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1.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 179-187, 24-feb-2022. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367345

ABSTRACT

La cantidad de fluoruros en el agua en algunas regiones de México representa un problema de salud pública. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una revisión sistemática de estudios originales que reportaran niveles de fluoruros en agua corriente y embotellada de la región norte y occidente de México. Esta revisión sistemática se elaboró utilizando el sistema PRISMA en las bases de datos de PubMed, Scopus, Medigraphic y Scielo. Se implementaron las palabras clave de fluoride OR fluorosis AND water AND Mexico, y se incluyeron y excluyeron registros de acuerdo con los criterios previamente establecidos. Fueron revisados aquellos artículos publicados entre el 1 de enero del 2010 y el 30 de marzo del 2021. Se identificaron 36 registros en total. La mayoría mostraban datos encontrados en la región occidente del país (n = 23) mientras que los restantes fueron realizados al norte. Ambas regiones se mostraron con rangos máximos y medias muestrales por encima de lo sugerido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y los organismos reguladores nacionales. De acuerdo con los estudios aquí analizados en México, las regiones Norte y Occidente del país muestran una situación preocupante por los elevados niveles de fluoruros que reportan los autores en agua corriente y embotellada, los niveles se encuentran casi en su totalidad por encima de los recomendados a nivel nacional e internacional lo cual significa un problema de salud pública que requiere de atención.


The amount of fluoride in water in some regions of Mexico represents a public health problem. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of original studies that report fluoride levels in tap and bottled water from the northern and western regions of Mexico. A systematic review was conducted using the PRISMA method in PubMed, Scopus, Medigraphic and Scielo databases. The keywords fluoride OR fluorosis AND water AND Mexico were used for the search and the records found were included and excluded according to the previous established criteria. We reviewed data in articles published between January 1st, 2010 and March 30th, 2021. We identified a total of 36 records. Most showed data found in the western region (n = 23), while the rest reported data found in the north. Both regions reported maximum and mean sample ranges above those suggested by the World Health Organization and national regulations. According to the analyzed data, in Mexico, the northern and western regions of the country show a concerning situation due to the high levels of fluoride reported by many authors in tap and bottled water. Almost all authors reported data above those recommended for national and international regulations, which represent an important public health problem that requires attention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Sodium Fluoride/adverse effects , Water/analysis , Public Health , Toxic Actions , Mexico/epidemiology , Fluorosis, Dental
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210971, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1252495

ABSTRACT

Aim: To propose a new method to determine in vitro potentially bioavailable fluoride (F) in diet and toothpaste after ingestion. Methods: Diet samples (D) were obtained from 15 portions of a meal served to children in a day care centre. To simulate the ingestion of toothpaste during brushing after meals, a specific amount of toothpaste was added to the diet samples (D + T). F was determined in D and D + T after incubation in a solution that simulated "gastric juice" (0.01 M hydrochloric acid) at 37oC for 30, 60 and 120 min. Microdiffusion facilitated by HMDS was used to determine the total F concentrations in samples D and D + T. The analyses were performed using an ion specific electrode. Results: For D samples, incubation in "gastric juice" for 30, 60 and 120 min resulted in F concentrations (µg F/mL) of 0.75 ± 0.06c, 0.77 ± 0.07c and 0.91 ± 0.09b, corresponding to 75.3, 77.3 and 90.7% of the total F (1.02 ± 0.12a), respectively (p = 0.0001; ANOVA + Tukey). For D + T samples, these values of F concentrations (µg F/mL) were 2.55 ± 0.46b, 2.83 ± 0.44ab and 3.15 ± 0.37a, corresponding to 86.9, 94.8 and 106.7% of the total F (2.99 ± 0.34a), respectively (p = 0.0023; ANOVA + Tukey). Conclusion: Then, it can be concluded that the proposed method of "gastric juice" is a promising protocol for determining potentially bioavailable fluoride in the diet and toothpaste after ingestion. However, additional studies are desirable


Subject(s)
Toothpastes , Dentifrices , Diet , Fluorides , Fluorosis, Dental
3.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 75-83, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345499

ABSTRACT

Abstract This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in children and adolescents using fluoridated toothpaste, from areas with and without fluoridated water. Parents of 5-year-old children and 12-year-old adolescents from neighbourhoods that are supplied with and without fluoridated water answered questionnaires for determining socio-economic and demographic characteristics and habits related to oral health. The individuals were examined, and dental caries and fluorosis were measured by dmft/DMFT and TF indexes, respectively. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed (p < 0.05). Of 692 participants, 47.7% were 5-year-olds and 52.3% were 12-year-olds. The mean dmft/DMFT in the 5-year-olds/ 12-year-olds from Exposed and Not Exposed fluoridated water groups was 1.53 (± 2.47) and 3.54 (± 4.10) / 1.53 (± 1.81) and 3.54 (± 3.82), respectively. Children (OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.71-4.75) and adolescents (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.24-3.05), who did not consume fluoridated water, had greater caries experience. Among adolescents, there was an association between fluoridated water and the prevalence of very mild/mild fluorosis (OR = 5.45, 95% CI: 3.23-9.19) and moderate fluorosis (OR = 11.11, 95% CI = 4.43-27.87). Children and adolescents, who consumed fluoridated water, presented lower prevalence and severity of dental caries compared to those who used only fluoridated toothpaste as the source of fluoride. There is an association between water fluoridation and very mild/mild and moderate fluorosis in adolescents.


