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Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 333-342, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440309


SUMMARY: Changes in the microcirculation of multiple tissues and organs have been implicated as a possible mechanism in physiological aging. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor is a secretory protein responsible for regulating angiogenesis via altering endothelial proliferation, survival, migration, extracellular matrix degradation and cell permeability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor in the progression of morphological alterations caused by physiological aging in the heart and kidney and to examine its relation to changes in capillary density. We used two age groups of healthy Wistar rats - 6- and 12-month- old. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was examined through immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and assessed semi-quantitatively. Changes in capillary density were evaluated statistically and correlated with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. We reported stronger immunoreactivity for vascular endothelial growth factor in the left compared to the right ventricle and also observed an increase in its expression in both ventricles in older animals. Contrasting results were reported for the renal cortex and medulla. Capillary density decreased statistically in all examined structures as aging progressed. The studied correlations were statistically significant in the two ventricles in 12-month-old animals and in the renal cortex of both age groups. Our results shed light on some changes in the microcirculation that take place as aging advances and likely contribute to impairment in the function of the examined organs.

Los cambios en la microcirculación de múltiples tejidos y órganos se han implicado como un posible mecanismo en el envejecimiento fisiológico. En particular, el factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular es una proteína secretora responsable de regular la angiogénesis mediante la alteración de la proliferación endotelial, la supervivencia, la migración, la degradación de la matriz extracelular y la permeabilidad celular. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el papel del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular en la progresión de las alteraciones morfológicas causadas por el envejecimiento fisiológico en el corazón y riñón y examinar su relación con los cambios en la densidad capilar. Utilizamos dos grupos de ratas Wistar sanas: 6 y 12 meses de edad. La expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular se examinó mediante inmunohistoquímica e inmunofluorescencia y se evaluó semicuantitativamente. Los cambios en la densidad capilar se evaluaron estadísticamente y se correlacionaron con la expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular. Informamos una inmunorreactividad más fuerte para el factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular en el ventrículo izquierdo en comparación con el derecho y también observamos un aumento en su expresión en ambos ventrículos en animales mayores. Se informaron resultados contrastantes para la corteza renal y la médula. La densidad capilar disminuyó estadísticamente en todas las estructuras examinadas a medida que avanzaba el envejecimiento. Las correlaciones estudiadas fueron estadísticamente significativas en los dos ventrículos en animales de 12 meses y en la corteza renal de ambos grupos de edad. Nuestros resultados arrojan luz sobre algunos cambios en la microcirculación que tienen lugar a medida que avanza el envejecimiento y probablemente contribuyan a un deterioro en la función de los órganos examinados.

Animals , Rats , Aging , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Kidney/blood supply , Capillaries/anatomy & histology , Immunohistochemistry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Vessels/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/metabolism , Heart/physiology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/physiology , Microcirculation
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 308-318, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430503


SUMMARY: Gastrin plays a vital role in the development and progression of gastric cancer (GC). Its expression is up-regulated in GC tissues and several GC cell lines. Yet, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. Here, we aim to investigate the role and mechanism of gastrin in GC proliferation. Gastrin-overexpressing GC cell model was constructed using SGC7901 cells. Then the differentially expressed proteins were identified by iTRAQ analysis. Next, we use flow cytometry and immunofluorescence to study the effect of gastrin on the mitochondrial potential and mitochondria-derived ROS production. Finally, we studied the underlying mechanism of gastrin regulating mitochondrial function using Co-IP, mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence. Overexpression of gastrin promoted GC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. A total of 173 proteins were expressed differently between the controls and gastrin- overexpression cells and most of these proteins were involved in tumorigenesis and cell proliferation. Among them, Cox17, Cox5B and ATP5J that were all localized to the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated in gastrin-overexpression cells. Furthermore, gastrin overexpression led to mitochondrial potential decrease and mitochondria-derived ROS increase. Additionally, gastrin-induced ROS generation resulted in the inhibition of cell apoptosis via activating NF-kB, inhibiting Bax expression and promoting Bcl-2 expression. Finally, we found gastrin interacted with mitochondrial membrane protein Annexin A2 using Co-IP and mass spectrometry. Overexpr ession of gastrin inhibits GC cell apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction through interacting with mitochondrial protein Annexin A2, then up-regulating ROS production to activate NF-kB and further leading to Bax/Bcl-2 ratio decrease.

La gastrina juega un papel vital en el desarrollo y progresión del cáncer gástrico (CG). Su expresión está regulada al alza en tejidos de CG y en varias líneas celulares de CG. Sin embargo, el mecanismo subyacente aun no se ha investigado. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el papel y el mecanismo de la gastrina en la proliferación de CG. El modelo de células CG que sobre expresan gastrina se construyó usando células SGC7901. Luego, las proteínas expresadas diferencialmente se identificaron mediante análisis iTRAQ. A continuación, utilizamos la citometría de flujo y la inmunofluorescencia para estudiar el efecto de la gastrina en el potencial mitocondrial y la producción de ROS derivada de las mitocondrias. Finalmente, estudiamos el mecanismo subyacente de la gastrina que regula la función mitocondrial utilizando Co-IP, espectrometría de masas e inmunofluorescencia. La sobreexpresión de gastrina promovió la proliferación de células CG in vitro e in vivo. Un total de 173 proteínas se expresaron de manera diferente entre los controles y las células con sobreexpresión de gastrina y la mayoría de estas proteínas estaban implicadas en la tumorigenesis y la proliferación celular. Entre estas, Cox17, Cox5B y ATP5J, todas localizadas en la cadena respiratoria mitocondrial, estaban reguladas a la baja en las células con sobreexpresión de gastrina. Además, la sobreexpresión de gastrina provocó una disminución del potencial mitocondrial y un aumento de las ROS derivadas de las mitocondrias. Por otra parte, la generación de ROS inducida por gastrina resultó en la inhibición de la apoptosis celular mediante la activación de NF-kB, inhibiendo la expresión de Bax y promoviendo la expresión de Bcl-2. Finalmente, encontramos que la gastrina interactuaba con la proteína de membrana mitocondrial Anexina A2 usando Co-IP y espectrometría de masas. La sobreexpresión de gastrina inhibe la apoptosis de las células CG al inducir la disfunción mitocondrial a través de la interacción con la proteína mitocondrial Anexina A2, luego regula el aumento de la producción de ROS para activar NF-kB y conduce aún más a la disminución de la relación Bax/Bcl-2.

