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2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1536330

ABSTRACT

Estimado editor: Los albores del año 2020 le depararon a la humanidad una terrible sorpresa: se reportaban los primeros casos de la posteriormente famosa COVID-19, una enfermedad, cuyo estrepitoso avance la convirtió en una pandemia declarada el 11 de marzo de 2020.1 Desde entonces, muchas han sido las estrategias destinadas a paliar sus efectos deletéreos. Ciertamente, fueron apareciendo esperanzadoras medidas sanitarias, unas con mayor éxito o acogida que otras, pero sin el suficiente respaldo científico como para avalar su uso y convertirse en la estrategia ideal. De ellas, algunas ya validadas para el tratamiento de pacientes críticos, como lo son la ventilación-oxigenoterapia (V), la infusión de líquidos-fluidoterapia (I) y la pronación (P), también fueron parte del intento. A ellas serán dedicadas estas líneas de reflexión...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pronation , Fluid Therapy/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology
3.
Diagn. tratamento ; 28(1): 4-9, jan-mar. 2023. tab 4
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1413159

ABSTRACT

Contexto e Objetivo: Ingestão de água com espessante diminui a aspiração para vias aéreas em pacientes com disfagia orofaríngea, entretanto pode causar dificuldade na ingestão. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar, em pessoas saudáveis, a influência da obesidade, idade e sexo na ingestão de água espessada. Desenho e local: Estudo transversal realizado em amostra de conveniência na Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo. Método: Ingestão de água sem e com espessante foi avaliada em 75 indivíduos saudáveis (42 mulheres) com idades entre 18 e 62 anos, pelo teste de ingestão de água, com os voluntários ingerindo 100 ml de água na temperatura ambiente, sem e com 2,4 g de espessante alimentar. Foram medidos o tempo para ingerir todo o volume, o número de deglutições, e calculados o fluxo de ingestão e o volume em cada deglutição, com os voluntários indicando a sensação e a dificuldade na ingestão. Resultados: Com espessante, o fluxo de ingestão e o volume em cada deglutição foram menores, e houve maior dificuldade e pior sensação durante a ingestão. Obesidade e idade não influenciaram a ingestão. As mulheres tiveram menor fluxo de ingestão que os homens. Discussão: A utilização de água espessada em pacientes com disfagia pode ter dificuldades que comprometem a hidratação. Alteração do sabor e temperatura do líquido podem facilitar a ingestão. Conclusão: A ingestão de água em pessoas saudáveis tem influência da consistência e do sexo dos indivíduos, sem influência de idade ou obesidade.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition , Dehydration , Drinking , Fluid Therapy
4.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 11(1): 1-7, Jan. 2023. tab, fig, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426964

ABSTRACT

Objective: Evaluate the effects of alternative therapy on the hematological profiles of different families of captive snakes. Methodology: Captive snakes at NUROF-UFC were submitted to a clinical and hematological evaluation before and after applying an alternative treatment, including systematic sunbathing and hydration by soaking bathes twice a week for five weeks. The biometric, clinical, and hematological data were compared by multivariate analysis of variance and investigated for possible causal relationships by general linear models. Results: A significant difference was observed between erythrograms and global leukograms in the three families of snakes evaluated before and after treatment. The significant reduction in the heterophil: lymphocyte ratio in the Family Colubridae after treatment was noteworthy. Discussion: The results were most likely due to stress level reduction by improving thermoregulation and conversion of vitamin D during sunbathing, oral rehydration and refreshing in soaking baths, and general metabolic rates due to physical exercise. Conclusion: The results confirm the initial hypothesis, assuming that a simple but systematic treatment that included sunlight exposure and immersion hydration was efficient in reducing stress rates.


Objetivo: Avaliar a influência de banhos de sol e de imersão em água nos perfis hematológicos de serpentes cativas, antes e após a aplicação deste tratamento alternativo. Metodologia: Serpentes cativas no NUROF-UFC foram submetidas à avaliação clínica e hematológica, depois submetidas ao tratamento alternativo por cinco semanas, sendo novamente avaliadas após. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística multivariada (NPMANOVA e GLM) para investigação de possíveis relações causais entre o tratamento e os perfis hematológicos. Resultados: Foi observada diferença significativa entre os eritrogramas e leucogramas nas três famílias de serpentes avaliadas antes e após o tratamento. Ressalta-se a redução significativa na razão heterófilos:linfócitos na Família Colubridae após o tratamento. Discussão: A diferença estatística deveu-se provavelmente à redução nos níveis de estresse, possibilitada por aquecimento e aumento de conversão da vitamina D durante a exposição solar; reidratação oral e refrescância nos banhos de imersão, e ao recondicionamento pelo exercício físico. Conclusão: Os resultados confirmaram a hipótese inicial, admitindo que um tratamento alternativo, simples mas aplicado sistematicamente, que incluiu exposição à luz solar e hidratação por imersão em água foi eficiente em reduzir as taxas de estresse em serpentes cativas.


