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1.
Med. infant ; 28(1): 16-22, Marzo 2021. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1282313

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Para disminuir la aparición de hiponatremias en los últimos años se aumentaron las concentraciones de sodio en las soluciones de mantenimiento, llegando a recomendarse las isotónicas, con mejoras de laboratorio pero con dudoso impacto clínico. En el Hospital Garrahan se utiliza una solución estándar hipotónica con cloruro de sodio 0,45%. Antes de reemplazar la solución según recomendaciones internacionales se decidió establecer la prevalencia de hiponatremia en pacientes internados, y su asociación con la solución estándar de hidratación. Población y métodos: Pacientes de 1 mes a 18 años, internados en el Hospital Garrahan. Estudio prospectivo y observacional. Se registró si el paciente recibía hidratación parenteral y la concentración de sodio. Se consideró hiponatremia significativa la presencia de sodio sérico menor a 130 mEq/L. y/o la presencia de síntomas compatibles con hiponatremia. Resultados: En 3003 internaciones la prevalencia global de hiponatremias diagnosticadas fue 4.4%, y asciende a 6.3% si se consideran solo los pacientes que fueron estudiados con ionograma (se le extrajo ionograma al 70,6% de los pacientes internados). La prevalencia de hiponatremias significativas fue de 1.5% (n=44) de los internados, y las hiponatremias significativas en internados que recibían la solución hipotónica estándar de mantenimiento fue de 0.3% (n=9). Conclusiones: En una población donde se utiliza una solución estándar con cloruro de sodio 0,45% -pero se modifica individualmente para las necesidades de cada paciente- la prevalencia de hiponatremias totales y significativas fue similar e incluso inferior a la publicada en otras series. (AU)


Introduction: To reduce the appearance of hyponatremia, in recent years, sodium concentrations were increased in maintenance solutions, and isotonic solutions were recommended, leading to improvements in laboratory studies, but with a doubtful clinical impact. A standard hypotonic solution with 0.45% sodium chloride is used at Garrahan Hospital. Before replacing the solution according to international recommendations, it was decided to determine the prevalence of hyponatremia in inpatients and its association with the standard hydration solution. Population and methods: Patients from 1 month to 18 years old, hospitalized at Garrahan Hospital. Prospective and observational study. Parenteral hydration of the patient and the sodium concentration were recorded. Significant hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium less than 130 mEq/L, and/or the presence of symptoms of hyponatremia. Results: In 3003 hospitalizations, the overall prevalence of diagnosed hyponatremia was 4.4%, increasing to 6.3% if only patients in whom a ionogram was performed were included (a ionogram was performed in 70.6% of the inpatients). Of all inpatients, 1.5% (n=44) had significant hyponatremia, and 0.3% (n=9) of the patients receiving the standard maintenance hypotonic solution had significant hyponatremia. Conclusions: In a population in whom a standard solution with 0.45% sodium chloride is used - but which is individually modified according to the needs of each patient - the prevalence of total and significant hyponatremia was similar and even lower than that reported in other series (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Osmolar Concentration , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Child, Hospitalized , Fluid Therapy , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Hyponatremia/therapy , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): 62-66, feb. 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147175

ABSTRACT

El síndrome urémico hemolítico asociado a diarrea es precedido por una gastroenteritis por Escherichia coli productora de toxina Shiga. Se recomiendan medidas de sostén, especialmente, la restricción hídrica para evitar la sobrecarga cardiopulmonar. Sin embargo, la expansión de volumen con líquidos isotónicos, en el período prodrómico o síndrome urémico hemolítico establecido, es segura y eficaz, reduce los requerimientos de diálisis, los días de internación y de terapia intensiva, los eventos neurológicos y la hiponatremia.Por ello, se propone, bajo supervisión nefrológica y/o garantizando el acceso a un centro de alta complejidad a corto plazo, hidratar a todo paciente sin signos de sobrecarga cardiopulmonar, independientemente de su función renal, con expansión inicial de volumen. Luego, si se logra una diuresis adecuada, no dializarlo (excepto que presente un trastorno metabólico/electrolítico intratable médicamente) y continuar la hidratación con una solución isotónica de dextrosa al 5 % para una adecuada hidratación y diuresis.


Diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome is preceded by gastroenteritis due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Support measures are recommended, specifically, fluid restriction to avoid cardiopulmonary overload. However, in the prodromal period or with established hemolytic uremic syndrome, volume expansion with isotonic fluids is safe and effective, and reduces the need for dialysis, the length of hospital and intensive care stay, neurological events, and hyponatremia.Therefore, when nephrological monitoring is available and/or short-term access to a tertiary care hospital is guaranteed, it is suggested to hydrate patients with no signs of cardiopulmonary overload, regardless of their renal function, with initial volume expansion. Afterwards, if an adequate urine output is achieved, the patient should not be dialyzed (except if they have a medically intractable metabolic/electrolyte disorder) and hydration should be continued with an isotonic solution containing 5 % dextrose for adequate hydration and urine output.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Fluid Therapy , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome , Pediatrics , Dehydration/complications , Extracellular Fluid
3.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 241-248, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1150686

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a produção científica em enfermagem acerca dos cuidados para a avaliação, prevenção e tratamento da xerose cutânea em idosos. Método: Revisão integrativa realizada nas bases Literatura LatinoAmericana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Biblioteca Virtual Scientific Eletronic Library Online, PubMed Central e Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, no período de agosto a dezembro de 2017. Resultados: Foram analisados 14 artigos dos quais emergiram três categorias: A hidratação oral e tópica para o cuidado do idoso com xerose cutânea; A utilização de instrumentos e o cuidado a xerose relacionada aos pés; e por fim Medidas de higiene e processos de escolha/indicação de produtos. Conclusão: Os cuidados de enfermagem devem estar voltados à educação para o autocuidado com ênfase na hidratação dos pés bem como na indicação e orientação acerca do uso de produtos com a finalidade de minimizar as complicações oriundas da xerose


Objective: To analyze the scientific production in nursing about the care for the evaluation, prevention and treatment of cutaneous xerosis in the elderly. Method: Integrative review carried out in the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences, Virtual Electronic Library Online, PubMed Central and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, from August to December 2017. Results: Analyzed 14 articles from which emerged three categories: Oral and topical hydration for the care of the elderly with cutaneous xerosis; The use of instruments and care for xerosis related to the feet; and finally Hygiene measures and product selection / indication processes. Conclusion: Nursing care should focus on education for self-care, with emphasis on hydration of the feet as well as indication and orientation about the use of products in order to minimize complications from xerosis


Objetivo: Analizar la producción científica en enfermería acerca de los cuidados para la evaluación, prevención y tratamiento de la xerosis cutánea en ancianos. Método: Revisión integrativa realizada en las bases Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, Biblioteca Virtual Scientific Eletronic Library Online, PubMed Central y Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, en el período de agosto a diciembre de 2017. Resultados: Fueron se analizaron 14 artículos de los cuales surgieron tres categorías: La hidratación oral y tópica para el cuidado del anciano con xerosis cutánea; La utilización de instrumentos y el cuidado de la xerosis relacionada a los pies; y por último Medidas de higiene y procesos de elección / indicación de productos. Conclusión: Los cuidados de enfermería deben estar orientados a la educación para el autocuidado con énfasis en la hidratación de los pies así como en la indicación y orientación acerca del uso de productos con la finalidad de minimizar las complicaciones oriundas de la xerosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Skin Diseases/nursing , Skin Diseases/prevention & control , Skin Aging , Health of the Elderly , Self Care/methods , Hygiene/education , Fluid Therapy/nursing , Nursing Care
4.
In. Machado Rodríguez, Fernando; Cluzet, Óscar; Liñares Divenuto, Norberto Jorge; Gorrasi Delgado, José Antonio. La pandemia por COVID-19: una mirada integral desde la emergencia del hospital universitario. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.121-159, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1344075
5.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(3)2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292168

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: A avaliação do volume intravascular e da fluido-responsividade é uma condição desafiadora no manejo de pacientes críticos. Os métodos diagnósticos precisam garantir segurança, reprodutibilidade e praticidade no monitoramento hemodinâmico. Objetivo: Descrever a aplicabilidade dos índices ultrassonográficos da veia cava inferior na avaliação do volume intravascular e na predição da fluido-responsividade em pacientes críticos. Método: Trata-se de revisão sistemática realizada por meio das bases de dados PubMed®, Lilacs e SciELO nos 5 anos anteriores. Os descritores utilizados foram "inferior vena cava", "ultrasonography", "fluid-responsiveness" e "volume status". Resultados: Foram selecionados 13 artigos compatíveis com os objetivos deste estudo. O índice de colapsibilidade da veia cava inferior variou de 25% a 50% como ponto de corte para definição de hipovolemia. Além disso, apresentou aplicabilidade na predição da fluido-responsividade em pacientes sob respiração espontânea, com pontos de corte variando de 25% a 57%. Em cenários de ventilação mecânica, o índice de distensibilidade da veia cava inferior mostrou-se mais eficaz, quando comparado às demais medidas, para predição de fluido-responsividade, mas foi encontrada variação de 10,2% a 20,5%. O índice diâmetro da veia cava inferior/diâmetro da artéria aorta foi especialmente útil na população pediátrica para definição do volume intravascular, mas em adultos existiram muitas divergências quanto à sua aplicabilidade. Conclusão: A avaliação do volume intravascular e da fluido-responsividade por meio dos índices ultrassonográficos da veia cava inferior apresenta aplicabilidade e segurança no diagnóstico e no monitoramento da instabilidade hemodinâmica. Entretanto, são necessários estudos de padronização de valores em razão das divergências quanto aos pontos de corte utilizados em cada índice.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Blood Volume/physiology , Critical Care/methods , Fluid Therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Hemodynamic Monitoring/methods
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880836

