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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242703, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285636

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oral diseases caused by various microorganisms are common around the world. Scientific research has now been focusing on novel medicines to overcome bacterial resistance and antibiotics side effects; therefore, the current study was designed to assess the efficacy of certain antibiotics, toothpaste, and medicinal plant extracts (Ajuga bracteosa and Curcuma longa) versus the bacterial pathogens isolated from the human oral cavity. A total of 130 samples were collected from Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan, among those 27 species isolated, and eight bacterial species were identified from the samples. Among all the bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) and Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) were found to be more prevalent oral pathogens. In comparison, the least pervasive microbes were Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. The study also suggested that dental problems were more prevalent in males (41-50 years of age) than females. Among the eight antibiotics used in the study, the most promising results were shown by Foxicillin against A. hydrophila. The survey of TP1 revealed that it showed more potent antagonist activity against Proteus vulgaris as compared TP2 and TP3 that might be due to the high content of fluoride. The Curcuma longa showed more significant activity than Ajuga bracteosa (Stem, leaves and root) extracts. The data obtained through this study revealed that antibiotics were more effective for oral bacterial pathogens than toothpaste and plant extracts which showed moderate and low activity, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that the active compounds in individual medicinal plants like Curcuma longa and Ajuga bracteosa could replace the antibiotics when used in daily routine as tooth cleansers or mouth rinses.


Resumo As doenças bucais causadas por vários microrganismos são comuns em todo o mundo. A pesquisa científica agora tem se concentrado em novos medicamentos para superar a resistência bacteriana e os efeitos colaterais dos antibióticos; portanto, o presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar a eficácia de certos antibióticos, pasta de dente e extratos de plantas medicinais (Ajuga bracteosa e Curcuma longa) contra os patógenos bacterianos isolados da cavidade oral humana. No total, 130 amostras foram coletadas do Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Paquistão, entre essas, 27 espécies foram isoladas e oito espécies bacterianas foram identificadas a partir das amostras. Entre todas as espécies bacterianas, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) e Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) foram os patógenos orais mais prevalentes. Em comparação, os micróbios menos difundidos foram Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli e Aeromonas hydrophila. O estudo também sugeriu que os problemas dentários eram mais prevalentes em homens (41-50 anos de idade) do que em mulheres. Entre os oito antibióticos usados ​​no estudo, os resultados mais promissores foram mostrados pelo Foxicillin contra A. hydrophila. A pesquisa de TP1 revelou que ele mostrou atividade antagonista mais potente contra Proteus vulgaris em comparação a TP2 e TP3, o que pode ser devido ao alto teor de flúor. A Curcuma longa apresentou atividade mais significativa em relação aos extratos de Ajuga bracteosa (caule, folhas e raiz). Os dados obtidos neste estudo revelaram que os antibióticos foram mais eficazes para os patógenos bacterianos orais do que os dentifrícios e os extratos vegetais que apresentaram atividade moderada e baixa, respectivamente. Portanto, sugere-se que os compostos ativos em plantas medicinais individuais como Curcuma longa e Ajuga bracteosa possam substituir os antibióticos quando usados ​​na rotina diária como limpadores de dentes ou enxaguatórios bucais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Toothpastes , Fluorides , Pakistan , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents
2.
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(1): 1-9, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1353752

ABSTRACT

Objective: This randomized controlled trial aimed to compare nanohydroxyapatite with fluoride on managing post ultrasonic scaling Dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Material and Methods: Thirty patients (aged 20-50 years) with post ultrasonic-scaling DH were included in this study. The sample was randomly divided into three equal groups of 60 teeth each: the first group received nanohydroxyapatite material, the second group received fluoride material and the third group received sterile water as a placebo (controls). The materials were applied once for each patient. All patients were instructed to rate the level of pain before treatment, and after 1 hour, 24 hours, 2 weeks and 1 month on the numerical rating scale (NRS). The Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney tests, linear regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Significance level was set at 0.05. Results: Both nanohydroxyapatite and fluoride were successful in reducing pain associated with DH when compared with the placebo in subsequent follow-ups (p < 0.05). However, one-hour and one-day post application, nanohydroxyapatite could reduce hypersensitivity pain moreeffectively than fluoride (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Nanohydroxyapatite material was found to besignificantly more effective in reducing the DH that followed ultrasonic scaling one-hour and one-day post application as compared to fluoride and sterile water. Both fluoride and nanohydroxyapatite had similar effect on DH after two-weeks and one-month after application. (AU)


Objetivo: Este ensaio clínico randomizado teve como objetivo comparar a nano-hidroxiapatita com o flúor no manejo da hipersensibilidade dentinária (HD) pós-raspagem ultrassônica. Material e Métodos: Trinta pacientes (com idades entre 20-50 anos) com HD pós-raspagem ultrassônica foram incluídos neste estudo. A amostra foi dividida aleatoriamente em três grupos iguais com 60 dentes cada: o primeiro grupo recebeu material de nano-hidroxiapatita, o segundo grupo recebeu material de flúor e o terceiro grupo recebeu água esterilizada como placebo (controle). Os materiais foram aplicados uma vez para cada paciente. Todos os pacientes foram instruídos a avaliar o nível de dor antes do tratamento, e após 1 hora, 24 horas, 2 semanas e 1 mês na escala de avaliação numérica (NRS). Os testes de Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney e análise de regressão linear foram usados para a análise estatística. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em 0,05. Resultados: Tanto a nano- hidroxiapatita quanto o flúor foram bem-sucedidos na redução da dor associada à HD quando comparados ao placebo em acompanhamentos subsequentes (p <0,05). No entanto, 1 hora e 1 dia após a aplicação, a nano-hidroxiapatita pode reduzir a dor de hipersensibilidade de forma mais eficaz do que o flúor (p <0,05). Conclusão: O material da nano-hidroxiapatita foi significativamente mais eficaz na redução da HD que se seguiu à raspagem ultrassônica, 1 hora e 1 dia após a aplicação, em comparação com o flúor e a água estéril. Tanto o flúor, quanto a nano-hidroxiapatita apresentou efeito semelhante na HD após 2 semanas e 1 mês após a aplicação (AU)


