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1.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 83-92, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929204

ABSTRACT

The dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes of Plasmodium vivax, as antifolate resistance-associated genes were used for drug resistance surveillance. A total of 375 P. vivax isolates collected from different geographical locations in China in 2009-2019 were used to sequence Pvdhfr and Pvdhps. The majority of the isolates harbored a mutant type allele for Pvdhfr (94.5%) and Pvdhps (68.2%). The most predominant point mutations were S117T/N (77.7%) in Pvdhfr and A383G (66.8%) in Pvdhps. Amino acid changes were identified at nine residues in Pvdhfr. A quadruple-mutant haplotype at 57, 58, 61, and 117 was the most frequent (57.4%) among 16 distinct Pvdhfr haplotypes. Mutations in Pvdhps were detected at six codons, and the double-mutant A383G/A553G was the most prevalent (39.3%). Pvdhfr exhibited a higher mutation prevalence and greater diversity than Pvdhps in China. Most isolates from Yunnan carried multiple mutant haplotypes, while the majority of samples from temperate regions and Hainan Island harbored the wild type or single mutant type. This study indicated that the antifolate resistance levels of P. vivax parasites were different across China and molecular markers could be used to rapidly monitor drug resistance. Results provided evidence for updating national drug policy and treatment guidelines.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , China/epidemiology , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance/genetics , Folic Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Humans , Mutation , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Prevalence
2.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1417-1436, Oct-Dec/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-732509

ABSTRACT

Recupera a atuação do antropólogo Charles Wagley como alto funcionário do Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública, programa de cooperação estabelecido entre EUA e Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial. Convocado a colaborar nos esforços de guerra, atuou na política de migração do Programa da Borracha. À luz dessa experiência de intervenção, do contexto marcado pela promoção do desenvolvimento e por questões então prementes no campo da antropologia, este estudo propõe-se retomar a obra Uma comunidade amazônica. Trata-se de discutir o estudo de comunidade conduzido na localidade amazônica que Wagley conheceu ainda durante as missões do Serviço e cuja realidade considerou ilustrativa de uma região subdesenvolvida, levando-o a refletir sobre mudança social e o papel das ciências.


The article focuses on the work of Charles Wagley as a top staff member with Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Special Public Health Service), a US-Brazil cooperation program established during World War II. Taking into consideration Wagley’s experience with migration policy under Brazil’s Rubber Program, as well as the context of development promotion and the issues then on the anthropological agenda, the article explores Wagley’s community study of the Amazon town he visited while on SESP missions, published in the book Uma comunidade amazônica (Amazon Town). Encountering a reality that he believed emblematic of underdevelopment, Wagley was led to reflect on social change and the role of science.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Rats , Folic Acid Antagonists/chemical synthesis , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Folic Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Liver/enzymology , Pneumocystis , Pyrimidines/chemical synthesis , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Toxoplasma , Trimetrexate/pharmacology
3.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1437-1455, Oct-Dec/2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732514

ABSTRACT

In 1915 the Rockefeller Foundation took its hookworm eradication campaign to Suriname, but was soon disappointed because of opposition from its main target group: the Javanese. Moreover, authorities and planters objected to the construction of latrines because of the costs and their belief that the Javanese were “unhygienic”. In describing the labor migration from Java to Suriname, I show that this “lack of hygiene” was closely related to the system’s organization. I argue that uncleanliness was the consequence of harmful socio-economic and ecological conditions. Secondly I suggest that even though the Foundation did not manage to cleanse Suriname of hookworm, its educational efforts, its emphasis on prevention, and its training of local health workers probably had more impact than Rockefeller officials thought.