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of restrictive fluid management in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI).@*METHODS@#Between January, 2019 and June, 2020, we randomly assigned 51 postoperative patients (stay in the ICU of no less than 7 days) with sTBI into treatment group (@*RESULTS@#The cumulative fluid balance of the two groups were positive on day 1 and negative on days 3 and 7 after ICU admission; at the same time points, the patients in the treatment group had significantly greater negative fluid balance than those in the control group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Restrictive fluid management can reduce cerebral edema and improve the prognosis but does not affect the 28-day mortality of patients with sTBI.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
7.
Med. infant ; 27(2): 113-119, Diciembre 2020. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1148105

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La sepsis es una de las principales causas de muerte infantil a nivel mundial. Las guías de tratamiento utilizadas en nuestro servicio se basan en parámetros clínicos para un soporte hemodinámico temprano con énfasis en el uso de fluidos e inotrópicos guiados por metas clínicas. Objetivos: Describir las características epidemiológicas y clínicas en una cohorte de niños con diagnóstico de shock séptico (SS) en el área de emergencias, controlando tasa de respuesta a fluidos, mortalidad y su relación con las características de los pacientes. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional de cohorte prospectivo entre Julio del 2009 y Julio del 2010. Se incluyeron 83 pacientes entre 0 a 18 años que cumplieron con los criterios diagnósticos de SS. La respuesta a volumen se definió como: respondedores (RE) a los pacientes que solo requirieron expansión con volumen y no respondedores (nRE) a aquellos que requirieron inotrópicos luego de llegar a 60 ml/kg o aparición de signos de sobrecarga cardíaca. Resultados: 64% fueron varones con mediana de edad de 5,8 años (RIC 2-12). 71% presentaban alguna enfermedad crónica preexistente, siendo 40% pacientes oncológicos. El 25 % requirió asistencia respiratoria mecánica y 65% inotrópicos. La mediana de estadía hospitalaria fue 10 días (RIC 7-16 días). Un 35% fue RE. Solo la hipotensión al ingreso resultó ser factor de riesgo para nRE (p0,035), pero en el modelo multivariado no resultó estadísticamente significativo. El 8% de los pacientes fallecieron. Conclusiones: En nuestra población, los pacientes con enfermedades oncológicas representan un número importante de los casos de SS y posiblemente tengan una mayor mortalidad. La tasa de respuesta a volumen ocurrió en 35% de los casos. La hipotensión inicial constituye un probable factor de riesgo para nRE (AU)


Introduction: Sepsis is one of the main causes of childhood death worldwide. Treatment guidelines used at our department are based on clinical parameters for early hemodynamic support with emphasis on fluid resuscitation and inotropics use guided by clinical goals. Objectives: To describe the epidemiologic and clinical features of a cohort of children with septic shock (SS) seen at the emergency department evaluating response rate to fluid resuscitation and mortality related to patient characteristics. Materials and methods: A prospective, observational cohort study was conducted between July 2009 and July 2010. Overall, 83 patients between 0 and 18 years of age that met the diagnostic criteria of SS were included. Response to fluid resuscitation was defined as: responders (RE), those patients that only required volume expansion, and non-responders (nRE), those that required inotropes after having reached 60 ml/kg or appearance of signs of fluid overload. Results: 64% were boys; median age was 5.8 years (IQR 2-12); 71% had some type of preexisting chronic disease, consisting of cancer in 40%. Overall, 25% required mechanical ventilation and 65% inotropes. Median length of hospital stay was 10 days (IQR 7-16 days). 35% of the patients were RE. Only hypotension on admission was found to be a risk factor for nRE (p 0.035); however, in a multivariate model, this finding did not show to be statistically significant. Eight percent of the patients died. Conclusions: In our cohort, patients with cancer accounted for a large number of those who developed SS; in these patients mortality may be increased. Response rate to fluid resuscitation was 35%. Initial hypotension may be a risk factor for nRE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Shock, Septic/mortality , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Shock, Septic/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fluid Therapy/methods , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1625-1630, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1131536