Subject(s)
Durapatite , Dentin Sensitivity , Dentin Desensitizing Agents , Fluorides
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210971, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1252495

ABSTRACT

Aim: To propose a new method to determine in vitro potentially bioavailable fluoride (F) in diet and toothpaste after ingestion. Methods: Diet samples (D) were obtained from 15 portions of a meal served to children in a day care centre. To simulate the ingestion of toothpaste during brushing after meals, a specific amount of toothpaste was added to the diet samples (D + T). F was determined in D and D + T after incubation in a solution that simulated "gastric juice" (0.01 M hydrochloric acid) at 37oC for 30, 60 and 120 min. Microdiffusion facilitated by HMDS was used to determine the total F concentrations in samples D and D + T. The analyses were performed using an ion specific electrode. Results: For D samples, incubation in "gastric juice" for 30, 60 and 120 min resulted in F concentrations (µg F/mL) of 0.75 ± 0.06c, 0.77 ± 0.07c and 0.91 ± 0.09b, corresponding to 75.3, 77.3 and 90.7% of the total F (1.02 ± 0.12a), respectively (p = 0.0001; ANOVA + Tukey). For D + T samples, these values of F concentrations (µg F/mL) were 2.55 ± 0.46b, 2.83 ± 0.44ab and 3.15 ± 0.37a, corresponding to 86.9, 94.8 and 106.7% of the total F (2.99 ± 0.34a), respectively (p = 0.0023; ANOVA + Tukey). Conclusion: Then, it can be concluded that the proposed method of "gastric juice" is a promising protocol for determining potentially bioavailable fluoride in the diet and toothpaste after ingestion. However, additional studies are desirable


Subject(s)
Toothpastes , Dentifrices , Diet , Fluorides , Fluorosis, Dental
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(4): 45-54, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345520

ABSTRACT

Abstract The ability of mouth rinses, available in the international market, to form reaction products on demineralized enamel (bioavailability test) was evaluated in vitro. Nine mouth rinses purchased in Chile were evaluated; eight formulated with NaF (one containing 100 µg F/mL and seven containing 226) and one with Na2FPO3 (226 µg F/mL as ion F). Demineralized enamel slabs (n=15 per mouth rinse) were sectioned; one half was subjected to the assigned mouth rinse treatment for 10 min and the other half was used to obtain baseline data. Loosely bound and firmly bound fluoride formed on enamel were determined with an ion-specific electrode and the values were expressed in µg F/cm2. The concentration of fluoride and the pH of the mouth rinses were previously determined. Concentrations of loosely bound and firmly bound fluoride formed on enamel were independently analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%). The loosely bound and firmly bound fluoride concentrations (µg F/cm2) formed ranged from 3.2 to 36.2 and 0.4 to 1.7, respectively. Loosely bound fluoride formed on enamel was significantly more effective in discriminating the effect of different commercial mouth rinses than firmly bound fluoride. Mouth rinses with 226 ppm F as NaF and low pH presented significantly greater bioavailability of fluoride on enamel than those with higher pH or lower NaF concentration. The mouth rinse with Na2FPO3 showed low reactivity. Although further studies are necessary, the findings showed that commercial fluoride-containing mouth rinses have important variations in enamel fluoride bioavailability, which may result in differences on anticaries efficacy.


Resumo Os enxaguatórios bucais comerciais fluoretados diferem na concentração e tipo de sal de fluoreto, no pH e têm alguns ingredientes que podem interferir na reatividade do fluoreto com o esmalte desmineralizado. A capacidade de enxaguatórios bucais comerciais de formar produtos de reação em esmalte desmineralizado (teste de biodisponibilidade) foi avaliada in vitro. Nove enxaguatórios bucais adquiridos no Chile foram avaliados, oito formulados com NaF (um contendo 100 µg F/mL e sete contendo 226) e um com Na2FPO3 (226 µg F/mL como íon F). Os blocos de esmalte desmineralizados (n=15 por grupo) foram seccionados, uma metade foi submetida ao tratamento com o enxaguatório designado por 10 min e a outra metade foi usada para dados baseline. Fluoreto fracamente e firmemente ligados formados no esmalte foram determinados com um eletrodo íon-específico e os valores foram expressos em µg F /cm2. A concentração de fluoreto e o pH dos enxaguatórios foi previamente determinada. As concentrações de fluoreto tipo fluoreto fracamente ligado e fortemente ligado formadas no esmalte foram analisadas independentemente por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (α=5%). As concentrações de fluoreto fracamente ligado e fortemente ligado formados variaram de 3,2 a 36,2 e 0,4 a 1,7, respectivamente. O fluoreto fracamente ligado formado no esmalte foi significativamente mais eficaz para discriminar o efeito dos diferentes enxaguatórios bucais comerciais do que o fluoreto firmemente ligado. Enxaguatórios bucais com 226 ppm F na forma de NaF e baixo pH apresentaram significativamente maior biodisponibilidade de fluoreto no esmalte do que aqueles com maior pH ou menor concentração de NaF. O enxaguatório com Na2FPO3 apresentou reatividade muito baixa. Embora mais estudos sejam necessários, os resultados mostraram que os enxaguatórios bucais comerciais contendo fluoreto apresentam variações importantes na biodisponibilidade do fluoreto, o que poderia resultar em diferenças na eficácia anticárie.


Subject(s)
Fluorides , Mouthwashes , Sodium Fluoride , Biological Availability , Dental Enamel
5.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(4): 62-73, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345511

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro effect of a single application of experimental nanocomposite solutions on the prevention of dental caries around orthodontic brackets. The specimens were exposed to mesoporous silica (MS) nanocomposites containing fluoride by association with titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) or sodium fluoride (NaF). Nanocomposites also could contain calcium and groups were described as MSCaTiF4, MSTiF4, MSCaNaF, MSNaF, and controls (TiF4, and NaF). Specimens were subjected to the formation of a multispecies biofilm to generate a cariogenic challenge. After 24h, both pH and total soluble fluoride concentration of the culture medium were assessed. Mineral loss was evaluated by percentage of surface mineral loss (%SML), mineral volume variation (ΔZ) of inner enamel and polarized light microscopy (PL). Linear (Ra) and volumetric (Sa) surface roughness and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to assess enamel topography. Statistical analyses were conducted considering p<0.05. MSNaF had the highest value of culture medium pH after cariogenic challenge, similarly to MSTiF4. All nanocomposite solutions released less fluoride than their controls NaF and TiF4 (p<0.05). All nanocomposite solutions presented lower %SML compared to their respective control groups (p<0.05). Lower Ra, Sa and ΔZ were observed for experimental groups compared to TiF4 (p<0.05). The results were confirmed by PL and SEM analysis. The experimental nanocomposite solutions contributed for lower enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets.