Subject(s)
Hematology , Reptiles , Snakes , Sunbathing , Fluid Therapy
5.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 59-64, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971150

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the scientificity and feasibility of the ten-fold rehydration formula for emergency resuscitation of pediatric patients after extensive burns. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. The total burn area of 30%-100% total body surface area (TBSA) and body weight of 6-50 kg in 433 pediatric patients (250 males and 183 females, aged 3 months to 14 years) with extensive burns who met the inclusion criteria and admitted to the burn departments of 72 Class A tertiary hospitals were collected. The 6 319 pairs of simulated data were constructed after pairing each body weight of 6-50 kg (programmed in steps of 0.5 kg) and each total burn area of 30%-100% TBSA (programmed in steps of 1%TBSA). They were put into three accepted pediatric rehydration formulae, namely the commonly used domestic pediatric rehydration formula for burn patients (hereinafter referred to as the domestic rehydration formula), the Galveston formula, and the Cincinnati formula, and the two rehydration formulae for pediatric emergency, namely the simplified resuscitation formula for emergency care of patients with extensive burns proposed by the World Health Organization's Technical Working Group on Burns (TWGB, hereinafter referred to as the TWGB formula) and the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula proposed by the author of this article--rehydration rate (mL/h)=body weight (kg) × 10 (mL·kg-1·h-1) to calculate the rehydration rate within 8 h post injury (hereinafter referred to as the rehydration rate). The range of the results of the 3 accepted pediatric rehydration formulae ±20% were regarded as the reasonable rehydration rate, and the accuracy rates of rehydration rate calculated using the two pediatric emergency rehydration formulae were compared. Using the maximum burn areas (55% and 85% TBSA) corresponding to the reasonable rehydration rate calculated by the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula at the body weight of 6 and 50 kg respectively, the total burn area of 30% to 100% TBSA was divided into 3 segments and the accuracy rates of the rehydration rate calculated using the 2 pediatric emergency rehydration formulae in each segment were compared. When neither of the rehydration rates calculated by the 2 pediatric emergency rehydration formulae was reasonable, the differences between the two rehydration rates were compared. The distribution of 433 pediatric patients in the 3 previous total burn area segments was counted and the accuracy rates of the rehydration rate calculated using the 2 pediatric emergency rehydration formulae were calculated and compared. Data were statistically analyzed with McNemar test. Results: Substitution of 6 319 pairs of simulated data showed that the accuracy rates of the rehydration rates calculated by the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula was 73.92% (4 671/6 319), which was significantly higher than 4.02% (254/6 319) of the TWGB formula (χ2=6 490.88,P<0.05). When the total burn area was 30%-55% and 56%-85% TBSA, the accuracy rates of the rehydration rates calculated by the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula were 100% (2 314/2 314) and 88.28% (2 357/2 670), respectively, which were significantly higher than 10.98% (254/2 314) and 0 (0/2 670) of the TWGB formula (with χ2 values of 3 712.49 and 4 227.97, respectively, P<0.05); when the total burn area was 86%-100% TBSA, the accuracy rates of the rehydration rates calculated by the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula and the TWGB formula were 0 (0/1 335). When the rehydration rates calculated by the 2 pediatric emergency rehydration formulae were unreasonable, the rehydration rates calculated by the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula were all higher than those of the TWGB formula. There were 93.07% (403/433), 5.77% (25/433), and 1.15% (5/433) patients in the 433 pediatric patients had total burn area of 30%-55%, 56%-85%, and 86%-100% TBSA, respectively, and the accuracy rate of the rehydration rate calculated using the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula was 97.69% (423/433), which was significantly higher than 0 (0/433) of the TWGB formula (χ2=826.90, P<0.05). Conclusions: The application of the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula to estimate the rehydration rate of pediatric patients after extensive burns is more accurate and convenient, superior to the TWGB formula, suitable for application by front-line healthcare workers that are not specialized in burns in pre-admission rescue of pediatric patients with extensive burns, and is worthy of promotion.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Burns/therapy , Hospitalization , Resuscitation , Fluid Therapy/methods , Body Surface Area , Retrospective Studies
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1166-1173, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Early fluid resuscitation is one of the fundamental treatments for acute pancreatitis (AP), but there is no consensus on the optimal fluid rate. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of aggressive vs. controlled fluid resuscitation (CFR) in AP.@*METHODS@#The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched up to September 30, 2022, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing aggressive with controlled rates of early fluid resuscitation in AP patients without organ failure on admission. The following keywords were used in the search strategy: "pancreatitis," "fluid therapy,""fluid resuscitation,"and "randomized controlled trial." There was no language restriction. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was used to assess the certainty of evidence. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to control the risk of random errors and assess the conclusions.@*RESULTS@#A total of five RCTs, involving 481 participants, were included in this study. For primary outcomes, there was no significant difference in the development of severe AP (relative risk [RR]: 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-3.68; P = 0.07; n = 437; moderate quality of evidence) or hypovolemia (RR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.32-2.97; P = 0.97; n = 437; moderate quality of evidence) between the aggressive and CFR groups. A significantly higher risk of fluid overload (RR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.53-6.93; P <0.01; n = 249; low quality of evidence) was observed in the aggressive fluid resuscitation (AFR) group than the controlled group. Additionally, the risk of intensive care unit admission ( P = 0.02) and the length of hospital stay ( P <0.01) as partial secondary outcomes were higher in the AFR group. TSA suggested that more studies were required to draw precise conclusions.@*CONCLUSION@#For AP patients without organ failure on admission, CFR may be superior to AFR with respect to both efficacy and safety outcomes.@*REGISTRATION@#PROSPERO; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ ; CRD 42022363945.