ABSTRACT

Magnesium sulphate (MS) and dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate (DSS) are laxative drugs frequently used for the treatment of impactions. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MS and DSS in fecal hydration, output and systemic hydration in healthy horses. Five healthy horses received 3 treatments with a 21-day interval. Treatment 1 was performed with administration of 4 liters of warm water; treatment 2: administration of 4 liters of warm water associated with 1g/kg of MS; and treatment 3: administration of 4 liters of warm water associated with 20mg/kg DSS. General and specific physical examination of the digestive system were performed, alongside with packed cell volume and total plasma protein measurement, abdominal ultrasonography and quantification of the amount and hydration of feces, before and 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after the treatments. No adverse effects were observed. The administration of laxatives promoted greater fecal output and hydration without resulting in systemic dehydration, yet no differences were observed between treatments. The absence of adverse effects of DSS demonstrates the safety of its use as a laxative drug at a dose of 20mg/kg. Studies comparing the effects of the laxative drugs in horses with large colon impaction are needed.(AU)


O sulfato de magnésio (SM) e o dioctil-sulfossuccinato de sódio (DSS) são drogas laxativas frequentemente utilizadas no tratamento da compactação. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os efeitos do SM e do DSS na hidratação e eliminação fecal, e na hidratação sistêmica de cavalos saudáveis. Cinco cavalos receberam três tratamentos, com intervalo de 21 dias. O tratamento 1 consistiu na administração de quatro litros de água morna; o tratamento 2: administração de quatro litros de água morna associada a 1g/kg de SM; e o tratamento 3: administração de quatro litros de água morna associada a 20mg/kg de DSS. Foram realizados exames físicos gerais e específicos do trato digestivo, hematócrito e proteína plasmática total, ultrassonografia abdominal e mensuração da quantidade e hidratação das fezes antes e após seis, 12, 24, 36 e 48 horas dos tratamentos. Não foram observados efeitos adversos. A administração de ambos os laxantes promoveu maior produção fecal e hidratação, sem resultar em desidratação sistêmica, entretanto não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. A ausência de efeitos adversos do DSS demonstra a segurança de seu uso como medicamento laxante na dose de 20mg/kg. São necessários estudos que comparem o efeito dos laxantes em equinos portadores de compactação de cólon.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Colon/pathology , Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid/therapeutic use , Laxatives/administration & dosage , Fecal Impaction/therapy , Horses , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Fecal Impaction/veterinary , Fluid Therapy/methods
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 387-395, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1128267

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar estratégias terapêuticas para o tratamento de infecções broncopulmonares, utilizando a enrofloxacina de ação rápida e sua associação com suporte e fluidoterapia endovenosa ou suporte e solução oral energética e eletrolítica, por meio da mensuração de parâmetros clínicos, hematológicos, bioquímicos e desenvolvimento corporal de neonatos bovinos. Foram utilizadas 35 bezerras da raça Holandesa, monitoradas desde o nascimento até a sexta semana de vida, divididas aleatoriamente nos grupos: grupo CONTROLE; grupo antibiótico; grupo antibiótico + suporte + fluidoterapia endovenosa; grupo antibiótico + suporte + solução oral; e grupo SUPORTE. Os parâmetros zootécnicos foram avaliados do nascimento até a sexta semana de vida, e os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos foram avaliados zero, 24, 72 e 120 horas após diagnóstico da broncopneumonia. Os animais do grupo antibiótico + suporte + solução oral apresentaram menores níveis de eosinófilos e maiores níveis de neutrófilos segmentados em comparação aos animais dos demais grupos. Não houve diferença nos parâmetros zootécnicos avaliados. Neste estudo, o tratamento com antibiótico e solução oral ofereceu aos animais melhor aporte para combater a broncopneumonia, favorecendo o organismo a desenvolver uma resposta imune efetiva diante da infecção.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate therapeutic strategies for treatment of bronchopulmonary infections using fast-acting enrofloxacin and its association with support and endovenous fluid or support and oral energy and electrolytic solution, by measuring clinical, hematological, biochemical and development parameters of bovine neonates. Thirty-five Holstein calves, monitored from birth to six weeks of age, were randomly divided into five groups: control group; antibiotic group; antibiotic group + support + intravenous fluid therapy; antibiotic group + support + oral solution; and support group. The performance parameters were evaluated from birth to the 6th week of age and hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated 0, 24, 72 and 120 hours after diagnosis of bronchopneumonia. Calves of the antibiotic group + support + oral solution group presented lower levels of eosinophils and higher levels of segmented neutrophils compared to the other groups. There was no difference in performance parameters evaluated. In this study, the treatment with antibiotic and oral solution offered the animals had a better contribution to treat bronchopneumonia, favoring the organism to develop an effective immune response to that infection.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Infant, Newborn , Cattle , Bronchopneumonia/veterinary , Electrolytes/administration & dosage , Enrofloxacin/administration & dosage , Fluid Therapy/veterinary , Animals, Newborn
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(2): 150-156, abr. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125056