RESUMO Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito in vitro de uma única aplicação de soluções experimentais de nanocompósitos na prevenção de cárie dentária em braquetes ortodônticos. Os espécimes foram expostos a nanocompósitos de sílica mesoporosa (MS) contendo fluoreto por associação com tetrafluoreto de titânio (TiF4) ou fluoreto de sódio (NaF). Os nanocompósitos também podem conter cálcio e os grupos foram descritos como MSCaTiF4, MSTiF4, MSCaNaF, MSNaF e controles (TiF4 e NaF). Os espécimes foram submetidos à formação de um biofilme multiespécie para gerar um desafio cariogênico. Após 24h, o pH e a concentração de flúor solúvel total do meio de cultura foram avaliados. A perda mineral foi avaliada pela porcentagem de perda mineral superficial (% SML), variação do volume mineral (ΔZ) do esmalte interno e microscopia de luz polarizada (PL). A rugosidade superficial linear (Ra) e volumétrica (Sa) e a microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) foram utilizadas para avaliar a topografia do esmalte. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas considerando p <0,05. MSNaF apresentou o maior valor de pH do meio de cultura após o desafio cariogênico, semelhante ao MSTiF4. Todas as soluções de nanocompósitos liberaram menos flúor do que seus controles NaF e TiF4 (p <0,05). Todas as soluções de nanocompósitos apresentaram% SML menor em comparação com seus respectivos grupos de controle (p <0,05). Ra, Sa e ΔZ menores foram observados para os grupos experimentais em comparação ao TiF4 (p <0,05). Os resultados foram confirmados por análises PL e SEM. As soluções experimentais de nanocompósitos contribuíram para a menor desmineralização do esmalte ao redor dos braquetes ortodônticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Demineralization , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Nanocomposites , Sodium Fluoride , Titanium , Cariostatic Agents , Dental Enamel , Fluorides
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 75-83, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345499

ABSTRACT

Abstract This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in children and adolescents using fluoridated toothpaste, from areas with and without fluoridated water. Parents of 5-year-old children and 12-year-old adolescents from neighbourhoods that are supplied with and without fluoridated water answered questionnaires for determining socio-economic and demographic characteristics and habits related to oral health. The individuals were examined, and dental caries and fluorosis were measured by dmft/DMFT and TF indexes, respectively. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed (p < 0.05). Of 692 participants, 47.7% were 5-year-olds and 52.3% were 12-year-olds. The mean dmft/DMFT in the 5-year-olds/ 12-year-olds from Exposed and Not Exposed fluoridated water groups was 1.53 (± 2.47) and 3.54 (± 4.10) / 1.53 (± 1.81) and 3.54 (± 3.82), respectively. Children (OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.71-4.75) and adolescents (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.24-3.05), who did not consume fluoridated water, had greater caries experience. Among adolescents, there was an association between fluoridated water and the prevalence of very mild/mild fluorosis (OR = 5.45, 95% CI: 3.23-9.19) and moderate fluorosis (OR = 11.11, 95% CI = 4.43-27.87). Children and adolescents, who consumed fluoridated water, presented lower prevalence and severity of dental caries compared to those who used only fluoridated toothpaste as the source of fluoride. There is an association between water fluoridation and very mild/mild and moderate fluorosis in adolescents.


Resumo Este estudo transversal avaliou a prevalência e severidade de cárie dentária e fluorose em crianças de 5 anos e adolescentes de 12 anos usuários de dentifrício fluoretado, em áreas com e sem água fluoretada. Os responsáveis pelas crianças e adolescentes responderam questionários para determinação de características socioeconômicas e demográficas e hábitos relacionados à saúde. Os indivíduos foram examinados e a cárie e a fluorose foram mensuradas pelos índices ceo-d / CPOD e TF, respectivamente. Foram realizadas análises descritivas, bivariadas e de regressão logística (p <0,05). Dos 692 participantes, 47,7% tinham 5 anos e 52,3% tinham 12 anos. A média de ceod / CPOD em crianças de 5/12 anos dos grupos de exposto e não exposto à água fluoretada foi 1,53 (± 2,47) e 3,54 (± 4,10) / 1,53 (± 1,81) e 3,54 (± 3,82), respectivamente. Crianças (OR = 2,86, IC 95% = 1,71-4,75) e adolescentes (OR = 1,95, IC 95% = 1,24-3,05) que não consumiram água fluoretada tiveram maior experiência de cárie. Entre os adolescentes, houve associação entre a água fluoretada e a prevalência de fluorose muito leve / leve (OR = 5,45, IC 95%: 3,23-9,19) e fluorose moderada (OR = 11,11, IC 95% = 4,43-27,87). Crianças e adolescentes que consumiram água fluoretada apresentaram menor prevalência e severidade de cárie dentária em comparação com aqueles que usaram apenas dentifrício fluoretado como fonte de flúor. Houve uma associação entre a fluoretação da água e fluorose muito leve / leve e moderada em adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dentifrices , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , DMF Index , Fluoridation , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorides
7.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(2): 90-99, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1339331

