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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927414

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effect of electroacupuncture at Siguan points and flunarizine hydrochloride capsule on migraine of liver yang hyperactivity.@*METHODS@#A total of 110 patients with migraine of liver yang hyperactivity were randomly divided into an electroacupuncture group (55 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a western medication group (55 cases, 2 cases dropped off). In the electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture was applied at Siguan points (Hegu [LI 4] and Taichong [LR 3]), with disperse-dense wave of 2 Hz/100 Hz in frequency and current intensity of 0.1-1 mA, 30 min each time, once a day, 5 times per week for 4 weeks. Flunarizine hydrochloride capsule was given orally in the western medication group, 10 mg a day for 4 weeks. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score and the migraine attack days were observed before and after treatment, during follow-up of 1, 3 and 6 months, and the migraine symptom score was observed before and after treatment in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, during follow-up of 1, 3 and 6 months, the VAS scores and the migraine attack days in the two groups were decreased compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and above indexes in the electroacupuncture group were lower than the western medication group (P<0.05). After treatment, the migraine symptom scores in the two groups were decreased (P<0.05), the change in the electroacupuncture group was greater than the western medication group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture at Siguan points could effectively reduce headache intensity and migraine attack days, relieve migraine symptoms in patients with migraine of liver yang hyperactivity, and the efficacy is superior to oral flunarizine hydrochloride capsules.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Electroacupuncture , Flunarizine/therapeutic use , Humans , Liver , Migraine Disorders/therapy
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878796

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture versus Flunarizine hydrochloride in the treatment of migraine. Four Chinese databases(CNKI, VIP, WanFang, CBM), three English databases(Cochrane Library, EMbase, Medline) and ClinicalTrail.gov were systematically and comprehensively retrieved. The retrieval time was from the establishment of each database to January 8, 2020. Randomized controlled trial(RCT) for acupuncture versus Flunarizine in the treatment of migraine were screened out according to inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. The included studies were evaluated with the Cochrane bias risk assessment tool. The included studies was conducted by RevMan 5.3, and the outcome indicators were evaluated for evidence quality and strength of recommendation by the GRADE system. A total of 1 033 literatures were retrieved, and 23 studies were finally included. Except for 4 multiarm tests, the total sample size was 1 548, including 785 in acupuncture group and 763 in Flunarizine group. The overall quality of the included studies was not high. Meta-analysis results showed that the acupuncture group was superior to the Flunarizine group in reduction of headache frequency(SMD=-1.00, 95%CI[-1.45,-0.54], P<0.000 1). In reduction of headache intensity, acupuncture group was superior to Flunarizine group(SMD=-1.05, 95%CI[-1.41,-0.68], P<0.000 01). In reduction of headache duration, acupuncture group was superior to Flunarizine group(SMD=-1.42, 95%CI[-1.83,-1.02], P<0.000 1). The acupuncture group was superior to Flunarizine group(MD=-0.17, 95%CI[-0.21,-0.13], P<0.000 01) in reduction of the painkillers taking frequency. The acupuncture group was superior to Flunarizine group(SMD=-0.94, 95%CI[-1.35,-0.52], P<0.000 1) in allevia-tion of paroxysmal symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting. The GRADE system showed that the evidence level of the above indicators was extremely low, and the strength of recommendation was low. As for the occurrence of adverse reactions, the adverse reactions reported in the acupuncture group included in the study were all mild adverse reactions, like drowsiness, subcutaneous bleeding, local pain, subcutaneous hematoma and dizziness needle. The available evidence showed that acupuncture has a better efficacy than Flunarizine hydrochloride in the treatment of migraine in adult patients. However, due to the high bias risk in the included studies, the conclusions of this study shall be adopted with caution, and more high-quality studies shall be carried out for verification in the future.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Flunarizine/therapeutic use , Humans , Migraine Disorders/therapy , Treatment Outcome
3.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1149-1153, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776198