ABSTRACT

Los resultados generales del tratamiento de la lesión renal aguda en los últimos años han mejorado casi de manera constante, aunque sin una comprensión completa de su fisiopatología. La respuesta a este interrogante radicaría en la comprensión del rol proactivo en lo que hace a la administración / remoción de los fluidos, abarcando todo el proceso de reanimación de los pacientes críticos, es decir no limitándose a la administración sino también al momento oportuno de la remoción de los mismos, buscando como principal objetivo mejorar la perfusión tisular. Se discute entre otros el papel clave que ejerce la integridad vascular en la sobrecarga de fluidos, haciendo hincapié en el papel del glicocálix endotelial. Las maniobras de des-resucitación activa con diuréticos o con terapias de soporte renal, podrían ser instrumentos cada vez más reconocidos en la aplicación de la sobrecarga de fluidos, en particular en aquellos pacientes con lesión renal aguda.


In the last few years the general results in the treatment of acute kidney injury has improved constantly, without a complete comprehension of its pathophysiology. With this paradigm in mind, in these last few years we have seen an evolving comprehension of the possible answers that may be based on recognizing the more proactive role of fluid management in the resuscitation of critical patients, not limited only to the delivery of fluids, but also to their active removal, having as the principal objective the improvement of tissue perfusion. The key role of vascular integrity in fluid overload is discussed, emphasizing the role of the endothelial glycocalyx. Active des-resuscitation maneuvers with diuretics or with renal support therapies could be increasingly recognized instruments in the management of fluid overload, particularly in those patients with acute kidney injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Resuscitation , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Fluid Therapy/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Hemodynamics
12.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(1): 11-16, feb. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092884

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo Establecer la medición ecográfica del diámetro de la vena cava inferior como factor predictor del shock en pacientes politraumatizados. Materiales y Método Estudio de corte transversal donde se determinó la medición ecográfica de la vena cava inferior a 40 pacientes que ingresaron a la Unidad de Politraumatizados (UPT) del Hospital General del Este "Dr. Domingo Luciani", en el período entre enero y abril de 2018. Se seleccionaron 2 grupos; el grupo 1: pacientes en shock , aquellos con tensión arterial sistólica menor a 90 mm Hg al ingreso, y el grupo 2: pacientes controles que mantuvieron cifras tensionales normales. El estudio de imagen de la vena cava inferior se realizó con el equipo de ecografía ALOKA prosound SSD-a5 y con el ultrasonido portátil MicroMaxx SonoSite , en el cual se midió el índice de colapsabilidad. Los hallazgos se registraron en la hoja de recolección de datos. El análisis estadístico se hizo con la prueba de t de student para muestras independientes y la valoración de puntos de corte diagnóstico se hizo con la prueba de ROC. Resultados La media del Índice de colapsabilidad (IC) de la VCI para el grupo control y de shock fue de 26 ± 12,7% y de 58,5 ± 5,9%, respectivamente; El índice de colapsabilidad fue > 50% en todos los pacientes del grupo de shock . Conclusiones La medición del diámetro de la VCI es un predictor de shock , siendo el IC el parámetro más sensible y específico.


Aim To establish the sonographic measurement of the diameter of the inferior vena cava as a predictor of shock in trauma patients. Materials and Method A cross-sectional study to determined the sonographic measurement of the inferior vena cava to 40 patients attended at Hospital Domingo Luciani trauma unit, in the period between January and April of 2018. Two groups were selected; group 1: shock patients, those with systolic blood pressure lower than 90 mm Hg, and the group 2: control patients that kept normal blood pressure. The image study of the inferior vena cava was carried out with the ALOKA prosound ultrasound equipment SSD a5 and with the portable ultrasound MicroMaxx SonoSite, in which the collapsibility index was measured. The findings were recorded in the data collection sheet. The statistical analysis proposed for the comparison of averages was made with the student's t-test for independent samples and the assessment of diagnostic cut-off points was made with a ROC curve. Results the mean of collapsability index of de IVC for control and shock group were 26 ± 12,7% and 58,5 ± 5,9%, respectively; The collapsability index (CI) was > 50% in all patients of shock group. Conclusions The measurement of the ICV diameter is a predictor of shock, being the IC the most sensitive and specific parameter.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Wounds and Injuries/physiopathology , Hypovolemia/diagnostic imaging , Shock/therapy , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ultrasonography , Arterial Pressure , Fluid Therapy/methods
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 18-24, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1088909