ABSTRACT

Abstract The ability of mouthrinses, available in the international market, to form reaction products on demineralized enamel (bioavailability test) was evaluated in vitro. Nine mouthrinses purchased in Chile were evaluated; eight formulated with NaF (one containing 100 µg F/mL and seven containing 226) and one with Na2FPO3 (226 µg F/mL as ion FPO3 ). Demineralized enamel slabs (n=15 per mouthrinse) were sectioned; one half was subjected to the assigned mouthrinse treatment for 10 min and the other half was used to obtain baseline data. Loosely bound and firmly bound fluoride formed on enamel were determined with an ion-specific electrode and the values were expressed in µg F/cm2. The concentration of fluoride and the pH of the mouthrinses were previously determined. Concentrations of loosely bound and firmly bound fluoride formed on enamel were independently analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%). The loosely bound and firmly bound fluoride concentrations formed ranged from 3.2 to 36.2 and 0.4 to 1.7, respectively. Loosely bound fluoride formed on enamel was significantly more effective in discriminating the effect of different commercial mouthrinses than firmly bound fluoride. Mouthrinses with 226 ppm F as NaF and low pH presented significantly greater bioavailability of fluoride on enamel than those with higher pH or lower NaF concentration. The mouthrinse with Na2FPO3 showed low reactivity. Although further studies are necessary, the findings showed that commercial fluoride-containing mouthrinses have important variations in enamel fluoride bioavailability, which may result in differences on anticaries efficacy.


Resumo Os enxaguatórios bucais comerciais fluoretados diferem na concentração e tipo de sal de fluoreto, no pH e têm alguns ingredientes que podem interferir na reatividade do fluoreto com o esmalte desmineralizado. A capacidade de enxaguatórios bucais comerciais de formar produtos de reação em esmalte desmineralizado (teste de biodisponibilidade) foi avaliada in vitro. Nove enxaguatórios bucais adquiridos no Chile foram avaliados, oito formulados com NaF (um contendo 100 µg F/mL e sete contendo 226) e um com Na2FPO3 (226 µg F/mL como íon F). Os blocos de esmalte desmineralizados (n=15 por grupo) foram seccionados, uma metade foi submetida ao tratamento com o enxaguatório designado por 10 min e a outra metade foi usada para dados baseline. Fluoreto fracamente e firmemente ligados formados no esmalte foram determinados com um eletrodo íonespecífico e os valores foram expressos em µg F /cm2. A concentração de fluoreto e o pH dos enxaguatórios foi previamente determinada. As concentrações de fluoreto tipo fluoreto fracamente ligado e fortemente ligado formadas no esmalte foram analisadas independentemente por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (α=5%). As concentrações de fluoreto fracamente ligado e fortemente ligado formados variaram de 3,2 a 36,2 e 0,4 a 1,7, respectivamente. O fluoreto fracamente ligado formado no esmalte foi significativamente mais eficaz para discriminar o efeito dos diferentes enxaguatórios bucais comerciais do que o fluoreto firmemente ligado. Enxaguatórios bucais com 226 ppm F na forma de NaF e baixo pH apresentaram significativamente maior biodisponibilidade de fluoreto no esmalte do que aqueles com maior pH ou menor concentração de NaF. O enxaguatório com Na2FPO3 apresentou reatividade muito baixa. Embora mais estudos sejam necessários, os resultados mostraram que os enxaguatórios bucais comerciais contendo fluoreto apresentam variações importantes na biodisponibilidade do fluoreto, o que poderia resultar em diferenças na eficácia anticárie


Subject(s)
Dental Enamel , Fluorides , Biological Availability
8.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 10(1): 1-10, feb. 24, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178770

ABSTRACT

Fluoridation has been shown to be an effective measure against caries in children. The present study evaluates the cost-benefit of the fluoridated water program for the reduction of dental caries in 12-year-old children in the Biobío Region, the only region in Chile that has not implemented this program. An economic cost-benefit evaluation was carried out, comparing two alternative interventions: non-fluoridated drinking water versus fluoridated drinking water. The prevalence of caries, direct and indirect costs of the treatments, the cost of implementing the programs and the benefits of both interventions were estimated. From this study it is concluded that the savings in oral health costs in 12-year-old children when using fluoridating drinking water in the Biobío region is significantly higher than the cost involved in implementing the water fluoridation program, resulting in total savings for the Chilean state of $129,861,645 (USD$ 152,833) as well as an estimated reduction of 15% in the history of caries in the study population.


Se ha demostrado que la fluoración es una medida efectiva contra disminución de la caries en la población infantil. La presente investigación buscó evaluar cual es el costo-beneficio del programa del agua fluorada para la disminución de caries dental en niños de 12 años de la Región del Biobío, única región de Chile que no adhiere a este programa. Se realizó una evaluación económica de costo-beneficio, comparando dos intervenciones alternativas: agua potable no fluorada versus agua potable fluorada. Para tal fin se estimó la prevalencia de caries, costos directos e indirectos de los tratamientos, el costo de implementación de los programas y el beneficio de ambas intervenciones. De este estudio se concluye que el ahorro en costos de salud bucal en niños de 12 años al fluorar el agua potable en la región del Biobío, es significativamente mayor al costo que implica la implementación del programa de fluoración de aguas, lográndose un ahorro total para el Estado de $129.861.645 (USD $152.833) así como una estimación de reducción del 15% en la historia de caries en la población de estudio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Fluoridation , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Drinking Water/analysis , Chile , Prevalence , Health Care Costs , Fluorides/analysis
9.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143387

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the remineralizing potential of a hydrocolloid-based, controlled fluoride-releasing system added to dentifrice formulas. Material and Methods: Sixty-five human enamel blocks were prepared and the surface microhardness (SH0) values were determined. The artificial caries lesions were induced and the demineralization surface microhardness (SH1) was evaluated. The blocks were randomly allocated into five groups (n = 13): (1) 100-TGF (100% NaF with Tara gum added); (2) 50-TGF (50% free NaF + 50% NaF with Tara gum added); (3) 100% TG (100% Tara gum without fluoride); (4) 100% NaF (positive control); and (5) placebo (without Tara gum and NaF). The blocks were submitted to 7 days pH cycling and treated with dentifrice slurries twice a day. Finally, surface hardness (SH2) was assessed and the percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SMHR) was calculated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni test was used for statistical analysis. Results: A positive %SMHR was found in the 100% NaF (5.07) and 50-TGF (0.64) groups, while the 100-TGF (-1.38), 100% TG (-3.88) and placebo (-0.52) did not undergo remineralization. Statistically significant differences were observed between 100% NaF and all the groups except for 50-TGF (p<0.05). Conclusion: The presence of hydrocolloid (Tara gum) promoted minimal remineralization when associated with NaF. In the applied model, Tara gum may have compromised remineralization, preventing free fluoride from acting effectively in the carious lesion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Remineralization/instrumentation , Toothpastes/administration & dosage , Biomedical and Dental Materials , In Vitro Techniques , Fluorides , Polymers , Brazil/epidemiology , Double-Blind Method , Analysis of Variance , Data Interpretation, Statistical
10.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(2): e212020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249707