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical therapeutic effect and mechanism of acupuncture on headache in the recovery phase of ischemic stroke.@*METHODS@#A total of 97 patients with headache in the recovery phase of ischemic stroke were randomized into an acupuncture group (57 cases) and a western medication group (40 cases). In the western medication group, flunarizine hydrochloride capsule was taken orally 5 mg each time, once a day. In the acupuncture group, acupuncture was applied at Qiuxu (GB 40), Zulinqi (GB 41), Xuanli (GB 6), Shuaigu (GB 8), Fengchi (GB 20) and Baihui (GV 20) for migraine; Chongyang (ST 42), Neiting (ST 44), Jiexi (ST 41), Zusanli (ST 36), Hegu (LI 4), Cuanzhu (BL 2) and Baihui (GV 20) for forehead pain; Jinggu (BL 64), Kunlun (BL 60), Tianzhu (BL 10), Fengchi (GB 20), Baihui (GV 20) and Sishencong (EX-HN 1) for occipital headache; Taichong (LR 3), Yongquan (KI 1), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Fengchi (GB 20), Baihui (GV 20) and Sishencong (EX-HN 1) for parietal headache. The needles were retained for 30 min each time, once a day and 5 times a week. Both of the two groups were given consecutive treatment for 14 days. The visual analogue scale (VAS) and the headache scores before and after treatment and the recurrence rate 1 month after treatment were observed to evaluate the therapeutic effect, before and after treatment, the contents of substance P (SP), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), alpha-endorphin (α-EP) and beta-endorphin (β-EP) in plasma were determined by ELISA in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the VAS scores, the headache scores and the contents of SP, DA and 5-HT in plasma were reduced and the contents ofα-EP andβ-EP in plasma were increased in the two groups (all <0.01). After treatment, the changes of the VAS score, the headache score and the contents of pain-related factors and endogenous opioid peptides in plasma in the acupuncture group were larger than the western medication group (all <0.05). The total effective rate in the acupuncture group was 84.2% (48/57), which was superior to 62.5% (25/40) in the western medication group, and the recurrence rate in the acupuncture group was lower than the western medication group (both <0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The therapeutic effect of acupuncture on headache in the recovery phase of ischemic stroke is superior to flunarizine hydrochloride capsule, and the mechanism may relate to down-regulate the pain-related factors and up-regulate endogenous opioid peptides in plasma.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Methods , Brain Ischemia , Flunarizine , Therapeutic Uses , Headache , Therapeutics , Humans , Stroke , Treatment Outcome , Vasodilator Agents , Therapeutic Uses
4.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(4): 404-410, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889287

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Vestibular migraine (VM) is now accepted as a common cause of episodic vertigo. Treatment of VM involves two situations: the vestibular symptom attacks and the period between attacks. For the latter, some prophylaxis methods can be used. The current recommendation is to use the same prophylactic drugs used for migraines, including β-blockers, antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The recent diagnostic definition of vestibular migraine makes the number of studies on its treatment scarce. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic treatment used in patients from a VM outpatient clinic. Methods: Review of medical records from patients with VM according to the criteria of the Bárány Society/International Headache Society of 2012 criteria. The drugs used in the treatment and treatment response obtained through the visual analog scale (VAS) for dizziness and headache were assessed. The pre and post-treatment VAS scores were compared (the improvement was evaluated together and individually, per drug used). Associations with clinical subgroups of patients were also assessed. Results: Of the 88 assessed records, 47 were eligible. We included patients that met the diagnostic criteria for VM and excluded those whose medical records were illegible and those of patients with other disorders causing dizziness and/or headache that did not meet the 2012 criteria for VM. 80.9% of the patients showed improvement with prophylaxis (p < 0.001). Amitriptyline, Flunarizine, Propranolol and Topiramate improved vestibular symptoms (p < 0.001) and headache (p < 0.015). The four drugs were effective in a statistically significant manner. There was a positive statistical association between the time of vestibular symptoms and clinical improvement. There was no additional benefit in hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs as prophylaxis or depressed patients who used antidepressants in relation to other prophylactic drugs. Drug association did not show statistically significant results in relation to the use of a single drug. Conclusions: Prophylactic medications used to treat VM improve the symptoms of this disease, but there is no statistically significant difference between the responses of prophylactic drugs. The time of vestibular symptom seems to increase the benefit with prophylactic treatment.


