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Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210153, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1386813


Abstract Objective: To analyze the fluoride concentration in the public water supply in Manaus, Brazil. Material and Methods: Water samples were collected in 50 mL polyethylene bottles, identified, and labeled. The collection was performed from September 2016 to August 2018. For the selection of collection points, all neighborhoods of the city of Manaus, divided into four health districts (North, South, East, and West), were mapped. From each district, 30 samples were collected, totaling 120 monthly samples. Water samples were analyzed using an ion analyzer, ORION 720-A, and a specific electrode, ORION 96-09. The ion analyzer and electrode were calibrated in standard solutions. The levels were classified in intervals based on technical consensus to guide the health surveillance agencies. Results: Of the 2,874 water samples, 50.3% were within the recommended range, and 49.7% were inadequate, with 31.6% considered above the parameters and 18.1% below. Among the districts, the North had the highest percentages of unsatisfactory samples, resulting in limited action to prevent tooth decay. During the 24 months of analysis, there were large oscillations in the values in all four districts of Manaus. Conclusion: Results reinforce the importance of heterocontrol for the city to guarantee the effectiveness of this public health measure.

Health Surveillance , Fluoridation/statistics & numerical data , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Fluorides/analysis , Health Policy , Oral Health/education , Public Health , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 10(1): 1-10, feb. 24, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178770


Fluoridation has been shown to be an effective measure against caries in children. The present study evaluates the cost-benefit of the fluoridated water program for the reduction of dental caries in 12-year-old children in the Biobío Region, the only region in Chile that has not implemented this program. An economic cost-benefit evaluation was carried out, comparing two alternative interventions: non-fluoridated drinking water versus fluoridated drinking water. The prevalence of caries, direct and indirect costs of the treatments, the cost of implementing the programs and the benefits of both interventions were estimated. From this study it is concluded that the savings in oral health costs in 12-year-old children when using fluoridating drinking water in the Biobío region is significantly higher than the cost involved in implementing the water fluoridation program, resulting in total savings for the Chilean state of $129,861,645 (USD$ 152,833) as well as an estimated reduction of 15% in the history of caries in the study population.

Se ha demostrado que la fluoración es una medida efectiva contra disminución de la caries en la población infantil. La presente investigación buscó evaluar cual es el costo-beneficio del programa del agua fluorada para la disminución de caries dental en niños de 12 años de la Región del Biobío, única región de Chile que no adhiere a este programa. Se realizó una evaluación económica de costo-beneficio, comparando dos intervenciones alternativas: agua potable no fluorada versus agua potable fluorada. Para tal fin se estimó la prevalencia de caries, costos directos e indirectos de los tratamientos, el costo de implementación de los programas y el beneficio de ambas intervenciones. De este estudio se concluye que el ahorro en costos de salud bucal en niños de 12 años al fluorar el agua potable en la región del Biobío, es significativamente mayor al costo que implica la implementación del programa de fluoración de aguas, lográndose un ahorro total para el Estado de $129.861.645 (USD $152.833) así como una estimación de reducción del 15% en la historia de caries en la población de estudio.

Humans , Child , Fluoridation , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Drinking Water/analysis , Chile , Prevalence , Health Care Costs , Fluorides/analysis
Odontoestomatol ; 23(38): 1-8, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, BNUY, BNUY-Odon | ID: biblio-1370747


Objetivos: Evaluar la concentración de fluoruro en la sal de mesa disponible comercialmente en Montevideo, Uruguay. Método: Fueron analizados catorce paquetes de sal para determinar la concentración de iones fluoruro libres. Las muestras se pesaron, se diluyeron en agua desionizada, se mezclaron con TISAB II y se utilizó un electrodo específico conectado a un analizador de iones para determinar la concentración de fluoruro Resultado: La mayoría de los paquetes presentaron valores inferiores a 250 mgF / kg. Las muestras de sal gruesa mostraron concentraciones mayores a las de sal fina (p <0.05). Aquellas conteniendo fluoruro de sodio presentaron mayor concentración de fluoruro que aquellas conteniendo fluoruro de potasio (p <0.05). Dos marcas presentaron concentraciones de fluoruro cercanas a las informadas en el envase. Conclusiones: Las sales de mesa comercializadas en Montevideo, Uruguay presentaron gran variabilidad en las concentraciones de fluoruro

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of fluoride (F) in household salt marketed in Montevideo, Uruguay. Methods: Fourteen household salt brands marketed in Montevideo, Uruguay were analyzed to determine the F concentrations. Salt samples were prepared and F concentrations were determined using a fluoride-specific electrode connected to an ion analyzer. Results: Most of the salt brands showed values lower than 250 mgF/kg. Coarse salt samples showed higher F concentrations compared to the refined salt samples (p < 0.05). Salt brands contained sodium fluoride presented higher F concentrations than salt brands contained potassium fluoride (p < 0.05). Only two brands had F concentrations close to that informed in product packages. Conclusions: Household salt brands marketed in Montevideo (Uruguay) present a great variability in their F concentrations.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as concentrações de flúor (F) no sal de uso doméstico comercializado em Montevidéu, Uruguai. Métodos: Quatorze marcas de sal doméstico comercializadas em Montevidéu (Uruguai) foram analisadas para determinar as concentrações de F. As amostras de sal foram preparadas e as concentrações de flúor foram determinadas através de um eletrodo específico para F conectado a um analisador de íons. Resultados: A maioria das marcas de sal mostraram valores menores que 250mgF/ kg. Amostras de sal grosso apresentaram as maiores concentrações de F comparadas às amostras de sal refinado (p < 0,05). Apenas duas marcas tiveram as concentrações de F próximas àquelas informadas nas embalagens dos produtos. Conclusões: As marcas de sal de uso doméstico comercializadas em Montevidéu (Uruguai) apresentam uma grande variabilidade em suas concentrações de F.