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: After debonding, white spot may appear on the area below the bracket, which is the early clinical sign of carious lesion. There is increased caries risk underneath and adjacent to orthodontic bands and brackets, which call for maximum use of caries preventive procedures using various fluoride application methods. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate alterations in the mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity and yield strength) in loading and unloading phases for different orthodontic archwires (nickel-titanium [NiTi] and copper-nickel-titanium [CuNiTi]) when exposed routinely to fluoride prophylactic agents for a predetermined period of time. Methods: Preformed rectangular NiTi and CuNiTi wires were immersed in fluoride solution and artificial saliva (control) for 90 minutes at 37ºC. After immersion, specimens were tested using a 3-point bend test on a universal testing machine. Results: There is a significant reduction in the unloading yield strength when the NiTi and CuNiTi wires were exposed to APF gel. Conclusion: The result suggests that use of topical fluoride agents affect the mechanical properties of the wires, leading to increase in treatment duration. Fluoride prophylactic agents must be used with caution in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Injudicious use of these agents may cause corrosive effects on the orthodontic wire surfaces, with alteration in their mechanical properties.


RESUMO Introdução: Após a remoção dos braquetes, manchas brancas podem aparecer na área embaixo deles, as quais são o sinal clínico inicial da lesão cariosa. Existe um maior risco de cáries embaixo e ao redor das bandas e braquetes ortodônticos, o que exige a máxima utilização de procedimentos preventivos de cárie, usando diferentes métodos com aplicação de flúor. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar alterações nas propriedades mecânicas (módulo de elasticidade e resistência ao escoamento), nas fases de carregamento e descarregamento de diferentes fios ortodônticos (níquel-titânio [NiTi] e níquel-titânio com adição de cobre [CuNiTi]), quando expostos rotineiramente a agentes profiláticos fluoretados, utilizados durante um período de tempo predeterminado. Métodos: Os fios pré-contornados retangulares de NiTi e CuNiTi foram imersos em solução fluoretada e saliva artificial (controle) durante 90 minutos a 37°C. Após a imersão, as amostras foram testadas utilizando-se um teste de flexão em três pontos, em uma máquina universal de testes. Resultados: Houve uma redução significativa na resistência ao escoamento na fase de descarregamento quando os fios de NiTi e CuNiTi foram expostos ao gel fluoretado. Conclusão: O resultado sugere que o uso tópico de agentes fluoretados afeta as propriedades mecânicas dos fios, levando a um aumento na duração do tratamento. Os agentes profiláticos fluoretados devem ser utilizados com cautela em pacientes submetidos a tratamento ortodôntico. O uso indiscriminado desses agentes pode causar efeitos corrosivos na superfície dos fios ortodônticos e consequente alteração das suas propriedades mecânicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthodontic Wires , Copper , Dental Alloys , Fluorides , Nickel , Surface Properties , Titanium , Materials Testing , Nickel/adverse effects
11.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(1): 1-13, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1141394

ABSTRACT

Objective: to compare the clinical performance of newly introduced resin modified glass ionomer varnish (Clinpro™ XT) versus resin infiltration in treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions. Material and Methods: Six participants (70 teeth) were enrolled with post-orthodontic white spot lesions. Randomization was performed according to patient selection for the sealed envelope containing which half will receive the control (resin infiltration (ICON, DMG) and the other will receive the intervention (resin modified glass-ionomer cement varnish (Clinpro™ XT, 3M)). Follow up was done after 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months, 6 months and 12 months. The color was assessed by spectrophotometer while the degree of demineralization was measured by Diagnodent pen 2910. Patient satisfaction was assessed using (VAS) Visual analogue scale Results:Regarding color change, significant improvement in lightness for ICON group, while Clinpro™ XT group, the change was insignificant. The demineralization data revealed significant decrease in demineralization with resin infiltration after immediate application. Clinpro™ XT showed also significant decrease after immediate assessment and significant increase in demineralization in 6 and 12 months. Conclusion: Resin infiltration can be considered more as an alternative treatment rather than fluoride varnish. Clinpro™ XTis considered as a preventive protocol, provided that renewal application is needed after 3 months (AU)


Objetivo: comparar o desempenho clínico do recém-introduzido verniz de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina (Clinpro ™ XT) com a infiltração de resina no tratamento de lesões de manchas brancas pós-ortodônticas. Material e Métodos: Seis participantes (70 dentes) foram inscritos com lesões pós-ortodônticas de manchas brancas. A randomização foi realizada de acordo com a seleção do paciente para o envelope lacrado contendo qual metade receberá o controle (infiltração de resina (ICON, DMG) e a outra metade receberá a intervenção (verniz de cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina (Clinpro ™ XT, 3M)). O acompanhamento foi feito após 1 dia, 1 semana, 1 mês e 3 meses, 6 meses e 12 meses. A cor foi avaliada por espectrofotômetro, enquanto o grau de desmineralização foi medido pela caneta Diagnodent 2910. A satisfação do paciente foi avaliada usando (VAS) Escala visual analógica. Resultados: Em relação à mudança de cor, houve uma melhora significativa na luminosidade para o grupo ICON, enquanto o grupo Clinpro ™ XT, a mudança foi insignificante. Os dados de desmineralização revelaram diminuição significativa da desmineralização com infiltração de resina após a aplicação imediata. O grupo Clinpro ™ XT também mostrou diminuição significativa após avaliação imediata e aumento significativo na desmineralização em 6 e 12 meses. Conclusão: A infiltração de resina pode ser considerada mais como uma alternativa de tratamento do que o verniz fluoretado. O Clinpro ™ XT é considerado um protocolo preventivo, uma vez que a renovação é necessária após 3 meses. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Random Allocation , Patient Satisfaction , Resin Cements , Fluorides , Glass Ionomer Cements
12.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(1): 1-10, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1145375