Animals , Mice , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrins/metabolism , Annexin A2/metabolism , Mitochondria/pathology , Mass Spectrometry , NF-kappa B , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Reactive Oxygen Species , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Immunoprecipitation , Cell Proliferation , Carcinogenesis , Flow Cytometry
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1648-1655, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421809


SUMMARY: The skin, located on the outermost part of the body, is always exposed to external stimuli such as sunlight. The exposure of skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from sunlight is known to be a major environmental factor in inducing photoaging. After exposure to UVB, an increase in reactive oxygen species can affect the expression and activity of many critical proteins depending on the duration and dose of the UVB radiation. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRTs), which are nicotinamide dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylases, are well known for playing a role in cellular longevity. However, little is known about SIRT protein alterations in keratinocytes upon UVB irradiation according to SIRT subtypes. Therefore, in this study, the distribution of non-mitochondrial SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT6 proteins was investigated by immunofluorescence (IF) staining of the skin of SKH-1 mice (n=12) after UVB irradiation for 10 weeks. After UVB irradiation for 10 weeks, the IF of both SIRT1 and SIRT6 was significantly increased in the UVB-irradiated mice group (UG), but the difference in SIRT2 IF was not statistically significant between the control group (CG) and the UG. The translocation of both SIRT1 and SIRT6 IF from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of keratinocytes was observed in the upper epidermis of the UG, whereas SIRT2 IF was localized in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes in the epidermis in both the CG and the UG. The translocation of SIRT1 and SIRT6 IF from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of keratinocytes may account for the physiologically protective action of keratinocytes against UVB irradiation. However, the exact role of SIRT1 and SIRT6 translocation in keratinocytes, where SIRT1 and SIRT6 shuttle from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, is not well known. Therefore, further studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms of SIRT1 and SIRT6 translocation in keratinocytes upon UVB irradiation.

La piel, situada en la parte más externa del cuerpo, está siempre expuesta a estímulos externos como la luz solar. Se sabe que la exposición de la piel a la radiación ultravioleta B (UVB) de la luz solar es un factor ambiental importante en la inducción del fotoenvejecimiento. Después de la exposición a los rayos UVB, un aumento en las especies reactivas de oxígeno puede afectar la expresión y la actividad de muchas proteínas críticas según la duración y la dosis de la radiación UVB. Las sirtuinas de mamíferos (SIRT), que son proteínas desacetilasas dependientes de dinucleótidos de nicotinamida, son bien conocidas por desempeñar un papel en la longevidad celular. Sin embargo, se sabe poco sobre las alteraciones de la proteína SIRT en los queratinocitos tras la irradiación UVB según los subtipos de SIRT. Por lo tanto, en este estudio, se investigó la distribución de las proteínas SIRT1, SIRT2 y SIRT6 no mitocondriales mediante tinción de inmunofluorescencia (IF) de la piel de ratones SKH-1 (n = 12), después de la irradiación con UVB durante 10 semanas. Posterior a la irradiación, el IF de SIRT1 y SIRT6 aumentaron significativamente en el grupo de ratones irradiados con UVB (UG), pero la diferencia en SIRT2 IF no fue estadísticamente significativa entre el grupo control (CG) y el UG. La translocación de SIRT1 y SIRT6 IF desde el núcleo al citoplasma de los queratinocitos se observó en la epidermis superior de la UG, mientras que SIRT2 IF se localizó en el citoplasma de los queratinocitos en la epidermis, tanto en el GC, como en la UG. La translocación de SIRT1 y SIRT6 IF del núcleo al citoplasma de los queratinocitos puede explicar la acción protectora fisiológica de estos contra la radiación UVB. Sin embargo, el papel exacto de la translocación de SIRT1 y SIRT6 en los queratinocitos, donde SIRT1 y SIRT6 se trasladan desde el núcleo al citoplasma, no se conoce bien. Por lo tanto, se necesitan más estudios para comprender los mecanismos moleculares de la translocación SIRT1 y SIRT6 en los queratinocitos tras la irradiación UVB.

Animals , Male , Mice , Ultraviolet Rays , Keratinocytes/radiation effects , Sirtuins/radiation effects , Time Factors , Skin Aging , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Sirtuins/analysis
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(5): 863-867, Sept.-Oct. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407705


Abstract Objectives The capsuloligamentous structures of the shoulder work as static stabilizers, together with the biceps and rotator cuff muscles, increasing the contact surface of the glenoid cavity. Free nerve endings and mechanoreceptors have been identified in the shoulder; however, there are a few studies that describe the presence of these nerves in the biceps' insertion. The present study aimed to describe the morphology and distribution of nerve endings using immunofluorescence with protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and confocal microscopy. Methods Six labrum-biceps complexes from six fresh-frozen cadavers were studied. The specimens were coronally cut and prepared using the immunofluorescence technique. In both hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunofluorescence, the organization of the connective tissue with parallel collagen fibers was described. Results In the H&E study, vascular structures and some nerve structures were visualized, which were identified by the elongated presence of the nerve cell. All specimens analyzed with immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy demonstrated poor occurrence of morphotypes of sensory corpuscles and free nerve endings. We identified free nerve endings located in the labrum and in the bicipital insertion, and sparse nerve endings along the tendon. Corpuscular endings with fusiform, cuneiform, and oval aspect were identified in the tendon. Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that the generation of pain in the superior labral tear from Anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions derives from the more proximal part of the long biceps cord and even more from the upper labrum. Future quantitative studies with a larger number of specimens may provide more information on these sensory systems.

Resumo Objetivos As estruturas capsulo-ligamentares do ombro funcionam como estabilizadores estáticos, juntamente com os músculos do bíceps e do manguito rotador, aumentando a superfície de contato da cavidade glenoide. Terminações nervosas livres e mecanorreceptores foram identificados no ombro; no entanto, existem alguns estudos que descrevem a presença desses nervos na inserção do bíceps. Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever a morfologia e distribuição de terminações nervosas utilizando imunofluorescência com protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) e microscopia confocal. Métodos Foram estudados seis complexos labrum-bíceps de seis cadáveres congelados frescos. Os espécimes foram cortados coronalmente e preparados pelo método de imunofluorescência. Tanto em hematoxilina e eosina (H&E) quanto em imunofluorescência, foi descrita a organização do tecido conjuntivo com fibras paralelas de colágeno. Resultados No estudo de H&E, foram visualizadas estruturas vasculares e algumas estruturas nervosas, que foram identificadas pela presença alongada da célula nervosa. Todas as amostras analisadas com imunofluorescência e microscopia confocal demonstraram baixa ocorrência de morfotipos de corpúsculos sensoriais e terminações nervosas livres. Identificamos terminações nervosas livres localizadas no labrum, inserção bicipital e terminações nervosas esparsas ao longo do tendão. Terminais corpusculares com aspecto fusiforme, cuneiforme e oval foram identificados no tendão. Conclusão Esses achados corroboram a hipótese de que a geração de dor nas lesões labrais superiores de anterior a posterior (SLAP, na sigla em inglês) deriva da parte mais proximal do cabo longo do bíceps e ainda mais do labrum superior. Estudos quantitativos futuros com um número maior de espécimes podem fornecer mais informações sobre esses sistemas sensoriais.