Subject(s)
Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Fluid Therapy , Hypovolemia , Pancreatitis/therapy
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1566-1572, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#After major liver resection, the volume status of patients is still undetermined. However, few concerns have been raised about postoperative fluid management. We aimed to compare gut function recovery and short-term prognosis of the patients after laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) with or without inferior vena cava (IVC) respiratory variability-directed fluid therapy in the anesthesia intensive care unit (AICU).@*METHODS@#This randomized controlled clinical trial enrolled 70 patients undergoing LLR. The IVC respiratory variability was used to optimize fluid management of the intervention group in AICU, while the standard practice of fluid management was used for the control group. The primary outcome was the time to flatus after surgery. The secondary outcomes included other indicators of gut function recovery after surgery, postoperative length of hospital stay (LOS), liver and kidney function, the severity of oxidative stress, and the incidence of severe complications associated with hepatectomy.@*RESULTS@#Compared with patients receiving standard fluid management, patients in the intervention group had a shorter time to anal exhaust after surgery (1.5 ± 0.6 days vs. 2.0 ± 0.8 days) and lower C-reactive protein activity (21.4 [95% confidence interval (CI): 11.9-36.7] mg/L vs. 44.8 [95%CI: 26.9-63.1] mg/L) 24 h after surgery. There were no significant differences in the time to defecation, serum concentrations of D -lactic acid, malondialdehyde, renal function, and frequency of severe postoperative complications as well as the LOS between the groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Postoperative IVC respiratory variability-directed fluid therapy in AICU was facilitated in bowel movement but elicited a negligible beneficial effect on the short-term prognosis of patients undergoing LLR.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ChiCTR-INR-17013093.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatectomy , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Liver , Laparoscopy , Fluid Therapy
9.
Cir. Urug ; 7(1): e305, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1505951

ABSTRACT

La esofagitis necrotizante aguda es un trastorno poco común que puede ser causa de hemorragia digestiva alta. Predomina en el sexo masculino en la sexta década de la vida. El diagnóstico es endoscópico y muestra una mucosa esofágica de apariencia negra que afecta al esófago distal en toda su circunferencia y se detiene abruptamente en la unión gastroesofágica. Clínicamente suele presentarse con hematemesis y melenas, shock hipovolémico por sangrado masivo, siendo otras manifestaciones el dolor epigástrico, molestia retroesternal y disfagia. Se vincula a pacientes con antecedentes de enfermedad cardiovascular, alcoholismo, diabetes mellitus, desnutrición, hernia hiatal, estenosis gastroduodenal, cáncer, así como pacientes en shock, traumatizados, sometidos a cirugía mayor e inmunosuprimidos. El tratamiento se basa en fluidoterapia, inhibidores de la bomba de protones y suspensión de la vía oral, siendo controvertido el uso de antibioticoterapia. Su pronóstico es malo y dependerá de la gravedad de la enfermedad esofágica y del terreno del paciente, con una mortalidad de hasta el 36 %. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente de 81 años, hipertenso, que presenta hematemesis, confirmándose en la endoscopía una esofagitis necrotizante aguda, que evoluciona favorablemente con tratamiento médico.