ABSTRACT

The use of hypotonic electrolytic solutions in enteral fluid therapy is still understudied in calves. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maintenance enteral electrolytic solutions with different concentrations of sodium acetate and different osmolarities in calves. For this, 18 Holstein calves, six male and 12 female, 20 days old and weighing around 52kg, were used. The animals were randomly divided into three groups and each group received one of the treatments. The three electrolytic solutions contained the same components in different concentrations, resulting in a hyposmotic, an isosmotic and a hyperosmotic solution. Each animal was maintained in enteral fluid therapy for 12 hours with infusion rate of 15mL kg-1 h-1. Abdominal circumference, body weight, feces consistency, glucose and plasma lactate, pH, pCO2, HCO- 3 and BE were measured at the following times: T0h, T6h, T12h and T24h. The hyposmotic solution did not generate the onset of diarrhea, while the isosmotic and the hyperosmotic did. Regardless of the dose used, acetate did not cause metabolic alkalosis in the evaluated animals. The results suggest that the use of hyposmotic solution in diarrheic calves, dehydrated and without metabolic acidosis, may be clinically important.(AU)


O uso de soluções eletrolíticas hipotônicas na hidratação enteral ainda é pouco estudado em bezerros. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de soluções eletrolíticas enterais de manutenção com diferentes concentrações de acetato de sódio e diferentes osmolaridades em bezerros. Para isso, foram utilizados 18 bezerros, seis machos e 12 fêmeas, holandeses, com 20 dias de nascidos e pesando por volta dos 52kg. Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos e cada grupo recebeu um dos tratamentos. As três soluções eletrolíticas continham os mesmos componentes, mas em diferentes concentrações, resultando em uma solução hiposmótica, uma isosmótica e uma hiperosmótica. Cada animal foi mantido em hidratação enteral durante 12 horas com taxa de infusão de 15mL kg-1h-1. Foram aferidos perímetro abdominal, peso corporal, consistência das fezes, glicose e lactato plasmático, pH, pCO2, HCO- 3 e excesso de base nos seguintes tempos: T0h, T6h, T12h e T24h. A solução hiposmótica não gerou aparecimento de diarreia, enquanto a isosmótica e a hiperosmótica geraram. Independentemente da dose utilizada, o acetato não causou alcalose metabólica nos animais avaliados. Os resultados sugerem que o uso da solução hiposmótica em bezerros diarreicos, desidratados e sem acidose metabólica, pode ser clinicamente importante.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Osmolar Concentration , Sodium Acetate/administration & dosage , Electrolytes/administration & dosage , Fluid Therapy/veterinary , Hypotonic Solutions , Animals, Newborn , Diarrhea
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 463-468, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Vasovagal syncope (VVS) greatly impairs quality of life. The therapeutic efficacy of oral rehydration saline (ORS) for unselected VVS patients is not satisfactory due to the diverse mechanisms of the disease. Body mass index (BMI) was demonstrated to reflect blood volume to a certain extent. Therefore, the present study explored the capability of BMI to predict the therapeutic response of children with VVS to ORS treatment.@*METHODS@#Seventy-four children with VVS who visited the Syncope Unit of Pediatrics at Peking University First Hospital from November 2010 to June 2019 receiving ORS treatment were enrolled for this retrospective case-control study. A comparison of demographic, clinical, and hemodynamic characteristics was performed between responders and non-responders. The correlation between baseline BMI and response time was analyzed. To determine the value of baseline BMI in predicting the therapeutic efficacy of ORS in children with VVS, a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed.@*RESULTS@#Fifty-two children were identified as responders, and the remaining 22 children were identified as non-responders. The baseline BMI of the responders was much lower than that of the non-responders (16.4 [15.5, 17.8] kg/m2vs. 20.7 ±e6 kg/m2, P < 0.001), and baseline BMI was positively correlated with response time in the head-up tilt test after adjusting for sex (r = 0.256, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.067-0.439, P = 0.029). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of baseline BMI was 0.818 (95% CI: 0.704-0.932, P < 0.001), and an optimal cut-off value of 18.9 kg/m2 yielded a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 73% to predict the efficacy of ORS in VVS.@*CONCLUSION@#Prior to treatment, baseline BMI is a promising predictor of response to ORS in children with VVS.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Child , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Syncope, Vasovagal/drug therapy
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of early continuous blood purification (CBP) on the prognosis of children with septic shock.@*METHODS@#A prospective analysis was performed for the children with septic shock who did not reach the 6-hour initial recovery target and/or had a fluid overload of >10%. According to the treatment time of CBP, they were divided into an early group with 30 children and a conventional group with 28 children. The two groups were compared in terms of the start time of CBP and 28-day mortality rate, as well as the related indexes in the children who were cured.@*RESULTS@#The early group had a significantly earlier start time of CBP than the conventional group (P0.05). The children who were cured in the early group had significantly shorter correction time of lactic acid, urine volume, and fluid overload than those in the conventional group (P10%, early CBP treatment can quickly control the disease, shorten the course of disease, and accelerate immune reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Child , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Lactic Acid , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Shock, Septic
16.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 224-232, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827831