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of the polishing procedure and surface sealant application on the fluoride release of restorative materials. Material and Methods: The groups were consisted of using five different restorative materials were employed: Beautifil II, GCP Glass Fill, Amalgomer CR, Zirconomer and Fuji IX GP. 30 disk-shaped specimens (8x2 mm) were prepared from each material. Each group was subdivided into three groups considering finishing procedures: Mylar strip, polishing with Super-Snap discs, G-Coat Plus application after polishing with Super-Snap discs. The amount of fluoride released into distilled water was measured using a fluoride ion-selective electrode and ion analyzer after 24 hours, followed by measurement on days 3, 7, 15, 21, and 28. Surface analysis of the materials was performed with SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). The data were statistically analyzed using two-way repeated measure ANOVA and LSD test (p=0.05). Results: The highest amount of fluoride released was measured after the first 24 h for all materials. Beautifil II released less fluoride than other materials in all measurement periods (p<0.05). After polishing, the amount of fluoride released from all materials except Beautifil II increased (p<0.05). The application of G-Coat Plus did not impact the amount of fluoride release of any materials (p>0.05). EDS analysis showed the most percentage of oxygen in all materials. Conclusion: The polishing procedure might induce an increase in fluoride release of glass ionomer-based materials, and the application of G-Coat Plus cannot affect the amount of fluoride release. (AU)


Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do procedimento de polimento e aplicação de selante superficial na liberação de flúor de materiais restauradores. Material e Métodos: Os grupos consistiram na utilização de cinco materiais restauradores diferentes: Beautifil II, GCP Glass Fill, Amalgomer CR, Zirconomer e Fuji IX GP. Trinta espécimes em forma de disco (8x2 mm) foram preparados a partir de cada material. Cada grupo foi subdividido em três grupos considerando os procedimentos de acabamento: tira Mylar, polimento com discos Super-Snap, aplicação de G-Coat Plus após polimento com discos Super-Snap. A quantidade de flúor liberada na água destilada foi medida usando um eletrodo íon-seletivo de fluoreto e analisador de íons após 24 horas, seguido pela medição nos dias 3, 7, 15, 21 e 28. A análise da superfície dos materiais foi realizada com MEV (Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura) e EDS (Espectroscopia de Energia Dispersiva de Raios-X). Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente usando ANOVA de dois fatores com medidas repetidas e teste LSD (p = 0,05). Resultados: A maior quantidade de flúor liberado foi medida após as primeiras 24 horas para todos os materiais. O Beautifil II liberou menos flúor do que outros materiais em todos os períodos avaliados (p <0,05). Após o polimento, a quantidade de flúor liberada de todos os materiais, exceto Beautifil II, aumentou (p <0,05). A aplicação de G-Coat Plus não afetou a quantidade de liberação de flúor de nenhum material (p> 0,05). A análise por EDS revelou a maior porcentagem de oxigênio em todos os materiais. Conclusão: O procedimento de polimento pode induzir um aumento na liberação de flúor de materiais à base de ionômero de vidro, e a aplicação de G-Coat Plus não pode afetar a quantidade de liberação de flúor (AU)


Subject(s)
Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Fluorides , Glass Ionomer Cements
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35(supl.1): e053, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249384

ABSTRACT

Abstract Identifying the risk factors for dental caries is vital in epidemiology and clinical practices for developing effective preventive strategies, both, at the individual and collective levels. Different causality/determination models have been proposed to understand the development process of dental caries. In the present review, we designed a model inspired by the world-known social determinants models proposed in the 90s and more recently in the 10s, wherein the contextual factors are placed more externally and encompass the individual factors. The contextual factors included those related to the cultural and societal values, as well as the social and health government policies. The individual factors were classified into the following categories: socioeconomic (social class, occupation, income, and education level), demographic characteristics (age, sex, and ethnicity), behavioral factors (non-use of fluoride dentifrice, sugar consumption, poor oral hygiene, and lack of preventive dental care), and biological factors (recent caries experience/active caries lesions, biofilm retentive factors, developmental defects of the enamel, disabilities, saliva amount and quality, cariogenic biofilm). Each of these variables was addressed, while focusing on the current evidence from studies conducted in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LACC). Based on the proposed model, educational aspects were addressed, and individual caries risk assessment and management decisions were proposed; further, implications for public health policies and clinical practice were described. The identification of modifiable risk factors for dental caries should be the basis for multi-strategy actions that consider the diversity of Latin American communities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Caries/etiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Caribbean Region , Fluorides , Latin America/epidemiology
14.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e083, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1285729

ABSTRACT

Abstract For fluoride to be effective in controlling caries, it should be bioavailable in commercial products, so that it can be released into the mouth in the products it contains. We chemically determined the available fluoride and pH in nine mouth rinses marketed in Chile, and eleven, in Brazil, and then discussed the legislation in force in both countries, regarding the anticaries potential of these oral hygiene products. The fluoride was analyzed with an ion-selective electrode (F-ISE), using the direct technique. The determinations were made in duplicate, and the results were expressed in ppm F (μg F/mL). The total fluoride concentration found in all the mouth rinses evaluated ranged from 94.7 to 233.5 ppm F, and closely matched what was declared by the manufacturers (100.0 to 226.2 ppm F). However, some mouth rinses showed lower fluoride concentrations (90 and 180 ppm F) in both countries. A Na2FPO3-formulated mouth rinse was found only in Chile, with 216.8 ppm F as the FPO32- ion, and 4.9 ppm F as the F-. The findings show that fluoride was potentially bioavailable in all the mouth rinses evaluated. Regarding the national legislations, although the mouthwashes sold in Brazil comply with the Brazilian legislation, discrepancies were found for Chile. However, neither country had a legislation matching the best available evidence on fluoride mouthwash efficacy for caries control. Thus, some products with low fluoride concentrations (below 226 ppm F), or manufactured with a fluoride salt other than NaF (Na2FPO3) are being sold in the Brazilian and Chilean markets.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chile , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Brazil , Fluorides/analysis , Mouthwashes
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e058, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1285725