Resumo Introdução: A migrânea vestibular (MV) é aceita atualmente como uma causa comum de vertigem episódica. O tratamento da MV envolve duas situações: as crises de sintomas vestibulares e o período intercrise. Para esse último, pode-se usar algum método de profilaxia. A recomendação atual é que se usem os mesmos medicamentos profiláticos usados para a enxaqueca, o que inclui os β-bloqueadores, antidepressivos e anticonvulsivantes. A recente definição diagnóstica da migrânea vestibular torna escasso o número de estudos sobre seu tratamento. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia do tratamento profilático usado em pacientes em um ambulatório de MV. Método: Revisão de prontuários de pacientes com MV pelos critérios da Bárány Society/International Headeache Society de 2012. Foram pesquisados os medicamentos usados e resposta ao tratamento obtida através da escala visual analógica (EVA) para tontura e cefaleia. Foram comparados os escores da EVA pré e pós-tratamento (a melhoria foi avaliada em conjunto e individualmente por droga usada). Também foram pesquisadas relações com subgrupos clínicos dos pacientes. Resultados: De 88 prontuários estudados, 47 foram elegíveis. Incluíram-se os pacientes que preenchiam os critérios diagnósticos para MV, foram excluídos os prontuários ilegíveis e aqueles de pacientes com outro distúrbio causador de tontura e/ou cefaleia que não preenchiam critérios de 2012 para MV. Apresentaram melhoria com a profilaxia 80,9% dos pacientes (p < 0,001). Amitriptilina, flunarizina, propranolol e topiramato apresentaram melhoria para sintomas vestibulares (p < 0,001) e para cefaleia (p < 0,015). Os quatro medicamentos foram eficazes de forma estatisticamente significante. Houve relação estatística positiva entre tempo de sintoma vestibular e melhoria clínica. Não houve benefício adicional para hipertensos que usaram anti-hipertensivos como profilaxia ou para os deprimidos que usaram antidepressivos em relação ao uso dos outros profiláticos. A associação de medicamentos não mostrou resultados estatisticamente significantes do uso de um medicamento isolado. Conclusões: Os medicamentos profiláticos usados para MV melhoram os sintomas dessa doença, porém não há diferença estatisticamente significante entre as respostas dos medicamentos profiláticos. O tempo de sintoma vestibular parece aumentar a melhoria obtida com o tratamento profilático.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Flunarizine/therapeutic use , Vestibular Diseases/prevention & control , Fructose/analogs & derivatives , Amitriptyline/therapeutic use , Migraine Disorders/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Topiramate , Fructose/therapeutic use
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289524

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the preventive effect of behavioral therapy plus flunarizine in children with migraine.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ninety pediatric patients with migraine between January 2011and January 2014 were randomly divided into treatment group (45 cases) and control group (45 cases). The treatment group received behavioral therapy in addition to oral flunarizine, while the control group received oral flunarizine alone. All patients were followed up for 3 months to evaluate the therapeutic effect by the Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Score (PedMIDAS) and improved Bussone headache index.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were no significant differences in PedMIDAS (P>0.05) and improved Bussone headache index (P>0.05) between the control and treatment groups before treatment. Significant differences were observed in PedMIDAS (16±8 vs 20±10; P<0.05) and improved Bussone headache index (25±18 vs 37±21; P<0.05) between the two groups after 3 months of treatment.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Preventive treatment of behavioral therapy plus oral flunarizine shows a better clinical efficacy than oral flunarizine alone in children with migraine and holds promise for clinical application.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Behavior Therapy , Child , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Flunarizine , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Male , Migraine Disorders , Therapeutics
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 71(3): 171-173, mar. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668763

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the adherence between monotherapy and politherapy in prophylactic migraine treatment. Method Five hundred consecutive patients with migraine from a tertiary center were retrospectively studied as to the number of preventive medications prescribed during the first visit. Adherence, defined as returning for the next consultation after 4 to 6 weeks and following the prescribed regimens, were also evaluated and compared between patients. Results 71.8% were women, and 6% of the patients did not receive any preventive medication, 11.4% received one drug, 22.2% two drugs, 41.4% three drugs, and 19% four drugs for the prevention of migraine. The overall adherence was 79.6%. Respectively, 73.7, 71.8, 82.6 and 86.3% of those who received the prescription of one, two, three and four drugs returned, complying with the treatment. Conclusion There is no difference in adherence to monotherapy or politherapy (one to four drugs) for the prophylaxis of migraine. .