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#The mortality rate for severely injured patients with the injury severity score (ISS) ≥16 has decreased in Germany. There is robust evidence that mortality is influenced not only by the acute trauma itself but also by physical health, age and sex. The aim of this study was to identify other possible influences on the mortality of severely injured patients.@*METHODS@#In a matched-pair analysis of data from Trauma Register DGU®, non-surviving patients from Germany between 2009 and 2014 with an ISS≥16 were compared with surviving matching partners. Matching was performed on the basis of age, sex, physical health, injury pattern, trauma mechanism, conscious state at the scene of the accident based on the Glasgow coma scale, and the presence of shock on arrival at the emergency room.@*RESULTS@#We matched two homogeneous groups, each of which consisted of 657 patients (535 male, average age 37 years). There was no significant difference in the vital parameters at the scene of the accident, the length of the pre-hospital phase, the type of transport (ground or air), pre-hospital fluid management and amounts, ISS, initial care level, the length of the emergency room stay, the care received at night or from on-call personnel during the weekend, the use of abdominal sonographic imaging, the type of X-ray imaging used, and the percentage of patients who developed sepsis. We found a significant difference in the new injury severity score, the frequency of multi-organ failure, hemoglobine at admission, base excess and international normalized ratio in the emergency room, the type of accident (fall or road traffic accident), the pre-hospital intubation rate, reanimation, in-hospital fluid management, the frequency of transfusion, tomography (whole-body computed tomography), and the necessity of emergency intervention.@*CONCLUSION@#Previously postulated factors such as the level of care and the length of the emergency room stay did not appear to have a significant influence in this study. Further studies should be conducted to analyse the identified factors with a view to optimising the treatment of severely injured patients. Our study shows that there are significant factors that can predict or influence the mortality of severely injured patients.


Subject(s)
Accidents , Classification , Adult , Age Factors , Blood Transfusion , Data Analysis , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Fluid Therapy , Germany , Epidemiology , Hemoglobins , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Intubation , Male , Matched-Pair Analysis , Multiple Organ Failure , Registries , Sex Factors , Survival Rate , Trauma Severity Indices , Wounds and Injuries , Mortality
17.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4): 521-527, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136236

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2 infection) is a new challenge for all countries, and children are predisposed to acquire this disease. Some studies have demonstrated more severe diseases in adults, but critically ill pediatric patients have been described in all ages. Pulmonary involvement is the major feature, and ventilatory support is common in critical cases. Nevertheless, other very important therapeutic approaches must be considered. In this article, we reviewed extensively all recent medical literature to point out the main clinical attitudes to support these pediatric patients during their period in respiratory support. Radiologic findings, fluid therapy, hemodynamic support, use of inotropic/vasopressors, nutritional therapy, antiviral therapy, corticosteroids, antithrombotic therapy, and immunoglobulins are analyzed to guide all professionals during hospitalization. We emphasize the importance of a multi-professional approach for adequate recovery.


RESUMO A síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SRAG) pelo novo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) é um novo desafio para todos os países e crianças estão predispostas a adquirir a doença. Alguns estudos demonstraram quadros mais graves em adultos, mas crianças criticamente doentes foram descritas em todas as idades. O envolvimento pulmonar é a principal característica e a necessidade de suporte ventilatório é comum nos casos mais graves. Entretanto, outras abordagens terapêuticas importantes devem ser consideradas. Nesse artigo revisamos extensamente a literature médica até o momento a fim de citar os principais recursos terapêuticos para o manejo dos pacientes pediátricos durante o período de suporte ventilatório. Achados radiológicos, terapia fluídica, terapia antiviral, o uso de corticosteroides, terapia antitrombótica e o uso de imunoglobulinas foram analisados a fim de guiar os profissionais durante o período de hospitalização desses pacientes. Nós reforçamos a importância de uma abordagem multiprofissional para recuperação adequada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , General Practice/methods , Physical Therapy Modalities , Critical Illness , Coronavirus Infections , Nutrition Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Fluid Therapy/methods , Betacoronavirus , Hemodynamic Monitoring/methods
18.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(4): e002076, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141348

ABSTRACT

Sobre la base de una viñeta clínica de un niño con gastroenteritis aguda sin deshidratación, el autor de este artículo realiza una búsqueda bibliográfica para revisar la evidencia que avala el uso de ondansetrón para tratar sus vómitos, práctica bastante común en instituciones con acceso a este fármaco en sus centrales de emergencia. Luego de dicha búsqueda, el autor concluye que en niños con gastroenteritis aguda sin deshidratación, la administración de ondansetrón no reduce la necesidad de hidratación intravenosa ni la frecuencia ni la severidad de los vómitos. (AU)