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of non-invasive and micro-invasive treatments on the arrest of occlusal enamel carious lesions in erupting permanent molars. This two-arm randomized clinical trial included 27 subjects, aged 5-11 years, with 64 erupting permanent molars presenting active occlusal enamel carious lesions (as assessed by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System [ICDAS]; scores 1-3). The sample was randomly assigned into two treatment groups: 1) resin-modified glass ionomer cement sealant (Clinpro XT Varnish; 3M ESPE) and 2) 4-week topical fluoride varnish application (Duraphat; Colgate). All children and parents received oral hygiene and dietary instructions. Teeth were evaluated at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months regarding the eruption stage, biofilm accumulation, as well as severity and activity of the carious lesions. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate the survival estimates for inactivation of the carious lesions for both treatment groups. Multivariate Cox regression models with shared frailty were performed to identify factors associated with the outcome (p < 0.05). After 12 months, 22% and 3% of the lesions treated with topical fluoride varnish and sealant, respectively remained active. The adjusted model demonstrated that younger children had a higher probability of active enamel carious lesions arresting (hazard ratio [HR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.78; p=0.01). However, the probability of active enamel carious lesions arresting after sealant application was 8.85 times higher compared with fluoride varnish applications (p=0.01). Sealing is a more effective approach than fluoride varnish for arresting occlusal enamel carious lesions in erupting permanent molars.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pit and Fissure Sealants , Dental Caries/therapy , Fluorides, Topical/therapeutic use , Fluorides , Glass Ionomer Cements , Molar
16.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e066, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249366

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study developed experimental gels containing titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) combined with commercial 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP), and evaluated bleaching efficacy and pH of the gels, and mineral content and morphology of enamel submitted to these treatments. In phase-1, different stock gels mixed with TiF4 were combined with HP. In phase-2, the selected gels were tested on enamel/dentin specimens (n=8): HP; HP and Natrosol+TiF4 (HPnT); HP and Natrosol+Chemygel+TiF4 (HPncT); HP and Aristoflex+TiF4 (HPaT). Bleaching was performed in four sessions (3x15min-application/session). Color (CIEL*a*b*) and whiteness index (WID) were measured after each session, whereas whiteness index differences (ΔWID), color alteration (CIELab-ΔE, CIEDE2000-ΔE00), enamel morphology and pH, at end of bleaching therapy. The change in Knoop microhardness (ΔKHN) was compared before and after bleaching. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni (CIEL*, a*, b*), one-way ANOVA and Tukey (ΔWID, ΔE, ΔE00), and LSD (ΔKHN) tests (α=5%). SEM and pH measurements were submitted to descriptive analysis. No differences were observed in lightness (L*) or WID among the groups (p > 0.05), but HP exhibited lower b* values (p<0.05), higher ΔWID than HPnT, and the highest ΔE among the groups (p < 0.05). No differences in ΔE00 were observed between HP and HPncT (p > 0.05), and HPncT showed higher ΔKHN than HP (p < 0.05). HP presented pH values closer to neutral (6.9), whereas experimental agents showed acidic pH values (2.3-3.9). No morphological changes were observed in HP or HPncT groups. HPncT was able to bleach the enamel and maintain enamel microhardness and surface integrity, even at low pH.


Subject(s)
Tooth Bleaching , Bleaching Agents , Tooth Bleaching Agents , Titanium , Fluorides , Hydrogen Peroxide
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e29, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1153613

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated how Er,Cr:YSGG laser, associated or not with 5% fluoride varnish, influences the surface roughness and volume loss of bovine root dentin submitted to erosive and/or abrasive wear. One hundred and twenty dentin specimens were divided into the groups: without preventive treatment (WPT), 5% fluoride varnish (FV); Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (L), and varnish combined with laser (FV + L). The specimens (n = 10) were subdivided into: 1 = erosion (E); 2 = abrasion (A); and 3 = erosion followed by abrasion (E + A). The erosive solution used was a soft-drink (pH = 2.42 at 4ºC) applied in 5-min cycles twice a day for 10d. Abrasive wear involved brushing for 60s with an electric brush (1,600-oscillations/s) at a load of 2.0N. Surface roughness and volume loss were evaluated using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Roughness data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. For volume loss, the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc tests were used (α = 5%). The lowest values of roughness were found in the control areas of all subgroups (p > 0.05). In the experimental area, the [(WPT) + (E+A)] subgroup had a significantly higher roughness (5.712 ± 0.163 μm 2 ) than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). The L and (FV + L) groups had statistically similar roughness, regardless of the type of wear. The (FV + L) group had the lowest volume loss, regardless of the type of wear performed: [(FV + L) + (E)] = 7.5%, [(FV + L) + (A) = 7.3%, and [(FV + L) + (E + A)] = 8.1%. The subgroup [(WPT) + (E + A)] had the highest volume loss (52.3%). The proposed treatments were effective in controlling dentin roughness. Laser irradiation can be an effective method to increase root dentin resistance after challenges and limit problems related to non-carious lesions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Tooth Root , Toothbrushing , Dentin , Fluorides
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20210081, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340099