Objetivo Comparar a adesão entre monoterapia e politerapia no tratamento profilático da migrânea. Método Foram analisados retrospec-tivamente 500 pacientes com migrânea de um centro terciário, com vistas ao número de medicações preventivas prescritas na primeira consulta e adesão ao tratamento após 4 a 6 semanas. Resultados 71,8% da amostra era composta de mulheres. Em relação ao tratamento preventivo da migrânea, 6% não receberam medicação preventiva; 11,4% receberam uma droga; 22,2% duas drogas; 41,4% três drogas e 19% quatro drogas. A adesão média foi de 79,6%. Em relação à prescrição de uma, duas, três ou quatro drogas, essa adesão foi respectiva-mente de 73,7, 71,8, 82,6 e 86,3%. Conclusão Não houve diferenças na adesão à prescrição de medicações em monoterapia ou politerapia (uma a quatro drogas) para o tratamento preventivo da migrânea. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Migraine Disorders/drug therapy , Prescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Flunarizine/therapeutic use , Muscle Relaxants, Central/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27429

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the efficacy and safety of flunarizine in the treatment of pediatric headaches. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical records of children aged between 4 and 19 years who were treated with flunarizine for headache at the Chosun university hospital between April 2006 and December 2012. Flunarizine was initially prescribed to patients 5 mg daily and was then escalated once in 7 patients because of the unresponsiveness to the initial dose. We evaluated the frequency, duration, severity, and disability of headache before and after the treatment of flunarizine. Effective treatment was defined as a reduction in the frequency of individual attacks by at the least 50%. RESULTS: Eighty five patients were identified, but 23 were excluded due to missing records. Sixty two children were included in the study: 18 boys and 44 girls with a mean age of 11 years. The diagnostic categories included migraine (27), tension type headache (7), others (28). The mean frequency of attack was 15.1+/-8.9 per month. Good outcome was observed 54.8% (34/62) in 1 month, 70.4% (38/54) in 3 month, and 80.8% (42/52) in 6 month. Adverse effects were seen in 15 (24.2%): worsening of headache (4), sedation (3), weight gain/increased appetite (2), dizziness (1), drowsiness (1) and others (4). Flunarizine was discontinued due to adverse effects in 6 patients, which includes worsening of headache (4), muscle ache (1), and tremor (1). In addition, it was discontinued due to lack of efficacy in seven patients. CONCLUSION: Flunarizine appears to be effective and safe in pediatric headache in our study. However, further studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Appetite , Child , Dizziness , Female , Flunarizine , Headache , Humans , Migraine Disorders , Muscles , Retrospective Studies , Sleep Stages , Tension-Type Headache , Tremor
8.
Arch. venez. pueric. pediatr ; 75(3): 89-92, sep. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-676432

ABSTRACT

Las cefaleas constituyen una causa frecuente de consulta en Pediatría, siendo la migraña el tipo más frecuente de las cefaleas primarias en la infancia. La asociación entre cefalea y hemiplejía aguda en la infancia pudiera corresponder a múltiples etiologías debiéndose considerar las de carácter hereditario. La migraña hemipléjica familiar se caracteriza por la presencia de crisis migrañosas con trastornos motores deficitarios transitorios, afasia o alteraciones sensitivas o sensoriales. Se describe el caso de una adolescente femenina de 12 años de edad, con antecedentes familiares de migraña, historia de cefalea migrañosa de un año de evolución, que cumple con los criterios establecidos por la Sociedad Internacional de Cefaleas de migraña hemipléjica familiar. El examen neurológico y los paraclínicos complementarios fueron normales. Se realizó tratamiento con flunarizina e ibuprofeno con evolución satisfactoria


Headaches are a frequent cause of consultation in Pediatrics, migraine being the most common type of primary headaches in children. The association between headache and acute hemiplegia in childhood may correspond to multiple etiologies, including those considered as inherited. Familial hemiplegic migraine is characterized by the presence of migraine crisis with transient motor deficit disorders, aphasia and sensitive or sensory disturbances. We describe the case of a 12 year-old girl with a family history of migraine, and migraine headache of a year of evolution, which meets the criteria established by the International Headache Society of Familial Hemiplegic Migraine. Neurological examination and the paraclinical studies were normal. She was treated with flunarizine and ibuprofen with satisfactory outcome


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Flunarizine/therapeutic use , Migraine with Aura/diagnosis , Migraine with Aura/therapy , Migraine Disorders/pathology , Migraine Disorders/therapy , Pediatrics
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193622