Resumo Este estudo transversal avaliou a prevalência e severidade de cárie dentária e fluorose em crianças de 5 anos e adolescentes de 12 anos usuários de dentifrício fluoretado, em áreas com e sem água fluoretada. Os responsáveis pelas crianças e adolescentes responderam questionários para determinação de características socioeconômicas e demográficas e hábitos relacionados à saúde. Os indivíduos foram examinados e a cárie e a fluorose foram mensuradas pelos índices ceo-d / CPOD e TF, respectivamente. Foram realizadas análises descritivas, bivariadas e de regressão logística (p <0,05). Dos 692 participantes, 47,7% tinham 5 anos e 52,3% tinham 12 anos. A média de ceod / CPOD em crianças de 5/12 anos dos grupos de exposto e não exposto à água fluoretada foi 1,53 (± 2,47) e 3,54 (± 4,10) / 1,53 (± 1,81) e 3,54 (± 3,82), respectivamente. Crianças (OR = 2,86, IC 95% = 1,71-4,75) e adolescentes (OR = 1,95, IC 95% = 1,24-3,05) que não consumiram água fluoretada tiveram maior experiência de cárie. Entre os adolescentes, houve associação entre a água fluoretada e a prevalência de fluorose muito leve / leve (OR = 5,45, IC 95%: 3,23-9,19) e fluorose moderada (OR = 11,11, IC 95% = 4,43-27,87). Crianças e adolescentes que consumiram água fluoretada apresentaram menor prevalência e severidade de cárie dentária em comparação com aqueles que usaram apenas dentifrício fluoretado como fonte de flúor. Houve uma associação entre a fluoretação da água e fluorose muito leve / leve e moderada em adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dentifrices , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , DMF Index , Fluoridation , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorides
4.
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 6(3): 92-99, set.-dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1378459

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Preocupações com a ingestão de pasta fluoretada por crianças se limita à primeira infância devido ao risco de fluorose nos dentes permanentes anteriores, mas o processo educativo para garantir uma segurança para toda a dentição tem sido negligenciado. Objetivo: Relatar um caso de fluorose dentaria em dentes caninos, pré-molares e 2o molares por ingestão voluntária de pasta fluoretada Relato do caso: Paciente de 12 anos, 65 kg, procurou atendimento odontológico devido a insatisfação com a coloração dos dentes posteriores. Constatou-se que os dentes caninos, pré-molares e segundo molares, superiores e inferiores apresentavam opacidades tipo fluoróticas, estando os demais normais. Entre as possíveis causas, a principal recaiu sobre o modo que a criança passou a escovar os dentes após os 5 anos de idade. Foi relatado que ela voluntariamente escovava seus dentes 6x/dia sem cuspir. Foram feitas análises da concentração de fluoreto da água consumida pela paciente e nas pastas usadas. Também foi feito teste de excreção de fluoreto urinário pela paciente, solicitando para ela escovar os dentes cuspindo ou engolindo toda a pasta em uso. Resultados: Na água foi encontrado 0,74 mg F/L e nas pastas usadas 1.357 e 1.426 mg F solúvel/ kg. Na urina foi encontrado 0,90 e 1,35 mg F, respectivamente, cuspindo ou engolindo a pasta após as escovações. Foi estimado que a partir dos 5 anos de idade, a criança se submeteu à dose de 0,17 mg F/dia/kg de peso corpóreo, a qual é 2,4 vezes maior que o limite superior de risco de fluorose. Conclusão: O caso relatado sugere ser uma consequência de falha do processo de educação em saúde na 1a infância quanto ao uso racional de dentifrício fluoretado.


Introduction: Concerns about children's intake of fluoride toothpaste are limited to infancy due to the risk of fluorosis in the permanent anterior teeth, but the educational process to ensure safety for the entire dentition has been neglected. Objective: To report a case of dental fluorosis in canine, premolar and 2nd molar teeth caused by voluntary ingestion of fluoride toothpaste. Case report: A 12- year-old patient, 65 kg, search dental care due to dissatisfaction with the color of the posterior teeth. It was diagnosticated that the superior and inferior canine, premolar and second molar teeth had fluorotic opacities, and the other teeth are sound. Among the possible causes, the main one was the way the child started brushing their teeth after 5 years of age. It was reported that she voluntarily brushed her teeth 6x/day without spitting. Analyzes of the fluoride concentration in the water consumed by the patient and in the toothpastes used were performed. A urinary fluoride excretion test by the patient, requesting her to brush her teeth by spitting out or swallowing all the toothpaste in use, was made. Results: Fluoride concentration in the water was 0.74 mg F/L and 1,357 and 1,426 mg F/kg in the toothpastes pastes used. In urine test, 0.90 and 1.35 mg F were found, respectively, spitting or swallowing the toothpaste after brushing. It was estimated that from 5 years of age, the child was submitted a dose of 0.17 mg F/day/kg of body weight, which is 2.4 times the upper limit for an acceptable fluorosis. Conclusion: The reported case suggests that it is a consequence of the failure of the health education process in early childhood regarding the rational use of fluoride toothpaste.