Sodium Chloride, Dietary/analysis , Fluorides/analysis , Uruguay , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Fluorine/analysis
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e083, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1285729


Abstract For fluoride to be effective in controlling caries, it should be bioavailable in commercial products, so that it can be released into the mouth in the products it contains. We chemically determined the available fluoride and pH in nine mouth rinses marketed in Chile, and eleven, in Brazil, and then discussed the legislation in force in both countries, regarding the anticaries potential of these oral hygiene products. The fluoride was analyzed with an ion-selective electrode (F-ISE), using the direct technique. The determinations were made in duplicate, and the results were expressed in ppm F (μg F/mL). The total fluoride concentration found in all the mouth rinses evaluated ranged from 94.7 to 233.5 ppm F, and closely matched what was declared by the manufacturers (100.0 to 226.2 ppm F). However, some mouth rinses showed lower fluoride concentrations (90 and 180 ppm F) in both countries. A Na2FPO3-formulated mouth rinse was found only in Chile, with 216.8 ppm F as the FPO32- ion, and 4.9 ppm F as the F-. The findings show that fluoride was potentially bioavailable in all the mouth rinses evaluated. Regarding the national legislations, although the mouthwashes sold in Brazil comply with the Brazilian legislation, discrepancies were found for Chile. However, neither country had a legislation matching the best available evidence on fluoride mouthwash efficacy for caries control. Thus, some products with low fluoride concentrations (below 226 ppm F), or manufactured with a fluoride salt other than NaF (Na2FPO3) are being sold in the Brazilian and Chilean markets.

Humans , Chile , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Brazil , Fluorides/analysis , Mouthwashes
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(7): 2653-2662, Jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133077


Resumo Sendo a fluoretação das águas uma medida de saúde pública consagrada na prevenção de cárie dentária e considerando que a vigilância do método é fundamental para o seu sucesso, este estudo objetivou analisar os resultados das análises dos teores de flúor das águas de abastecimento público de 40 municípios do estado de São Paulo, de novembro de 2004 a dezembro de 2016. A análise das amostras foi realizada mensalmente por meio do método potenciométrico. De 32.488 amostras, 50,94% continham níveis de flúor dentro do intervalo recomendado. Em 2004, verificou-se que 21 cidades (52,50%) apresentaram teores médios dentro do parâmetro recomendado, passando, em 2016, para 32 cidades (80,00%). Observou-se que 15 municípios que possuíam inicialmente níveis de flúor abaixo de 0,55 mgF/L em suas águas de abastecimento adequaram-se no decorrer do projeto. No primeiro ano do estudo, 47,76% das amostras possuíam valores no intervalo preconizado e, em 2016, houve um aumento para 58,22%. Foi verificado que no decorrer dos anos, a maioria dos municípios adequou os níveis de flúor em suas águas, evidenciando a atuação dos programas de heterocontrole como importantes estratégias que auxiliam na vigilância do método, tendo participação fundamental no controle da qualidade da água ofertada à população.

Abstract Since fluoridation of water is an established public health measure for the prevention of dental caries and considering that monitoring of the method is crucial to its success, this study aimed to analyze the results of the analysis of the fluorine content of public water supply of 40 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, from November 2004 to December 2016. Samples were analyzed monthly using the potentiometric method. Of the 32,488 samples, 50.94% contained fluoride levels within the recommended range. In 2004, it was verified that 21 cities (52.50%) had mean levels within the recommended parameter, increasing to 32 cities (80.00%) in 2016. It was observed that 15 municipalities that initially had levels of fluoride below 0.55 mgF/L in their water supply adjusted to adequate levels during the project. In the first year of the study, 47.76% of the samples had values in the recommended range, which increased to 58.22% in 2016. Most of the municipalities adjusted the levels of fluoride in their waters over the years, evidencing the performance of heterocontrol programs as important strategies that assist in the monitoring of the method and have significant participation in the control of the water quality supplied to the population.

Humans , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Water Supply , Brazil , Fluoridation , Cities , Fluorides/analysis
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(4): 1507-1518, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089535


Resumo Fluoretação da água é uma estratégia de controle da cárie, recomendada pela OMS. No Brasil ela é regulamentada por lei, mas não tem sido implementada com sucesso na região Norte. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram levantar dados sobre a existência do heterocontrole nos 10 maiores municípios tocantinenses e analisar a concentração de fluoreto presente na água de abastecimento público destas cidades. A pesquisa foi realizada de maio-agosto/17 e teve como marco teórico-metodológico a análise quantitativa, descritiva e transversal. Coletas de água foram realizadas mensalmente, utilizando protocolo de amostragem de coleta de água da rede. A concentração de fluoreto nas águas foi feita com eletrodo íon específico pela técnica direta. Constatou-se que a vigilância da fluoretação da água está em operação na capital do estado desde 2016. Com relação a concentração de fluoreto na água, foi encontrado que 31,6% das amostras analisadas estavam adequadas para o máximo benefício de redução de cárie e 27,5% delas apresentavam risco alto ou muito alto de fluorose dentária. É necessário implementar um programa de controle da concentração de flúor na água no Tocantins, a fim de garantir que a população não seja privada dos benefícios anticárie da agregação de flúor à agua tratada.