Acute necrotizing esophagitis is a rare disorder that can cause upper gastrointestinal bleeding. It predominates in males in the sixth decade of life. The diagnosis is endoscopic and shows a black-appearing esophageal mucosa that affects the entire circumference of the distal esophagus and stops abruptly at the gastroesophageal junction. Usually, patients present with hematemesis and melena, with other manifestations such as epigastric pain, retrosternal discomfort, dysphagia, and hypovolemic shock. Almost all patients reported comorbidities: cardiovascular disease, alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, hiatal hernia, gastroduodenal stenosis, and malignant neoplasia; is related as well to patients with shock, trauma, undergoing major surgery, and immunosuppression. The treatment is based on fluid reposition, proton pump inhibitors and suspension of the oral route, the use of antibiotic therapy being controversial. Its prognosis is poor and will depend on the severity of the esophageal disease and the patient comorbidities, with a mortality rate up to 36 %. Case: A 81-year-old male patient with hypertension, who presented hematemesis, confirmed by endoscopy as acute necrotizing esophagitis, whose evolution was favorable with medical treatment.


A esofagite necrosante aguda é uma doença rara que pode causar hemorragia digestiva alta. Predomina no sexo masculino na sexta década de vida. O diagnóstico é endoscópico e mostra uma mucosa esofágica circunferencial difusa com aspecto preto que envolve quase universalmente o esôfago distal e para abruptamente na junção gastroesofágica. Clinicamente, geralmente se apresenta com hematêmese e melena, com outras manifestações sendo dor epigástrica, desconforto retroesternal, disfagia e choque hipovolêmico. Está relacionado a pacientes com histórico de doenças cardiovasculares, alcoolismo, diabetes mellitus, desnutrição, hérnia hiatal, estenose gastroduodenal e neoplasia maligna, bem como pacientes em choque, trauma, cirurgia de grande porte e imunossupressão. O tratamento é a medicação dietética higiênica baseada em fluidoterapia, inibidores da bomba de prótons e suspensão da via oral, sendo o uso de antibioticoterapia controverso. Seu prognóstico é ruim e dependerá da gravidade da doença esofágica e do terreno do paciente, com mortalidade de até 36 %. Apresentamos o caso clínico de um paciente hipertenso de 81 anos que apresentou hematêmese, confirmada por endoscopia como esofagite necrosante aguda, que evoluiu favoravelmente com tratamento higiênico-dietético e medicamentoso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Esophagitis/drug therapy , Esophagitis/diagnostic imaging , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Fluid Therapy , Hematemesis/etiology , Acute Disease , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Treatment Outcome , Esophagitis/complications , Octogenarians , Necrosis/etiology
10.
Ludovica Pediatr ; 25(2): 41-58, dic.2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414378

ABSTRACT

El aporte de fluidos constituye un elemento central en la atención del paciente pediátrico hospitalizado, existiendo aún controversias acerca de cuál es la composición óptima, la dosis adecuada y la mejor estrategia para administrar los mismos. El propósito de este artículo de actualización es brindar al médico que se desempeña en las diferentes áreas de la internación pediátrica, conceptos y enfoques terapéuticos que lo ayuden en la asistencia de los pacientes que por diversos motivos requieren la administración de fluidos endovenosos. La recomendación de utilizar cristaloides en la reanimación es casi uniforme. Se observa una clara tendencia al uso de soluciones isotónicas balanceadas para la reposición del déficit previo y el aporte de fluidos de mantenimiento. En relación a la dosis y a la estrategia, es generalizada la recomendación de un enfoque más restrictivo en el aporte de volumen, aún en los pacientes con shock, donde es necesario lograr un balance entre una resucitación efectiva y el riesgo de sobrecarga de fluidos. Respecto a la administración de albúmina al 20% en el paciente crítico con hipoalbuminemia, la evidencia existente es escasa y no permite formular recomendaciones. Sin embargo, es frecuente su uso en la práctica asistencial


Intravenous fluids administration is a central element in the care of hospitalized pediatric patients, and there are still controversies about what is the optimal composition, the appropriate dose, and the best strategy for their administration. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide the physicians who works in the different areas of pediatric hospitalization, concepts and therapeutic approaches that help them in the care of patients who for diverse reasons require administration of intravenous fluids. The recommendation to use crystalloids in resuscitation is almost uniform. There is a clear trend towards the use of balanced isotonic solutions to replace the previous deficit and the supply of maintenance fluids. In relation to the dose and strategy, the recommendation of a more restrictive approach in volume administration is generalized, even in patients with shock, where it is necessary to strike a balance between effective resuscitation and the risk of fluid overload. Regarding the administration of 20% albumin in critically ill patients with hypoalbuminemia, the existing evidence is scarce and does not allow recommendations to be formulated. However, it is frequently used in healthcare practice


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Critical Care , Fluid Therapy , Shock/therapy , Electrolytes/administration & dosage , Hypotonic Solutions/administration & dosage , Isotonic Solutions/administration & dosage
11.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(6): 729-735, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420609