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of a toothpaste containing calcium silicate/sodium phosphate/fluoride associated or not to the boost serum (BS) against erosive tooth wear (ETW) on enamel and dentin. Methodology Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were subjected to an erosion-abrasion cycling model (1% citric acid - pH 3.6 -2 min / artificial saliva - 60 min, 4×/day, 5 days). Toothbrushing was performed for 15 s (2 min exposed to slurry), 2×/day, with the toothpastes (n=10): control without fluoride (Weleda), Arg/Ca/MFP (Colgate Pro-Relief), Si/PO4/MFP (Regenerate-Unilever), and Si/PO4/MFP/BS (Si/PO4/MFP with dual BS - Advanced Enamel Serum-Unilever). The effect of treatments on the eroded tissues was assessed by surface microhardness in the first day, and surface loss (SL) resulting from ETW was evaluated by profilometry (μm) after three and five days. Additional dentin specimens (n=5/group) were subjected to 20,000 brushing cycles to verify the abrasivity of the toothpastes. Data were subjected to ANOVA and correlation tests (5%). Results For enamel, no difference in microhardness was observed among the treated groups, and similar SL was obtained after 5 days. For dentin, Si/PO4/MFP/BS resulted in higher microhardness values, but none of the groups presented significantly lower SL than the control. There was no significant correlation between SL and abrasiveness. Conclusion The calcium silicate/sodium phosphate toothpaste and serum increased microhardness of eroded dentin, but they did not significantly reduce enamel and dentin loss compared to the non-fluoride control toothpaste. The abrasiveness of the toothpastes could not predict their effect on ETW.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Toothpastes , Fluorides , Phosphates , Silicates , Calcium Compounds , Dental Enamel , Dentin
19.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(4): 423-430, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132323

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a newly developed nanocomplex formed of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin and 1% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) after distinct complexation periods (12/72 h) on demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro. Enamel blocks (n=60) were allocated in different groups: Mili-Q water, hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin, 1% TiF4, hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + 1% TiF4 after 12 h of complexation and hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + 1% TiF4 after 72 h of complexation. The samples were evaluated by surface microhardness, cross-sectional microhardness and micro-CT. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX) were also obtained. Hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + 1% TiF4 after 12 h complexation resulted in lower percentage of surface microhardness loss compared to Mili-Q water, hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin, 1% TiF4 and hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + 1% TiF4 after 72 h of complexation group, with a large effect size (from 1.307 to 2.943) and high power (84.9 to 99%). All groups resulted in similar integrated mineral loss (ΔZ) obtained by both internal microhardness and micro-CT techniques. Enamel treated with TiF4 and TiF4 + hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin groups showed a TiO2 glaze-layer, while EDX evaluation identified Ti. The solution containing the inclusion complex of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + TiF4 with 12 h of complexation period demonstrated a significant ability to reduce surface demineralization of sound enamel under an artificial cariogenic challenge.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da 1-etil-3- (3-dimetilaminopropil) carbodiimida (EDC) na resistência de união de pinos de fibra de vidro em canais radiculares obturados com diferentes cimentos endodônticos. Setenta e oito pré-molares inferiores foram obturados com três cimentos endodônticos (n=26): Endofill (END), AH Plus (AHP) e Endosequence BC Sealer (EBS). Após o preparo do espaço para pino, dois subgrupos formaram-se conforme a cimentação dos pinos (n=13): com EDC e sem EDC (controle - CON). Os espécimes foram submetidos ao teste pull-out, classificação do modo de falha e avaliação da superfície do canal radicular por microscopia eletrônica de varredura após o deslocamento. Quanto à força de resistência de união, uma diferença estatisticamente significativa ocorreu entre os subgrupos EDC e CON apenas no END (p=0,001). Não foi detectada diferença entre os subgrupos CON (p=0,339). Contudo, no subgrupo EDC, o AHP apresentou maiores valores (END versus AHP: p=0,001; AHP versus EBS: p=0,016). Acerca da classificação dos modos de falha, o escore 1 (≥50% de cimento) foi o mais comumente observado, exceto para END + EDC. Restos de cimentos endodônticos e cimentos resinosos foram encontrados no terço cervical, mas sem diferença estatística (p=0,269), enquanto no terço médio, houve diferença (p=0,004). Em conclusão, o EDC diminui a resistência de união quando associado ao cimento END, sem alterar o modo de falha entre o cimento resinoso e o pino de fibra de vidro. O melhor desempenho foi observado quanto o EDC foi usado com o cimento AHP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclodextrins , Fluorides , Titanium , Cattle , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Enamel
20.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(7): 2653-2662, Jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133077

ABSTRACT

Resumo Sendo a fluoretação das águas uma medida de saúde pública consagrada na prevenção de cárie dentária e considerando que a vigilância do método é fundamental para o seu sucesso, este estudo objetivou analisar os resultados das análises dos teores de flúor das águas de abastecimento público de 40 municípios do estado de São Paulo, de novembro de 2004 a dezembro de 2016. A análise das amostras foi realizada mensalmente por meio do método potenciométrico. De 32.488 amostras, 50,94% continham níveis de flúor dentro do intervalo recomendado. Em 2004, verificou-se que 21 cidades (52,50%) apresentaram teores médios dentro do parâmetro recomendado, passando, em 2016, para 32 cidades (80,00%). Observou-se que 15 municípios que possuíam inicialmente níveis de flúor abaixo de 0,55 mgF/L em suas águas de abastecimento adequaram-se no decorrer do projeto. No primeiro ano do estudo, 47,76% das amostras possuíam valores no intervalo preconizado e, em 2016, houve um aumento para 58,22%. Foi verificado que no decorrer dos anos, a maioria dos municípios adequou os níveis de flúor em suas águas, evidenciando a atuação dos programas de heterocontrole como importantes estratégias que auxiliam na vigilância do método, tendo participação fundamental no controle da qualidade da água ofertada à população.


Abstract Since fluoridation of water is an established public health measure for the prevention of dental caries and considering that monitoring of the method is crucial to its success, this study aimed to analyze the results of the analysis of the fluorine content of public water supply of 40 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, from November 2004 to December 2016. Samples were analyzed monthly using the potentiometric method. Of the 32,488 samples, 50.94% contained fluoride levels within the recommended range. In 2004, it was verified that 21 cities (52.50%) had mean levels within the recommended parameter, increasing to 32 cities (80.00%) in 2016. It was observed that 15 municipalities that initially had levels of fluoride below 0.55 mgF/L in their water supply adjusted to adequate levels during the project. In the first year of the study, 47.76% of the samples had values in the recommended range, which increased to 58.22% in 2016. Most of the municipalities adjusted the levels of fluoride in their waters over the years, evidencing the performance of heterocontrol programs as important strategies that assist in the monitoring of the method and have significant participation in the control of the water quality supplied to the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Water Supply , Brazil , Fluoridation , Cities , Fluorides/analysis
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