Humans , Shoulder Joint , Cadaver , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hamstring Muscles , Mechanoreceptors , Nerve Endings
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(2): 1-9, June 2022. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512600


Cisplatin, the first platinum compound approved for cancer treatment, is widely used in the treatment of various cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC incidence rates rise globally. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis, which are associated with increased mortality. Cisplatin dose might influence cancer invasion and metastatic behavior of the cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of low-dose cisplatin treatment on EMT- related changes in HepG2 cells. Following treatment with 4 µM cisplatin, HepG2 cells were evaluated morphologically. Gene expression of E-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail1 was assessed by quantitative PCR. Immunofluorescence analyses of NA-K ATPase were performed. Although the low-dose cisplatin treated cells exhibited a more stretched morphology, no statistical difference was detected in gene expression of E-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail1 and immunofluorescence of NA-K ATPase. Findings on low-dose cisplatin effects in HepG2 might contribute to the knowledge of antineoplastic inefficacy by further understanding the molecular mechanisms of drug action.

El cisplatino, el primer compuesto de platino aprobado para el tratamiento del cáncer, es ampliamente utilizado en el tratamiento de varios tipos de cáncer, incluido el carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC). Las tasas de incidencia de CHC aumentan a nivel mundial. La transición mesenquimal epitelial (EMT) está implicada en la invasión del cáncer y la metástasis, que se asocian con un aumento de la mortalidad. La dosis de cisplatino podría influir en la invasión del cáncer y el comportamiento metastásico de las células. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar el efecto del tratamiento con dosis bajas de cisplatino en los cambios relacionados con la EMT en las células HepG2. Tras el tratamiento con cisplatino de 4 µM, se evaluaron morfológicamente las células HepG2. La expresión génica de E-cadherina, vimentina, caracol1 se evaluó mediante PCR cuantitativa. Se realizaron análisis de inmunofluorescencia de NA-K ATPasa . Aunque las células tratadas con cisplatino en dosis bajas exhibieron una morfología más estirada, no se detectaron diferencias estadísticas en la expresión génica de E-cadherina, vimentina, Snail1 e inmunofluorescencia de NA-K ATPasa. Los hallazgos sobre los efectos del cisplatino en dosis bajas en HepG2 podrían contribuir al conocimiento de la ineficacia antineoplásica al comprender mejor los mecanismos moleculares de la acción del fármaco.

Humans , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Vimentin/drug effects , Vimentin/genetics , Vimentin/metabolism , Cadherins/drug effects , Cadherins/genetics , Cadherins/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Microscopy, Confocal , Hep G2 Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Snail Family Transcription Factors/drug effects , Snail Family Transcription Factors/genetics , Snail Family Transcription Factors/metabolism , Neoplasm Invasiveness
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 91-97, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385597


SUMMARY: Carnosine is known as a natural dipeptide, which inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells throughout its action on mitochondrial respiration and cell glycolysis. However, not much is known about its effects on the metabolism of healthy cells. We explored the effects of Karnozin EXTRA® capsule with different concentrations of L-carnosine, on the cell viability and the expressions of intermediate filament vimentin (VIM) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in normal fibroblasts BHK-21/C13. Furthermore, we investigated its action on the energy production of these cells. Cell viability was quantified by the MTT assay. The Clark oxygen electrode (Oxygraph, Hansatech Instruments, England) was used to measure the "intact cell respiration rate", state 3 of ADP-stimulated oxidation, maximum oxidation capacity and the activities of complexes I, II and IV. Results showed that Karnozin EXTRA® capsule in concentrations of 2 and 5 mM of L-carnosine did not induce toxic effects and morphological changes in treated cells. Our data revealed a dose-dependent immunofluorescent signal amplification of VIM and SOD2 in the BHK-21/C13 cell line. This supplement substantially increased the recorded mitochondrial respiration rates in the examined cell line. Due to the stimulation of mitochondrial energy production in normal fibroblasts, our results suggested that Karnozin EXTRA® is a potentially protective dietary supplement in the prevention of diseases with altered mitochondrial function.

RESUMEN: La carnosina se conoce como dipéptido natural, que inhibe la proliferación de células tumorales a través de su acción sobre la respiración mitocondrial y la glucólisis celular. Sin embargo, no se sabe mucho de sus efectos sobre el metabolismo de las células sanas. Exploramos los efectos de la cápsula Karnozin EXTRA® con diferentes concentraciones de L-carnosina, sobre la viabilidad celular y las expresiones de vimentina de filamento intermedio (VIM) y superóxido dismutasa (SOD2) en fibroblastos normales BHK-21 / C13. Además, estudiamos su acción sobre la producción de energía de estas células. La viabilidad celular se cuantificó mediante el ensayo MTT. Se utilizó el electrodo de oxígeno Clark (Oxygraph, Hansatech Instruments, Inglaterra) para medir la "tasa de respiración de células intactas", el estado 3 de oxidación estimulada por ADP, la capacidad máxima de oxidación y las actividades de los complejos I, II y IV. Los resultados mostraron que la cápsula de Karnozin EXTRA® en concentraciones de 2 y 5 mM de L- carnosina no indujo efectos tóxicos ni cambios morfológicos en las células tratadas. Nuestros datos revelaron una amplificación de señal inmunofluorescente dependiente de la dosis de VIM y SOD2 en la línea celular BHK-21 / C13. Este suplemento aumentó sustancialmente las tasas de respiración mitocondrial registradas en la línea celular examinada. Debido a la estimulación de la producción de energía mitocondrial en fibroblastos normales, nuestros resultados sugirieron que Karnozin EXTRA® es un suplemento dietético potencialmente protector en la prevención de enfermedades con función mitocondrial alterada.

Animals , Carnosine/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Kidney/cytology , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Vimentin/drug effects , Biological Assay , Cell Survival/drug effects , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Cricetinae , Cell Culture Techniques , Energy Metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1152-1164, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405284


SUMMARY: Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. (C. tinctoria Nutt.) can protect diabetic kidneys, but the mechanisms are unclear. This work is to investigate the potential mechanisms of C. tinctoria Nutt. in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy based on network pharmacology analysis of its active ingredients. Twelve small molecular compounds of C. tinctoria Nutt. and targets related to diabetic nephropathy were docked by Discovery Studio 3.0. DAVID database was used for GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis. Cytoscape 3.6.1 was used to construct active ingredient-target network. Cell viability was detected with MTT. Glucose consumption was analyzed with glucose oxidase method. Protein expression was measured with Western blot and immunofluorescence. Electron microscopy observed autophagosomes. The core active ingredients of C. tinctoria Nutt. included heriguard, flavanomarein, maritimein, and marein. Twenty-one core targets of the 43 potential targets were PYGM, TLR2, RAF1, PRKAA2, GPR119, INS, CSF2, TNF, IAPP, AKR1B1, GSK3B, SYK, NFKB2, ESR2, CDK2, FGFR1, HTRA1, AMY2A, CAMK4, GCK, and ABL2. These 21 core targets were significantly enriched in 50 signaling pathways. Thirty- four signaling pathways were closely related to diabetic nephropathy, of which the top pathways were PI3K/AKT, insulin, and mTOR, and insulin resistance. The enriched GO terms included biological processes of protein phosphorylation, and the positive regulation of PI3K signaling and cytokine secretion; cellular components of cytosol, extracellular region, and extracellular space; and molecular function of protein kinase activity, ATP binding, and non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. In vitro experiments found that marein increased the expression of phosphorylated AKT/AKT in human renal glomerular endothelial cells of an insulin resistance model induced by high glucose, as well as increased and decreased, respectively, the levels of the microtubule-associated proteins, LC3 and P62. C. tinctoria Nutt. has many active ingredients, with main ingredients of heriguard, flavanomarein, maritimein, and marein, and may exert anti-diabetic nephropathy effect through various signaling pathways and targets.