Abstract Water fluoridation is a strategy for caries control recommended by the WHO. In Brazil, it is regulated by law but this program has not been successfully implemented in the North region. This research aimed to collect data on the existence of external control (heterocontrol) in the ten largest municipalities in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, and to analyze fluoride concentration in the public water supply of these cities. The study was conducted from May-August/17, and its theoretical-methodological framework was a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional analysis. Water collections were carried out monthly, using sampling protocol of water collection of the network. Fluoride concentration in the waters was determined with ion specific electrode by the direct technique. It was verified that water fluoridation monitoring is only been done in Palmas, capital of the state, starting in 2016. Thirty-two percent of waters samples analyzed showed fluoride concentration to obtain the maximum benefit of reduction caries and 27.5% of them presented a high or very high risk of dental fluorosis. It is necessary to implement a program to control the concentration of fluoride in the water of the municipalities of Tocantins, in order to ensure that the population is not deprived of the anticaries' benefits of the adjustment of fluoride concentration of the treated water.

Cariostatic Agents/analysis , Fluoridation/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies/standards , Fluorides/analysis , Water Supply , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cities/statistics & numerical data
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(2): 24-35, ago. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008358


Como parte del ciclo biogeoquímico, el fluoruro del suelo puede disolverse e ingresar al agua. La Organización Mundial de la Salud y la Norma Paraguaya NP 24 001 80 establecen una concentración máxima de 1,5 mg.L-1 de fluoruro en agua de consumo, pudiendo producir fluorosis cuando es elevada, tal como se encontró en niños residentes de Loreto. Estudios indican que la exposición al fluoruro concomitante al déficit de calcio puede agravar la pérdida de masa ósea, causando fragilidad y fluorosis esquelética. Además, se demostró mediante bioensayos en ratones que el exceso de fluoruro reduce la concentración de calcio sérico, por lo que el objetivo del estudio descriptivo con componente analítico fue elaborar un mapa de distribución espacial de fluoruro del agua subterránea de Loreto y relacionar con la calcemia en niños. Se determinó la concentración de fluoruro en muestras de veintitrés pozos de agua subterránea y el calcio sérico de dieciocho niños en edad escolar, ambos por método normalizado. Se identificaron dos pozos con concentraciones superiores al máximo permitido y en 61% de los niños el calcio sérico fue inferior al valor de referencia. Se encontró una correlación débil entre las variables (r = 0,212). El estudio proporciona información relevante sobre sitios con elevadas concentraciones de fluoruro lo que representa un riesgo para la salud pues aun con ingesta adecuada de calcio, los niños presentaron hipocalcemia. Sería importante incluir en estudios posteriores factores no abordados en esta investigación para una evaluación más completa del riesgo de la población expuesta(AU)

As part of the biogeochemical cycle, soil fluoride can dissolve and accumulate in groundwater. World Health Organization and the Paraguayan Standard NP 24 001 80 establishes of 1.5 mg.L-1 of fluoride in drinking water, which can produce fluorosis when it is higher, as it has been found in children of Loreto. Studies indicate that exposure to fluoride concomitant with calcium deficit may aggravate bone loss, causing frailty and skeletal fluorosis. In addition, it was demonstrated through bioassays in mice that excess fluoride reduces serum calcium concentration, the objective of the descriptive study with the analytical component has become a spatial distribution map of Loreto groundwater and related to calcemia in children. The fluoride concentration was determined in samples from twenty-three groundwater wells and serum calcium from eighteen school-age children, both by standard method. Two points were identified with levels above the maximum allowed and in 61% of the children the serum calcium was lower than the reference value. We found a weak correlation between the variables (r = 0.212). It would be important to include in later studies factors not addressed in this research for a more complete risk assessment of the exposed population(AU)

Humans , Child , Groundwater/chemistry , Calcium/blood , Fluorides/analysis , Residence Characteristics , Water Wells
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e051, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011664


Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine the concentration of total fluoride (TF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF) in children's dentifrices marketed in the city of Lima, Peru. Three samples of 23 dentifrices (4 without fluoride and 19 with fluoride) were purchased in different pharmacies in Lima, Peru. The TF and TSF concentrations found in the dentifrices were determined by ion-selective electrode, expressed in ppm F (μg F/g of dentifrice). The TF concentration in the majority of the fluoride toothpastes matched that shown on the label, except for one declared as 1450 ppm F by the manufacturer, whereas only 515.1 ppm F was found. The concentration of TSF found in the fluoride toothpastes ranged from 457.5 to 1134.8 ppm F. All the dentifrices were formulated with silica, but one also presented calcium carbonate. In conclusion, 83% of the children's dentifrices marketed in Lima, Peru, were fluoridated, but only 53% contained a TSF concentration greater than 1000 ppm F, the minimum concentration required to provide an anticaries effect.