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with high morbidity. Many preoperative variables are risk factors for postoperative complications, but they are primarily non-modifiable. It is not clear whether an intraoperative goal-directed fluid regimen might be associated with fewer postoperative surgical complications compared to current conservative, non-goal-directed fluid practices. We hypothesize that the use of Systolic Volume Variation (SVV)-guided intraoperative fluid administration might be beneficial. Methods Data from 223 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy in our institution between 2015 and 2019 were reviewed. Patients were classified into two groups based on the use of intraoperative use of SVV to guide the administration of fluids. The decision to use SVV or not was made by the attending anesthesiologist. Subjects were classified into SVV-guided intraoperative fluid therapy (SVV group) and non-SVV-guided intraoperative fluid therapy (non-SVV group). Uni and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine if SVV-guided fluid therapy was significantly associated with a lower incidence of postoperative surgical complications, such as Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula (POPF), Delayed Gastric Emptying (DGE), among others, after adjusting for confounders. Results Baseline, demographic, and intraoperative characteristics were similar between SVV and non-SVV groups. In the multivariate analysis, the use of SVV guidance was significantly associated with fewer postoperative surgical complications (OR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.25-0.91; p= 0.025), even after adjusting for significant covariates, such as perioperative use of epidural, pancreatic gland parenchyma texture, and diameter of the pancreatic duct. Conclusions VV-guided intraoperative fluid administration might be associated with fewer postoperative surgical complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Fluid Therapy , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(6): 720-728, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420615

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Hydroxyethyl starches are colloids used in fluid therapy that may reduce volume infusion compared with crystalloids, but they can affect renal function in critical care patients. This study aims to assess renal effects of starches using renal biomarkers in the perioperative setting. Methods This prospective, controlled, randomized study compared Hydroxyethyl starch 6% (HES) with Ringer's lactate (RL) in hysterectomy. Each episode of mean arterial pressure (MAP) below 60 mmHg guided the fluid replacement protocol. The RL group received 300 mL bolus of RL solution while the HES group received 150 mL of HES solution. All patients received RL (2 mL.kg−1.h−1) intraoperatively to replace insensible losses. Blood and urine samples were collected at three time points (preoperatively, 24 hours, and 40 days postoperatively) to assess urinary NGAL and KIM-1, as primary outcome, and other markers of renal function. Results Seventy patients were randomized and 60 completed the study. The RL group received a higher crystalloid volume (1,277 ± 812.7 mL vs. 630.4 ± 310.2 mL; p= 0.0002) with a higher fluid balance (780 ± 720 mL vs. 430 ± 440 mL; p= 0.03) and fluid overload (11.7% ± 10.4% vs. 7.0% ± 6.3%; p= 0.04) compared to the HES group. NGAL and KIM-1 did not differ between groups at each time point, however both biomarkers increased 24 hours postoperatively and returned to preoperative levels after 40 days in both groups. Conclusion HES did not increase renal biomarkers following open hysterectomy compared to RL. Moreover, HES provided better hemodynamic parameters using less volume, and reduced postoperative fluid balance and fluid overload.


Subject(s)
Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives , Fluid Therapy/methods , Biomarkers , Prospective Studies , Plasma Substitutes , Colloids , Lipocalin-2 , Crystalloid Solutions , Ringer's Lactate , Hysterectomy , Isotonic Solutions , Kidney/physiology
14.
Medisan ; 26(3)jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1405806

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La administración de fluidos constituye uno de los pilares de tratamiento en pacientes que ingresan en Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos, en quienes la reanimación inadecuada y la sobrecarga de volumen empeoran el pronóstico. Objetivo: Caracterizar el estado de la administración de fluidos a pacientes ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital General Docente Dr. Antonio Luaces Iraola de Ciego de Ávila y su relación con la mortalidad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo analítico y prospectivo de 147 pacientes ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital General Docente Dr. Antonio Luaces Iraola de Ciego de Ávila durante el primer semestre de 2020, para lo cual se evaluaron 598 pruebas de fluidos, algunas variables hemodinámicas y el balance de líquidos en las primeras 72 horas del ingreso. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue de 48,3 años, predominaron las mujeres (55,8 %), la puntuación de APACHE II al ingreso resultó ser de 14,2 puntos y fallecieron 22,4 % de los afectados. Para administrar fluidos prevaleció el criterio clínico (57,2%); mientras que la presión venosa central, la frecuencia cardíaca, la presión arterial media y la diuresis fueron similares en vivos y fallecidos. El balance acumulado de fluidos fue significativamente superior en el grupo de pacientes fallecidos (1984,70 mL vs 260mL). Conclusiones: Los cambios en los parámetros vitales después de administrar fluidos no fueron útiles para evaluar la respuesta al volumen. El balance acumulado de fluidos se relacionó de forma significativa con la mortalidad.