RESUMEN: Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. (C. tinctoria Nutt.) puede proteger riñones diabéticos, sin embargo los mecanismos son desconocidos. Este trabajo se realizó para investigar los potenciales mecanismos de C. tinctoria Nutt. en el tratamiento de la nefropatía diabética basado en el análisis de farmacología en red de sus principios activos. Doce compuestos moleculares pequeños de C. tinctoria Nutt. y los objetivos relacionados con la nefropatía diabética fueron acoplados por Discovery Studio 3.0. La base de datos DAVID se utilizó para el enriquecimiento GO y el análisis de la vía KEGG. Se usó Cytoscape 3.6.1 para construir una red de ingrediente-objetivo activa. La viabili- dad celular se detectó mediante MTT. El consumo de glucosa se analizó con el método de glucosa oxidasa. La expresión proteica fue determinada mediante Western blot e inmunofluorescencia. En la microscopía electrónica se observó autofagosomas. Los principales ingredientes activos de C. tinctoria Nutt. incluyeron heriguard, flavanomarein, maritimin y marein. Veintiún de los 43 objetivos potenciales fueron PYGM, TLR2, RAF1, PRKAA2, GPR119, INS, CSF2, TNF, IAPP, AKR1B1, GSK3B, SYK, NFKB2, ESR2, CDK2, FGFR1, HTRA1, AMY2A, CAMK4, GCK y ABL2. Estos 21 objetivos principales se enriquecieron significativamente en 50 vías de señalización. Treinta y cuatro vías de señalización estuvieron estrechamente relacionadas con la nefropatía diabética, de las cuales las principales vías fueron PI3K/ AKT, insulina y mTOR, y resistencia a la insulina. Los términos GO enriquecidos incluyeron procesos biológicos de fosforilación proteica, la regulación positiva de la señalización de PI3K y la secreción de citoquinas; componentes celulares del citosol, región extracelular y espacio extracelular; y la función molecular de la actividad de la proteína quinasa, la unión de ATP y la actividad de la proteína tirosina quinasa que no se extiende por la membrana. Los experimentos in vitro encontraron que la mareína aumentaba la expresión de AKT/AKT fosforilada en células endoteliales glomerulares renales humanas en un modelo de resistencia a la insulina inducida por niveles elevados de glucosa, así como aumentaron y disminuyeron respectivamente, los niveles de las proteínas asociadas a los microtúbulos, LC3 y P62. C. tinctoria Nutt. tiene muchos principios activos, con ingredientes principales de heriguard, flavanomarein, maritimain y marein, y puede ejercer un efecto de nefropatía antidiabética a través de distintass vías de señalización y objetivos.

Coreopsis/chemistry , Diabetic Nephropathies , Network Pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Chalcones
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(4): 586-590, Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350902


Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune inflammatory disease. However, some patients may exhibit a histological pattern of kidney injury, with characteristics indistinguishable from lupus nephritis, but without presenting any extrarenal symptoms or serologies suggestive of SLE. Such involvement has recently been called non-lupus full-house nephropathy. The objective is to report a series of clinical cases referred to the Laboratory of the Federal University of Maranhão that received the diagnosis of "full-house" nephropathy unrelated to lupus, upon immunofluorescence and to discuss its evolution and outcomes. Non-lupus full-house nephropathy represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, because it is a new entity, which still needs further studies and may be the initial manifestation of SLE, isolated manifestation of SLE or a new pathology unrelated to SLE.

Resumo O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) é uma doença inflamatória crônica autoimune multissistêmica. Alguns pacientes, contudo, podem exibir um padrão histológico de lesão renal, com características indistinguíveis da nefrite lúpica, porém sem apresentar quaisquer sintomas extrarrenais ou sorologias sugestivas de LES. Tal acometimento tem sido recentemente denominado nefropatia "full-house" não relacionada ao lúpus. O objetivo é relatar uma série de casos clínicos encaminhados ao Laboratório da Universidade Federal do Maranhão que receberam o diagnóstico de nefropatia "full-house" não relacionada ao lúpus à imunofluorescência e discutir sua evolução e desfechos. A nefropatia "full-house" não relacionada ao lúpus representa um desafio diagnóstico e terapêutico por ser uma entidade nova, que ainda necessita de maiores estudos e pode ser a manifestação inicial do LES, manifestação isolada do LES ou uma patologia nova não relacionada ao LES.

Humans , Lupus Nephritis/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Kidney
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 50-57, May. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343384


BACKGROUND: Molecular brain therapies require the development of molecular switches to control gene expression in a limited and regulated manner in time and space. Light-switchable gene systems allow precise control of gene expression with an enhanced spatio-temporal resolution compared to chemical inducers. In this work, we adapted the existing light-switchable Light-On system into a lentiviral platform, which consists of two modules: (i) one for the expression of the blue light-switchable transactivator GAVPO and (ii) a second module containing an inducible-UAS promoter (UAS) modulated by a light-activated GAVPO. RESULTS: In the HEK293-T cell line transfected with this lentiviral plasmids system, the expression of the reporter mCherry increased between 4 to 5 fold after light induction. A time expression analysis after light induction during 24 h revealed that mRNA levels continuously increased up to 9 h, while protein levels increased throughout the experiment. Finally, transduction of cultured rat hippocampal neurons with this dual Light-On lentiviral system showed that CDNF, a potential therapeutic trophic factor, was induced only in cells exposed to blue light. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the optimized lentiviral platform of the Light-On system provides an efficient way to control gene expression in neurons, suggesting that this platform could potentially be used in biomedical and neuroscience research, and eventually in brain therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.