Humans , Child , Toothpastes/analysis , Cariostatic Agents/analysis , Fluorides/analysis , Peru , Product Labeling , Sodium Fluoride/analysis , Toothpastes/classification , Toothpastes/pharmacokinetics , Cariostatic Agents/classification , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Fluoridation , Fluorides/pharmacokinetics
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180188, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-984574


Abstract Sources of calcium and phosphate have been added to dental restorative materials to improve their anticaries effect. Objective This study evaluated the effect of adding calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) to resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) on the physico-mechanical properties, ion release, and enamel demineralization. Material and Methods: Specimens were fabricated for each experimental group: RMGIC without CaGP (Control), RMGIC with 1, 3 and 9% CaGP. To determine the release of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), six specimens were immersed in demineralization and remineralization solutions for 15 days. In another experimental trial, the following physico-mechanical properties were evaluated at time intervals of 1 and 7 days after fabrication: compressive strength (n=12), diametral tensile strength (n=12), surface hardness of material (n=6) and the degree of conversion of monomers (n=8). To study enamel demineralization, specimens (n=12) were attached to enamel blocks and submitted to pH-cycling. Subsequently, surface and cross-sectional hardness and the concentration of F, Ca and P in enamel were determined. Results The addition of CaGP to RMGIC led to higher mean release of F, Ca and P when compared with control (p<0.001). Mechanical properties were within the range of those of the ionomer cements after addition of 1% and 3% CaGP. The degree of conversion did not differ between groups at the 1st and the 7th day (p>0.439). The addition of 3% and 9% CaGP reduced mineral loss and increased F, Ca and P in the enamel when compared with control (p<0.05). Conclusion The addition of 3% CaGP in RMGIC increased the release of F, P and Ca, reduced enamel demineralization, and maintained the physico-mechanical properties within the parameters for this material.

Humans , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Glycerophosphates/chemistry , Phosphates/analysis , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Photomicrography , Calcium/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Compressive Strength , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Fluorides/analysis , Hardness Tests
Braz. dent. j ; 29(5): 475-482, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974182


Abstract This research aimed to determine the influence of fluoridated groundwater and 1,100 ppm fluoride dentifrice on biomarkers of exposure to fluoride in preschoolers. A cross-sectional study was performed on thirty preschoolers recruited from naturally fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas (n=15). Total Daily Fluoride Intake (TDFI) from diet and dentifrice, and Daily Urinary Fluoride Excretion (DUFE) was measured over 24 h. Nails samples were collected twice during 30 days. Fluoride analyses were performed using a fluoride-ion-specific electrode. Data were evaluated using the Student and paired t-test, Pearson correlation analysis, multiple linear regression analysis (α≤0.05). Fluoridated groundwater and dentifrice were the dominant sources (r2 > 0.83) of TDFI in children from a naturally fluoridated and a non-fluoridated area, respectively. A positive correlation between TDFI and DUFE (r=0.50), and between [F] in fingernails and toenails (r=0.60) were found in children from a naturally fluoridated area. The [F] in nails of finger and toe were not correlated to TDFI. The consumption of fluoridated groundwater influenced the fluoride concentration in urine. In addition, the use of 1,100 ppm fluoride dentifrice did not influence the fluoride concentration in urine and fingernails.

Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo determinar a influência de águas fluoretadas subterrâneas e do dentifrício com 1.100 ppm de fluoreto nos biomarcadores de exposição ao flúor em pré-escolares. Foi realizado um estudo transversal em trinta pré-escolares recrutados em áreas naturalmente fluoretadas e não fluoretadas (n = 15). A ingestão diária total de flúor (TDFI) a partir da dieta e do dentifrício, assim como a excreção urinária diária de flúor (DUFE), foram medidas ao longo de 24 horas. Amostras de unhas foram coletadas duas vezes durante 30 dias. As análises de flúor foram realizadas usando um eletrodo específico para íon flúor. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o teste t de Student e pareado, a análise de correlação de Pearson, e a análise de regressão linear múltipla (a≤0,05). As águas subterrâneas e dentifrícios fluoretados foram as fontes dominantes (r2>0,83) do TDFI em crianças da área naturalmente fluoretada e não fluoretada, respectivamente. Uma correlação positiva entre TDFI e DUFE (r=0,50) e entre [F] nas unhas das mãos e dos pés (r=0,60) foi encontrada em crianças da área naturalmente fluoretada. A [F] nas unhas das mãos e dos pés não foi correlacionada com TDFI. O consumo de águas subterrâneas fluoretadas influenciou a concentração de flúor na urina. Além disso, o uso de dentifrício com 1.100 ppm de fluoreto não influenciou a concentração de fluoreto na urina e nas unhas.

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Biomarkers/analysis , Fluoridation , Dentifrices/chemistry , Fluorides/analysis , Groundwater , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Urinalysis , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Nails/chemistry
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e40, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889471


Abstract This research explored the potential of Camellia sinensis-derived teas and active compounds to be used as treatments to prevent dentin wear. Human root dentin slabs were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 10) as follows: distilled water (DW, control), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), theaflavin gallate derivatives (TF), commercial green tea (GT), and commercial black tea (BT). The samples were submitted to a pellicle formation and an erosive cycling model (5x/day, demineralization using 0.01 M hydrochloric acid/60 s) followed by remineralization (human stimulated saliva/60 min) for three days. The samples were treated for 5 min using the test group solutions between the erosive cycles. Dentin changes were assessed with profilometry analysis and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The data regarding wear were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05). EGCG, TF derivatives, and both regular teas significantly suppressed erosive dentin loss (38-47%, p < 0.05). No obvious changes in the Raman spectra were detected in the specimens; however, the DW group had a minor relationship of 2880/2940 cm−1. The phenolic contents in both green and black tea and the important catechins appear to have protective effects on dentin loss.