ABSTRACT

Basilar migraine is a rare type of migraine with complex symptoms including aura such as dysarthria, vertigo, tinnitus, and decreased level of consciousness. A 13-year-old male patient was presented with severe headache and immobility of whole body for 20 minutes after vomiting, dizziness, and dysarthria. Similar episode of headache and unconsciousness after vomiting happened 2 weeks ago prior to the visit. Vital signs were stable and pupils showed positive light reflex. Brain MRI and MRA, EEG, and electrocardiography revealed no abnormality. One day after discharge from hospital, patient revisited emergency room because of similar episode of headache. Preventive medication was started with flunarizine 5 mg per day. However, similar episodes of headache and loss of consciousness repeated three times over the next four months. Topiramate was then added with dose of 100 mg divided into two doses. Since then, the patient has been symptom free over 1 year.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Brain , Consciousness , Dizziness , Dysarthria , Electrocardiography , Electroencephalography , Emergencies , Epilepsy , Flunarizine , Fructose , Headache , Humans , Light , Male , Migraine Disorders , Migraine with Aura , Paralysis , Pupil , Reflex , Tinnitus , Unconsciousness , Vertigo , Vital Signs , Vomiting
10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1451-1456, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-323103

ABSTRACT

The Chinese herbal medicine Tianma (Gastrodia elata) has been used for treating and preventing primary headache over thousands of years, but the exact pharmacological mechanism of the main bioactive ingredient gastrodin remains unclear. In present study, the effects of gastrodin on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (pERK1/2) expression were observed in rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) after in vitro organ culture to explore the underlying intracellular mechanism of gastrodin on primary vascular-associated headache. CGRP-immunoreactivity (CGRP-ir) positive neurons count, positive area, mean optical density and integrated optical density by means of immunohistochemistry stain were compared at different concentrations of gastrodin, which was separately co-incubated with DMEM in SD rat TG for 24 hours. Only at 5 or 10 mmol L(-1) concentration, gastrodin demonstrated significantly concentration-dependent reduction of CGRP-ir (+) expression and its action closed to 1.2 mmol L(-1) sumatriptan succinate. While at 2.5, 20, and 40 mmol L(-1) concentration, gastrodin did not show remarkable effects on CGRP-ir (+) expression. The optimal concentration of gastrodin (5 and 10 mmol L(-1)) similarly inhibited CGRP-mRNA expression level separately compared with 1.2 mmol L(-1) sumatriptan succinate and 10 micromol L(-1) flunarizine hydrochloride, which was quantitatively analyzed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). pERK1/2 level was examined by Western blotting after co-cultured with optimal concentration of gastrodin and effective specific ERK1/2 pathway inhibitors PD98059, U0126. The result indicated that gastrodin significantly reduced pERK1/2 protein actions similarly to ERK1/2 pathway specific blockade. It suggests ERK1/2 signaling transduction pathway may be involved in gastrodin intracellular mechanism. This study indicates gastrodin (5 and 10 mmol L(-1)) can remarkably reduce CGRP-ir (+) neuron, CGRP-mRNA and pERK1/2 expression level in cultured rat TG, with its actions similar to the effective concentration of sumatriptan succinate, flunarizine hydrochloride and specific ERK1/2 pathway blocker. The intracellular signaling transduction ERK1/2 pathway may be involved in the gastrodin reducing CGRP up-regulation in rat TG after organ culture.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzyl Alcohols , Pharmacology , Butadienes , Pharmacology , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Genetics , Metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Flunarizine , Pharmacology , Gastrodia , Chemistry , Glucosides , Pharmacology , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Male , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 , Metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 , Metabolism , Nitriles , Pharmacology , Organ Culture Techniques , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sumatriptan , Pharmacology , Trigeminal Ganglion , Metabolism , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents , Pharmacology
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2649-2655, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292829

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Although flunarizine has been widely used for migraine prophylaxis with clear success, the mechanisms of its actions in migraine prophylaxis are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of flunarizine on tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channels and high-voltage activated Ca(2+) channels of acutely isolated mouse trigeminal ganglion neurons.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sodium currents and calcium currents in trigeminal ganglion neurons were monitored using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Paired Student's t test was used as appropriate to evaluate the statistical significance of differences between two group means.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Both tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium currents and high-voltage activated calcium currents were blocked by flunarizine in a concentration-dependent manner with the concentration producing half-maximal current block values of 2.89 µmol/L and 2.73 µmol/L, respectively. The steady-state inactivation curves of tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium currents and high-voltage activated calcium currents were shifted towards more hyperpolarizing potentials after exposure to flunarizine. Furthermore, the actions of flunarizine in blocking tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium currents and high-voltage activated calcium currents were use-dependent, with effects enhanced at higher rates of channel activation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Blockades of these currents might help explain the peripheral mechanism underlying the preventive effect of flunarizine on migraine attacks.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Female , Flunarizine , Pharmacology , Male , Mice , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Sensory Receptor Cells , Metabolism , Sodium , Metabolism , Trigeminal Ganglion , Cell Biology , Metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172514