Subject(s)
Fluorosis, Dental , Toothpastes , Child , Health Education, Dental , Dentition, Permanent
5.
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 6(1): 62-66, abr. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354547

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Dental fluorosis manifests clinically as white to brown spots on the enamel teeth that were exposed to excessive fluoride during the formation process. Esthetic treatments were described in the literature to reduce or eliminate the fluorotic stains on the enamel surface. Objective: The aim of this study is to present an alternative treatment for fluorosis-stained teeth. Case report: This case report describes the clinical performance of a treatment of a 12-year-old male patient whose teeth presented moderate fluorosis. This treatment is based on tooth demineralization and remineralization. The material has an acid phase made by hydrochloric acid with tricarboxylic acid, and an alkaline phase made by Calcium Hydroxide. Results: This pain less and fast treatment presented good results. The treatment eliminated the spots during the follow-up and preserved most of the dental structure, improving the appearance of the patient's teeth. Conclusion: The appearance of the treated enamel showed a surface almost completely free of fluorotic stains, demonstrating the satisfactory results of this treatment.


Introdução: A fluorose dentária manifesta-se clinicamente como manchas brancas a marrons no esmalte de dentes expostos ao excesso de flúor durante o processo de formação. Tratamentos estéticos foram descritos na literatura para reduzir ou eliminar as manchas fluoróticas na superfície do esmalte. Objetivo: Apresentar uma alternativa de tratamento para dentes manchados por fluorose dentária. Relato do caso: Este relato de caso descreve o desempenho clínico do tratamento para dentes com fluorose moderada em um paciente de 12 anos. Esse tratamento foi baseado numa técnica de desmineralização e remineralização do dente. O material possui uma fase ácida composta por ácido clorídrico com ácido tricarboxílico, e uma fase alcalina composta por Hidróxido de Cálcio. Resultados: Observou-se que esse tratamento, sem dor e rápido, apresentou resultados satisfatórios, pois eliminou as manchas durante o acompanhamento. Além disso, preservou ao máximo a estrutura dentária, beneficiando o paciente com uma melhor aparência dos seus dentes. Conclusão: O aspecto do esmalte tratado mostrou uma superfície quase sem manchas fluoróticas, demonstrando resultados satisfatórios deste tratamento.


Subject(s)
Fluorosis, Dental , Tooth Remineralization , Calcium Hydroxide , Dental Care , Tooth Demineralization , Dental Enamel , Hydrochloric Acid
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154995

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis among 7-12-year-old school children in Muradnagar, India. An additional objective was to determine the relationship between dental caries and fluorosis in the studied population. Material and Methods: A total of 1500 school children aged between 7 to 12 years, and both genders were randomly selected for the present study. The selected participants were divided into three groups based upon age, viz 7-8 year (group I), 9-10 year (group II) and 11-12 year (group III). Sterile mouth mirrors and explorers were used for the detection of caries. The water samples were collected to assess the fluoride concentration. The data collected were tabulated and statistically analysed using Chi-square, ANOVA, Spearman's correlation and t-test wherever applicable. Results: Out of 1500 participants, 54.1% were females and 45.9% were males. The prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis was 89.3% and 93.7%, respectively. The prevalence of caries increased with age (p<0.05) and females showed a higher prevalence in both the dentitions. Most dental fluorosis was 'very mild' (40.1%). Prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with age and males showed more fluorosis than females. A negative relationship was found between dental caries and fluorosis (p<0.05). Conclusion: Dental caries and fluorosis are the public health problems in Muradnagar; therefore, preventive programs should be organized to increase awareness among the general people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Stomatognathic Diseases/pathology , Epidemiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , India/epidemiology , Fluorosis, Dental/etiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Public Health , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric
7.
Rev. Soc. Odontol. La Plata ; 31(61): 15-20, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353865

ABSTRACT

Existen muchas patologías pigmentarias que alteran la estética del color dentario; algunas de ellas pueden circunscribirse a la superficie externa del esmalte y por ende ser tratadas con una técnica microabrasiva para su eliminación. La indicación de un tratamiento más agresivo en relación al blanqueamiento convencional, dependerá no solo de la ubicación de la lesión, sino también de la severidad de la misma, de la calidad de la estructura del tejido adamantino y de la anatomía dentaria entre muchas otras variables (AU)


ere are many pigment pathologies that alter the aesthetics of tooth color; Some of them can be confined to the outer surface of the enamel and therefore be treated with a microabrasive technique for their removal. e indication of a more aggressive treatment in relation to conventional whitening will depend not only on the location of the lesion, but also on its severity, the quality of the structure of the adamantine tissue and the dental anatomy among many other variables (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Enamel Microabrasion , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Esthetics, Dental , Tooth Discoloration/therapy , Fluorosis, Dental/therapy
8.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 11(1): 28-41, 2021. mapas, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1152197

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: caracterizar geográficamente, en territorio colombiano, las fuentes de agua potable y los índices colectivos de fluorosis dental que indican exposición a fluoruro a nivel comunitario. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo a partir de dos fuentes de información: el Subsistema de Información de Vigilancia de Calidad de Agua Potable (SIVICAP) y el Sistema de Vigilancia en Salud Pública (Sivigila). Los análisis se realizaron desde 2012 hasta 2018, implementando ponderación de los riesgos por exposición a fluoruro en agua para determinar los siguientes niveles de riesgo: sin riesgo, riesgo para fluorosis dental y riesgo para fluorosis esquelética. Se cálculo el índice colectivo de fluorosis (ICF) dental y se presentaron los resultados en mapas geográficos. Resultados: los departamentos de Nariño, Boyacá, Quindío, Valle del Cauca y Cundinamarca presentaron el mayor número de muestras de agua analizadas (60,5 %); 14 presentaron concentraciones superiores a 4 ppm y 10 municipios concentraciones entre 1,01 y 4 ppm. La vigilancia centinela de la exposición a flúor mostró que 3 municipios presentaron ICF >3, lo que significa un riesgo muy grave. En cuanto al riesgo grave se encontraron 52 municipios de 21 departamentos, principalmente en la región Andina y Caribe. Nariño fue el departamento con mayor número de municipios en riesgo grave. Conclusiones: se identificaron riesgos ambientales en agua, y biológicos por altos índices colectivos de fluorosis dental, que, espacialmente, se ubican en la región Andina, aunque los riesgos en agua se pueden explicar porque en esta región se realiza con mayor frecuencia vigilancia de calidad del agua.