Humans , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Dentin/drug effects , Gallic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Tea/chemistry , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Catechin/pharmacology , Fluorides/analysis , Fluorides/pharmacology , Gallic Acid/pharmacology , Water/chemistry
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e45, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889478


Abstract Nicaraguan legislation has established that fluoride concentrations in salt should be 200-225 mg/kg, but no report describes fluoride concentrations in salt marketed in this country. We evaluated the fluoride concentrations in 33 packages of salt of 11 brands (n = 3 each) purchased in Managua, Nicaragua. According to the package information, 9 of the 11 brands were fluoridated. Six aliquots of each package were weighed (mean 2.5 ± 0.3 g; n = 198) and dissolved in 0.025 g/ml water. Duplicates of 1.0 ml of solutions prepared were buffered (1:1; v/v) with TISAB II. Fluoride concentrations were determined with ion-specific electrode, calibrated with standard solutions (0.25-16.0 μg F/ml) mixed (1:1; v/v) with TISAB II added to 0.025 g (p.a.) NaCl/ml. The mean (± standard deviation, n = 3) fluoride concentrations of two fluoridated brands were in accord with Nicaraguan law (209.8 ± 48.0 and 211.4 ± 26.0 mg F/kg), and those of five brands were below the mandated range (131.0 ± 34.3, 180.6 ± 12.3, 184.6 ± 34.8, 190 ± 47.2, and 199.0 ± 18.9 mg F/kg); two brands contained only traces of fluoride. The two non-fluoridated brands had traces of fluoride. The findings show that the surveillance system for the salt fluoridation program in Nicaragua should be improved, as most salt analyzed violated the requirements of the national legislation.

Fluoridation/methods , Fluorides/analysis , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Nicaragua , Product Labeling
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e26, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889486


Abstract: Data about total fluoride intake in children living in a tropical semi-arid climate city is scarce, thus we conducted this study. Fifty-eight children aged two to five years, living in a Brazilian tropical city with optimally fluoridated water were selected. Dietary samples were collected using the duplicate diet method on two non-consecutive days in the children's home toothpaste was determined by subtracting the amount of fluoride recovered after brushing from the amount placed on the toothbrush. The mean total dose (SD) of fluoride intake was 0.043(0.016) mg F·kg-1·d-1, with the major (60.6%) contribution from water. The factors associated with the ingestion of fluoride from toothpaste were fluoride concentration of the toothpaste (p = 0.03) and the use of kids toothpaste (p = 0.02). The findings suggest that children have a low fluoride intake, measured by at-home meals and use of fluoride toothpaste; drinking water is the main source of fluoride ingestion.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Toothpastes/chemistry , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Diet , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Reference Values , Toothbrushing/methods , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Cariostatic Agents/analysis , Fluoridation , Risk Factors , Fluorides/analysis
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(11): 3849-3860, Oct. 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-974721


Resumo A adição do flúor na água é um método empregado na redução de cárie dentária. O controle da fluoretação é importante para manter a sua eficiência e, ao mesmo tempo, evitar o risco de ocorrência de fluorose, fruto do consumo de água com flúor em excesso. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação dos níveis do fluoreto na água distribuída à população do estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foram analisadas 5.039 amostras de água coletadas em 225 municípios de Goiás, entre 2011 e 2013. Os resultados foram analisados por sazonalidade, tipo de manancial e localização geográfica. Ocorreu uma variação entre ausência e 2,5 mg F/L, com 28,2% das amostras entre 0,6 e 0,8 mg F/L e 39,1% entre 0,55 e 0,84 mg F/L. No período de chuva ocorreu um maior número de resultados atípicos e maiores valores quando comparados ao período da seca. Verificou-se que os sistemas abastecidos por água proveniente de mananciais subterrâneos possuem um menor controle de fluoreto quando comparados a sistemas provenientes de mananciais superficiais. Observou-se menores concentrações nas amostras coletadas no Norte e Leste goianos, com menos de 7,5% entre 0,6 e 0,8 mg F/L, para aquelas coletadas de sistemas de abastecimento que utilizam água de manancial subterrâneo com adição de fluoreto, existindo dificuldades na manutenção dos seus teores.

Abstract The addition of fluoride to the public water supply is a method used for reducing tooth decay. In this sense, the control of fluoridation is important for maintaining its efficiency and, at the same time, for avoiding the risk of fluorosis as a result of the consumption of water with excess of fluoride. The objective of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of fluoride levels in the water distributed to populations of the state of Goiás, Brazil. Towards this aim, 5,039 water samples collected between 2011 and 2013 in 225 municipalities of the state of Goiás were analyzed for fluoride level. The results were assessed with regard to season, type of water source and geographic location. Fluoride levels were found to vary between complete absence and 2.5 mg F/L, with 28.2% of the samples being between 0.6 and 0.8 mg F/L, and 39.1% between 0.55 and 0.84 mg F/L. The rainy season produced a greater number of atypical results and higher values than the dry period. The systems supplied by groundwater sources were shown to have a limited control of fluoride concentration compared to systems supplied by surface water sources. Lower concentrations of fluoride were found in samples collected in the North and East Mesoregions of Goiás, with less than 7.5% being between 0.6 and 0.8 mg F/L, which systems are mainly supplied by groundwater sources with fluoride addition .