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study was designed to explore the potential of flunarizine for cisplatin induced painful uremic neuropathy in rats. METHODS: Cisplatin (2 mg/kg; i.p., for 5 consecutive days) was administered and renal uremic markers i.e., serum creatinine were estimated on days 4 and 25. Behavioral changes were assessed in terms of thermal hyperalgesia (hot plate, plantar, tail immersion, and tail flick tests at different time intervals). Biochemical analysis of total calcium, superoxide anion, DNA, and transketolase, and myeloperoxidase activity in tissue samples was also performed. Furthermore, flunarizine (100, 200, and 300 microM/kg; p.o., for 21 consecutive days) was administered to evaluate its potency on uremic neuropathy, and the results were compared with those for the carbamazepine-treated (30 mg/kg; p.o., for 21 consecutive days) groups. RESULTS: Flunarizine attenuated the cisplatin-induced uremic neuropathy, and the degree of behavioral and biochemical changes in serum and tissue samples in a dose dependent manner. The medium and high doses of flunarizine were shown to produce a significant effect on cisplatin induced painful uremic neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate the potential of flunarizine for anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective actions. Therefore, it may have use as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of painful uremic neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Cisplatin , Creatinine , DNA , Flunarizine , Hyperalgesia , Immersion , Neurotoxins , Peroxidase , Rats , Superoxides , Transketolase , Uremia
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257966

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To assess the therapeutic effects on acupuncture preventive treatment of no-aura migraine and its influence on the QOL (quality of life) of the patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Randomized controlled, double-blind and double-dummy research methods were adopted, 60 cases were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each group. The observation group was treated with acupuncture combined with oral administration of Flunarizine Hydrochloride vacuity capsules, and Baihui (GV 20), Shenting (GV 24) and Benshen (GB 13) were selected as main points. The control group was treated with oral administration of Flunarizine Hydrochloride capsules combined with acupuncture at placebo-points, thrice each week, for 4 weeks. The SF-36 QOL Scale and effective rate were used for assessment of therapeutic effects before treatment, after treatment and 3 months later.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were significant differences in each dimension scores of SF-36 at 3 time points between the two groups (all P < 0.05). The dimension of the physiological function in the observation group was superior to that of the control group after treatment (P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference in other 7 dimensions between the two groups (all P > 0.05). After treatment and 3 months later, the effective rates were 68.0%, 68.0% in the observation group and 24.0%, 32.0% in the control group, respectively, with significant differences between the two groups (all P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Acupuncture preventive treatment can effectively improve the life quality of the patients with migraine and reduce the migraine attack. There is no significant difference in improving the physical and psychological health of the migraine patients between acupuncture and Flunarizine Hydrochloride, and acupuncture is more effective in reducing the migraine attack days.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Methods , Adult , Double-Blind Method , Female , Flunarizine , Therapeutic Uses , Histamine H1 Antagonists , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Migraine without Aura , Therapeutics , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257946