Em 1915, a Fundação Rockefeller levou sua campanha de erradicação da ancilostomíase ao Suriname, logo sofrendo a oposição de seu principal alvo, os javaneses. Autoridades e proprietários rurais também reagiram à instalação de latrinas devido aos custos implicados e à crença de que os javaneses eram “anti-higiênicos”. Ao descrever a migração de trabalhadores de Java para o Suriname, mostro que a “falta de higiene” ligava-se à organização do sistema. Argumento que a sujeira era consequência de condições ecológicas e socioeconômicas danosas. Sugiro ainda que, embora a Fundação não tenha livrado o Suriname da anciolostomíase, seus esforços educacionais, sua ênfase na prevenção e o treinamento de profissionais de saúde locais tiveram maior impacto do que o imaginado pelos funcionários da agência norte-americana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Analgesics/pharmacology , Dimaprit/analogs & derivatives , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Folic Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Histamine Agonists/pharmacology , Histamine N-Methyltransferase/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dimaprit/administration & dosage , Dimaprit/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Folic Acid Antagonists/administration & dosage , Histamine Agonists/administration & dosage , Injections, Intraventricular , Methylhistamines/pharmacology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Pain Measurement/drug effects , Postural Balance/drug effects , Psychomotor Performance/drug effects , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Wistar
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(3): 393-401, set. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698755

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) has been used successfully as a drug target in the area of anti-bacterial, anti-cancer and anti-malarial therapy. Although this bifunctional enzyme is also a potential drug target for treatment of leishmaniasis, there have been no reports on its efficacy against Leishmania ( Viannia ) species . Materials and methods. The gene encoding the bifunctional DHFR and thymidylate synthase (TS) of Le. (V.) braziliensis was isolated and expressed in E. coli. The enzyme was purified and characterized. The inhibitory effects of antifolates and four aporphine alkaloids on its activity were evaluated. Results. The full-length gene consists of a 1560-bp open reading frame encoding a 58 kDa translated peptide containing DHFR and TS domains linked together in a single polypeptide chain. The recombinant DHFR-TS enzyme revealed K m and V max values of 55.35 ± 4.02 µ M (mean ± SE) and 0.02 ± 5.34 x 10 -4 µ M/min respectively for dihydrofolic acid (H 2 F). The Le. braziliensis rDHFR-TS have Ki values for antimicrobial antifolates in the µM range. Methotrexate (MTX) was a more-potent inhibitor of enzymatic activity ( Ki = 22.0 µM) than trimethoprim ( Ki = 33 µM) and pyrimethamine ( Ki = 68 µM). These Ki values are significantly lower than those obtained for the aporphine alkaloids. Conclusion. The results of the study show the inhibitory effect of antifolate drugs on enzymatic activity, indicating that Le. braziliensis rDHFR-TS could be a model to studying antifolate compounds as potential antiprotozoal drugs.


Introducción. La dihidrofolato reductasa (DHFR) se ha utilizado como blanco molecular en tratamientos antibacterianos, anticancerígenos y antipalúdicos. También, actúa como blanco molecular en Leishmania ; sin embargo, no existen reportes de la enzima bifuncional en especies de Leishmania ( Viannia ). Materiales y métodos. Se ha aislado y expresado en Escherichia coli el gen que codifica para la enzima bifuncional DHFR y la timidilato-sintasa (TS) de Leishmania braziliensis . La enzima recombinante se purificó y caracterizó, y se evaluó el efecto inhibitorio de algunos antifolatos, así como de cuatro alcaloides aporfínicos. Resultados. El gen se compone de aproximadamente 1.560 pb y codifica un péptido de 58 kDa que contiene los dominios DHFR y TS ligados en una sola cadena polipeptídica. La enzima recombinante DHFR-TS, utilizando el dihidrofolato (H2F) como sustrato, presentó valores de K m y V max de 55,35 ± 4,02 (media ± el error estándar de la media) y de 0,02 ± 5,34 x 10 -4 , respectivamente. La enzima rDHFR-TS de L. braziliensis presentó valores de Ki para los antifolatos en el rango de micras. El metotrexato fue el inhibidor más potente de la actividad enzimática ( Ki =22,0 mM) en comparación del trimetoprim ( Ki =33 mM) y la pirimetamina ( Ki =68 mM). Estos valores de Ki son significativamente más bajos en comparación con los obtenidos para los alcaloides aporfínicos. Conclusión. Los resultados muestran el efecto inhibitorio de los antifolatos sobre la actividad enzimática, lo cual indica que la rDHFR-TS de L. braziliensis podría ser un modelo para estudiar moléculas antiprotozoarias potenciales.