Humans , Water Supply/standards , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Fluoridation/methods , Fluorides/analysis , Rain , Seasons , Groundwater/analysis , Brazil , Fluoridation/standards , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Fluorosis, Dental/etiology
Salud colect ; 13(1): 105-122, ene.-mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845983


RESUMEN Con el objetivo de estudiar la distribución geográfica del contenido de fluoruros en el agua de abastecimiento público de la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina, se recolectaron 1.210 muestras en 190 localidades de los 17 departamentos de la provincia durante el periodo 2008-2012. Las determinaciones analíticas de fluoruros se realizaron por el método SPANDS y, para el procesamiento de la información, se utilizó el programa QGis 2.16. Los requerimientos del contenido de fluoruros en el agua se identificaron de acuerdo al Código Alimentario Argentino. El 94% de la población estudiada consumía agua con concentraciones de fluoruros inferiores a los límites recomendados, un 5% estaba expuesta a concentraciones de fluoruros superiores al límite máximo requerido y el 1% consumía agua en concentraciones óptimas de fluoruros. En los mapas se visualiza una distribución geográfica heterogénea de fluoruros, diferenciada por áreas con déficit, exceso y valores recomendados de fluoruros que, en algunos departamentos, permite observar una relación inversa entre la red hidrológica y el parámetro de estudio. Para la Capital el valor promedio encontrado fue de 0,32 mg/l, con una distribución geográfica homogénea. La información obtenida es indispensable para el adecuado manejo del flúor y la mejora de la salud pública a través de políticas sanitarias.

ABSTRACT This work studied the geographical distribution of fluoride content in the public water supply in the province of Tucumán, Argentina. A total of 1,210 samples were collected in 190 localities of the 17 departments of the province during the 2008-2012 period. The analytical determination was performed using the SPADNS method and QGis 2.16 was used for processing the information. The fluoride content requirements in the studied localities were determined according to the Argentine Food Code. The results showed that 94% of population studied consumed water with fluoride concentrations below the recommended limits, 5% were exposed to fluoride concentrations above the required maximum limit and 1% consumed water at optimal fluoride concentrations. The maps showed a heterogeneous geographical distribution of fluorides, in which areas with deficit, excess and recommended values of fluorides can be differentiated; in some departments an inverse relationship between the density of the hydrological network and fluoride concentration can be observed. In the capital of the province, the average value found was 0.32 mg/l, presenting a homogeneous geographical distribution. The information obtained is indispensable for the proper management of fluoride, so as to improve public health through policy.

Humans , Drinking Water/chemistry , Water Quality , Cariostatic Agents/analysis , Fluorides/analysis , Argentina , Drinking Water/analysis , Dental Caries/prevention & control
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 10(3): 433-441, dic. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840992


The objective of the study is to propose a protocol for the appropriate use of fluorides in dentifrices (Dt), based on its bioavailability in saliva (Bs) and / or plaque (Bp) through a systematic review (SR). SR of the literature from 2005 to 2015 in PubMed, Cochrane and SciELO. Inclusion criteria: clinical studies in vivo, Spanish and English, made only with Dt that measured Bs and Bp. The results were evaluated in relation to: 1) Concentration of fluoride in Dt, 2) Brushing time with Dt, 3) Frequency of brushing, 4) Rinse post-brushing and 5) Amount of Dt on the brush. Twelve (12) studies were selected. 1) Bs increases 241 % when using a 5000 ppm of Dt compared to 1450 ppm. 2) Bs is increased by 55 % by increasing the duration of brushing 40 s to 120 s 3) Bp increases by 68 % when brushing 3 times a day compared to 2 times. 4) Not rinsing or rinsing with <10 ml for <10 s increases Bs to 270 % compared to rinses higher volume / time. 5) By increasing the amount of Dt of 0.5 g to 1.5 g, Bs increases up to 266 %. The use of 1.5 g of Dt 1450 ppm of fluoride for 120 s, 3 times a day is recommended and once brushing is complete avoiding oral rinse with water or non fluoride mouthwash.

El objetivo de este studio es proponer un protocolo para el uso adecuado de fluoruros en dentífricos (Dt), basado en su biodisponibilidad en saliva (Bs) y/o placa (Bp) mediante una revisión sistemática (RS). RS de la literatura 2005- 2015 en PubMed, Cochrane y SciELO. Criterios de inclusión: estudios clínicos in vivo, español e inglés, realizados únicamente con Dt que midieran Bs y Bp. Los resultados fueron evaluados en relación a: 1) Concentración de flúor en el Dt, 2) Tiempo de cepillado con Dt, 3) Frecuencia de cepillado, 4) Enjuague post-cepillado y 5) Cantidad de Dt en el cepillo. Fueron seleccionados 12 estudios. 1) La Bs aumenta en un 241 % al utilizar un Dt de 5000 ppm en comparación con un 1450 ppm. 2) Bs aumenta en un 55 % al aumentar la duración del cepillado de 40 s a 120 s, 3) La Bp aumenta en un 68 % al cepillarse 3 veces al día en comparación a 2 veces. 4) No enjuagarse o enjuagues de <10 ml por <10 s puede aumentar la Bs hasta en un 270 % en comparación a enjuagues con mayor volumen/tiempo. 5) Al aumentar la cantidad de Dt de 0,5 g a 1,5 g, la Bs aumenta hasta en un 266 %. Se recomienda utilizar 1,5 g de Dt 1450 ppm de flúor por 120 s, 3 veces al día, y evitar enjuague oral con agua o colutorios sin flúor una vez finalizado el cepillado.