Introduction: Fluids administration constitutes one of the treatment pillars in patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit in which the inadequate reanimation and overload of volume worsen the prognosis. Objective: To characterize the state of fluid administration to patients admitted to the Intensive Cares Units of Dr. Antonio Luaces Iraola Teaching General Hospital in Ciego de Ávila and its relationship with mortality. Methods: An analytic and prospective descriptive study of 147 patients admitted to the Intensive Cares Units of Dr. Antonio Luaces Iraola Teaching General Hospital was carried out in Ciego de Ávila during the first semester of 2020, for which 598 tests of fluids, some hemodynamic variables and the balance of liquids were evaluated in the first 72 hours of admission. Results: The average age was 48.3 years, there was a prevalence of women (55.8 %), the punctuation of APACHE II at admission was 14.2 points and 22.4 % of those affected died. To administer fluids the clinical approach prevailed (57.2 %); while the central venous pressure, heart frequency, the mean arterial pressure and diuresis were similar in alive and dead patients. The accumulated balance of fluids was significantly higher in the group of dead patients (1984.70 mL vs 260 mL). Conclusions: The changes in the vital parameters after administering fluids were not useful to evaluate the response to the volume. The accumulated balance of fluids was related to mortality in a significant way.


Subject(s)
Water-Electrolyte Balance , Patient Acuity , Fluid Therapy , Secondary Care , Mortality , Intensive Care Units
15.
Cambios rev. méd ; 21(1): 766, 30 Junio 2022. tabs, grafs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400392

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La crisis suprarrenal se refiere a la insuficiencia suprarrenal aguda; la cual es un trastorno en el que la corteza adrenal no produce suficientes hormonas esteroides (en especial cortisol) para satisfacer las demandas del cuerpo, de acuerdo al mecanismo fisiopatológico se la puede clasificar como primaria, secundaria y terciaria, siendo más común en pacientes con insuficiencia suprarrenal primaria. Es una emergencia potencialmente mortal que requiere tratamiento inmediato. OBJETIVO. Establecer una estrategia de prevención y tratamiento de la crisis suprarrenal, así como la farmacoterapia ideal y sus alternativas válidas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en varias revistas virtuales de alto carácter científico como Cochrane Library, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, MEDLINE a través de PubMed y ClinicalTrial.gov. Se seleccionaron revisiones sistemáticas con o sin metaanálisis, ensayos clínicos y recomendaciones de expertos relacionados con prevención y tratamiento de crisis suprarrenal en general. RESULTADOS. Se obtuvieron 1819 resultados, de los cuales se seleccionaron 20 artículos con mayor validez y replicabilidad en el medio para establecer un protocolo unificado de actuación. CONCLUSIÓN. El objetivo de la terapia es el tratamiento de la hipotensión y reversión de las anomalías electrolíticas y de la deficiencia de cortisol. Se deben infundir por vía intravenosa grandes volúmenes (1 a 3 litros) de solución salina al 0,9% o dextrosa al 5% en solución salina al 0,9% y la administración de hidrocortisona (bolo de 100 mg), seguido de 50 mg cada 6 horas (o 200 mg / 24 horas como infusión continua durante las primeras 24 horas). Si no se dispone de hidrocortisona, las alternativas incluyen prednisolona, prednisona y dexametasona.


INTRODUCTION. Adrenal crisis refers to acute adrenal insufficiency; which is a disorder in which the adrenal cortex does not produce enough steroid hormones (especially cortisol) to meet the body's demands, according to the pathophysiological mechanism it can be classified as primary, secondary and tertiary, being more common in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. It is a life-threatening emergency that requires immediate treatment. OBJECTIVE. To establish a strategy for the prevention and treatment of adrenal crisis, as well as the ideal pharmacotherapy and its valid alternatives. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A literature review was performed in several highly scientific virtual journals such as Cochrane Library, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, MEDLINE through PubMed and ClinicalTrial.gov. Systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis, clinical trials and expert recommendations related to prevention and treatment of adrenal crisis in general were selected. RESULTS. A total of 1819 results were obtained, from which 20 articles with greater validity and replicability in the setting were selected to establish a unified protocol for action. CONCLUSIONS. The aim of therapy is the treatment of hypotension and reversal of electrolyte abnormalities and cortisol deficiency. Large volumes (1 to 3 liters) of 0.9% saline or 5% dextrose in 0.9% saline and administration of hydrocortisone (100 mg bolus), followed by 50 mg every 6 hours (or 200 mg / 24 hours as a continuous infusion for the first 24 hours) should be infused intravenously. If hydrocortisone is not available, alternatives include prednisolone, prednisone, and dexamethasone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Fluid Therapy , Hypotension , Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase , Dexamethasone , Prednisolone , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Ecuador , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
16.
Acta méd. costarric ; 64(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1402993

ABSTRACT

Resumen Tras el descubrimiento de que el transporte del sodio y el transporte de la glucosa están acoplados en el intestino delgado, de manera que la glucosa acelera la absorción de soluto y agua, destacó la hidratación oral junto con otros hitos del siglo XX como el desarrollo de la penicilina y los cultivos virales que anteceden la vacuna contra la poliomielitis; este artículo de opinión se refiere a la participación de Costa Rica en el exitoso desarrollo de un estudio de investigación aplicada sobre un problema prioritario de Salud: la hidratación oral en las diarreas provocadas por virus.