Gene Expression Regulation , Optogenetics/methods , Light , Neurons/metabolism , Immunoblotting , Gene Expression , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Lentivirus
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 18(1): 33-44, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369717


OBJETIVO. Comparar la gravedad de las infecciones respiratorias agudas bajas (IRAb) producidas por Adenovirus (ADV) entre los años 2015 y 2016, en el Hospital de Niños Roberto del Río. MÉTODOS. Se identificó a pacientes hospitalizados por IRAb por ADV, y se registró edad, sexo, días de hospitalización, ingreso a unidad de paciente crítico (UPC), necesidad de ventilación mecánica (VM), entre otros. Se comparó la evolución de los pacientes, y se analizó la relación entre gravedad y presencia de infecciones asociadas a atención de salud (IAAS). RESULTADOS. Se identificó 158 pacientes hospitalizados por IRAb por ADV. La relación hombre: mujer fue 6:4, con una edad promedio de 17.4 meses. La media de días de hospitalización fue de 9.88 el 2015 y 16.06 el 2016 (p=0.01). El promedio de días de oxigenoterapia fue de 5.86 el 2015 y 8.76 el 2016. Un 22.8% (n:36) de los pacientes ingresó a UPC, y el 20.25% (n:32) requirió VM. Un 41.8% de los casos (n:66) correspondió a IAAS. 3 pacientes fallecieron. CONCLUSIONES. Durante el 2016 hubo hospitalizaciones más prolongadas en comparación al 2015, sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas en relación a requerimientos de oxigenoterapia, VM y fallecimiento. La prolongación de la hospitalización se podría asociar a mayor presencia de IAAS.

OBJETIVE. To compare the severity of lower respiratory infections produced by Adenovirus between 2015 and 2016 at the Hospital de Niños Roberto del Río. METHODS. We identified patients hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection for ADV and we recorded age, sex, days of hospitalization, admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), need for mechanical ventilation (MV), among others. The evolution of the patients between the two years were compared. The relationship between severity and the presence of nosocomial infections was also analyzed. RESULTS. We identified 158 hospitalized patients for ADV. The male:female ratio was 6:4, with an average age of 17.4 months. The mean of hospitalization days was 9.88 days in 2015 and 16.06 days in 2016 (p = 0.01). The average number of oxygen therapy days was 5.86 in 2015 and 8.76 in 2016. The 22.8% (n: 36) of cases required admission in the ICU, and 20.25% (n: 32) required MV. The 41.8% (n: 66) of cases corresponded to nosocomial infections. 3 patients died. CONCLUSIONS. During 2016, there were longer hospitalizations for adenovirus infections compared to 2015, without significant differences in relation to oxygen therapy, MV requirements and death. The prolongation of the hospitalization could be associated by the greater presence of nosocomial infections.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Cross Infection , Community-Acquired Infections , Adenoviridae Infections/complications , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Adenoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Adenoviridae Infections/therapy , Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Length of Stay
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 302-310, feb. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385284


SUMMARY: The establishment of primary keloid fibroblast culture has always been a fundamental measure for studying mechanisms of keloid disease. The quality of the primary cell culture can directly affect the results of further experiments. This study was performed to investigate the optimal growth conditions, including the optimal storage time and collagenase treatment time, for in vitro cell culture models and the suitable methods for epidermis-dermis separation in different tissues. Keloid tissues, keloid-surrounding tissues, and normal skin tissues were collected from patients, for primary fibroblast culture. Two methods, tissue explant and collagenase digestion, were deployed and compared. Expression levels of the keloid-related genes α -SMA, Col1, and Col3 were assessed in cells cultured using both methods, to verify the qualities of the primary cells. A comparative analysis was conducted between the two methods and among the three different tissues used. Bacterial and lipid contamination was immediately minimized after the samples were processed. Different methods of epidermis removal and different durations of collagenase digestion were required in different tissues to generate optimal results. Real-time PCR results showed that the mRNA expression levels of keloid-related genes in cultured fibroblasts correlated to their in vivo expression profile, as previously reported in other studies. The results of this study have revealed several key points in the culture of primary keloid fibroblasts and demonstrated the correlation in gene expression between in vivo keloid fibroblasts and in vitro primary keloid fibroblasts.

RESUMEN: La identificación de un cultivo de fibroblastos queloides primarios, siempre ha sido una medida fundamental para estudiar los mecanismos de la enfermedad queloide. La calidad del cultivo de células primarias puede afectar directamente los resultados de otros experimentos. Este estudio se realizó para investigar las condiciones óptimas de crecimiento, incluido el tiempo óptimo de almacenamiento y el tiempo de tratamiento con colagenasa, para modelos de cultivo celular in vitro y los métodos adecuados para la separación epidermis-dermis en diferentes tejidos. Se recogieron de los pacientes tejidos queloides, tejidos circundantes queloides y tejidos cutáneos normales, para cultivo primario de fibroblastos. Se implementaron y compararon dos métodos, explante de tejido y digestión con colagenasa. Los niveles de expresión de los genes relacionados con queloides α -SMA, Col1 y Col3 se evaluaron en células cultivadas usando ambos métodos, para verificar las cualidades de las células primarias. Se realizó un análisis comparativo entre los dos métodos y entre los tres tejidos diferentes utilizados. La contaminación de bacterias y lípidos se minimizó inmediatamente después de que se procesaron las muestras. Se requirieron varios métodos de eliminación de la epidermis y diferentes tiempos de digestión con colagenasa en los tejidos para generar resultados óptimos. Los resultados de la PCR en tiempo real mostraron que los niveles de expresión de ARNm de genes relacionados con queloides en fibroblastos cultivados se correlacionaban con su perfil de expresión in vivo, como se informó en estudios anteriores. Los resultados de este studio indicaron varios puntos clave en el cultivo de fibroblastos queloides primarios y han demostrado la correlación en la expresión génica entre fibroblastos queloides in vivo y fibroblastos queloides primarios in vitro.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Skin , Primary Cell Culture/methods , Fibroblasts , Keloid , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Actins , Collagen , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4066-4074, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921487


Different fragments of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein were expressed and purified, and a fluorescence immunochromatography method for detection of SARS-CoV-2 total antibody was established. The effect of different protein fragments on the performance of the method was evaluated. The N protein sequence was analyzed by bioinformatics technology, expressed in prokaryotic cell and purified by metal ion affinity chromatography column. Different N protein fragments were prepared for comparison. EDC reaction was used to label fluorescence microsphere on the synthesized antigen to construct sandwich fluorescence chromatography antibody detection assay, and the performance was systemically evaluated. Among the 4 prepared N protein fragments, the full-length N protein (N419) was selected as the optimized coating antigen, N412 with 0.5 mol/L NaCl was used as the optimal combination; deleting 91-120 amino acids from the N-terminal of N412 reduced non-specific signal by 87.5%. the linear range of detection was 0.312-80 U/L, the limit of detection was 0.165 U/L, and the accuracy was more than 95%. A fluorescence immunochromatographic detection method for analysis of SARS-CoV-2 total antibody was established by pairing N protein fragments. The detection result achieved 98% concordance with the commercially available Guangzhou Wanfu test strip, which is expected to be used as a supplementary approach for detection of SARS-CoV-2. The assay could also provide experimental reference for improving the performance of COVID-19 antibody detection reagents.

Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Chromatography, Affinity , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Microspheres , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021267, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249009


Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) is an uncommon autoimmune and blistering mucocutaneous disease. Childhood Pemphigus Vulgaris (CPV) is a pediatric variant of PV, which affects children below 12 years, being very rare among children under 10 years of age. CPV has similar clinical, histological, and immunological features as seen in PV in adults. The mucocutaneous clinical presentation is the most common in both age groups. Vesicles and erosions arising from the disease usually cause pain. A few CPV cases have been reported in the literature. This study reports a case of an 8-year-old male patient with oral lesions since the age of 3 years, and the diagnosis of pemphigus was achieved only 2 years after the appearance of the initial lesions. CPV remains a rare disease, making the diagnosis of this clinical case a challenge due to its age of onset and clinical features presented by the patient. Therefore, dentists and physicians should know how to differentiate CPV from other bullous autoimmune diseases more common in childhood.

Humans , Male , Child , Pemphigus/complications , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rare Diseases
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e026220, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288692


Abstract Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is a common tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. Horses are the primary hosts of the main vector, Amblyomma sculptum, and are considered efficient sentinels for circulation of Rickettsia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect antibodies reactive to R. rickettsii antigens in horses from a non-endemic area in the north-central region of Bahia state, Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from 70 horses from the municipalities of Senhor do Bonfim, Antônio Gonçalves, Pindobaçu, and Campo Formoso. The sera obtained were tested by an indirect immunofluorescence assay to detect anti-Rickettsia antibodies. Overall, 5.7% (4/70) of the horses reacted to R. rickettsii antigens. Ticks were collected from 18.6% (13/70) of the horses and were identified as A. sculptum and Dermacentor nitens. Despite being a non-endemic area, seropositive animals were identified in our study, suggesting circulation of rickettsial agents in the region. This is the first serological survey of this agent in horses from the north-central region of Bahia, and further studies are needed to understand the epidemiology of BSF in these locations.

Resumo A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB) é uma importante zoonose causada por Rickettsia rickettsii, sendo seu vetor o Amblyomma sculptum. Cavalos são os principais hospedeiros desse carrapato e considerados sentinelas eficientes para detectar a circulação de Rickettsia. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar anticorpos reativos a antígenos de R. rickettsii em cavalos de uma área não-endêmica na região Centro-Norte da Bahia, Brasil. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue e carrapatos de 70 cavalos nos municípios de Senhor do Bonfim, Antônio Gonçalves, Pindobaçu e Campo Formoso. Os soros obtidos foram testados pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta para detectar anticorpos anti-Rickettsia. No geral, 5,7% (4/70) dos cavalos reagiram sorologicamente para antígenos de R. rickettsii. Os carrapatos foram coletados em 18,6% (13/70) dos cavalos e foram identificados como A. sculptum e Dermacentor nitens. Embora seja uma área não endêmica, foram observados animais soropositivos, sugerindo a circulação de riquétsias na região estudada. Este é o primeiro estudo de levantamento sorológico desse agente em cavalos do Centro-Norte da Bahia. São necessários mais estudos para compreender a epidemiologia da FMB nesses locais.

Animals , Rickettsia rickettsii , Ticks/classification , Ticks/microbiology , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/veterinary , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horses/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/diagnosis , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Horse Diseases/microbiology , Horse Diseases/epidemiology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1742-1750, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134507


SUMMARY: Mesenchymal stem cells are present in adult tissues such as the human dental pulp. They are pluripotent and can differentiate into various specialized cell types in vitro through appropriate stimuli. Ameloblasts produce human tooth enamel only during embryonic development before tooth eruption, so endogenous regeneration is not possible. Various efforts have been aimed at generating natural or artificial substitutes for dental enamel with properties similar to the specific components of said tissue. The purpose of this study was to induce human dental pulp stem cells to produce enamel proteins using extracellular matrix derived from the rat tail tendon and pigskin. Primary cultures of human dental pulp stem cells were established and characterized by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence, using mesenchymal cell markers such as CD14, CD40, CD44, CD105, and STRO-1. The cells were then incubated with the extracellular matrix for fourteen days and labeled with specific antibodies to detect the expression of dental enamel proteins such as amelogenin, ameloblastin, enamelisin, tuftelin, and parvalbumin, characteristics of the phenotype of ameloblasts. This work demonstrated a positive effect of the extracellular matrix to induce the expression of enamel proteins in the stem cells of the human dental pulp.

RESUMEN: Las células madre mesenquimales están presentes en los tejidos adultos como la pulpa dental humana. Son pluripotentes y pueden diferenciarse en varios tipos de células especializadas in vitro a través de estímulos adecuados. Los ameloblastos producen esmalte dental humano sólo durante el desarrollo embrionario antes de la erupción dental, por lo que no es posible su regeneración endógena. Varios esfuerzos se han orientado a generar sustitutos naturales o artificiales de esmalte dental con propiedades similares a los componentes específicos de este tejido. El propósito de este estudio fue inducir células madre de pulpa dental humana para producir proteínas del esmalte dental a través del estímulo de matriz extracelular derivada del tendón de la cola de rata y piel de cerdo. Se establecieron cultivos primarios de células madre de pulpa dental humana y se caracterizaron por RT-PCR e inmunofluorescencia utilizando marcadores de células mesenquimales como CD14, CD40, CD44, CD105 y STRO-1. Posteriormente, las células se incubaron con matriz extracelular durante un período de catorce días y se marcaron con anticuerpos específicos para detectar la expresión de proteínas de esmalte dental como amelogenina, ameloblastina, enamelisina, tuftelina y parvalbúmina, las cuales son características del fenotipo de ameloblastos. Este trabajo demostró el efecto positivo que tiene el empleo de la matriz extracelular para inducir la expresión de proteínas de esmalte en las células pluripotenciales de la pulpa dental humana.

Humans , Stem Cells , Dental Enamel Proteins , Dental Pulp , Extracellular Matrix , Immunophenotyping , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Cell Culture Techniques , Tissue Engineering
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1463-1472, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134463


SUMMARY: The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an accessory organ involved on the olfactory pathway, that detects pheromones and emits signals in order to modulate social and reproductive behavior. The VNO stem cells replace neurons throughout life. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize cells derived from the vomeronasal organ from New Zealand rabbits. Five male rabbits with 120 days were used for cell isolation and culture. Results: VNO-derived cells presented labelling for proliferation (PCNA), undifferentiated profile (Nanog), neuronal (GFAP), mesenchymal stem cells (CD73, CD90 and CD105 and Stro-1). Also, presence of cytoskeletal (Vimentin, b-tubulin and CK-18) and absence of hematopoietic markers (CD34, CD117 and CD45) both by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. By PCR it was possible to verify the expression of some undifferentiated profile (Oct-4), neuronal (Nestin) and mesenchymal (CD73, CD105 and Vimentin) genes. Functionally, VNO-derived cells differentiate in vitro into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, and presented no tumorigenic potential when injected to Balb/c nu/nu mice. In conclusion, the rabbit VNO-derived cells have a profile that could be supportive to VNO olfactory/neuroreceptor epithelium by delivering factors to epithelial turnover or even by differentiation into epithelial cells to replacement of commissural epithelium.