Humans , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Fluorides/analysis , Saliva/chemistry , Toothpastes/administration & dosage , Biological Availability , Dental Plaque/chemistry , Dentifrices/chemistry , Toothbrushing/methods
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 104(4): 166-174, oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869381


Objetivo: analizar bebidas y alimentos de consumo frecuente para evaluar el pH, grados Brix (ºBx), efecto buffer a pH 5,5 y 7, y concentración de fosfatos, calcio y fluoruros. Materiales y métodos: en este estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, se evaluaron 438 alimentos, divididos en 18 grupos. Se analizó pH, capacidad Buffer a pH 5,5 y 7, grados Brix y concentración de fosfatos, de fluoruros y de calcio. Los datos fueron procesados por SPSS Statistics 20 (IBM Corp., Estados Unidos). Resultados: las gaseosas, el jugo en polvo para diluir, las aguas saborizadas y las bebidas isotónicas presntaron menor pH. El rango de sólidos solubles, expresado en grados Brix, fue de 0,05 a 15,9. El mayor valor de efecto buffer correspondió a los jugos: exprimido, en polvo, listo para consumir y para diluir. En este último, se halló mayor cantidad de fosfato. Sólo en las aguas minerales con gas se observaron fluoruros. El alimento de soja líquido natural presentó el mayor contenido de calcio. Concusiójn: las gaseosas, los jugos, las leches fermentadas y las bebidas isotónicas, resultaron ser ácidas, con bajo efecto buffer, alto valor de grados Brix y contener pocos factores protectores.

Aims: to analyze drinks and foods commonly consumedby evaluating pH, degrees Brix, buffer effect at pH 5.5 and 7.0and phosphate, calcium and fluoride concentration.Materials and methods: In this observational, descriptiveand cross-sectional study, 48 foods were evaluated,divided into 18 groups. pH, buffer capacity at 5.5 and 7, degreesBrix and phosphate, fluoride and calcium concentrationwere analyzed. The data were processed by SPSS Statistics 20(IBM Corp., USA).Results: Soda, juice powder to dilute, flavored water andsports drinks had lower pH. The range of soluble solids (degreesBrix) was from 0.05 to 15.9. The greatest value in buffereffect was in juices: squeezed, powdered, ready to consumeand to be diluted. The latter had a higher amount of phosphate.Only sparkling mineral waters showed detectable valuesfor fluorides. The liquid natural soy food had the highestcalcium content.Conclusion: Soft drinks, juices, fermentable milk, isotonicdrinks were found to be acidic, with lower buffer value,high Brix degrees and low in protective factors.

Humans , Food and Beverages/analysis , Dental Caries/etiology , Risk Factors , Tooth Erosion , Breast-Milk Substitutes , Carbonated Beverages , Cross-Sectional Studies , Calcium/analysis , Fluorides/analysis , Phosphates/analysis , Juices , Mineral Waters , Soy Milk , Data Interpretation, Statistical
Braz. dent. j ; 27(4): 393-398, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794614


Abstract Fluoride present in toothpaste at 1,100 µg/g is considered effective on caries control. However, under high cariogenic challenge due to increasing sugar exposure, higher fluoride concentration (5,000 µg/g) could be necessary to compensate the unbalance on caries process. This was tested in a pH-cycling regimen, which evaluated the effect of fluoride concentration relative to toothpaste on reduction of enamel demineralization under conditions of two levels of cariogenic challenge. Enamel slabs (n=20) were subjected to two pH-cycling regimens, simulating 8x and 16x/day sugar exposure and were treated with solutions containing: 0 (no fluoride), 275 or 1,250 µg F/mL, resulting in 6 treatment groups: 4-h/0-F; 8-h/0-F; 4-h/275-F; 8-h/275-F; 4-h/1,250-F and 8-h/1,250-F. The 275 and 1,250 µg F/mL concentrations simulate mouth salivary dilution when 1,100 and 5,000 µg/g toothpastes are used. Enamel demineralization was assessed by surface (%SHL) and cross-sectional hardness. Fluoride taken up by enamel was also evaluated. Data were analyzed by ANOVA one-way and Tukey's test. The treatment with 1,250 µg F/mL significantly reduced %SHL compared with 275 µg F/mL (p<0.05), irrespective the level of cariogenic challenge (4-h/1,250-F vs. 4-h/275-F and 8-h/1,250-F vs 8-h/275-F comparisons, respectively). These data were supported by fluoride concentration found in enamel. These findings suggest that higher fluoride concentrations could partly compensate the greater caries risk under higher cariogenic challenge due to increasing sugar exposure.

Resumo O fluoreto presente em dentifrícios de 1,100 µg/g é considerado efetivo no controle de cárie dental. No entanto, sob alto desafio cariogênico devido ao aumento da exposição ao açúcar, maior concentração de fluoreto (5.000 µg/g) poderia ser necessária para compensar o desequilíbrio no processo de cárie. Isso foi testado em um modelo de ciclagens de pH, que avaliou o efeito da concentração do fluoreto, relacionada ao dentifrício, na redução da desmineralização do esmalte dental sob condição de dois níveis de desafio cariogênico. Blocos de esmalte (n=20) foram submetidos a dois regimes de ciclagens de pH, simulando 8 e 16 exposições diárias ao açúcar, e foram tratados com soluções contendo: 0 (sem flúor), 275 ou 1.250 µg F/mL, resultando em 6 grupos de tratamento: 4-h/0-F; 8-h/0-F; 4-h/275-F; 8-h/275-F; 4-h/1.250-F e 8-h/1.250-F. As concentrações de 275 e 1.250 µg F/mL simularam uma diluição salivar na cavidade bucal quando dentifrícios de 1100 e 5000 µg F/g são usados. A desmineralização do esmalte foi avaliada na superfície (%PDS) e dureza em corte. Fluoreto incorporado pelo esmalte também foi determinado. Os dados foram analisados por Análise de Variância e teste de Tukey. O tratamento com 1.250 µg F/mL reduziu significativamente %PDS comparado ao de 275 µg F/mL (p<0,05), independente do nível do desafio cariogênico (comparações 4-h/1,250-F x 4-h/275-F e 8-h/1,250-F x 8-h/275-F, respectivamente). Esses resultados foram suportados pela concentração de fluoreto encontrada no esmalte. Os resultados sugerem que maior concentração de fluoreto pode parcialmente compensar um maior risco de cárie sob um maior desafio cariogênico provocado pelo aumento de exposição ao açúcar.