Objective: To geographically characterize in colombian territory, drinking water sources and the collective indices of dental fluorosis which indicate fluoride exposure at the community level. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from two sources of information: the drinking water quality surveillance information subsystem (SIVICAP) and the public health surveillance system (Sivigila). The analyzes were performed from 2012 to 2018, weighting the risks for exposure to fluoride in water, to determine the following risk levels: no risk, dental fluorosis risk and risk for skeletal fluorosis. The collective dental fluorosis index (ICF) was calculated, the results were represented on geographical maps. Results: the departments of Nariño, Boyacá, Quindío, Valle del Cauca and Cundinamarca presented the highest number of water samples (60.5%). 14 municipalities had concentrations above 4 ppm, and 10 municipalities had concentrations between 1.01 and 4 ppm. Sentinel surveillance of fluoride exposure showed that three municipalities presented ICF> 3, meaning a very serious risk. Regarding serious risk, 52 municipalities from 21 departments were found, mainly in the Andean and Caribbean region. Nariño was the department with the highest number of municipalities at serious risk. Conclusions: environmental risks in water and biological risks were identified due to high collective indices of dental fluorosis, which are spatially located in the Andean region. The risks in water can be explained because in this region water quality surveillance is carried out more frequently.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Health Surveillance , Fluorine/supply & distribution , Water Quality , Impacts of Polution on Health , Geographic Mapping , Fluorosis, Dental
9.
Masferrer Investiga ; 3(11): 26-41, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358341

ABSTRACT

La fluorosis dental es una hipomineralización del esmalte que se caracteriza por una mayor porosidad de la superficie de este debido al exceso en el consumo de fluoruro durante el período de la odontogénesis. Los defectos en la estructura del esmalte dental se caracterizan por áreas hipocalcificadas las cuales se conocen como manchas de hipoplasia. La evidencia epidemiológica vincula la fluorosis dental con el exceso de fluoruro en el agua potable. Niveles superiores a 1 parte por millón (ppm) puede conducir a los dientes fluorados, pero cantidades inferiores a 1ppm puede prevenir la caries dental. Se determinó la prevalencia de fluorosis dental y la concentración (ppm) de flúor en el agua potable del municipio de Santa Rosa de Lima, La Unión. Fueron examinados 904 estudiantes, de 4 a 16 años, en cuatro centros escolares públicos de dicho municipio. Presentaron fluorosis dental 135 estudiantes (14.93%). Al aplicarles la clasificación de Dean, el 8.89% presentó fluorosis severa; el 55.56% moderada y el 35.56% leve. Los estudiantes que residen en el área urbana fueron los más afectados 72/135 (53.33%) (Test U de Mann-Whitney: 1,810.50, p= 0.023 [P<0.05]). Una posible explicación sería el exceso de flúor en dos de las fuentes de agua en donde los padres de familia refirieron consumir. La suministrada por el sistema público (ANDA) en la zona urbana (1.82ppm) y el pozo conocido como "Hervedero Mojones" en la zona rural con 8.6 ppm de Flúor.


Subject(s)
Fluorosis, Dental
10.
San Salvador; Guillermo Alfonso Aguirre Escobar; Primera Edición; 08.10.2020. 67 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1122047

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Considerando la revisión bibliográfica realizada y los datos oficiales disponibles, se podría afirmar que El Salvador sufre un analfabetismo epidemiológico en lo referente a las principales afecciones del Sistema Estomatognático, debido entre otras múltiples causas a la carencia o limitado número de estudios con rigor científico-metodológico, que reflejen la situación global de las principales afecciones del Sistema Estomatognático en diferentes grupos etarios. Ante ello, se realiza la primera encuesta de salud bucal a nivel nacional, apegada a lo establecido metodológicamente por la OMS, criterios actualizados y considerando muestras representativas de diferentes edades, zonas geográficas del país y condiciones sociodemográficas. Objetivos: Determinar la condición de salud bucal y las necesidades de tratamiento de la población salvadoreña a través de la aplicación de diferentes indicadores epidemiológicos, caracterizar la población según condición sociodemográfica, identificar sus conocimientos y prácticas en salud bucal. Metodología: El diseño corresponde a un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, característico de una encuesta de salud oral y metodología Pathfinder según OMS. El trabajo de campo se efectuó en 24 municipios de El Salvador, entre 2016 y 2017. La muestra total fue de 3881 salvadoreños, de ambos sexos, distribuidos en seis grupos etarios (2-5, 5-6, 6-12, 13-17,18-30, 31-45 y 60 a más), siguiendo la técnica de muestreo estratificado por conglomerados sugerida por el Manual de Encuestas de Salud Bucodental de la OMS, 2013. Los datos fueron analizados en SPSS V25, donde fueron calculadas las medias, desviaciones estándar y porcentajes de las variables analizadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Health Surveys , Oral Health , Health Surveys , Oral Hygiene Index , Periodontal Index , Dental Caries , Fluorosis, Dental
11.
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 5(1): 75-79, Jan.-Apr. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1139961