RESUMEN: El órgano vomeronasal (OVN) es un órgano accesorio de la vía olfatoria, que detecta feromonas y emite señales que afectan la modulación del comportamiento social y reproductivo. Las células madre OVN reemplazan las neuronas durante toda la vida. El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar y caracterizar células derivadas del órgano vomeronasal de conejos raza Nueva Zelanda. Para el aislamiento y el cultivo celular se utilizaron cinco conejos machos con una edad de 120 días. Las células del OVN presentaron etiquetado para la proliferación (PCNA), un perfil indiferenciado (Nanog), neuronal (GFAP), células madre mesenquimales (CD73, CD90 y CD105 y Stro-1). Además, se ob- servó presencia de citoesqueleto (Vimentina, β-tubulina y CK-18) y ausencia de marcadores hematopoyéticos (CD34, CD117 y CD45) tanto por inmunofluorescencia como por citometría de flujo. Me- diante PCR fue posible verificar la expresión de algunos genes de perfil indiferenciado (Oct-4), neuronal (Nestin) y mesenquimatoso (CD73, CD105 y Vimentin). Las células derivadas del OVN se diferencian in vitro en adipocitos, osteocitos y condrocitos, y no presentan un potencial tumorigénico al ser infiltrados en ratones Balb / c nu / nu. En conclusión, las células derivadas de OVN de conejo tienen un perfil que podría ser compatible con el epitelio olfatorio / neurorreceptor de OVN transmitiendo factores al recambio epitelial o incluso mediante la diferenciación en células epiteliales para reemplazar el epitelio comisural.

Animals , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Vomeronasal Organ/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Olfactory Bulb/cytology , Stem Cells/physiology , Olfactory Mucosa/cytology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Flow Cytometry , Neurons/physiology
Brasília; s.n; maio 2020. 35 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | BRISA, LILACS | ID: biblio-1099659


INTRODUÇÃO: O coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave 2 (abreviado para SARSCoV-2, do inglês Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2), anteriormente conhecido como novo coronavírus (2019-nCoV), é um agente zoonótico recémemergente que surgiu em dezembro de 2019, em Wuhan, China, causando manifestações respiratórias, digestivas e sistêmicas, que se articulam no quadro clínico da doença denominada COVID-19 (do inglês Coronavirus Disease 2019). Ainda não há informações robustas sobre a história natural da doença, tampouco sobre as medidas de efetividade para o manejo clínico dos casos de infecção pelo COVID19, restando ainda muitos detalhes a serem esclarecidos. No entanto, sabe-se que o vírus tem alta transmissibilidade e provoca uma síndrome respiratória aguda que varia de casos leves ­ cerca de 80% ­ a casos muito graves com insuficiência respiratória - entre 5% e 10% dos casos ­, os quais requerem tratamento especializado em unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI). Sua letalidade varia, principalmente, conforme a faixa etária. TECNOLOGIA: Os testes de diagnóstico para a COVID-19 se destacaram na pandemia de coronavírus em andamento como uma ferramenta essencial para rastrear a propagação da doença. Uma ampla gama de testes diagnósticos para o SARS-CoV-2 está disponível comercialmente, alguns dos quais receberam autorizações para uso por várias agências reguladoras nacionais. Com as informações da sequência genética devidamente identificadas, os testes de diagnóstico baseados na detecção da sequência viral por reação em cadeia da polimerase com transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR) ou plataformas de sequenciamento logo se tornaram disponíveis. Isso permitiu a confirmação do diagnóstico e melhores estimativas da atividade da infecção, que vêm aumentando em velocidades alarmantes. Para a detecção mais sensível de SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV e SARS-CoV-2, recomendavam-se a coleta e o teste de amostras respiratórias superiores e inferiores. O diagnóstico de casos suspeitos era confirmado por testes de RNA com RT-PCR em tempo real ou sequenciamento de próxima geração. Foi demonstrado que o RNA viral poderia ser detectado a partir do swab nasal e faríngeo, lavagem broncoalveolar e plasma sanguíneo usando RT-PCR direcionado ao gene do vírus (5). O padrão-ouro para diagnóstico laboratorial da COVID-19 é a reação da transcriptase reversa, seguida de reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR) para amostras coletadas no trato respiratório superior ou inferior. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste relatório é analisar a acurácia dos testes diagnósticos registrados na Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) até a presente data. METODOLOGIA: foi realizada uma busca por diagnósticos para COVID-19 com registros vigentes na ANVISA. Para tal, foram utilizados os termos "COVID 19", SARS e coronavírus no campo de consulta de registro de produtos para saúde no site da Agência ( Os passos para acesso ao banco de dados de produtos diagnósticos na ANVISA são: 1) consulta produtos; 2) consulta a banco de dados; 3) produtos para a saúde e 4) pesquisa de produtos para a saúde registrados. CONCLUSÕES: A ANVISA já avaliou mais de 120 pedidos de registro de produtos para testagens relacionadas à COVID-19 desde o dia 18 de março. A maior parte das petições aguarda complementação de informações por parte das empresas e outras estão sendo analisadas com prioridade. O tempo médio para avaliação dos registros na ANVISA gira em torno de 15 dias. Atualmente, mais da metade dos registros concedidos diz respeito a testes rápidos para anticorpos. Até a presente data, foram registrados 64 testes para diagnóstico da COVID-19, sendo 15 deles moleculares. O teste de polymerase chain reaction em tempo real (RT-PCR) para identificação de SARS-CoV-2 é um teste de elevada sensibilidade e especificidade, ainda que os doentes com maior carga viral possam ter maior probabilidade de um teste positivo. Os testes moleculares baseados em RNA exigem instalações laboratoriais específicas com níveis restritos de biossegurança e técnica. A sensibilidade e especificidade dos testes sorológicos variaram entre os fabricantes. É importante destacar que uma baixa sensibilidade do teste diagnóstico pode resultar em uma maior probabilidade de detectar falsos-negativos, o que poderia interferir principalmente em casos de indivíduos assintomáticos. Em geral, a sensibilidade dos testes foi superior a 85% e a especificidade, superior a 94%. Os testes sorológicos medem a quantidade de dois anticorpos (IgG e IgM) que o organismo produz quando entra em contato com um invasor. Contudo, o desenvolvimento da resposta de um anticorpo à infecção pode ser dependente do hospedeiro e levar tempo. No caso de SARS-CoV-2, estudos iniciais sugerem que a maioria dos pacientes se converte entre 7 e 11 dias após a exposição ao vírus, embora alguns pacientes possam desenvolver anticorpos mais cedo. Devido a esse atraso natural, o teste de anticorpos pode não ser útil no cenário de uma doença aguda (11). Os testes de anticorpos para SARS-CoV-2 podem facilitar (i) o rastreamento de contatos (os testes baseados em RNA também podem ajudar); (ii) a vigilância sorológica nos níveis local, regional, estadual e nacional; e (iii) a identificação de quem já teve contato com o vírus e, portanto, pode (se houver imunidade protetora) ser imune (11,12). Alguns conjuntos de reagentes para testes sorológicos foram autorizados pela ANVISA em caráter emergencial devido à gravidade da situação e à necessidade de ampliar a testagem da população, mas a validação desses reagentes pelos laboratórios é fundamental, uma vez que poucos trabalhos conseguiram ser publicados até o momento. As aprovações estão de acordo com a Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada (RDC) 348/2020, que define os critérios e os procedimentos extraordinários e temporários para tratamento de petições de registro de medicamentos, produtos biológicos e produtos para diagnóstico in vitro, e mudança pós-registro de medicamentos e produtos biológicos em virtude da emergência de saúde pública internacional decorrente do novo coronavírus. Na RDC, para registro de testes diagnósticos, a ausência de qualquer estudo de desempenho ou restrição de dados deve ser justificada por motivações técnicas que permitam a avalição da confiabilidade dos resultados e da efetividade diagnóstica do produto. Os registros concedidos nas condições dessa Resolução terão a validade de um ano, exceto para situações em que a avaliação da estabilidade seja apresentada por comparação com produtos similares e os demais critérios descritos no Regulamento sejam atendidos. Nesse caso, poderão ter a concessão regular de validade de registro de produtos para saúde por um período de 10 anos. Em resumo, as duas categorias de testes para SARS-CoV-2 podem ser úteis nesse surto, pois, eventualmente, a coleta de múltiplas amostras, regiões e em tempos diferentes durante a evolução da doença pode ser necessária para o diagnóstico da COVID-19.