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the therapeutic effect and safety of acupuncture at points of The Liver and Gallbladder Meridians for treatment of migraine.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Multi-central, randomized and controlled trial was used and 253 cases of migraine were divided into an acupuncture group and a western medicine group. The acupuncture group was treated with acupuncture at points of The Liver and Gallbladder Channels with Taichong (LR 3), Yang-lingquan (GB 34), Fengchi (GB 20), Ququan (LR 8) selected as main points, and the western medicine group with oral administration of Flunarizine tablets for 4 therapeutic courses. The total therapeutic effects 3 and 6 months after the treatment, the scores of various symptoms of migraine before and after treatment, and the stability of therapeutic effect in one-year following-up survey were observed in the two groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After treatment, mean times and duration of the headache attack were significantly improved in the two groups (all P < 0.01) with the acupuncture group better than the western medicine group (P < 0.05). The total effective rates for stopping pain after treatment, 3 months and 6 months after treatment in the acupuncture group were 93.0%, 93.0% and 87.7%, respectively, which were better than 85.6%, 86.5% and 69.2% in the western medication group (all P < 0.01). One year later, the stability of the therapeutic effect in the acupuncture group was better than that in the western medicine group (P < 0.05); the adverse reaction and the compliance in the acupuncture group were significantly superior to those in the western medicine group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Acupuncture at points of The Liver and Gallbladder Meridians for treatment of migraine is safe, effective, and with stable long-term therapeutic effect.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Methods , Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Flunarizine , Therapeutic Uses , Gallbladder , Pathology , Headache , Histamine H1 Antagonists , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Liver , Pathology , Male , Meridians , Middle Aged , Migraine Disorders , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Therapeutics , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121635

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood(AHC) is a rare neurologic syndrome of unknown pathophysiology. The typical clinical features are characterized by recurrent hemiplegic attacks shifting from one side to the other, beginning before 18 months, dystonia, strabismus, nystagmus, epilepsy, and immediate resolution of all symptoms during sleep. This study is to access clinical features and outcome of treatment of AHC in Korea. METHODS: We sent standardized questionnaires by e-mail to 118 council members of the Korean Society of Child Neurology. We received it through e-mail from 7 centers and analyzed clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. RESULTS: We collected 11 AHC patients(male 6, female 5). The mean age was 6.13+/-5.23 years. The mean age of onset of hemiplegia was 9.80+/-6.67 months. The mean frequency of episode was 10.73+/-11.44 per month and mean duration was 3.10+/-2.50 days. The manifestations were hemiplegia in 100%, dystonia in 81.8%, abnormal eye movements in 81.8%, developmental delay in 81.8%, seizure in 72.7%, autonomic phenomena in 54.5%, ataxia 45.5%, and episodes of quadriparesis in 45.5%. The onset age of seizure was 3-84 months. Psychomotor retardation was more severe in patients with seizures than in those without seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain and cerebral angiography were normal in all patients. Interictal SPECT shows hypoperfusion in the frontal in 2 of 5 patients. Nine patients received flunarizine and antiepileptic drugs but two patients received antiepileptic drugs only. A favorable response was reported in 45.5%, which included excellent response to the combination therapy of flunarizine and high dose topiramate. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with seizures faired the poorer psychomotor retardation. The combination of flunarizine and high dose topiramate was very effective in AHC.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Anticonvulsants , Ataxia , Brain , Cerebral Angiography , Child , Dystonia , Electronic Mail , Epilepsy , Eye Movements , Female , Flunarizine , Fructose , Hemiplegia , Humans , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neurology , Quadriplegia , Surveys and Questionnaires , Seizures , Strabismus , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 66(3b): 615-618, set. 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-495521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Migraine is a prevalent neurological disorder. Although prevention is the mainstream treatment, some patients are refractory to standard therapies. AIM: To evaluate the use of quetiapine (QTP) in the preventive treatment of refractory migraine, defined as previous unresponsiveness to the combination atenolol + nortriptyline + flunarizine. METHOD: Thirty-four consecutive patients (30 women and 4 men) with migraine (ICHD-II) and headache attacks on less than 15 days per month not overusing symptomatic medications were studied. The main inclusion criterion was the lack of response (<50 percent reduction in attack frequency) after ten weeks to the combination of atenolol (60 mg/day) + nortriptyline (25 mg/day) + flunarizine (3 mg/day). The patients started on QTP as the sole treatment in a single daily dose of 25 mg, titrated to 75 mg. After ten weeks, headache frequency, consumption of rescue medications and adverse events were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty nine patients completed the study. Among completers, 22 (75.9 percent; 64.7 percent of the intention-to-treat population) presented >50 percent headache reduction. The mean frequency of migraine days decreased from 10.2 to 6.2 and the average consumption of rescue medications decreased from 2.3 to 1.2 days/week. Adverse events were reported by 9 (31 percent) patients. CONCLUSION: Although limited by the open design, this study provides a pilot data to support the use of quetiapine in preventive treatment of refractory migraine.