ABSTRACT

The presence of white spots due to dental fluorosis can cause aesthetic discomfort, being one of the factors for a search for dental treatment. Objective: Report a clinical case in which the aesthetic complaint was solved through the association of the dental bleaching to the microabrasion technique. Case report: Male patient, 13 years, attended to the Integrated Clinic of the School of Dentistry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, with fluorosis, mainly in the antero-superior teeth and aesthetic complaint. Initially, it was made an immediate bleaching with hydrogen peroxide at 35%, in 3 sessions of 15 minutes each, to soften the disparity of shades between tooth-stain. The result was insufficient and the dental microabrasion technique was adopted. A pumice paste was applied together with gel of phosphoric acid at 37% under relative isolation, in a total of 8 applications (1 minute each). At the end of each application, it was made an abundant water washing, microengine mounted fine-grained disc polishing and topical application of neutral NaF2 in gel (4 minutes each application) to eliminate possible postoperative sensitivity. Conclusion: The dental bleaching and the microabrasion technique promoted satisfactory immediate clinical results that increased self-esteem of the patient in a minimally invasive way to dental structure.


Introdução: A presença de manchas brancas por fluorose dentária pode causar desconforto estético, sendo um dos fatores para busca de tratamento odontológico. Objetivo: Relatar um caso clínico em que a queixa estética foi resolvida através da associação do clareamento dentário à técnica de microabrasão. Relato do caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 13 anos, compareceu a Clínica Integrada da Faculdade de Odontologia da UFRJ, com fluorose, principalmente nos dentes ântero-superiores e queixa estética. Inicialmente, realizou-se clareamento imediato com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35%, em 3 sessões de 15 minutos, para suavizar a disparidade de tons entre mancha-dente. O resultado obtido foi insuficiente e a técnica de microabrasão dentária foi adotada. Uma pasta de pedra pomes foi aplicada juntamente com gel de ácido fosfórico a 37% sob isolamento relativo, perfazendo um total de 8 aplicações (1 minuto cada). Ao final de cada aplicação, foi realizada lavagem abundante com água, polimento com disco de granulação fina montado em micromotor e aplicação tópica de NaF2 neutro em gel (4 minutos cada aplicação) para eliminar possível sensibilidade pós-operatória. Conclusão: O clareamento dentário e a técnica de microabrasão promoveram resultados clínicos imediatos satisfatórios que elevaram a autoestima do paciente, de maneira minimamente invasiva para estrutura dentária.


Subject(s)
Tooth Bleaching , Enamel Microabrasion , Fluorosis, Dental , Tooth Diseases , Stomatognathic Diseases , Adolescent , Esthetics, Dental , Hydrogen Peroxide
12.
Actual. osteol ; 16(1): 35-46, Ene - abr. 2020. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139966

ABSTRACT

La erupción dental es un proceso estrictamente regulado y programado espacial y temporalmente. El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de la exposición prenatal a fluoruro de sodio (NaF) sobre los eventos morfológicos y celulares que ocurren en el hueso supracoronal del primer molar de crías de rata durante la etapa preeruptiva. Se emplearon crías (n=6-8 por grupo) provenientes de madres que bebieron crónicamente agua con diferentes concentraciones de F- en forma de NaF durante la gestación y lactancia: control y NaF (50 mg/L). En cortes histológicos de la mandíbula de crías de 3 y 10 días se analizaron parámetros de histomorfometría estática en la zona supracoronal de la canastilla ósea a la altura del primer molar inferior: volumen óseo trabecular [BV/TV (%)], número de osteoclastos por milímetro (N.Oc/mm) y las variables indirectas: número de trabéculas [Tb.N (1/mm)], espesor [Tb.Th (µm)] y separación trabecular [Tb.Sp (µm)]. En crías de 15 días se midió el grado de erupción [TED (µm)] del primer molar inferior. Los resultados se analizaron con el test "t" de Student considerando diferencias significativas a p<0,05. El análisis histomorfométrico demostró un incremento en el BV/TV (%) del hueso supracoronal (p<0,01) asociado con disminución del N.Oc/mm (p<0,01) en crías de 3 y 10 días expuestas prenatalmente al F-. El grado de erupción dental fue menor en animales expuestos prenatalmente al F- en comparación con los controles (p<0,01). En conclusión, los resultados observados en la mandíbula de crías expuestas durante la etapa prenatal y posnatal temprana al F- sugieren un efecto disruptivo sobre la actividad resortiva necesaria para formación del canal eruptivo. (AU)


Tooth eruption is a tightly regulated and spatially and temporally programmed process. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of prenatal NaF exposure on the morphological and cellular events that occur in the supracoronal area of bony crypt of the first rat molar during the preeruptive stage. Offspring from two groups of rats were used (6-8 per group): Control and 50 mg/L NaF. The treatment was performed during pregnancy and lactation. Suckling pups were euthanized at 3-, 10- and 15-days-old by cervical dislocation. Mandibles were removed and histologically processed to obtain buccolingual sections stained with H&E. In sections of first mandibular molar of 3- and 10-days-old pups, the following static histomorphometric parameters were evaluated: trabecular bone volume [BV/TV (%)] and number of osteoclasts (N.Oc/mm). Also, indirect parameters were obtained: trabecular number [Tb.N (1/mm)], trabecular thickness [Tb.Th (µm)], and trabecular separation [Tb.Sp (µm)]. The degree of tooth eruption [TED (µm)] was determined. Results are expressed as mean ± SE and analyzed by Student t-test. Histomorphometric analysis showed an increase in the BV/TV (%) of the bone crypt of 3- and 10- days-old pups exposed to NaF (p <0.01); this increase was associated with a decrease in the N.Oc/mm (p <0.01). TED of mandibular first molar was lower in prenatal NaF exposed group than in control group (p<0.01). In conclusion, the increased BV/TV and the lower N.Oc observed in the bone crypt of 3- and 10- days-old pups from mothers treated with NaF suggested a disruptive effect triggered by F- on the formation events of the eruptive pathway in the offspring. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Rats , Sodium Fluoride/adverse effects , Tooth Eruption , Osteoclasts/cytology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Sodium Fluoride/administration & dosage , Sodium Fluoride/metabolism , Sodium Fluoride/urine , Sodium Fluoride/chemical synthesis , Rats, Wistar , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Molar/growth & development , Fluorosis, Dental/diagnosis
13.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135558