Humans , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Chromatography, Affinity/instrumentation , Fluorescent Antibody Technique/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Health Evaluation
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 47-52, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090559


Abstract Introduction Cisplatin damages the auditory system and is related to the generation of free radicals. Glutathione peroxidase is an endogenous free radicals remover. Objective To investigate the mechanisms involved in otoprotection by N-acetylcys- teine through the expression of glutathione peroxidase in outer hair cells from rats treated with cisplatin. Methods Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin (8 mg/Kg) and/or received oral administration by gavage of N-acetylcysteine (300 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days. On the 4th day, the animals were euthanized and beheaded. The tympanic bullae were removed and prepared for scanning electron microscopy and Results Among the groups exposed to ototoxic doses of cisplatin, there was an increase in glutathione peroxidase immunostaining in two groups, the one exposed to cisplatin alone, and the group exposed to both cisplatin and N-acetylcysteine. Conclusion The expression of glutathione peroxidase in the outer hair cells of rats exposed to cisplatin showed the synthesis of this enzyme under cellular toxicity conditions.

Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Cisplatin/toxicity , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Acetylcysteine/metabolism , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Cochlea/drug effects , Free Radicals , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/prevention & control
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785341


PURPOSE: Plasma cells and immunoglobulins (Igs) play a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of chronic inflammation in nasal polyps. During secondary immune responses, plasma cell survival and Ig production are regulated by the local environment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs) and specific survival niches for LLPCs in human nasal polyps.METHODS: Nasal mucosal samples were cultured with an air-liquid interface system and the Ig levels in culture supernatants were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The characteristics of LLPCs in nasal polyps were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The expression of neurotrophins as well as their receptors was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting.RESULTS: The numbers of CD138⁺ total plasma cells and BCL2⁺ plasma cells were increased in both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic nasal polyps compared with those in normal tissues. The production of IgG, IgA, and IgE was detected in culture supernatants even after a 32-day culture of nasal polyps. Although the total numbers of plasma cells were decreased in nasal polyps after culture, the numbers of BCL2⁺ plasma cells remained stable. The expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) as well as tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) A, a high-affinity receptor for NGF, was upregulated in both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic nasal polyps. In addition, BCL2⁺ plasma cell numbers were positively correlated with NGF and TrkA mRNA expression in nasal mucosal tissues. Polyp plasma cells had the expression of TrkA.CONCLUSIONS: Human nasal polyps harbor a population of LLPCs and NGF may be involved in their prolonged survival. LLPCs may be a novel therapeutic target for suppressing the local Ig production in nasal polyps.

Humans , Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Mucous Membrane , Nasal Polyps , Nerve Growth Factor , Nerve Growth Factors , Phosphotransferases , Plasma Cells , Plasma , Polyps , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Tropomyosin
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785339


PURPOSE: Osteitis refers to the development of new bone formation and remodeling of bone in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients; it is typically associated with eosinophilia, nasal polyps (NPs), and recalcitrant CRS. However, the roles of ossification in CRS with or without NPs remain unclear due to the lack of appropriate animal models. Thus, it is necessary to have a suitable animal model for greater advances in the understanding of CRS pathogenesis.METHODS: BALB/c mice were administered ovalbumin (OVA) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). The numbers of osteoclasts and osteoblasts and bony changes were assessed. Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) scans were conducted to measure bone thickness. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteonectin, interleukin (IL)-13, and RUNX2 downstream gene expression. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed in mucosal tissues from control and CRS patients. The effect of resveratrol was evaluated in terms of osteogenesis in a murine eosinophilic CRS NP model.RESULTS: The histopathologic changes showed markedly thickened bones with significant increase in osteoblast numbers in OVA/SEB-treated mice compared to the phosphate-buffered saline-treated mice. The structural changes in bone on micro-CT were consistent with the histopathological features. The expression of RUNX2 and IL-13 was increased by the administration of OVA/SEB and showed a positive correlation. RUNX2 expression mainly co-localized with osteoblasts. Bioinformatic analysis using human CRS transcriptome revealed that IL-13-induced bony changes via RUNX2. Treatment with resveratrol, a candidate drug against osteitis, diminished the expression of IL-13 and RUNX2, and the number of osteoblasts in OVA/SEB-treated mice.CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we found the histopathological and radiographic evidence of osteogenesis using a previously established murine eosinophilic CRS NP model. This animal model could provide new insights into the pathophysiology of neo-osteogenesis and provide a basis for developing new therapeutics.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Computational Biology , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit , Enterotoxins , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gene Expression , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-13 , Interleukins , Models, Animal , Mucous Membrane , Nasal Polyps , Nose , Osteitis , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Osteonectin , Ovalbumin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sinusitis , Transcription Factors , Transcriptome