Subject(s)
Folic Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Leishmania/enzymology , Multienzyme Complexes/antagonists & inhibitors , Multienzyme Complexes/chemistry , Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase/chemistry , Thymidylate Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Thymidylate Synthase/chemistry
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69769

ABSTRACT

Resistance of Plasmodium spp. to anti-malarial drugs is the primary obstacle in the fight against malaria, and molecular markers for the drug resistance have been applied as an adjunct in the surveillance of the resistance. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of mutations in pvmdr1, pvcrt-o, pvdhfr, and pvdhps genes in temperate-zone P. vivax parasites from central China. A total of 26 isolates were selected, including 8 which were previously shown to have a lower susceptibility to chloroquine in vitro. For pvmdr1, pvcrt-o, and pvdhps genes, no resistance-conferring mutations were discovered. However, a highly prevalent (69.2%), single-point mutation (S117N) was found in pvdhfr gene. In addition, tandem repeat polymorphisms existed in pvdhfr and pvdhps genes, which warranted further studies in relation to the parasite resistance to antifolate drugs. The study further suggests that P. vivax populations in central China may still be relatively susceptible to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , China , Chloroquine/pharmacology , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Drug Resistance/genetics , Folic Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Genotype , Humans , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Point Mutation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Prevalence , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tandem Repeat Sequences/genetics
6.
Indian J Lepr ; 2000 Jan-Mar; 72(1): 5-20
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-55081

ABSTRACT

In 1991 World Health Organization proclaimed the goal of global elimination of leprosy as a public health problem by year 2000 by implementing multidrug therapy (MDT). Since then the prevalence rate has declined by 85%. However, during the same period the incidence rate of leprosy has remained constant or even has been increasing. This suggests that it will take a long time for the eradication of leprosy and that without in-vitro cultivation of M. leprae, eradication of leprosy is not likely to be achieved. While in-vitro cultivation is a long-term goal, as an immediate measure, there is an urgent need for the development of newer drugs and newer multidrug therapy regimens. Using the in-vitro system for screening potential antileprosy drugs and also using the mouse foot-pad system we have evaluated several compounds in four classes of drugs--dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones, rifampicin analogues and phenazines--and identified at least two compounds that appear to be more potent than dapsone, rifampicin and clofazimine. Newer combinations of rifampicin analogues and fluoroquinolones have also been identified that seem to be better than the combination of rifampicin and ofloxacin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Fluoroquinolones , Folic Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Foot/microbiology , Humans , Leprostatic Agents/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Mycobacterium leprae/drug effects , Phenazines/pharmacology , Rifampin/analogs & derivatives , Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase/metabolism
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32595

ABSTRACT

Biochemical aspects of action of antifolates and 4-aminoquinolines and their resistance in the malaria parasites are reviewed, with emphasis on pyrimethamine and chloroquine respectively. Resistance to pyrimethamine has been shown to be associated with either an increase in the amount of parasite dihydrofolate reductase or a reduced affinity of the enzyme for drug binding, in line with the presence of a distinctive pathway for folate metabolism. The theories for drug synergism in the folate pathway are discussed with respect to resistance to pyrimethamine and its combination with sulpha drugs. The biochemical basis for chloroquine resistance is still unclear, reflecting incomplete understanding of its mechanism of action. Data implicating the role of haemozoin and other components as a putative chloroquine receptor of the parasites are reviewed, and possible explanations for resistance are discussed.


Subject(s)
Aminoquinolines/pharmacology , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Chloroquine/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Synergism , Folic Acid/metabolism , Folic Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Hemin/metabolism , Plasmodium/drug effects , Pyrimethamine/pharmacology , Sulfanilamides/pharmacology
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