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To identify the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: Literature search for the present study aimed to include all the relevant studies conducted in Saudi Arabia that reported prevalence of dental fluorosis. A literature search was done using keywords (dental, fluorosis, prevalence) using three databases (Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science). Grey literature was also searched using Google Scholar and research gate. Literature was searched from 1939 till April 2020. The risk of bias was reported using JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Studies Reporting Prevalence Data. Twelve studies were included based on inclusive criteria. The only inclusive criteria were studies that were conducted among people living in Saudi Arabia, and studies that reported the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Samples from all age groups that reported prevalence of dental fluorosis were included. MedCalc statistical software was used to perform the analysis. Results: The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 46.52%, 95 CI (26.52% to 67.12%). I2 value was reported 99.8%, 95 CI (99.78% to 99.83%), indicating high heterogeneity amongst the finding of studies. Funnel plots indicate the presence of a strong publication bias. Overall, we found some contrasting findings. One study reported prevalence of dental fluorosis as 0% and other with a comparatively large sample size found dental fluorosis to be 90.6%. Conclusion: The present study adds to the literature regarding dental fluorosis in Saudi Arabia by providing an overview of its prevalence. It is concluded that prevalence of dental fluorosis was a bit high. However, findings indicate publication bias. We did not account for severity of dental fluorosis. All the available data was analyzed to measure dental fluorosis prevalence without considering the sample size and sampling technique.


Subject(s)
Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Prevalence , Gray Literature , Fluorosis, Dental/prevention & control , Epidemiology , Data Interpretation, Statistical
14.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135502

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a dispensing device specially developed to standardize the amount of fluoride dentifrice to be delivered on the toothbrush. The amount and variability of dentifrice applied using this device were compared with recommendations to apply dentifrice amounts equivalent to "rice size" or "pea-size". Material and Methods: Two dentifrices, one used by children (NaF/Silica-based) and one used by the entire family (MFP/CaCO3-based), and five methods to apply them on the toothbrush (pea and rice sizes, and three different amounts using the developed device) were tested by 12 volunteers. The amount of dentifrice placed on the toothbrush was weighed, and the experiment was repeated three times. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: No differences were observed between the dentifrices used (p>0.05), but the method of application significantly affected the amount of dentifrice applied (p<0.05). Smaller amounts (p<0.05) and less variability were observed when the volunteers used the dispenser device than when they were asked to apply a pea or rice size. Conclusion: The device can help parents and caregivers to safely use fluoride dentifrice on children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Toothbrushing/instrumentation , Toothpastes/chemistry , Preventive Dentistry/education , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Fluorosis, Dental , Parents , Brazil/epidemiology , Efficacy , Intervention Studies , Analysis of Variance , Data Interpretation, Statistical
15.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135485

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis in a population not exposed to fluoridated water and to evaluate the effect of the sampling technique on this measurement. Material and Methods: This observational, cross-sectional and quantitative study was conducted in the city of Mariana, Brazil. The participants were selected based on age, so that they had access to fluoridated dentifrice during the formation of the permanent upper teeth. Based on a nominal survey of schoolchildren aged 14 to 19, a probabilistic sample of 304 such children was clinically examined. Dental fluorosis was measured by the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index. The prevalence of fluorosis identified in a previous study, conducted in 2011 in the same city, using the same methodology but employing convenience sampling, was used as a control to compare the effect of the two sampling techniques. Results: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 3% based on the probabilistic sampling of the subjects. In the previous study, the prevalence of fluorosis was 7% (p<0.05) based on convenience sampling of the same age group. Both studies detected a Thylstrup-Fejerskov fluorosis index value of 1, corresponding to only a mild degree of dental fluorosis. Conclusion: The convenience sampling technique seems to have affected the prevalence of dental fluorosis identified, with a 4% difference between the two studies. The prevalence of dental fluorosis attributed to the use of fluoridated dentifrice in a population not exposed to fluoridation of the water supply was considered low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Tooth , Water Supply , Epidemiologic Studies , Fluoridation , Dentifrices/chemistry , Fluorosis, Dental , Brazil/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. Univ. Antioq ; 31(1): 26-35, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115187

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: dental fluorosis is the hypomineralization of enamel produced as a result of fluoride intake for a prolonged period during enamel formation. The aim of the present study was to identify the factors associated with dental fluorosis in children and teenagers from the city of Montería, Colombia. Methods: a quantitative, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in a sample of 136 dental fluorosis cases in schoolchildren aged 6, 12, 15 and 18 years reported to the Surveillance and Control System from January to December 2016. Results: there was fluoride exposure in 81.6% of schoolchildren covered by the subsidized health system-the mechanism by which the poorest population, with not enough resources to pay, can access health services through a subsidy offered by the state in Colombia-. 89% were from the municipal center, defined by Colombia's National Administrative Department of Statistics (Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, DANE) as the geographical area bounded by an urban perimeter, where the administrative headquarters of a municipality are located. 47% of patients had cavities. Tooth brushing in a frequency higher than three times a day was predominant with 48.5%, and the use of toothpaste on more than 3/4 of the brush with 52%. 71.3% of patients said they did not swallow toothpaste, and 93.4% did not swallow mouthwash. 82.4% of patients did not receive topical fluoride in the last year. Conclusions: several factors are more highly associated with dental fluorosis, such as the amount of toothpaste during brushing, the habit of brushing three or more times a day, consumption of diet salt, and unintentional intake of toothpaste at an early age. Most schoolchildren had a moderate degree of dental fluorosis.