Abstract Following the discovery that sodium transport and glucose transport are coupled in the small intestine, such that glucose accelerates solute and water absorption, highlighted oral hydration), along with other 20th-century milestones like the development of penicillin and viral cultures that preceded the polio vaccine; this opinion article refers to the participation of Costa Rica in the successful development of an applied research study on a priority health problem: oral rehydration in diarrhea caused by viruses.


Subject(s)
Diarrhea/diagnosis , Fluid Therapy
17.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; rev; Jan. 2022, 03. 158 p. tab, ilus.
Monography in English, Spanish | LILACS, BIGG | ID: biblio-1362814

ABSTRACT

En la actualidad, las guías basadas en la evidencia constituyen una de las herramientas más útiles para mejorar la salud pública y la práctica clínica. Su finalidad es formular intervenciones con sólidas pruebas de eficacia, evitar riesgos innecesarios, utilizar los recursos de forma eficiente, disminuir la variabilidad clínica y, en esencia, mejorar la salud y garantizar una atención de calidad, razón de ser de los sistemas y servicios de salud. Las presentes directrices se elaboraron siguiendo la metodología GRADE con el apoyo de un panel de expertos clínicos de distintos países, todos ellos convocados por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Por medio de la respuesta a doce preguntas clave sobre el diagnóstico clínico y el tratamiento del dengue, el chikunguña y el zika, se formulan recomendaciones basadas en evidencia para pacientes pediátricos, jóvenes, adultos, personas mayores y embarazadas expuestos a estas enfermedades o con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de infección. La finalidad de las directrices es evitar la progresión a las formas graves y a los eventos mortales que puedan causar. Las recomendaciones están dirigidas a profesionales de la salud, incluidos el personal médico general, residente y especialista; y los profesionales de enfermería, así como a estudiantes de medicina y enfermería, quienes de una u otra forma participan en la atención de pacientes con sospecha de dengue, chikunguña o zika. También se dirige a los administradores de las unidades de salud y a los equipos directivos de los programas nacionales de prevención y control de enfermedades arbovirales, quienes tienen la responsabilidad de facilitar el proceso de aplicación de estas directrices. Esperamos que esta publicación beneficie no solo al personal de salud, que dispondrá de información científica actualizada y de la mejor calidad posible, sino a los menores, los adultos, las embarazadas, las personas mayores y la población en general, quienes recibirán una mejor atención de salud prestada por personal médico debidamente capacitado.


Evidence-based guidelines are one of the most useful tools for improving public health and clinical practice. Their purpose is to formulate interventions based on strong evidence of efficacy, avoid unnecessary risks, use resources efficiently, reduce clinical variability and, in essence, improve health and ensure quality care, which is the purpose of health systems and services. These guidelines were developed following the GRADE methodology, with the support of a panel of clinical experts from different countries, all convened by the Pan American Health Organization. By responding to twelve key questions about the clinical diagnosis and treatment of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, evidence-based recommendations were formulated for pediatric, youth, adult, older adult, and pregnant patients who are exposed to these diseases or have a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of infection. The purpose of the guidelines is to prevent progression to severe forms of these diseases and the fatal events they may cause. The recommendations are intended for health professionals, including general, resident, and specialist physicians, nursing professionals, and medical and nursing students, who participate in caring for patients with suspected dengue, chikungunya, or Zika. They are also intended for health unit managers and the executive teams of national arboviral disease prevention and control programs, who are responsible for facilitating the process of implementing these guidelines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Fluid Therapy/standards , Arbovirus Infections/drug therapy , Steroids/therapeutic use , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(1): 3-8, jan./mar. 2022. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1393181