Based on a clinical vignette of a child with acute gastroenteritis without dehydration, the author of this article performs a literature search to review the evidence supporting the use of ondansetron to treat his vomiting, a fairly common practice in institutions with access to this drug in their emergency rooms. After this search, the author concludes that in children with acute gastroenteritis without dehydration, the administration of ondansetron does not reduce the need for intravenous hydration or the frequency or severity of vomiting. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Gastroenteritis/drug therapy , Vomiting/prevention & control , Vomiting/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ondansetron/administration & dosage , Dehydration/prevention & control , Dehydration/therapy , Diarrhea , Fluid Therapy/methods , Gastroenteritis/diagnosis , Gastroenteritis/diet therapy
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17560, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285514

ABSTRACT

Urea's thermal instability and burning on sensitive skin can cause problems for cosmetic formulations. To overcome these drawbacks, urea was incorporated into ordered mesoporous silica (SBA-15). SBA-15 was synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate and Pluronic® P123 in an acid medium. Urea (20 wt.%) was incorporated into calcined SBA-15 by the incipient wetness impregnation method. Several techniques were used to characterize the samples. Skin hydration and transepidermal water loss were measured using Corneometer® CM 825 PC and Tewameter® 300 TM. Results showed that the structural properties of SBA-15Urea were similar to pure SBA-15, indicating that SBA-15 remained structured even after urea incorporation. Nitrogen physisorption data showed the volume and surface area of the pores in SBA-15Urea were much lower than those in SBA-15, demonstrating that urea was deposited inside the mesopores. In vivo moisturization studies revealed that SBA-15Urea was not able to reduce transepidermal water loss compared to the other products and control, while forming a non-occlusive surface film on the skin. We conclude that incorporation of urea in the pores of the inorganic SBA-15 matrix is a promising approach to enhancing its stability and providing a prolonged moisturizing effect.


Subject(s)
Urea/analysis , Silicon Dioxide/administration & dosage , Skin/drug effects , Control , Fluid Therapy/adverse effects
20.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 19: e47832, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1118759

ABSTRACT

To know, be aware of, the Basic Human Needs of chronic renal patients on hemodialysis, according to Wanda Horta's Theory. Methods: exploratory and descriptive research of qualitative approach, conducted from interviews with 10 patients followed in a hemodialysis clinic located in a city in the interior of Bahia, Brazil. Data were categorized according to Bardin's Content Analysis technique and discussed from the perspective of Wanda Horta's Basic Human Needs Theory. Results: Three categories emerged themes that highlight the basic human needs affected in the lives of patients with chronic renal failure and on hemodialysis treatment, highlighting: Nutrition and hydration changes; Changes in sleep and rest ; and Deprivation of freedom, leisure and sociability. Final considerations: there was a predominance of psychobiological needs, namely: hydration, nutrition, locomotion, sleep, rest and body mechanics. As for psychosocial NHB, it was possible to observe those related to recreation, leisure, freedom, participation, gregarious, of self-esteem and self-realization. No NHB affections regarding the psycho-spiritual domain emerged.


Conhecer as Necessidades Humanas Básicas de pacientes renais crônicos em hemodiálise, conforme a Teoria de Wanda Horta. Métodos:pesquisa exploratória e descritiva de abordagem qualitativa, realizada a partir de entrevistas com 10 pacientes acompanhados em uma clínica de hemodiálise localizada em uma cidade do interior da Bahia, Brasil. Os dados foram categorizados de acordo com a técnica de Análise de Conteúdo de Bardin e discutidos sob a ótica da Teoria das Necessidades Humanas Básicas de Wanda Horta. Resultados: emergiram três categorias temáticas que evidenciam as necessidades humanas básicas afetadas na vida dos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica e em tratamento com hemodiálise, destacando-se: Mudanças nutricionais e de hidratação; Alterações no sono e repouso; e Privação da liberdade, lazer e sociabilidade. Considerações finais: observou-se o predomínio das necessidades psicobiológicas, a saber: hidratação, nutrição, locomoção, sono, repouso e mecânica corporal. Quanto às NHB psicossociais, foi possível observar aquelas relacionadas à recreação, lazer, liberdade, participação, gregária, de autoestima e autorrealização. Não emergiram NHB afetas quanto ao domínio psicoespiritual.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Renal Dialysis , Health Services Needs and Demand , Patients , Quality of Life , Recreation , Rest , Sleep , Therapeutics , Nursing Theory , Chronic Disease , Mechanics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Nutritional Sciences , Nephrology Nursing , Fluid Therapy , Freedom , Leisure Activities , Locomotion
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