Humans , Dental Caries , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Fluorides/analysis , Tooth Demineralization
Braz. dent. j ; 27(3): 298-302, May-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782830


Abstract Low-fluoride (F) dentifrices (<600 µg F/g) are widely available worldwide, but evidence to recommend the use of such dentifrices, with either regular or improved formulations, is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anticaries potential of low-F dentifrices found in the Brazilian market, using a validated and tested pH-cycling model. Enamel blocks were selected by surface hardness (SH) and randomized into four treatment groups (n=12): non-F dentifrice (negative control), low-F dentifrice (500 μg F/g), low-F acidulated dentifrice (550 μg F/g) and 1,100 μg F/g dentifrice (positive control). The blocks were subjected to pH-cycling regimen for 8 days and were treated 2x/day with dentifrice slurries prepared in water (1:3, w/v). The pH of the slurries was checked, and only the acidulated one had low pH. After the pH cycling, SH was again determined and the percentage of surface hardness loss was calculated as indicator of demineralization. Loosely- and firmly-bound F concentrations in enamel were also determined. The 1,100 μg F/g dentifrice was more effective than the low-F ones to reduce enamel demineralization and was the only one that differed from the non-F (p<0.05). All F dentifrices formed higher concentration of loosely-bound F on enamel than the non-F (p<0.05), but the 1,100 μg F/g was the only one that differed from the non-F in the ability to form firmly-bound F. The findings suggest that the low-F dentifrices available in the Brazilian market, irrespective of their formulation, do not have anticaries potential.

Resumo Dentifrícios de baixa concentração de fluoreto (F) (< 600 µg F/g) estão amplamente disponíveis no mundo, mas ainda não há evidência para recomendar seu uso, quer seja em formulações regulares ou melhoradas. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial anticárie de dentifrícios de baixa concentração de fluoreto encontrados no mercado brasileiro, utilizando um modelo de ciclagens de pH validado e testado. Blocos de esmalte bovinos foram selecionados pela dureza de superfície e randomizados em quatro grupos (n=12): dentifrício sem fluoreto (controle negativo), dentifrício de baixa concentração de fluoreto (500 μg F/g), dentifrício acidulado de baixa concentração de fluoreto (550 μg F/g) e dentifrício de 1100 μg F/g (controle positivo). Os blocos foram submetidos ao regime de ciclagem de pH por 8 dias e tratados 2 x/dia com suspensões aquosas dos dentifrícios (1:3 p/v). O pH das suspensões foi checado, e apenas o acidulado tinha baixo pH. Após a ciclagem de pH, a dureza de superfície foi novamente determinada e a porcentagem de perda de dureza foi calculada como indicador de demineralização. As concentrações de fluoreto fracamente e firmemente ligado ao esmalte também foram determinadas. O dentifrício de 1.100 μg F/g foi mais efetivo do que os de baixa concentração na redução da desmineralização do esmalte e foi o único que diferiu significativamente do não fluoretado (p<0,05). Todos os dentifrícios fluoretados foram capazes de formar maiores concentrações de fluoreto fracamente ligado ao esmalte do que o não fluoretado (p<0,05), mas o de 1.100 μg F/g foi o único que diferiu do não fluoretado na capacidade de formar fluoreto firmemente ligado ao esmalte. Os resultados sugerem que dentifrícios de baixa concentração de fluoreto disponíveis no mercado brasileiro, independentemente da formulação, não têm potencial anticárie.

Animals , Cattle , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dentifrices , Fluorides/analysis , Brazil , Dentifrices/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(3): 250-257, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-787547


ABSTRACT A/J and 129P3/J mice strains have been widely studied over the last few years because they respond quite differently to fluoride (F) exposure. 129P3/J mice are remarkably resistant to the development of dental fluorosis, despite excreting less F in urine and having higher circulating F levels. These two strains also present different characteristics regardless of F exposure. Objective In this study, we investigated the differential pattern of protein expression in the liver of these mice to provide insights on why they have different responses to F. Material and Methods Weanling male A/J and 129P3/J mice (n=10 from each strain) were pared and housed in metabolic cages with ad libitum access to low-F food and deionized water for 42 days. Liver proteome profiles were examined using nLC-MS/MS. Protein function was classified by GO biological process (Cluego v2.0.7 + Clupedia v1.0.8) and protein-protein interaction network was constructed (PSICQUIC, Cytoscape). Results Most proteins with fold change were increased in A/J mice. The functional category with the highest percentage of altered genes was oxidation-reduction process (20%). Subnetwork analysis revealed that proteins with fold change interacted with Disks large homolog 4 and Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1. A/J mice had an increase in proteins related to energy flux and oxidative stress. Conclusion This could be a possible explanation for the high susceptibility of these mice to the effects of F, since the exposure also induces oxidative stress.

Animals , Male , Mice , Proteins/analysis , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Proteome/drug effects , Fluorides/toxicity , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Fluorosis, Dental/genetics , Reference Values , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Time Factors , Proteins/drug effects , Proteins/genetics , Gene Expression , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Proteomics/methods , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Mice, 129 Strain , Fluorides/analysis , Fluorides/metabolism , Mice, Inbred A