ABSTRACT

A ocorrência de processos fisiopatológicos que cursam com desidratação da ingesta no trato gastrointestinal dos equinos é comum na rotina clínica. Fatores como diminuição da motilidade intestinal e sobrecarga intraluminal de conteúdo desidratado podem levar a compactação em segmentos como estômago, ceco e cólons. Este estudo objetivou realizar a comparação entre soluções eletrolíticas enterais hipotônica (SeHIPO) e isotônica (SeISO) e a solução Ringer com lactato de sódio (RL IV) sobre o teor de umidade das fezes de equinos submetidos a um período de desidratação experimental (PD). Foram utilizados seis equinos adultos, todas fêmeas com idades entre 10 e 15 anos, média de 440 kg de peso corpóreo. O PD constou de 36 horas de jejum hídrico e alimentar associadas a duas administrações intravenosas de furosemida, sendo a primeira imediatamente no início (T-36) e a segunda 12 horas após o início do PD. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: SeHIPO e SeISO, ambas administradas por via nasogástrica em fluxo contínuo (HETfc), e RL IV administrada pela via intravenosa. Todos os tratamentos foram administrados a uma taxa de infusão contínua de 15mL kg-1 h-1 durante 8 horas consecutivas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o crossover6x3, onde cada animal foi submetido, em sistema de rodízio, aos três tratamentos em momentos distintos. As soluções eletrolíticas enterais demonstraram maior eficácia na recomposição do teor de umidade das fezes quando comparadas à terapia RL IV. A hidratação enteral com soluções isotônicas e hipotônicas administrada em fluxo contínuo são eficazes em restaurar o teor de umidade das fezes, podendo ofertar uma opção econômica, segura e eficiente na reidratação de pacientes e nas afecções que cursam como obstruções intraluminais simples.


The occurrence of pathophysiological processes that curse with digesta dryness in the gastrointestinal tract of horses is common in clinical routine, factors such as decreased intestinal motility and intraluminal overload of dry content can lead to compaction in segments such as cecum and colon. This study aimed to compare a hypotonic enteral solution (SeHIPO), an isotonic enteral solution (SeISO) and a Ringer with sodium lactate solution (RL IV) over the moisture content of equine feces submitted to an experimental dehydration protocol. Six adult horses were used, all females aged between 10 and 15 years, average body weight of 440 kg. The PD consisted of a 36 hours period of water and food fasting associated with two intravenous administrations of furosemide, the first immediately at the beginning (T-36) and the second 12 hours after the beginning of the PD. The treatments used were: SeHIPO (hypotonic enteral solution administered via nasogastric), SeISO (enteral isotonic solution administered via nasogastric) and RL IV (Ringer's solution with sodium lactate administered intravenously), all treatments were administered by continuous infusion at a rate of 15mL kg-1 h-1 for 8 consecutive hours. The experimental design used was the 6x3 crossover, where each animal is submitted, in a rotation system, to the three treatments at different times. Enteral fluid therapy with isotonic and hypotonic solutions administered in continuous flow are effective in restoring the moisture content of feces, and may offer an economical, safe, and efficient option for rehydrating patients and in conditions that progress as simple intraluminal obstructions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Dehydration/veterinary , Fluid Therapy/veterinary , Ringer's Lactate/therapeutic use , Horses/metabolism , Hypotonic Solutions/therapeutic use , Isotonic Solutions/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Tract , Feces , Administration, Intravenous/veterinary
19.
Femina ; 50(9): 572-576, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397895

ABSTRACT

A infecção do trato urinário (ITU) é a doença bacteriana mais comum no sexo feminino, e cerca de 25% a 30% das mulheres apresentam ITUs recorrentes ao longo da vida. Os antibióticos são muito utilizados para o tratamento e prevenção dessas infecções. Entretanto, o uso excessivo e indevido desses medicamentos, além dos efeitos adversos, está relacionado ao surgimento de uropatógenos multirresistentes. Há um interesse crescente na comunidade científica para encontrar alternativas ao uso de antibióticos para tratamento e/ou prevenção das infecções bacterianas. Esta revisão tem por objetivo discutir algumas dessas alternativas.(AU)


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial disease in females, and about 25% to 30% of women experience recurrent UTIs throughout their lives. Antibiotics are widely used standard for treating and preventing these infections. However, the excessive and improper use of these drugs, in addition to the adverse effects, is related to the emergence of multidrug-resistant uropathogens. There is a growing interest in the scientific community to find alternatives to the use of antibiotics for the treatment and/or prevention of bacterial infections. This review aims to discuss some of these alternatives.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/therapy , Complementary Therapies , Reinfection/therapy , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Drinking , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Fluid Therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 601-609, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939720

ABSTRACT

Prone position ventilation (PPV) is attracting more and more attention as a part of mechanical ventilation treatment, and relevant consensus and guidelines have been formulated. Prone position therapy (PPT) is widely used in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of burns. Compared with traditional PPV, burn PPT is significantly different in indications, process details, precautions, etc. Therefore, the Burn and Trauma Branch of Chinese Geriatric Society and Critical Care Group of Chinese Burn Association collected the evidence,led the formulation of National expert consensus on prone position therapy in adult burn patients (2022 version), and formulated recommendations on action mechanism, indications, use process of PPT for clinical guidance.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Burns/therapy , Consensus , Fluid Therapy , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial
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