Resumen Introducción: la fluorosis dental es una hipomineralización del esmalte, producida como respuesta a la ingesta de flúor por un periodo prolongado de tiempo durante la formación del esmalte. El objetivo del presente studio consistió en determinar los factores asociados a la fluorosis dental en niños y jóvenes de la ciudad de Montería. Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva retrospectiva cuantitativa, con una muestra conformada por 136 casos de fluorosis dental en escolares de 6, 12, 15 y 18 años notificados al sistema de vigilancia y control, en el periodo de enero a diciembre de 2016. Resultados: se presentaron 81,6% casos de escolares con exposición a flúor pertenecientes al régimen subsidiado, que es el mecanismo mediante el cual la población más pobre, sin capacidad de pago, tiene acceso a los servicios de salud mediante un subsidio ofrecido por el Estado colombiano; el 89% eran procedentes de la cabecera municipal, definida por el Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadísticas (DANE) en Colombia como el área geográfica delimitada por un perímetro urbano, donde se ubica la sede administrativa de un municipio. El 47% de los pacientes presentaron caries. La frecuencia de cepillado mayor a tres veces al día fue predominante en 48,5% y el uso de crema dental en más de 3/4 del cepillo en el 52%. El 71,3% de los pacientes manifestaron que no ingerían crema dental, ni enjuague bucal en un 93,4%. Un 82,4% de los pacientes no recibieron topificación de flúor en el último año. Conclusiones: existen factores con mayor fuerza de asociación con fluorosis dental, como la cantidad de dentífrico en el cepillado, frecuencia del cepillado entre tres o más veces al día, consumo de sal en dieta e ingesta accidental de dentífrico a temprana edad. La mayoría de los escolares presentó grado moderado de severidad de fluorosis dental.


Subject(s)
Fluorosis, Dental , Child , Adolescent , Colombia
17.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(4): 351-354, nov. 5, 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145371

ABSTRACT

Ceramic veneers have evolved in the last few years as an aesthetic restoration in the field of aesthetic dentistry. It is a conservative option as compared to full coverage crowns for improving the patients smile. Ceramic veneers are widely used for smile designing in patients with fluorosis, midline diastema, hypoplastic teeth, and peg shape laterals. Clinical relevance: This article highlights the smile designing of a young patient with fluorosis using ceramic veneers, which not only improves the smile of the patient but has positive psychological benefits.


Las carillas de cerámica han evolucionado en los últimos años como una restauración estética en el campo de la odontología estética. Es una opción conservadora para mejorar la sonrisa de los pacientes en comparación con las coronas de cobertura total. Las carillas de cerámica se usan ampliamente para el diseño de sonrisas en pacientes con f luorosis, diastema de la línea media, dientes hipoplásicos, o laterales en forma de clavija. Relevancia clínica: este artículo destaca el diseño de la sonrisa en un paciente joven con f luorosis utilizando carillas de cerámica, que no solo mejora la sonrisa del paciente sino que entrega beneficios psicológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Veneers , Esthetics, Dental , Smiling , Tooth Discoloration , Dental Enamel/anatomy & histology , Fluorosis, Dental
18.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(5): 421-428, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039143

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since the 1950s, the benefits and risks of fluoridated water use have been debated worldwide. In the past, it was considered that the systemically ingested fluoride would exert its primary preventive effect after being incorporated into the enamel as fluorapatite, making the enamel more resistant to the caries process; however, it is now recognized that the main effect of water fluoridation is local and post eruptive. On the other hand, irrespective of the caries decline reported worldwide, the anticaries benefit of water fluoridation continues to be observed even in developed countries. Regarding the risks, water fluoridation is considered an acceptable community-based method for fluoride delivery, because the risk of developing dental fluorosis lesions due to the ingestion of fluoride during the enamel formation period has been deemed acceptable when contrasted to the anticaries benefits of fluoride. However, the use of fluoride in water to control caries has created a controversy due to data associating water fluoridation as the cause of some systemic diseases. Therefore, the aim of this descriptive review was to discuss the systemic effects (risks) of water fluoridation use.


Resumo Desde 1950, os benefícios e riscos do uso da água fluoretada têm sido debatidos mundialmente. No passado, foi considerado que o fluoreto ingerido sistemicamente exerceria seu efeito preventivo de cárie pela sua incorporação ao esmalte como fluorapatita, tornando o esmalte mais resistente ao processo de desenvolvimento de lesões de cárie; entretanto, é atualmente reconhecido que o principal efeito da fluoretação da água é local e pós-eruptivo. Por outro lado, independente do declínio de cárie que tem sido observado mundialmente, o benefício anticárie da fluoretação da água continua sendo observado mesmo em países desenvolvidos. Com relação aos riscos, fluoretação da água é considerada uma estratégia aceitável de saúde pública para uso de fluoreto, porque o risco de desenvolvimento de fluorose dental devido à ingestão de fluoreto durante o período de formação do esmalte foi considerado aceitável quando comparado aos benefícios anticárie do flúor. Entretanto, o uso de fluoreto na água para controlar cárie tem gerado controvérsias devido a dados de pesquisa que associam fluoretação da água como causa de algumas doenças sistêmicas. Assim, o objetivo dessa revisão descritiva foi discutir os efeitos sistêmicos (riscos) da fluoretação da água..