INTRODUÇÃO: A migrânea é uma doença neurológica prevalente. Embora a prevenção seja o esteio principal do tratamento, alguns pacientes são refratários aos tratamentos tradicionais. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o uso da quetiapina (QTP) no tratamento preventivo da migrânea refratária definida como ausência de resposta ao uso prévio da combinação de atenolol com nortriptilina e flunarizina. MÉTODO: Trinta e quatro pacientes consecutivos (30 mulheres e 4 homens) com migrânea (CIC-II) e crises de cefaléia em menos de 15 dias/mês sem uso excessivo de sintomáticos foram estudados. O critério de inclusão principal foi a não obtenção na redução da frequência de cefaléia >50 por cento após 10 semanas de uso da combinação de atenolol (60 mg/dia) + nortriptilina (25 mg/dia) + flunarizina (3 mg/dia). Os pacientes iniciaram a QTP como tratamento único na dose de 25 mg à noite e aumentaram-na até 75 mg. Após 10 semanas de uso, a frequência da cefaléia, o consumo de sintomáticos e os efeitos colaterais foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: Vinte e nove pacientes completaram o estudo. Entre os que completaram, 22 (75.9 por cento; 64.7 por cento dos pacientes que foram incluídos) obtiveram redução da frequência >50 por cento. A frequência média de dias com migrânea por mês decresceu de 10,2 para 6,2. O consumo médio de sintomáticos caiu de 2,3 para 1,2 dias/semana. Efeitos colaterais foram relatados por 9 (31 por cento) pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de limitado pela metodologia aberta, esse estudo oferece dados iniciais para a possível utilidade da QTP na prevenção da migrânea refratária.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Dibenzothiazepines/therapeutic use , Migraine Disorders/prevention & control , Atenolol/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance , Drug Therapy, Combination , Flunarizine/therapeutic use , Nortriptyline/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
19.
J. bras. med ; 94(5): 20-26, maio 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-493940

ABSTRACT

As cefaléias figuram entre as queixas mais comuns em unidades de atendimento primário. Ocupam o primeiro lugar entre os transtornos "benignos" incapacitantes, segundo dados da Organização Mundial de Saúde, com forte impacto socioeconômico. No artigo é descrito o manejo das diversas causas da cefaléia, com suas diferentes apresentações clínicas. A cefaléia tensional é a cusa primária mais comum, seguida pela cefaléia enxaquecosa.


Subject(s)
Headache/classification , Headache/physiopathology , Headache/therapy , Migraine Disorders/therapy , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use , Amitriptyline/therapeutic use , Flunarizine/therapeutic use , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Verapamil/therapeutic use
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-746520

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine whether carbamazepine is effective in treating the subjective tinnitus.@*METHOD@#Randomized, prospective,double-blind,controlled trial was used in our study. The study group consisted of 100 adult patients who consulted our outpatient clinic complaining of subjective tinnitus, excluded objective tinnitus and the patients who had tinnitus caused by obvious diseases, such as outer and middle ear diseases, 50 patients were given carbamazepine and Flunarizine Hydrochloride, 50 patients were given Vitamin B6 and Flunarizine Hydrochloride. After a week the effect of the different group of medicines was observed. Tinnitus questionnaire was performed before the treatment, and pure tone audiogram, tinnitus pitch and loudness matching were performed at the end of the treatment.@*RESULT@#Completion of treatment, tinnitus loudness matching assessment showed that the efficacy of the carbamazepine group was similar to that of the control group. The efficacy of treatment was respectively 26% by intend to treat (ITT) and 28.3% by per protocol (PP) in the carbamazepine group and 26% by ITT and 27.7% by PP in the control group. The efficacy of treatment has no statistically significance for tinnitus loudness of the experimental group and the control group. The subjective tinnitus improvement rate showed no difference between two groups. Pure tone thresholds fluctuated within 10 dB in the beginning and at the end of the treatment. There were serious side effects in the carbamazepine group. The side effects rates were respectively 55.3% and 16.7% in the carbamazepine group and the control group, respectively. The difference had statistical significance.@*CONCLUSION@#Our results showed that the efficacy of carbamazepine combined with Flunarizine Hydrochloride is similar to that of the control group. There was no improvement in listening. But the side effects of it were more serious than that of the control group. It should not be recommended for the treatment of tinnitus.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Carbamazepine , Therapeutic Uses , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Flunarizine , Therapeutic Uses , Hearing Tests , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Tinnitus , Drug Therapy , Young Adult
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