cryptococcus spp, patógenos emergentes como los Mucorales, y de micosis endémicas como las ocasionadas por Histoplasma spp y Coccidioides spp. Los efectos adversos de los triazoles son menos frecuentes comparados con los ocasionados por anfotericina B, un antifúngico de uso común para estas micosis. Los principales efectos adversos de los triazoles son hepáticos, gastrointestinales y cardiovasculares como la prolongación del intervalo QT. Las interacciones farmacológicas son usuales y se presentan con moléculas que usan sustratos del citocromo CYP3A4, lo que incluye anti-retrovirales, anti-tuberculosos e inmunomoduladores. En este trabajo se revisan la historia, características farmacológicas y los ensayos clínicos que evidencian su eficacia clínica en los diferentes escenarios clínicos.


Abstract The azoles are drugs that inhibit the 14α-sterol-demethylase enzyme preventing the binding of ergosterol, altering the functionality and structure of the fungal cell wall. Especially the group of triazoles: fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole, are a pharmacological alternative for the treatment of the invasive fungal disease, caused by Aspergillus spp, Candida spp, Cryptococcus spp, by emerging pathogens for example, the Mucoral and finally of endemic mycosis as those caused by Histoplasma spp. and Coccidioides spp. The adverse effects of the triazoles are less frequent compared to those caused by amphotericin B, the main ones being hepatics, gastrointestinals and cardiovasculars, such as the prolongation of the QT interval. The pharmacological interactions are common and occur with molecules that use the substrates of the CYP3A4 cytochrome, for example: antiretroviral, anti-tuberculous and immunomodulators. The history, pharmacological characteristics and clinical trials are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Azoles/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole , Itraconazole , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Voriconazole , Antifungal Agents
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