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Caries , Fluorosis, Dental , Fluoridation , Dental Enamel , Fluorides
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 2909-2922, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011878

ABSTRACT

Resumo Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática e metanálise para estimar e comparar as prevalências de fluorose dental em localidades brasileiras abastecidas com água tratada sem suplementação de flúor e em localidades que utilizam de água de origem subterrânea. Em dezembro de 2016 foram buscados estudos transversais em 8 bases de dados incluindo a "literatura cinzenta". As prevalências foram estimadas utilizando modelo misto de efeitos aleatórios considerando as localidades como subgrupo. A heterogeneidade entre os estudos foi avaliada através da estatística I2 e do teste Q de Cochran. Foram encontrados 1.038 registros, dos quais apenas 18 artigos preencheram os critérios de inclusão, sendo submetidos para análise. O modelo metanalítico estimou em 8,92% (IC95%:5,41% até 14,36%) a prevalência de fluorose dental em municípios com água tratada sem suplementação de flúor e em 51,96% (IC95%: 31,03% até 72,22%) em municípios abastecidos por poços artesianos. A heterogeneidade entre os estudos foi alta, I2 = 95% (p < 0,01) no primeiro subgrupo de municípios e I2 = 98% (p < 0,01) no segundo subgrupo. A prevalência foi significativamente maior (p < 0,001) em populações expostas à água de poços artesianos, indicando que a presença de flúor natural em concentrações elevadas representa um fator de risco para a ocorrência de fluorose dental.


Abstract This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate and compare the prevalences of dental fluorosis in Brazilian cities supplied with non-fluoridated water and in locations that uses groundwater. In December of 2016, cross-sectional studies were searched in eight databases, including the "grey literature". The prevalences were estimated through a mixed random effects model considering the locations as subgroups. The heterogeneity among the studies was assessed with I2 statistics and the Cochran's Q test. A total of 1038 records were found, from which only 18 articles met the inclusion criteria and were subjected to analysis. The meta-analytic model estimated a prevalence of dental fluorosis of 8.92 % (95 % CI: 5.41 % to 14.36 %) in cities supplied with non-fluoridated water, and of 51.96 % (95 % CI: 31.03 % to 72.22 %) in cities supplied by artesian wells. The heterogeneity among the studies was high: I2 = 95 % (p < 0.01) in the first subgroup of cities and I2 = 98 % (p < 0.01) in the second subgroup. The prevalence was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in populations exposed to artesian well water, indicating that the presence of natural fluoride at high concentrations represents a risk factor for the occurrence of dental fluorosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Groundwater/chemistry , Fluorides/chemistry , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Cities
20.
Odontol. vital ; (30): 51-58, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1091413

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental y los factores asociados a su presencia, en escolares de 10 a 12 años del cantón Pimampiro, provincia de Imbabura, Ecuador. Metodología: Muestra de 302 alumnos de centros educativos del cantón Pimampiro, provincia de Imbabura que cumplieron con criterios de inclusión, previo consentimiento de sus padres o representantes, y que fueron evaluados en cuanto a su alimentación y hábitos de higiene oral, acompañado de un registro fotográfico de los dientes anteriores definitivos de cada participante, las fotografías obtenidas analizadas por tres evaluadores calibrados en la detección de fluorosis mediante el índice de Thylstrup y Fejerskov. Resultados: La prevalencia de la fluorosis dental fue de 81,4 %, el grado 2 fue el más frecuente en un 32,6%. Al relacionar las variables establecidas en la encuesta y la presencia de fluorosis se encontró relación de la patología con el consumo de bebidas envasadas, con la cantidad de dentífrico usado y con su ingesta accidental (p = 0,000). Conclusión: La prevalencia de fluorosis en la población de estudio se considera alta, el grado 2 según TF fue el más frecuente, y se encontró una relación con el consumo de bebidas envasadas, la cantidad de dentífrico usado y con la ingesta accidental.


Abstract Introduction: We aimed to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors, in children from 10 to 12 years old from Pimampiro, province of Imbabura, Ecuador. Methodology: 302 school children from Pimampiro, province of Imbabura who complied inclusion criteria, with the prior consent of their parents and /or representatives were evaluated in terms of their diet and oral hygiene habits, accompanied by a photographic record of the final anterior teeth of each participant, the photographs obtained were analyzed by three calibrated evaluators in the detection of fluorosis using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index. Results: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 81.4%, grade 2 was the most frequent with 32.6%. When relating the variables established in the survey and the presence of fluorosis, a relationship was found between the pathology and the consumption of bottled beverages, with the amount of toothpaste used and with accidental intake (p = 0.000). Discussion and Conclusion: The prevalence of fluorosis in the study population is considered high; grade 2 according to TF was the most frequent, finding a relationship with the consumption of bottled beverages, the amount of toothpaste used and with accidental intake.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Oral Hygiene/trends , Dental Care for Children , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Fluorosis, Dental/diet therapy , Ecuador
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